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See detailCross-Modal Decoding of Neural Patterns Associated with Working Memory: Evidence for Attention-Based Accounts of Working Memory
Majerus, Steve ULg; Cowan, Nelson; Peters, Frédéric ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2014)

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine-learning approach to determine more directly the extent to which common neural patterns characterize retention in verbal WM and visual WM. Verbal WM was assessed via a standard delayed probe recognition task for letter sequences of variable length. Visual WM was assessed via a visual array WM task involving the maintenance of variable amounts of visual information in the focus of attention. We trained a classifier to distinguish neural activation patterns associated with high- and low-visual WM load and tested the ability of this classifier to predict verbal WM load (high–low) from their associated neural activation patterns, and vice versa. We observed significant between-task prediction of load effects during WM maintenance, in posterior parietal and superior frontal regions of the dorsal attention network; in contrast, between-task prediction in sensory processing cortices was restricted to the encoding stage. Furthermore, between-task prediction of load effects was strongest in those participants presenting the highest capacity for the visual WM task. This study provides novel evidence for common, attention-based neural patterns supporting verbal and visual WM. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the distribution of key tree species used by lion tamarins in the Brazilian Atlantic forest under a scenario of future climate change
Raghunathan, Poornima ULg; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; François, Louis ULg et al

in Regional Environmental Change (2014)

We used three IPCC climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) in a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB), to determine the potential future distribution of 75 tree species used by two endemic primate species ... [more ▼]

We used three IPCC climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) in a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB), to determine the potential future distribution of 75 tree species used by two endemic primate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Habitat conservation is a vital part of strategies to protect endangered species, and this is a new approach to understanding how key plant species needed for survival of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas) might be affected by climate change and what changes to their distribution are likely. The model accurately predicted the current distribution of BAF vegetation types, for 66 % of the individual tree species with 70 % agreement obtained for presence. In the simulation experiments for the future, 72 out of 75 tree species maintained more than 95 % of their original distribution and all species showed a range expansion. At the biome level, we note a substantial decrease in the sub-tropical forest area. There is some fragmentation of the savannah, which is encroached mostly by tropical seasonal forest. Where the current distribution shows a large sub-tropical forest biome, it has been replaced or encroached by tropical rainforest. The results suggested that the trees may benefit from an increase in temperature, if and only if soil water availability is not altered significantly, as was the case with climate simulations that were used. However, these results must be coupled with other information to maximise usefulness to conservation since BAF is already highly fragmented and subject to high anthropic pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailCase studies of incorporation of prior information in electrical resistivity tomography: comparison of different approaches
Caterina, David ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

in Near Surface Geophysics (2014), 12(4), 451-465

Many geophysical inverse problems are ill-posed and their solution non-unique. It is thus important to reduce the amount of mathematical solutions to more geologically plausible models by regularizing the ... [more ▼]

Many geophysical inverse problems are ill-posed and their solution non-unique. It is thus important to reduce the amount of mathematical solutions to more geologically plausible models by regularizing the inverse problem and incorporating all available prior information in the inversion process. We compare three different ways to incorporate prior information for electrical resistivity tomography (ERT): using a simple reference model or adding structural constraints to Occam's inversion and using geostatistical constraints. We made the comparison on four real cases representing different field applications in terms of scales of investigation and level of heterogeneities. In those cases, when electromagnetic logging data are available in boreholes to control the solution, it appears that incorporating prior information clearly improves the correspondence with logging data compared to the standard smoothness constrain. However, the way to incorporate it may have a major impact on the solution. A reference model can often be used to constrain the inversion; however, it can lead to misinterpretation if its weight is too strong or the resistivity values inappropriate. When the computation of the vertical and/or horizontal correlation length is possible, the geostatistical inversion gives reliable results everywhere in the section. However, adding geostatistical constraints can be difficult when there is not enough data to compute correlation lengths. When a known limit between two layers exists, the use of structural constrain seems to be more indicated particularly when the limit is located in zones of low sensitivity for ERT. This work should help interpreters to include their prior information directly into the inversion process through an appropriate way. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluer la force de l’association
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

in Medi-Sphere (2014), 451

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See detailRural Credit and Farms Efficiency : Modelling Farmers Crédit Allocation Decisions, Evidences from Benin
Sossou, Comlan ULg; Noma, Freddy; Yabi, Jacob

in Economics Research International (2014), 2014

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier truncated-normal with conditional mean model is used to assess allocation schemes effects on technical efficiency. Tobitmodel reveals the impact of farmers’ sociodemographic characteristics on efficiency scores. Results reveal that farm revenue (about 2,262,566 Fcfa on average) is positively correlated with land acreage, quantity of labour, and costs of fertilizers and insecticides. Farmers’ behaviors respond to six schemes which are categorized in two allocations contexts : out-farm and in-farm allocations. The model shows that only scheme (e) positively impacts technical efficiency.This scheme refers to the decision to invest credit to purchase better quality of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and so forth. The positive effect of the scheme (c) may be significant under conditions of farmers’ education level improvement. Then, scheme (e) is a better investment for all farmers, but effect of credit allocation to buy agricultural materials is positive only for educated farmers. Efficiency scores are reduced by household size and gender of the household head. Therefore a household with more than 10 members and a woman as head is likely to not be technically efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of Work Life, Burnout, and Stress in Emergency Department Physicians: A Qualitative Review
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Dupuis, Gilles; Fleet, Richard

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)

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See detailPhénologie et intensité de la migration postnuptiale diurne en Ardenne du nord-est par le suivi migratoire (Ramecroix, 2006 à 2010)
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Baron, André

in Aves (2014), 51(2), 87-106

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for ... [more ▼]

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for the 19 commonest species. Phenology for each species varied markedly from year to year. The passage of two particular species (Northern Lapwing and Song Trush) was extremely concentrated in time. Comparison with data from the Netherland and from Les Awirs (Liège, Belgium) show differences between locations, for which we propose some explanations. The full dataset constitute a useful benchmark for future studies on the spatial variability of migration flow. [less ▲]

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See detailThiophene derivatives with donor–π–acceptor structures for enhanced light-absorption properties and efficient cationic polymerization upon green-light irradiation
Telitel, Sofia; Ouhib, Farid ULg; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2014), 215(16), 1514-1524

Positively charged thermoresponsive nanogels (NGs) are easily synthesized by precipitation polymerization of N-isopropyl­acrylamide and 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl)­methacrylate crosslinked with dendritic ... [more ▼]

Positively charged thermoresponsive nanogels (NGs) are easily synthesized by precipitation polymerization of N-isopropyl­acrylamide and 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl)­methacrylate crosslinked with dendritic polyglycerol. The NGs are characterized in terms of size, thermoresponsive properties, and Z potential. Their potential applications as drug delivery carriers are evaluated by the encapsulation and release of different anticancer drugs. As model drugs, doxorubicin and methotrexate are studied. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of nitric oxide by diaminofluorescein visualizes the skeleton in living zebrafish.
Renn, Jörg ULg; Pruvot, Benoist; Muller, Marc ULg

in Journal of Applied Ichthyology (2014), 30(4), 701706

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone ... [more ▼]

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone research in fish, but do not visualize cartilage. In the present study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) labelling by DAF-FM DA visualizes both bone and cartilage in vivo during zebrafish skeletogenesis. NO detection performed in Tg(osterix:mCherry) or in combination with Alizarin Red in wild-type zebrafish reveals that intense staining through NO labelling colocalizes with the appearance of osteoblasts and characterizes ossified structures. Cartilage structures are clearly distinguished in the living larvae, although the labelling is less intensive when compared to ossified structures. This method is the first and easy to handle alternative to cartilage and bone double stainings on fixed samples. In contrast to most live skeletal stainings, which only stain the mineralized bone structures, this protocol in addition allows in vivo visualization of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailFermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium
Alloue-Boraud, Mireille; N’Guessan, Kouadio; Djeni, Théodore et al

in Journal of Food Science & Technology (2014)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The ... [more ▼]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 h-1 and 0.32 h-1 for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 g/l/h and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe replication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa
Reddy, V.R.; Steukers, L.; Li, Y. et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2014), 21

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See detailExperimental study of wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching
Abdul Razak, Norizham; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2014), 49

This paper presents the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the aerodynamic forces generated by the wings. The experiments were repeated for different reduced frequency, airspeed, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections (one symmetric and two cambered airfoils). A specially designed mechanical flapper was used, modelled on large migrating birds. It is shown that, under pitch leading conditions, good thrust generation can be obtained at a wide range of Strouhal numbers if the pitch angle oscillation is adjusted accordingly. Consequently, high thrust was measured at both the lowest and the highest tested Strouhal numbers. Furthermore, the work demonstrates that the aerodynamic forces can be sensitive to the Reynolds number, depending on the camber of the wings. Under pitch lagging conditions, where the effective angle of attack amplitude is highest, the symmetric wing was affected by the Reynolds number, generating less thrust at the lowest tested Reynolds value. In contrast, under pure flapping conditions, where the effective angle of attack amplitude was lower but still significant, it was the cambered wings that demonstrated Reynolds sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera) on domestic small mammals in the city of Cotonou, Benin
Houménou, Gualbert; Kassa, Barthélemy; Libois, Roland ULg

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2014), 80

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of ... [more ▼]

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of small mammals in the transmission of anthropozoonosis. Methodology and Results: A total of 1,402 domestic small mammals were captured in 54 stations using methods following Houémenou (2006). The most abundant small mammals were, Rattus rattus (black rat) (63.7%), Mastomys sp. (multimammate rat) (11.84%), Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) (11.48%) and Crocidura olivieri (7.85%). Among these rodents, 364 individuals were found with ectoparasites and 886 fleas were collected (flea index 0.63), the most common flea being Xenopsylla cheopis (rat flea) (97.2%). This species was found in all areas of the city and infested all small mammal species. The Pulicidae prevalence (26%) howed important variations, with relatively low and significantly higher prevalence during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Conclusions and application of findings: Small mammal community in Cotonou was dominated by Rattus rattus and fleas by Xenopsylla cheopis. Due to the presence of a seaport of paramount importance, Cotonou town was not away from importation by sea transport of zoonotic rats (shelter ships calling at the port of Cotonou, from all continents). To date, in Cotonou there is lacking information on pathogenic agents hosted by the small mammals and their ectoparasites. Therefore, awareness of the authorities on the zoonotic risk of small mammals for the human population is necessary. The authorities of the Port Autonome de Cotonou must increase the screening of ships, which arrive at Cotonou to avoid zoonotic rodent importation. The Ministry of Human Health in Benin must sensitize the populations at high risk of the rodent transmitted diseases. Further studies are needed to detect the different animal reservoirs of these pathogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detail"Worte stürzen zerbrochen über die Straße." Zum Gerücht als Figur und Erzählverfahren in Wolfgang Koeppens "Jugend"
Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Wirkendes Wort (2014), 64(2), 231-246

In Wolfgang Koeppens Prosafragment "Jugend" (1976) wirkt das Gerücht als Erzählstrategie und poetologisches Prinzip. Gerüchte scheinen wegen ihrer Verbindung zur bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, gegen die sich ... [more ▼]

In Wolfgang Koeppens Prosafragment "Jugend" (1976) wirkt das Gerücht als Erzählstrategie und poetologisches Prinzip. Gerüchte scheinen wegen ihrer Verbindung zur bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, gegen die sich der Erzähler vehement richtet, zunächst von diesem wegzuführen, doch erweisen sie sich letztlich als Teil seines Erzählens und als Reflexionsfigur für Koeppens Schreibprozess. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to correctly determine the kinetics of a photocatalytic degradation reaction?
Pirard, Sophie ULg; Malengreaux, Charline ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2014), 249

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See detailEvaluation of the quantitative performances of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography : from method development to validation
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2014), 1353(Method Validation), 78-88

Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the ... [more ▼]

Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the present work discussed about the different steps of the analytical life cycle of a method: from development to validation and application. Moreover, the UHPSFC quantitative performances were evaluated in comparison with UHPLC, which is the main technique used for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry and then could be considered as a reference. The methods were developed using Design Space strategy, leading to the optimization of robust method. In this context, when the Design Space optimization shows guarantee of quality, no more robustness study is required prior to the validation. Then, the methods were geometrically transferred in order to reduce the analysis time. The UHPSFC and UHPLC methods were validated based on the total error approach using accuracy profile. Even if UHPLC showed better precision and sensitivity, UHPSFC method is able to give accurate results in a dosing range larger than the 80–120% range required by the European Medicines Agency. Consequently, UHPSFC results are valid and could be used for the control of active substance in a finished pharmaceutical product. Finally, UHPSFC validated method was used to analyse real samples and gave similar results than the reference method (UHPLC). [less ▲]

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See detailReliabilität und Validität des "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) adaptiert an die Gesangsstimme"
Barsties, B.; Kropp, J.; Dicks, P. et al

in Laryngo Rhino Otologie (2014)

Reliability and Validity of the "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Adapted to the Singing Voice" in German. Background : The Voice Handicap Index (i.e., VHI) is one of the most reliable standardized self ... [more ▼]

Reliability and Validity of the "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Adapted to the Singing Voice" in German. Background : The Voice Handicap Index (i.e., VHI) is one of the most reliable standardized self-evaluation assessments in diagnosis of voice disorders. That tool is the most used in daily clinic,. In 2007, the VHI was adapted to the singing population, called"VHI adapté aux chanteurs". The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the German version of the VHI adapted to the singing voice. Materials and Methods: 113 German singers (41 males and 72 females) with diverse singing styles and profession were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups : a test-group (n=20) with self-perceived vocal complaints and a control-group (n=93) without vocal complaints. Statistical analysis to measure the reliability and validity was conducted with the Cronbach's alpha (i.e., cron.a), independant t-test and receiver operating characteristics as well likelihood ratio, respectively. Results : Reliability was confirmed by acceptable Cron. a (0,713-0,850) for each of the sub-scales and total score. The validity between the 2 groups showed high signifiant differences for each of the sub-scales and total score by which the test-group indicated higher scores than the control-group. Only the construct validity revealed no clear results. Conclusion : The VHI adapted to the singing voice is suited as reliable and valid standardizing evaluation tool, but the diagnostic accuracy has to be investigated again because of too high inaccuracy in the interpretation of the outcome of the present data. [less ▲]

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See detailForage plants as alternative feed resource for sustainable pig production in the tropics: a review
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in Animal (2014), 8(8), 1298-1311

Globally, pressure on concentrate feed resources is increasing, especially in the tropics where many countries are net importers of food. Forage plants are a possible alternative but their use as feed ... [more ▼]

Globally, pressure on concentrate feed resources is increasing, especially in the tropics where many countries are net importers of food. Forage plants are a possible alternative but their use as feed ingredients for pigs raises several issues related to their higher fibre and plant secondary metabolites contents as well as their lower nutritive value. In this paper, the nutritive value of several forage species as well as the parameters that influence this nutritive value in relationship to the plant family, the physiological stage, the plant part and the preservation method (fresh, hay and silage) are reviewed. The influence of the breed and the physiological status of the animal on animal voluntary intake of fibre-rich ingredients, digestibility as related to gastrointestinal volume and transit time and growth performances are also discussed. The final section highlights the assets and drawbacks of forage plants in pig diets and stresses the need for proper economic evaluation to conclude on the benefits of the use of forage plants in pig feed. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic and mineral imprints in fossil photosynthetic mats of an East Antarctic lake
Lepot, Kevin; Compère, Philippe ULg; Gerard, E et al

in Geobiology (2014), 12(5), 424-450

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See detailLe statut du logos. Compréhension, explicitation, énonciation
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2014), 12(3), 473-493

En adoptant une méthode de lecture rétrospective des paragraphes 31, 32 et 33 d’Être et temps de Heidegger, l’article entend souligner que le traitement que réserve le grand œuvre de 1927 au concept de ... [more ▼]

En adoptant une méthode de lecture rétrospective des paragraphes 31, 32 et 33 d’Être et temps de Heidegger, l’article entend souligner que le traitement que réserve le grand œuvre de 1927 au concept de logos est largement préparé par les cours antérieurs de Marbourg et de Fribourg. Même s’il est indéniable que Heidegger propose dès 1923-24 une lecture ontologique progressive des analyses aristotéliciennes sur le discours, le premier enjeu de notre relecture est de prouver que Heidegger présente, si ce n’est une « philosophie du langage » autonome, de nombreuses intuitions originales sur le langage. À rebours de la logique sémantique de son temps (et notamment de celle de son maître Rickert) et du modèle encore dominant chez Husserl, Heidegger refuse en effet de faire de l’énoncé prédicatif l’archétype du discours. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves: pathology and distribution of viral RNA
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2014), 20(8),

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues ... [more ▼]

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Implications for diagnosic procedures are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison and impact of waste heat recovery technologies on passenger car fuel consumption on a normalized driving cycle
Legros, Arnaud ULg; Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Diny, Mouad et al

in Energies (2014)

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit
Lendl, Monika ULg; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 568

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0.076) R_jup and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 +/-0.023), 10.02165 +/- 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V=10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a planetary equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1024 (-26 +30) K and a low planetary density (rho_p = 0.259 (-0.048 +0.054) rho_jup) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of beta = -44 (+/-11) deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of psi = 69.5 (+3.6 -3.1) deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above ~8 days. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period vehicle loading with stochastic release dates
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Kronus, David ULg et al

in EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics (2014), 3(2), 93-119

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be formulated as a large-scale set covering problem. Several heuristic algorithms are proposed to generate decision policies for the stochastic optimization model over a long rolling horizon. The resulting policies have been extensively tested on instances which display the main characteristics of the industrial case-study that motivated the research. The tests demonstrate the benefits of the multi-period stochastic model over simple myopic strategies. A simple and efficient heuristic is shown to deliver good policies and to be robust against errors in the estimation of the probability distribution of the release dates. [less ▲]

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See detailA Remark on the Poroelastic Center of Dilation
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel

in Journal of Elasticity (2014), 116(2), 189-206

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles ... [more ▼]

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles. While the two representations are equivalent in elasticity, the different nature of the force and dislocation dipoles leads to different transient behaviors in poroelasticity, when the response evolves from undrained to drained. Indeed, we show that the poroelastic solution of a center of dilation is obtained by superposing the corresponding elastic solution and either an instantaneous fluid sink or an instantaneous fluid source, depending on whether the center of dilation is treated as a singular stress or displacement discontinuity. A simple explanation to the instantaneous injection or withdrawal of a finite volume of fluid from/to the singularity is given by adopting an exploded view of the poroelastic center of dilation. The exploration of the drained, undrained and transient responses of this singularity also requires to clarify the close relationship between an instantaneous fluid source and a continuous fluid dodecapole, an object constructed by collapsing onto a point three orthogonal pairs of fluid dipoles. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs).
Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I. et al

in The European respiratory journal (2014), 44(2), 304-23

The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and ... [more ▼]

The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers). [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts d’une association culturale de pois et de pommes de terre sur les pucerons et auxiliaires aphidiphages en Chine
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Serteyn, Laurent et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the ... [more ▼]

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the populations of aphids and their natural enemies. Observations on potato plants and trapping (yellow pan traps) were performed. During the season, the degree of infestation didn’t differ significantly between the association and the pure stand. However, one week after the aphids abundance peak, predators and parasitoid mummies were significantly more abundant in the association compared with the pure stand. Trapping give a more general idea about the richness and diversity of adult natural enemies present in the environment. The parasitoid specie Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was the most abundant among beneficials. Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were prevalent among predators. Few hoverflies and lacewings were trapped. This study contributes to better evaluate the potential of crop associations as an alternative method to control aphids without insecticides in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailAntimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium
Guedda, Intissar; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Ferjani, Asma et al

in Journal of Infection in Developing Countries [=JIDC] (2014), 8

Introduction: Salmonella Livingstone is one of the most common serotypes responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in Tunisia. In this study, 42 isolates of Salmonella Livingstone were analyzed. Most of these ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Salmonella Livingstone is one of the most common serotypes responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in Tunisia. In this study, 42 isolates of Salmonella Livingstone were analyzed. Most of these were isolated from humans (31 strains from Tunisia and 9 strains from Belgium) and 2 isolates came from food products (beef and pork). Methodology: All strains were characterized by antibiogram, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and virulotyping. This last technique was carried out by simple PCR of five chromosomal genes (agfA, hin/H2, iroB, phoP/Q, and slyA) and two plasmid genes (spvA and spvC). Results: All Tunisian strains were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, cefalotin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. They were also resistant to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics (cefotaxim and ceftazidim). Belgian isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Further to MLST analyses, Tunisian strains belonged to the same sequence type, ST543. For Belgian isolates, eight strains had a ST543 profile, two strains had a ST638 profile, and one strain had a ST457 profile. Analyses of the virulence gene contents showed that strains isolated in different years and from different origins had the same virulence profile. These carried all five chromosomal genes and lacked plasmid-located virulence genes spvA and spvC. Conclusions: A combination of different typing methods showed that the majority of Belgian strains and all Tunisian strains were closely related; they belonged to the same sequence type (ST543) and had the same virulence profile, but different antibiotic resistance profiles depended on the country of origin. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytosanitary treatment of European pallets by microwave: developing a program to ensure compliance with ISPM 15 and monitoring its efficacy on the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.)
Henin, Jean-Marc; Leyman, Michael; Bauduin, Aline et al

in European Journal of Wood and Wood Products (2014)

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if ... [more ▼]

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if a temperature higher than 60 °C is maintained for 60 s across the entire profile of the board (i.e. 60 °C/60 s). A study using pallet boards was carried out in order to set up a treatment program that would meet ISPM 15 requirements in terms of wood temperature and insect mortality. A 4 m-long industrial tunnel oven (maximum power of 28.8 kW) was used to carry out the experiments. Temperature was measured by means of a VarioCAM® infrared camera. The most relevant results we found were: (i) achieving a temperature of 63.2 °C (Populus sp.) or 64.8 °C (Pinus sylvestris L.) on the upper surface of 22 mm-thick boards enabled compliance with FAO requirements (i.e. 60 °C/60 s), whatever the moisture content, basic density and initial temperature of the wood (provided the latter exceeded 0 °C); (ii) larvae >150 mg represented the most microwave-resistant life stage of Hylotrupes bajulus L.; (iii) the mortality rate of the larvae was influenced by the moisture content of the boards. Using the Gompertz model, we estimated the upper surface temperature that would be needed to achieve a 99.99683% mortality rate (the Probit 9 mortality level of efficacy) for the most microwave-resistant life stage of H. bajulus. This temperature was estimated to be 46.8 °C and 57 °C for wood with >50 and <25% moisture content, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailNew carbohydrate-active enzymes identified by screening two metagenomic libraries derived from the soil of a winter wheat field
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2014)

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing ... [more ▼]

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing two metagenomic DNA libraries from soil samples collected in winter and spring from a field of winter wheat. Methods and Results Both libraries were screened on esculin-supplemented medium so as to isolate candidates showing β-glucosidase activity. Candidate analysis revealed seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases, displaying 25 to 82% identity to known enzymes. The putative β-glycosidases belong to families GH1, GH3 and GH20 and the two putative glycosyltransferases, probably, to new families. In characterization tests performed on bacteria in suspension or spread on agar plates, some candidates appeared to hydrolyse several natural and synthetic substrates. These tests also highlighted interesting industrial characteristics, such as the activity of four β-glycosidases under alkaline conditions and the esculin-hydrolysing activity of a β-glucosidase candidate in the presence of glucose. Conclusions Seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases were found by functional screening of two metagenomic DNA libraries derived from agricultural soil. Significance and Impact of the Study This study has identified β-glycosidases and putative glycosyltransferases that have or may have interesting industrial characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailNeoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer induces miR-34a and miR-122 expression
FRERES, Pierre ULg; JOSSE, Claire ULg; Bovy, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (2014)

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we ... [more ▼]

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we describe the modifications of circulating miRNAs profile after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. The expression of 188 circulating miRNAs was assessed in the plasma of 25 patients before and after NAC by RT-qPCR. Two miRNAs, miR- 34a and miR-122, that were significantly increased after NAC, were measured in tumor tissue before and after chemotherapy in 7 patients with pathological partial response (pPR) to NAC. These 2 chemotherapy-induced miRNAs were further studied in the plasma of 22 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) as well as in 12 patients who did not receive any chemotherapy. Twenty-five plasma miRNAs were modified by NAC. Among these miRNAs, miR-34a and miR-122 were highly upregulated, notably in pPR patients with aggressive breast cancer. Furthermore, miR-34a level was elevated in the remaining tumor tissue after NAC treatment. Studying the kinetics of circulating miR-34a and miR-122 expression during NAC revealed that their levels were especially increased after anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Comparisons of the plasma miRNA profiles after NAC and AC suggested that chemotherapy-induced miRNAs originated from both tumoral and non-tumoral compartments. This study is the first to demonstrate that NAC specifically induces miRNA expression in plasma and tumor tissue, which might be involved in the anti-tumor effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae)
Boyle, Kelly; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014), 281

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See detailPhotographier le travail, représenter le futur. Iconographie du chantier des Halles à Paris
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Communication et Langages (2014), 180

This article investigates the semiotic strategies of visual representation in the urban space, as exemplified by the renovation project of the Forum des Halles in Paris. The corpus of images, taken from ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the semiotic strategies of visual representation in the urban space, as exemplified by the renovation project of the Forum des Halles in Paris. The corpus of images, taken from the brochure of the construction site and from the website www.parisleshalles.fr, includes photographic documentation and illustrations of the future buildings. The analysis of the visual enunciation marks out the relative simulacra of the producers and consumers of these images, and a semiotic study of the modes of representation of the buildings (virtualisation, actualisation, realisation, etc.) helps understanding how the present and the future are articulated in the iconography of a construction work in progress. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Search of New First Trimester Biomarkers for Ischemic Placental Disease
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Austin Journal of Obstetrrics and Gynecology (2014), 1(2), 1-3

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See detailModeling of a glass mineral wool process in view of Life Cycle Analysis
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Briard, Vincent; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Matériaux et Techniques (2014), 102(502),

In line with the growing concern about the environmental impact of materials in the building sector, Knauf Insulation, a glass wool producer, is performing environmental impact assessment of its products ... [more ▼]

In line with the growing concern about the environmental impact of materials in the building sector, Knauf Insulation, a glass wool producer, is performing environmental impact assessment of its products through LCA. Knauf Insulation has several glass wool factories in Europe that produce various products, and for a specific market, the same product can be produced in several factories. As the plants that produce glass wool work with similar pathways, a generic model for LCA usable for every plant and every glass wool product has been designed. The general principle of glass wool production is the following: the raw materials, sand, limestone, soda ash, borax, sodium carbonate, as well as recycled off-cuts from the production process, are weighed and mixed. Knauf Insulation also uses a large amount of recycled glass (cullet). The mix is sent to a furnace at high temperature (1350°C). The melted material is then fiberized and the binder is added, a process called forming. Knauf Insulation uses a special binder with ECOSE Technology, a new and formaldehyde-free binder. The wool fibers are collected, by suction, on a conveyor belt, and the mattress then goes through the curing oven. For some products a facing is added. Finally the product is compressed and packed. Specific attention is put in certain LCA aspects, such as allocations procedures, and we have used ISO 14040 and 14044 along with the ILCD handbook as guides during the model development. LCA is performed from raw materials extraction to end-of-life. Nevertheless, the impacts of the insulation system use phase are not included, as they strongly depend on parameters such as construction systems, etc. The functional unit is defined as 1 m3 of specific glass mineral wool product. The model, implemented in GaBi 6, is made as generic as possible by including, for each step, all the raw materials that can be used in one of the factories as well as all the energy sources. Parameters allow to define the amount of each raw material consumed, therefore the model can be adapted to any factory simply by setting these parameters accordingly. Moreover, the transport distances are also parameters and the origin of the energies (electricity or heat) can also be selected. This simplifies the data collection, since the template is the same for all the factories, it can be supported by data collection tools already existing. A part of the model is dedicated to weighting between factories, so a combination of factories can also be studied. This allows to study products sold on a specific market. The model can also be adapted to almost all Knauf Insulation products by using parameters where necessary: for example, several products have different binder contents, so a parameter defines the amount of binder. As some materials can be recycled between several parts of the process, special attention has been paid to recycling loops inside the model. The model is flexible enough to be used for Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) as well as for Eco-Design purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver proteomic response to hypertriglyceridemia in human-apolipoprotein C-III transgenic mice at cellular and mitochondrial compartment levels
Ehx, Grégory ULg; Gerin, Stéphanie ULg; Mathy, Grégory et al

in Lipids in Health and Disease (2014), 13

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute ... [more ▼]

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute pancreatitis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of hypertriglyceridemia on the mitochondrial, sub-mitochondrial and cellular proteomes in the hepatocytes of a hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mouse model overexpressing the human apolipoproteinC-III. Methods: Quantitative comparative proteomics (2D-DIGE) was carried out in both “low-expressor” (LE) and “high-expressor” (HE) mice, respectively exhibiting moderate and severe HTG, to characterize the effect of the TG plasma level on the proteomic response. Results: The mitoproteome analysis revealed the occurrence of a large-scale adaptation in transgenic mice consisting of a general down-regulation of matricial proteins and up-regulation of inner membrane proteins. Remarkably, the magnitude of these proteomic changes appears to strongly depend on the TG plasma level. Altogether, our different analyses indicate that, in HE mice, the capacity of several metabolic pathways is altered to promote the availability of acetyl-CoA, glycerol-3-phosphate, ATP and NADPH for de novo TG biosynthesis. The up-regulation of several cytosolic ROS detoxifying enzymes also tend to confirm that the cytoplasm of HTG mice is subjected to oxidative stress as previously stated. The up-regulation of cytosolic ferritin indicates that iron over-accumulation could take place in the cytosol of HE mice hepatocytes and contribute to (i) enhance oxidative stress and (ii) promote cellular proliferation. Conclusions: The present analyses demonstrate that important TG dose-responsive metabolic adaptations are set up in human apolipoproteinC-III-overexpressing mice. Our results indicate that these adaptations could support the higher TG production rates which have been previously reported in this HTG model, and also suggest that cytosolic oxidative stress may result from FFA over-accumulation, iron overload and enhanced activity of some ROS-producing catabolic enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a systematic review of prevalence studies
Van Erp, WS; Lavrijsen, JC; Van De Laar, FA et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2014)

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous ... [more ▼]

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous eye opening and breathing, but no signs of awareness of the self or the environment. We performed a systematic review of VS/UWS prevalence studies and assessed their reliability. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched in April 2013 for cross-sectional point or period prevalence studies explicitly stating the prevalence of VS/UWS due to acute causes within the general population. We additionally checked bibliographies and consulted experts in the field to obtain ‘grey data’ like government reports. Relevant publications underwent quality assessment and data-extraction. We retrieved 1032 papers out of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence figures varied from 0.2 to 6.1 VS/UWS patients per 100 000 members of the population. However, the publications’ methodological quality differed substantially, in particular with regards to inclusion criteria and diagnosis verification. The reliability of VS/UWS prevalence figures is poor. Methodological flaws in available prevalence studies, the fact that 5/14 of the studies predate the identification of the minimally conscious state (MCS) as a distinct entity in 2002, and insufficient verification of included cases may lead to both overestimation and underestimation of the actual number of patients in VS/UWS. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULg; Ledoux, Quentin; Berben, Gilbert et al

in Scientific reports (2014), 4

Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone ... [more ▼]

Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Politics and the State: The External Voting Rights of Diasporas
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULg

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2014)

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See detailSelf-broadening coefficients and improved line intensities for the ν7 band of ethylene near 10.5 μm, and impact on ethylene retrievals from Jungfraujoch solar spectra
Vander Auwera, J; Fayt, A; Tudorie, M et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2014), 148

Relying on high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, the present work involved extensive measurements of individual line intensities and self broadening coefficients for the nu7 band of ... [more ▼]

Relying on high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, the present work involved extensive measurements of individual line intensities and self broadening coefficients for the nu7 band of 12C2H4. The measured self broadening coefficients exhibit a dependence on both J and Ka. Compared to the corresponding information available in the latest edition of the HITRAN spectroscopic database, the measured line intensities were found to be higher by about 10 % for high J lines in the P branch and lower by about 5 % for high J lines of the R branch, varying between these two limits roughly linearly with the line positions. The impact of the presently measured line intensities on retrievals of atmospheric ethylene in the 949.0-952.0 cm-1 microwindow was evaluated using a subset of ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station. The use of HITRAN 2012 with line intensities modified to match the present measurements led to a systematic reduction of the measured total columns of ethylene by -4.1+/-0.1 %. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of lignocellulose related compounds on microalgae growth and product biosynthesis: a review
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Energies (2014), 7(2014), 4446-4481

Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates ... [more ▼]

Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraining multi-Higgs flavour models
Ivanov, Igor ULg; González Felipe, R.; Nishi, Celso et al

in European Physical Journal C -- Particles & Fields (2014), 74

To study a flavour model with a non-minimal Higgs sector one must first define the symmetries of the fields; then identify what types of vacua exist and how they may break the symmetries; and finally ... [more ▼]

To study a flavour model with a non-minimal Higgs sector one must first define the symmetries of the fields; then identify what types of vacua exist and how they may break the symmetries; and finally determine whether the remnant symmetries are compatible with the experimental data. Here we address all these issues in the context of flavour models with any number of Higgs doublets. We stress the importance of analysing the Higgs vacuum expectation values that are pseudo-invariant under the generators of all subgroups. It is shown that the only way of obtaining a physical CKM mixing matrix and, simultaneously, non-degenerate and non-zero quark masses is requiring the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields to break completely the full flavour group, except possibly for some symmetry belonging to baryon number. The application of this technique to some illustrative examples, such as the flavour groups Delta(27), A4 and S3, is also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailA formulation on the special Euclidean group for dynamic analysis of multibody systems
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 9(4), 041002

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See detailDiversity of Bacterial Communities in a Profile of a Winter Wheat Field: Known and Unknown Members
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Olivier, Claire et al

in Microbial Ecology (2014)

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known ... [more ▼]

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known about the distribution and composition of bacterial communities through the soil profile, particularly in agricultural soils, as most studies have focused only on topsoils or forest and grassland soils. In the present work, we have used bar-coded pyrosequencing analysis of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze bacterial diversity in a profile (depths 10, 25, and 45 cm) of a well-characterized field of winter wheat. Taxonomic assignment was carried out with the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier program with three bootstrap scores: a main run at 0.80, a confirmation run at 0.99, and a run at 0 to gain information on the unknown bacteria. Our results show that biomass and bacterial quantity and diversity decreased greatly with depth. Depth also had an impact, in terms of relative sequence abundance, on 81 % of the most represented taxonomic ranks, notably the ranks Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteridae, and Acidobacteria. Bacterial community composition differed more strongly between the topsoil (10 and 25 cm) and subsoil (45 cm) than between levels in the topsoil, mainly because of shifts in the carbon, nitrogen, and potassium contents. The subsoil also contained more unknown bacteria, 53.96 % on the average, than did the topsoil, with 42.06 % at 10 cm and 45.59 % at 25 cm. Most of these unknown bacteria seem to belong to Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Acidobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Renal Best Practice Guideline on kidney donor and recipient evaluation and perioperative care
Abramowicz, Daniel; Cochat, Pierre; Claas, Frans H.J et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014)

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See detailThe endocrine milieu and CD4 T-lymphocyte polarization during pregnancy
Polese, Barbara ULg; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Arakioti, Eleni et al

in Frontiers in Endocrinology (2014), 5(Article 106), 1-11

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has ... [more ▼]

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has been expanded to include CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Pregnancy hormones exert very significant modulatory properties on the maternal immune system. In this review, we describe mechanisms by which the endocrine milieu modulates CD4 T cell polarization during pregnancy. We first focused on Treg and Th17 cells and on their importance for pregnancy. Secondly, we review the effects of pregnancy hormones [progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2)] on immune cells previously described, with a particular attention to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy is evidenced. They are recruited before implantation and are essential for pregnancy maintenance. Decreased number or less efficient Treg cells are implicated in fertility disorders. As for Th17 cells, the few available studies suggest that they have a negative impact on fertility. Th17 frequency is increased in infertile patients. With the combination of its pro-effects on Th2 and Treg cells and anti-effects on Th1 and Th17 cells, P4 contributes to establishment of a favorable environment for pregnancy. E2 effects are more dependent on the context but it seems that E2 promotes Treg and Th2 cells while it inhibits Th1 cells. hCG positively influences activities of Treg and uterine natural killer cells. This embryo signal is an essential actor for the success of pregnancy, both as the endocrine factor regulating P4 secretion by the ovarian corpus luteum, but also as a paracrine agent during implantation as well as an angiogenic and immunologic mediator during the course of gestation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) immune properties begin to be studied but its positive impact on Treg cells suggests that LH could be a considerable immunomodulator in the mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailInsect pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) in rural areas in Gabon
Poligui, René Noël ULg; MOUARAGADJA, ISAAC; Vandereycken, Axel ULg et al

in Neotropical Entomology (2014), 43(4), 322-334

The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests ... [more ▼]

The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests during the tree flowering stage, in five villages. Catches from yellow traps rose to 7,296 and 1,722 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively, whereas records from visual observations corresponded to 1,812 and 171 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively. During both years, abundance from traps and visual monitoring was significantly different between sampling sites (p<0.05). The difference in pests’ diversity between sampling sites was not significant (p>0.05) according to traps, but significant (p≤0.04) according to visual observations in 2010. Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) attacked the stem of D. edulis, while Oligotrophus sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Pseudophacopteron serrifer Malenovsky and Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae), and Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard (Thysanopera: Thripidae) attacked leaves. Pseudonoorda edulis Maes and Poligui (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Lobesia aeolopa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) infested fruits and inflorescences, respectively. These insects are specifically linked to plant patterns, and their identification provided the first basic information for developing suitable strategies to control pests of D. edulis in Gabon, as well as in neighboring central African countries. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait decoupling promotes evolutionary diversification of the trophic and acoustic system of damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Litsios, Glenn et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014)

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal ... [more ▼]

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal diversity. However, few empirical tests of this hypothesis exist. A central prediction, that the tempo of morphological evolution and ecological diversification should increase following decoupling events, remains inadequately tested. In damselfishes (Pomacentridae), a ceratomandibular ligament links the hyoid bar and lower jaws, coupling two main morphofunctional units directly involved in both feeding and sound production. Here, we test the decoupling hypothesis by examining the evolutionary consequences of the loss of the ceratomandibular ligament in multiple damselfish lineages. As predicted, we find that rates of morphological evolution of trophic structures increased following the loss of the ligament. However, this increase in evolutionary rate is not associated with an increase in trophic breadth, but rather with morphofunctional specialization for the capture of zooplanktonic prey. Lineages lacking the ceratomandibular ligament also shows different acoustic signals (i.e. higher variation of pulse periods) from others, resulting in an increase of the acoustic diversity across the family. Our results support the idea that trait decoupling can increase morphological and behavioral diversity through increased specialization rather than the generation of novel ecotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailModalités de conservation et de destruction des produits cellulaires cryopréservés : recommandations de la SFGM-TC
CALMELS, ; Boulanger, F; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg et al

in Pathologie et Biologie (2014), 62(3),

Thousands of autologous and at less extent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) bags are cryopreserved in France. The majority of autologous HSC grafts are used within a year after collection ... [more ▼]

Thousands of autologous and at less extent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) bags are cryopreserved in France. The majority of autologous HSC grafts are used within a year after collection. However, many bags are still unused and cryopreserved for many years. In France and on a European scale, the ever-growing number of cryopreserved bags represents a real economic health concern. Indeed, the cost of storage is about 100 € per bag and per year. In addition, quality and therapeutic value of these long-term cryopreserved grafts needs to be evaluated. In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapies (SFGM-TC) set up its fourth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from its member centers across France. These workshops took place in September 2013 in Lille. In this article, we addressed the issue of the destruction of long-term cryopreserved grafts be them autologous or allogeneic and provide recommendations regarding their destruction. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôle de qualité des USP via segments attachés : recommandations de la SFGM-TC
De Vos, John; Birebent, B; Faucher, Catherine et al

in Pathologie et Biologie (2014)

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXVI. CoRoT-24: a transiting multiplanet system
Alonso, R.; Moutou, C.; Endl, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 567

We present the discovery of a candidate multiply transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76 d are detected in the CoRoT light ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of a candidate multiply transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76 d are detected in the CoRoT light curve around a main sequence K1V star of r = 15.1. If the features are due to transiting planets around the same star, these would correspond to objects of 3.7 ± 0.4 and 5.0 ± 0.5 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] , respectively. Several radial velocities serve to provide an upper limit of 5.7 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for the 5.11 d signal and to tentatively measure a mass of 28[SUP]+11[/SUP][SUB]-11[/SUB] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for the object transiting with a 11.76 d period. These measurements imply low density objects, with a significant gaseous envelope. The detailed analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data serves to estimate the probability that the observations are caused by transiting Neptune-sized planets as much as over 26 times higher than a blend scenario involving only one transiting planet and as much as over 900 times higher than a scenario involving two blends and no planets. The radial velocities show a long-term modulation that might be attributed to a 1.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet orbiting at 1.8 AU from the host, but more data are required to determine the precise orbital parameters of this companion. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27 December 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Program), Germany, and Spain. Some of the observations were made with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (184.C-0639) and with the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Telescope (N035Hr, N143Hr 260 and N095Hr). Partly based on observations obtained at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile (086.C-0235(A) and B).Tables 2-4 and Fig. 12 are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118662/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailColour-magnitude diagrams of transiting Exoplanets - II. A larger sample from photometric distances
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Lanotte, Audrey ULg; Smalley, Barry et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 444(1), 711-728

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary ... [more ▼]

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary systems. Parallaxes for seven systems confirm our methodology. Combining those measurements with fluxes obtained while planets were occulted by their host stars, we compose colour-magnitude diagrams in the near and mid-infrared. When possible, planets are plotted alongside very low mass stars and field brown dwarfs, who often share similar sizes and equilibrium temperatures. They offer a natural, empirical, comparison sample. We also include directly imaged exoplanets and the expected loci of pure blackbodies. Irradiated planets do not match blackbodies; their emission spectra are not featureless. For a given luminosity, hot Jupiters' daysides show a larger variety in colour than brown dwarfs do and display an increasing diversity in colour with decreasing intrinsic luminosity. The presence of an extra absorbent within the 4.5 μm band would reconcile outlying hot Jupiters with ultra-cool dwarfs' atmospheres. Measuring the emission of gas giants cooler than 1000 K would disentangle whether planets' atmospheres behave more similarly to brown dwarfs' atmospheres than to blackbodies, whether they are akin to the young directly imaged planets, or if irradiated gas giants form their own sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the stellar content in the western part of the Carina nebula
Kumar, Brajesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 567

Context. The low obscuration and proximity of the Carina nebula make it an ideal place to study the ongoing star formation process and impact of massive stars on low-mass stars in their surroundings. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. The low obscuration and proximity of the Carina nebula make it an ideal place to study the ongoing star formation process and impact of massive stars on low-mass stars in their surroundings. <BR /> Aims: To investigate this process, we generated a new catalog of the pre-main-sequence stars in the Carina west (CrW) region and studied their nature and spatial distribution. We also determined various parameters (reddening, reddening law, age, mass), which are used further to estimate the initial mass function and K-band luminosity function for the region under study. <BR /> Methods: We obtained deep UBVRI Hα photometric data of the field situated to the west of the main Carina nebula and centered on WR 22. Medium-resolution optical spectroscopy of a subsample of X-ray selected objects along with archival data sets from Chandra, XMM-Newton and 2MASS surveys were used for the present study. Different sets of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are used to determine reddening for the region and to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) and estimate their age and mass. <BR /> Results: Our spectroscopic results indicate that the majority of the X-ray sources are late spectral type stars. The region shows a large amount of differential reddening with minimum and maximum values of E(B - V) as 0.25 and 1.1 mag, respectively. Our analysis reveals that the total-to-selective absorption ratio R[SUB]V[/SUB] is ~3.7 ± 0.1, suggesting an abnormal grain size in the observed region. We identified 467 YSOs and studied their characteristics. The ages and masses of the 241 optically identified YSOs range from ~0.1 to 10 Myr and ~0.3 to 4.8 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], respectively. However, the majority of them are younger than 1 Myr and have masses below 2 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. The high mass star WR 22 does not seem to have contributed to the formation of YSOs in the CrW region. The initial mass function slope, Γ, in this region is found to be -1.13 ± 0.20 in the mass range of 0.5 < M/M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] < 4.8. The K-band luminosity function slope (α) is also estimated as 0.31 ± 0.01. We also performed minimum spanning tree analysis of the YSOs in this region, which reveals that there are at least ten YSO cores associated with the molecular cloud, and that leads to an average core radius of 0.43 pc and a median branch length of 0.28 pc. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A109">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A109</A> [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures
Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Kirsch, Sébastien ULg et al

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2014), 502

Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In ... [more ▼]

Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the superconductor alone below this saturation level, and especially when the applied field is removed. The results of the study show further that the beneficial effects on the trapped field are enhanced when the ferromagnet covers the entire surface of the superconductor for different ferromagnetic components of various shapes and fixed volume. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypes de la broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive.
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69(7-8), 415-21

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a multi-dimensional disorder with multiple phenotypes. The GOLD guidelines, used for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of COPD, do not fully reflect the ... [more ▼]

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a multi-dimensional disorder with multiple phenotypes. The GOLD guidelines, used for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of COPD, do not fully reflect the heterogeneous nature of the disease. Historically, the two most recognized clinical phenotypes of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Most COPD patients encountered in practice actually share, both of these features. Genetic background, clinical presentation, variation in the response to treatment and propensity to exacerbations may also identify other phenotypes. Recently, using a mathematical approach, such as cluster analysis, which is based on pre-selected parameters, other interesting phenotypes were identified. A precise definition of COPD phenotypes should lead to a more targeted therapeutic approach based on these phenotypes. The purpose of this article is to point out that COPD is a heterogeneous disease and to summarize the current data available about the phenotypes of this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogenetic placement, species delimitation, and cyanobiont identity of endangered aquatic Peltigera species (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes)
Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Richardson, David; Magain, Nicolas ULg et al

in American Journal of Botany (2014)

Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the ... [more ▼]

Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the phylogenetic placement of section Hydrothyriae within Peltigera. We delimited species within the section and identified their symbiotic cyanobacteria. • Methods: Species delimitation and population structure were explored using monophyly as a grouping criterion (RAxML) and Structurama based on three protein-coding genes in combination with two nuclear ribosomal loci. The 16S and rbcLX sequences for the cyanobionts were analyzed in the broad phylogenetic context of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria. • Key results: We confirm with high confidence the placement of section Hydrothyriae within the monophyletic genus Peltigera; however, its phylogenetic position within the genus remains unsettled. We recovered three distinct monophyletic groups corresponding to three species: P. hydrothyria, P. gowardii s.s., and P. aquatica Miadl. & Lendemer, the latter being formally introduced here. Each species was associated with an exclusive set of Nostoc haplotypes. • Conclusions: The ITS region alone provides sufficient genetic information to distinguish the three morphologically cryptic species within section Hydrothyriae. Section Hydrothyriae seems to be associated with a monophyletic lineage of Nostoc, that has not been found in symbiotic association with other members of Peltigera. Capsosira lowei should be transferred to the genus Nostoc. Potential threats to P. aquatica should be re-examined based on the recognition of two aquatic species in western North America. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision Asteroseismology of the Pulsating White Dwarf GD 1212 Using a Two-wheel-controlled Kepler Spacecraft
Hermes, J.J.; Charpinet, Stéphane; Barclay, Thomas et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 789

We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel ... [more ▼]

We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft. We detect at least 19 independent pulsation modes, ranging from 828.2-1220.8 s, and at least 17 nonlinear combination frequencies of those independent pulsations. Our longest uninterrupted light curve, 9.0 days in length, evidences coherent difference frequencies at periods inaccessible from the ground, up to 14.5 hr, the longest-period signals ever detected in a pulsating WD. These results mark some of the first science to come from a two-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft, proving the capability for unprecedented discoveries afforded by extending Kepler observations to the ecliptic. [less ▲]

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See detailWenn Puppen es machen. Eindrücke von der 11. figuma in Eupen (B)
Wunsch-Viehöver, Vera ULg; Wunsch, Stephan

in Das Andere Theater (2014), 24(85),

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See detailReactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2014), 2014(7),

In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure ... [more ▼]

In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the ZN symmetries capable of producing such A4-based minimal hybrid models. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese.
Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis et al

in Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology (2014), 4

Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive ... [more ▼]

Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (mumax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram. [less ▲]

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See detail« Sémiotique de l’action : textualisation et notation »
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in CASA - Cadernos de Semiótica Aplicada (2014), 12(1), 15-57

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining ... [more ▼]

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis through different levels of pertinence analysis. Secondly, we propose the concept of ‘textualization’ as a mediation between text and action: textualizations (photographs, videos, notes) organize and represent practices which are in themselves ephemeral and elusive. Finally, we will consider the textual diagrammatization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being confined to it and, as a consequence, being unable to analyze practices and respond to topical questions on social issues and on the research in the human sciences? [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional analysis of the importance given to physical activity promotion in secondary schools of French-speaking Belgium
Snyers, Jérôme; Halkin, Anne-Sophie; Lejacques, Thibaut et al

in Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy (2014), 3(3), 212-227

Schools present a privileged environment to address physical inactivity. Actions to promote an active lifestyle have been launched for over 20 years in the European Union. In French-speaking Belgium, such ... [more ▼]

Schools present a privileged environment to address physical inactivity. Actions to promote an active lifestyle have been launched for over 20 years in the European Union. In French-speaking Belgium, such actions have multiplied, but efficiency remains undocumented due to the lack of systematic data regarding health and physical activity (PA) promotion at school. This research aimed to create a tool and to use it to establish an empirical baseline regarding PA promotion in secondary schools. Six main dimensions, all broken into variables, were identified after an extensive literature search. Six experts assigned different weighting factors to each dimension and variable, thereby allowing the attribution of scores. Fifty-one secondary schools were analyzed on this basis. The mean global score of the sample was 44.7 on a maximum of 100. PA was better promoted in urban schools with 250 to 499 students with high socioeconomic status. Real in-school policies aimed at promoting PA were lacking. Active transport to and from school was seldom encouraged. The number of PE classes was insufficient. The facilities used were of better quality than expected. This exploratory research constitutes an important step toward the conception of a tool based solely on objective variables. It should also serve as a catalyst to implement new field projects. [less ▲]

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See detailCorner asymptotics of the magnetic potential in the eddy-current model
Dauge, Monique; Dular, Patrick ULg; Krähenbühl, Laurent et al

in Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences (2014), 37(13), 19241955

In this paper, we describe the scalar magnetic potential in the vicinity of a corner of a conducting body embedded in a dielectric medium in a bidimensional setting. We make explicit the corner asymptotic ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we describe the scalar magnetic potential in the vicinity of a corner of a conducting body embedded in a dielectric medium in a bidimensional setting. We make explicit the corner asymptotic expansion for this potential as the distance to the corner goes to zero. This expansion involves singular functions and singular coefficients. We introduce a method for the calculation of the singular functions near the corner and we provide two methods to compute the singular coefficients: the method of moments and the method of quasi-dual singular functions. Estimates for the convergence of both approximate methods are proven. We eventually illustrate the theoretical results with finite element computations. The specific non-standard feature of this problem lies in the structure of its singular functions: They have the form of series whose first terms are harmonic polynomials and further terms are genuine non-smooth functions generated by the piecewise constant zeroth order term of the operator. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of circulating irisin levels in healthy young individuals after a single 100,000 IU vitamin D dose.
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Mismetti, Valentine; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2014), 73(3), 162-164

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See detailCollapsing and reswelling kinetics of thermoresponsive polymers on surfaces: a matter of confinement and constraints
Willet, Nicolas ULg; Gabriel, Sabine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Soft Matter (2014), 10

We report on the collapsing and reswelling ability of grafted poly(methyl vinyl ether) chains of different molecular architectures. In order to study the influence of constraints and confinement of the ... [more ▼]

We report on the collapsing and reswelling ability of grafted poly(methyl vinyl ether) chains of different molecular architectures. In order to study the influence of constraints and confinement of the chains, the polymer was grafted onto AFM tips, as a model of a curved nano-sized surface, and onto macroscopic silicon substrates for comparison purposes. AFM-based force spectroscopy experiments were performed to characterise at the nanoscale the temperature-dependent collapsing process and the reversibility to the swollen state on both substrates. The reversible character of the thermoresponsive transition and its kinetics were shown to greatly depend on the polymer architecture and the constraints encountered by the chains. [less ▲]

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See detailKeep the nest clean: survival advantages of corpse removal in ants
Diez, Lise; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Detrain, Claire

in Biology Letters (2014), 10(7),

Sociality increases exposure to pathogens. Therefore, social insects have developed a wide range of behavioural defences, known as ‘social immunity’. However, the benefits of these behaviours in terms of ... [more ▼]

Sociality increases exposure to pathogens. Therefore, social insects have developed a wide range of behavioural defences, known as ‘social immunity’. However, the benefits of these behaviours in terms of colony survival have been scarcely investigated. We tested the survival advantage of prophylaxis, i.e. corpse removal, in ants. Over 50 days, we compared the survival of ants in colonies that were free to remove corpses with those that were restricted in their corpse removal. From Day 8 onwards, the survival of adult workers was significantly higher in colonies that were allowed to remove corpses normally. Overall, larvae survived better than adults, but were slightly affected by the presence of corpses in the nest. When removal was restricted, ants removed as many corpses as they could and moved the remaining corpses away from brood, typically to the nest corners. These results show the importance of nest maintenance and prophylactic behaviour in social insects. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Computational Modeling of Deformation Mechanics andIntergranular Fracture in Nanocrystalline Copper
Péron-Lührs, Vincent ULg; Sansoz, Frédéric; Jérusalem, Antoine et al

in Computational Materials Science (2014), 90

The material description is based on two constitutive elements, the grains (or bulk crystals) and the grainboundaries (GBs), both having their behavior determined atomistically using the quasicontinuum ... [more ▼]

The material description is based on two constitutive elements, the grains (or bulk crystals) and the grainboundaries (GBs), both having their behavior determined atomistically using the quasicontinuum (QC) method by simulating the plastic deformation of [110] tilt crystalline interfaces undergoing simple shear, tension and nano-indentation. Unlike our previous work [V. Péron-Lührs et al., JMPS, 2013] however, the GB thickness is here calibrated in the model, providing more accurate insight into the GB widths according to the interface misorientation angle. In this contribution, the new two-scale model is also validated against fullyatomistic NC simulations tests for two low-angle and high-angle textures and two grain sizes. A simplified strategy aimed at predicting the mechanical behavior of more general textures without the need to run more QC simulations is also proposed, demonstrating significant reduction in computational cost compared to full atomistic simulations. Finally, by studying the response of dogbone samples made of NC copper, we show in this paper that such a two-scale model is able to quantitatively capture the differences in mechanical behavior of NC metals as a function of the texture and grain size, as well as to accurately predict the processes of inter-granular fracture for different GB character distributions. This two-scale method is found to be an effective alternative to other atomistic methods for the prediction of plasticity and fracture in NC materials with a substantial number of 2-D grains such as columnar-grained thin films for micro-scale electro-mechanical devices. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and microbiological evaluation of three types of "Dèguè", a local fermented drink made from milk in Benin
Tchekessi, Célestin; Bokossa, Auréole; Agbangla, Clément et al

in International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research (2014), 2

This study consists to finalize some technologies for the production of a fermented drink called dèguè. This drink is widely consumed in Benin and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Following three ... [more ▼]

This study consists to finalize some technologies for the production of a fermented drink called dèguè. This drink is widely consumed in Benin and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Following three different technologies, we had produced three (03) types of dèguè respectively with maize flour, sorghum and millet. These types have been analyzed and their microbiological characteristics were evaluated. The microbiological analysis results obtained from the experiments have shown that lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were the dominant microflora of dèguè and varied respectively 7.22log10UFC/g to 7.55log10UFC/g for lactic acid bacteria and 7.78log10UFC/g to 8.44log10UFC/g for yeasts and molds. Moreover, the statistical analysis of these results showed that there was no significant difference at 5% (p <0.05) between the three types of dèguè. The values of lactic acid bacteria obtained were consistent with the standard (≥ 107/g) attached to the yoghurt. No type contained neither total coliforms nor thermotolerant coliforms. The products (dèguès) were also free of pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. [less ▲]

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See detailElongated Structure of the Outer-Membrane Activator of Peptidoglycan Synthesis LpoA: Implications for PBP1A Stimulation
Jean, Nicolas; Bougault, Catherine; Lodge, Adam et al

in Structure (2014)

The bacterial cell envelope contains the stress-bearing peptidoglycan layer, which is enlarged during cell growth and division by membrane-anchored synthases guided by cytoskeletal elements. In ... [more ▼]

The bacterial cell envelope contains the stress-bearing peptidoglycan layer, which is enlarged during cell growth and division by membrane-anchored synthases guided by cytoskeletal elements. In Escherichia coli, the major peptidoglycan synthase PBP1A requires stimulation by the outer-membrane-anchored lipoprotein LpoA. Whereas the C-terminal domain of LpoA interacts with PBP1A to stimulate its peptide crosslinking activity, little is known about the role of the N-terminal domain. Herein we report its NMR structure, which adopts an all-α-helical fold comprising a series of helix-turn-helix tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR)-like motifs. NMR spectroscopy of full-length LpoA revealed two extended flexible regions in the C-terminal domain and limited, if any, flexibility between the N- and C-terminal domains. Analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering results are consistent with LpoA adopting an elongated shape, with dimensions sufficient to span from the outer membrane through the periplasm to interact with the peptidoglycan synthase PBP1A. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of a safety culture: a fanciful hope in the health care sector ?
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology [=BJMO] (2014), 8(3), 66-71

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See detailDonor age as a risk factor in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation in a controlled withdrawal protocol programme.
DETRY, Olivier ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg; MEURISSE, Nicolas ULg et al

in The British journal of surgery (2014), 10(7), 784-792

BACKGROUND: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation are impaired by graft loss, resulting mainly from non-anastomotic biliary stricture. Donor age is a risk factor in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation are impaired by graft loss, resulting mainly from non-anastomotic biliary stricture. Donor age is a risk factor in deceased donor liver transplantation, and particularly in DCD liver transplantation. At the authors' institute, age is not an absolute exclusion criterion for discarding DCD liver grafts, DCD donors receive comfort therapy before withdrawal, and cold ischaemia is minimized. METHODS: All consecutive DCD liver transplantations performed from 2003 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Three age groups were compared in terms of donor and recipient demographics, procurement and transplantation conditions, peak laboratory values during the first post-transplant 72 h, and results at 1 and 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 70 DCD liver transplants were performed, including 32 liver grafts from donors aged 55 years or less, 20 aged 56-69 years, and 18 aged 70 years or more. The overall graft survival rate at 1 month, 1 and 3 years was 99, 91 and 72 per cent respectively, with no graft lost secondary to non-anastomotic stricture. No difference other than age was noted between the three groups for donor or recipient characteristics, or procurement conditions. No primary non-function occurred, but one patient needed retransplantation for artery thrombosis. Biliary complications were similar in the three groups. Graft and patient survival rates were no different at 1 and 3 years between the three groups (P = 0.605). CONCLUSION: Results for DCD liver transplantation from younger and older donors were similar. Donor age above 50 years should not be a contraindication to DCD liver transplantation if other donor risk factors (such as warm and cold ischaemia time) are minimized. [less ▲]

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See detailLa biblioteca nel romanzo moderno
de Seta, Ilaria ULg

in La letteratura e noi (2014)

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See detailThe concept of economic security of the hospital: A new look at the levers of control
Shutyak, Yuliya ULg; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in Forum Scientiae Oeconomia (2014), 2/2

Despite a significant progress achieved in the healthcare sector during last decades, we need to admit the fact that many urgent problems remain unsolved even in well developed countries. Along with other ... [more ▼]

Despite a significant progress achieved in the healthcare sector during last decades, we need to admit the fact that many urgent problems remain unsolved even in well developed countries. Along with other major factors, economic causes of these problems hold a prominent position. It is then necessary to think about a need of shifting from a view of hospitals as ever being institutions existing by default in any society to a view of hospitals as organisations with an incorporated economic mechanism, adapted to social changes and relevant economic risks. With this regard, this paper seeks to incorporate the concept of economic security of the hospital into Simons’ LOC model used in hospital management. We provide a brief overview of the concept of economic security of the organization. We adjust this concept for hospital management considering the healthcare system as an economic system and taking main problems of the hospital and interests of stakeholders in the core of strategy development. Further, we accommodate the concept with the levers of control. The result of the paper is a revised Simons’ LOC model which provides a theoretical framework for further research on hospital management and serves a modified management instrument. [less ▲]

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See detailEvent-driven integration of linear structural dynamics models under unilateral elastic constraints
Depouhon, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2014), 276

This paper proposes an algorithm for the numerical simulation of linear structural dynamics problems under unilateral elastic constraints, i.e., constraints with a linear force/displacement characteristic ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an algorithm for the numerical simulation of linear structural dynamics problems under unilateral elastic constraints, i.e., constraints with a linear force/displacement characteristic whenever active. The presented procedure relies on an event-driven strategy for the handling of the contact constraints, in combination with one-step schemes dedicated to the time integration of the second-order equations of motion. Efficiency of the procedure follows from the use of cubic Hermite interpolation to continuously extend the normal gap functions that reflect the openings of the contact interfaces. Robustness follows from the proper handling of complex numerical situations, e.g., numerical grazing or discontinuity sticking, through appropriate algorithm structure and numerical implementation. And, integration stability is guaranteed by the very nature of the algorithm and that of the one-step integration scheme. Following a detailed coverage of the integration procedure and the countermeasures to the expected numerical difficulties, three application examples are treated for illustration purposes. A MATLAB implementation of the procedure is provided online; download and usage information are given in the Appendix. [less ▲]

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See detailMcCune-Albright Syndrome: A Detailed Pathological And Genetic Analysis of Disease Effects in an Adult Patient.
Vasilev, Vladimir; Daly, Adrian ULg; THIRY, Albert ULg et al

in The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2014)

Context: McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a clinical association of endocrine and non-endocrine anomalies caused by post-zygotic mutation of the GNAS1 gene, leading to somatic activation of the ... [more ▼]

Context: McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a clinical association of endocrine and non-endocrine anomalies caused by post-zygotic mutation of the GNAS1 gene, leading to somatic activation of the stimulatory alpha subunit of G protein (Gsalpha). Important advances have been made recently in describing pathological characteristics of many MAS-affected tissues, particularly pituitary, testicular and adrenal disease. Other rarer disease related features are emerging. Objective: To study pathological and genetic findings of MAS on a tissue-by-tissue basis in classically and non classically affected tissues. Design: A comprehensive autopsy and genetic analysis Setting: Tertiary referral University Hospital Patients: Adult male patient with MAS and severe disease burden including gigantism Intervention(s): Clinical, hormonal and radiographic studies; gross and microscopic pathology analyses, conventional PCR and droplet digital PCR analyses of affected and non affected tissues Main Outcome Measure: Pathological findings, presence of GNAS1 mutations Results: The patient was diagnosed with MAS syndrome at six years of age based on the association of cafe-au-lait spots and radiological signs of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Gigantism developed and hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed throughout adult period. The patient died at the age of 39 from pulmonary embolism. A detailed study revealed mosaiscism for the p.R201C GNAS mutation distributed across many endocrine and non-endocrine tissues. These genetically implicated tissues included rare or previously undescribed disease associations including primary hyperparathyroidism, and hyperplasia of the thymus and endocrine pancreas. Conclusions: This comprehensive pathological study of a single patient highlights the complex clinical profile of MAS and illustrates important advances in understanding the characteristics of somatic GNAS1 related pathology across a wide range of affected organs. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge Migration in the Bifunctional PENNA Cation Induced and Probed by Ultrafast Ionization: A Dynamical Study.
Mignolet, Benoît ULg; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, Françoise ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2014), 47

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See detailRasa3 Controls Megakaryocyte Rap1 Activation, Integrin Signaling and Differentiation into Proplatelet
Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; Polizzi, Séléna; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

in PLoS Genetics (2014), 10(6), 1004420

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets Ras and Rap1. Ubiquitous Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse results in early embryonic lethality. Here, we show that Rasa3 ... [more ▼]

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets Ras and Rap1. Ubiquitous Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse results in early embryonic lethality. Here, we show that Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse hematopoietic cells results in a lethal syndrome characterized by severe defects during megakaryopoiesis, thrombocytopenia and a predisposition to develop preleukemia. The main objective of this study was to define the cellular and the molecular mechanisms of terminal megakaryopoiesis alterations. We found that Rasa3 catalytic inactivation altered megakaryocyte development, adherence, migration, actin cytoskeleton organization and differentiation into proplatelet forming megakaryocytes. These megakaryocyte alterations were associated with an increased active Rap1 level and a constitutive integrin activation. Thus, these mice presented a severe thrombocytopenia, bleeding and anemia associated with an increased percentage of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, bone marrow fibrosis, extramedular hematopoiesis, splenomegaly and premature death. Altogether, our results indicate that Rasa3 catalytic activity controls Rap1 activation and integrin signaling during megakaryocyte differentiation in mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)
Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, Lala Harivelo; Andrianiaina Razafindraleva, Herisolo; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg et al

in Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2014), 4(10), 787-795

Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP Technique. Larvea and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected for the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to 50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal propriety. CPG analysis showed also the presenceof various fatty acids. On adults mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations 50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, pratical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailLe gingembre, antiémétique de premier choix dans la pratique officinale
Angenot, Luc ULg

in Pharma-Sphère (2014), 18(195), 30-31

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See detailTriple negative tumors accumulate significantly less methylglyoxal specific adducts than other human breast cancer subtypes
Chiavarina, Barbara ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2014)

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by- product, is generated through a non-enzymatic ... [more ▼]

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by- product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg- pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la canopée forestière par photogrammétrie depuis des images acquises par drone
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Bonnet, Stéphanie ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et de Télédétection (2014), 206

Les petits drones civils développés à des fins de cartographie rapide offrent, à une échelle locale, de nombreuses opportunités pour le suivi d’écosystèmes forestiers. Nous utilisons dans cette recherche ... [more ▼]

Les petits drones civils développés à des fins de cartographie rapide offrent, à une échelle locale, de nombreuses opportunités pour le suivi d’écosystèmes forestiers. Nous utilisons dans cette recherche des images acquises avec un avion sans pilote à voilure fixe afin de modéliser la surface de la canopée de peuplements feuillus. Une chaine de traitements photogrammétriques est mise en place au moyen des outils de la suite open source MICMAC. Nous comparons différentes stratégies de corrélation automatique d’images afin de déterminer le paramétrage qui permet au mieux de reconstruire les détails de la canopée. Bien que le modèle de surface photogrammétrique ne permette pas d’appréhender les petites dépressions et élévations des houppiers, nos résultats montrent que l’utilisation conjointe d’images drone et d’un modèle numérique de terrain LiDAR permet d’estimer la hauteur dominante des peuplements feuillus. Ces résultats confirment la faisabilité de modéliser l’évolution de la hauteurs des peuplements forestiers depuis une série temporelle d’images drone. [less ▲]

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See detailComment gérer la nutrition artificielle chez un patient diabétique ?
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; DE FLINES, Jenny ULg; PREISER, Jean-Charles ULg

in Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme (2014)

Hyperglycaemia in patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition is a major problem due to its high prevalence and possible consequences interms of morbidity and mortality. However, the management of ... [more ▼]

Hyperglycaemia in patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition is a major problem due to its high prevalence and possible consequences interms of morbidity and mortality. However, the management of diabetes/stress hyperglycaemia during artificial nutrition remains largely unknown,especially in non-critically ill patients. The indications and access routes for artificial nutrition are not different in patients with diabetes/stressdiabetes than in non-diabetics. We do not recommend using enteral formulas designed for patients with diabetes. The glycaemic objective mustbe individualized. We recommend a preprandial blood glucose levels between 100 and 140 mg/dL (5.5 and 7.8 mmol/L) and postprandial levelsbetween 140 and 180 mg/dL (7.8 and 10 mmol/L). A frequent monitoring of capillary glycaemias is mandatory. The best drug treatment for treatinghyperglycaemia/diabetes is insulin and we recommend to adapt the theoretical insulin action to the nutrition infusion regimen. The managementof these patients needs the help of a multidisciplinary experimented staff. [less ▲]

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See detailInfusion of clinical-grade enriched regulatory T cells delays experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease
Hannon, Muriel ULg; LECHANTEUR, Chantal ULg; Lucas, Sophie et al

in Transfusion (2014), 54(February), 353-363

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See detailAssessment of water quality effects on flotation of copper-cobalt oxide ore
Shengo, Michel; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Kalenga, Pierre

in Minerals Engineering (2014), 65

Results from lab scale flotation show that when process water was re-used copper and cobalt recovery from an oxidized ore decreased respectively with 25 and 30 percent at the rougher stage bringing lower ... [more ▼]

Results from lab scale flotation show that when process water was re-used copper and cobalt recovery from an oxidized ore decreased respectively with 25 and 30 percent at the rougher stage bringing lower grade concentrate as well. The presence of thiosulphate ions contributed to slow down of NaHS consumption during sulphidization of pure malachite and hindered collector adsorption. Elevated concentration of thiosulphate ions affected malachite surface properties and induced dissolution effects. DRIFT spectroscopy on activated malachite enabled to reveal the effects of thiosulphate ions presence with hydrophilic species being identified. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and fabrication of an electrode array sensor for probing the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale in antistatic felts
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; Lemaire, Philippe; Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg et al

in Measurement Science and Technology (2014), 25

We present an original voltage probe design for measuring the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale (i.e., 1 mm–1 cm) in antistatic felts. The felts are composed of a mixture of non ... [more ▼]

We present an original voltage probe design for measuring the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale (i.e., 1 mm–1 cm) in antistatic felts. The felts are composed of a mixture of non-conductive and metallic fibers and exhibit complex nonlinear electric behavior—including possibly nonlinearity and hysteresis effects—which may be due to localized electrical or electromechanical phenomena. The sensor consists of an array of 8 × 9 needle electrodes (phgr 160 µm at the shaft and less than phgr 50 µm toward the apex), which are mechanically maintained at fixed relative positions while their tips are inserted inside the fabric of the sample. The interelectrode distance is 1.5 mm and the overall active area is 12 × 12 mm². The electrical insulation resistance for nearest neighbor pairs of electrodes was found to be larger than 860 GΩ, thus making the sensor suitable for measuring antistatic felts with an electric resistance that typically does not exceed a few GΩ. The sensor was successfully used for measuring the distribution of the electric potential in a polyester fabric subjected to voltages of up to 6.2 kV, and in a sample containing 2% in weight of metallic fibers, demonstrating the presence of irreversible changes in that felt sample (i.e., with conductive fibers) at high voltages. It is concluded that the developed probe voltage is a promising technique that could be used for the assessment of the conduction mechanisms in the antistatic materials at the mesoscopic scale. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of entomopathogenic Aspergillus strains against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Seye, Fawrou; Bawin, Thomas ULg; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Applied Entomology and Zoology (2014)

Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are sap-sucking insect pests that feed on several plants of agronomical importance. Entomopathogenic fungi are valuable tools for potential aphid control. As part of a ... [more ▼]

Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are sap-sucking insect pests that feed on several plants of agronomical importance. Entomopathogenic fungi are valuable tools for potential aphid control. As part of a selection process, laboratory bioassays were carried with five different concentrations of Aspergillus clavatus (Desmazières), Aspergillus flavus (Link) and Metarhizium anisopliae ((Metschnikoff) Sorokin) spores against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Aspergillus isolates induced higher mortalities than M. anisopliae which is a well-known entomopathogen in the literature. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were 1.23 x 10^3 and 1.34 x 10^7 spores/ml for A. flavus, 4.95 x 10^2 and 5.65 x 10^7 spores/ml for A. clavatus, and 3.67 x 10^3 and 9.71 x 10^7 spores/ml for M. anisopliae five days after treatment. Mycelia development and sporulation on adult cadavers was observed 48 hours after incubation. The intrinsic growth rate of A. pisum decreased with increased spore concentration for all fungal strains suggesting an increase in pathogen fitness related to a consumption of host resources. In conclusion, Aspergillus species could be useful in aphid control as pest control agents despite their saprophytic lifestyle. This is also in our knowledge the first report of A. clavatus and A. flavus strains pathogenic to aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailThe four duties of family doctors. Quaternary prevention: First, do no harm
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Hong Kong Practitioner (2014), 36

Cl inical prevent ion has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a relationship-based preventive pattern of care offers new ... [more ▼]

Cl inical prevent ion has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a relationship-based preventive pattern of care offers new insight into the practice of doctors, and brings to light the concept of quaternary prevention, a critical look at medical activities with an emphasis on the need not to harm. Quaternary prevention addresses the fundamental question of what constitutes too much or too little medicine. It is the fourth form of disease prevention, but also the fourth frame of action for family doctors. New definitions of prevention published in the Wonca Dictionary of Family Medicine offer a structured way to discuss the activities of family doctors, including ethical considerations on the patient-doctor encounter. 摘要 [less ▲]

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See detailVery deep images of the innermost regions of the beta Pictoris debris disc at L'
Milli, J.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mawet, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 566

Context. Very few debris discs have been imaged in scattered light at wavelengths beyond 3 mum because the thermal emission from both the sky and the telescope is generally too strong with respect to the ... [more ▼]

Context. Very few debris discs have been imaged in scattered light at wavelengths beyond 3 mum because the thermal emission from both the sky and the telescope is generally too strong with respect to the faint emission of a debris disc. We present here the first analysis of a high angular resolution image of the disc of beta Pictoris at 3.8 mum. <BR /> Aims: Our primary objective is to probe the innermost parts of the beta Pictoris debris disc and describe its morphology. We performed extensive forward modelling to correct for the biases induced by angular differential imaging on extended objects and derive the physical parameters of the disc. <BR /> Methods: This work relies on a new analysis of seven archival data sets of beta Pictoris observed with the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope in the L' band, including observations made with the Annular Groove Phase Mask vortex coronagraph in 2013. The data analysis consists of angular differential imaging associated with disc forward modelling to correct for the biases induced by that technique. The disc model is subtracted from the data and the reduction performed again in order to minimize the residuals in the final image. <BR /> Results: The disc is detected above a 5sigma level between 0.4'' and 3.8''. The two extensions have a similar brightness within error bars. We confirm an asymmetry previously observed at larger distances from the star and at shorter wavelengths: the isophotes are more widely spaced [less ▲]

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See detailExtremely Organic-rich Coma of Comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) during its Outburst in 2012
Kawakita, Hideyo; Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ron et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 788

We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10 ... [more ▼]

We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10, about a week after an outburst had occurred. Over the two nights of our observations, prominent emission lines of CH[SUB]4[/SUB] and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], along with weaker emission lines of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH, and CO were detected. The gas production rate of CO was comparable to that of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O during the outburst. The mixing ratios of CO, HCN, CH[SUB]4[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], and CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O were higher than those for normal comets by a factor of five or more. The enrichment of CO and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] in comet Hill suggests that the sublimation of these hypervolatiles sustained the outburst of the comet. Some fraction of water in the inner coma might exist as icy grains that were likely ejected from nucleus by the sublimation of hypervolatiles. Mixing ratios of volatiles in comet Hill are indicative of the interstellar heritage without significant alteration in the solar nebula. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of X-ray pulsations from a massive star
Oskinova, Lidia M.; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Todt, Helge et al

in Nature Communications (2014), 5

X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge ... [more ▼]

X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge from the shock-heated plasma. Many massive stars additionally pulsate. However, hitherto it was neither theoretically predicted nor observed that these pulsations would affect their X-ray emission. All X-ray pulsars known so far are associated with degenerate objects, either neutron stars or white dwarfs. Here we report the discovery of pulsating X-rays from a non-degenerate object, the massive B-type star ξ[SUP]1[/SUP] CMa. This star is a variable of β Cep-type and has a strong magnetic field. Our observations with the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) telescope reveal X-ray pulsations with the same period as the fundamental stellar oscillations. This discovery challenges our understanding of stellar winds from massive stars, their X-ray emission and their magnetism. [less ▲]

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See detailA quest for meta-learning gains in a physics serious game
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Castaigne, J.-L.; Westera, W. et al

in Education & Information Technologies (2014), 19(2), 361-374

This paper describes how a short, repeated and structured opportunity to reflect was integrated in the storyline of a serious game in order to stimulate the development of a meta-cognitive skill: the ... [more ▼]

This paper describes how a short, repeated and structured opportunity to reflect was integrated in the storyline of a serious game in order to stimulate the development of a meta-cognitive skill: the ability to self-assess the degree of confidence in own answers. An empirical validation of the approach, conducted with 28 secondary school pupils, delivers an uncommon pattern: while the cognitive benefits-the acquisition of academic knowledge in optics-are negligible and mixed up, the meta-cognitive gains present a raising tendency. The experiment also demonstrates that reflection does not necessarily hamper the game flow, if certain conditions, discussed in the paper, are met. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase resolved X-ray spectroscopy of HDE 228766: Probing the wind of an extreme Of+/WNLha star
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mahy, Laurent; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 566

Context. HDE 228766 is a very massive binary system hosting a secondary component, which is probably in an intermediate evolutionary stage between an Of supergiant and an WN star. The wind of this star ... [more ▼]

Context. HDE 228766 is a very massive binary system hosting a secondary component, which is probably in an intermediate evolutionary stage between an Of supergiant and an WN star. The wind of this star collides with the wind of its O8 II companion, leading to relatively strong X-ray emission. <BR /> Aims: Measuring the orbital variations of the line-of-sight absorption toward the X-ray emission from the wind-wind interaction zone yields information on the wind densities of both stars. <BR /> Methods: X-ray spectra have been collected at three key orbital phases to probe the winds of both stars. Optical photometry has been gathered to set constraints on the orbital inclination of the system. <BR /> Results: The X-ray spectra reveal prominent variations of the intervening column density toward the X-ray emission zone, which are in line with the expectations for a wind-wind collision. We use a toy model to set constraints on the stellar wind parameters by attempting to reproduce the observed variations of the relative fluxes and wind optical depths at 1 keV. <BR /> Conclusions: The lack of strong optical eclipses sets an upper limit of ~ 68° on the orbital inclination. The analysis of the variations of the X-ray spectra suggests an inclination in the range 54-61° and indicates that the secondary wind momentum ratio exceeds that of the primary by at least a factor 5. Our models further suggest that the bulk of the X-ray emission arises from the innermost region of the wind interaction zone, which is from a region whose outer radius, as measured from the secondary star, lies between 0.5 and 1.5 times the orbital separation. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA), and on data collected at the San Pedro Mártir observatory (Mexico). [less ▲]

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See detailL'impact de la gestion de la mobilité par les entreprises wallonnes sur les déplacements domicile-travail
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline ULg

in Recherche - Transports - Securité (2014), 2014(2-3), 83-100

Although mobility management by employers is an increasingly common practice, literature is scarce on the real impact of the applied measures. In this perspective, the objective of this paper is to assess ... [more ▼]

Although mobility management by employers is an increasingly common practice, literature is scarce on the real impact of the applied measures. In this perspective, the objective of this paper is to assess the impact on car use of the measures adopted by employers located in Wallonia. In order to achieve this objective, the article develops simulations that put forward the impact of the measures based on their interrelations with other modal choice factors. Our assessment leads to the conclusion that measures promoting public transport and car-pooling can reduce solo car driving between 7,2 % and 8,4 %. In contrast to our assumption, measures promoting public transport are less effective in central areas than in urban outskirts. Regarding measures promoting the use of bicycle, the findings suggest that the modal shift occurs from other modes rather than from car use. [less ▲]

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See detailRensch’s rule and sexual dimorphism in salamanders: patterns and potential processes
Colleoni, E.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Padoa-Schioppa, E. et al

in Journal of Zoology (2014), 293(3), 143-151

Body size is influenced by the interaction of multiple forces, whose effects can determine the occurrence of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Rensch's rule is the increase of SSD with body size in taxa where ... [more ▼]

Body size is influenced by the interaction of multiple forces, whose effects can determine the occurrence of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Rensch's rule is the increase of SSD with body size in taxa where males are the largest sex, and the opposite pattern in female-biased SSD taxa. This pattern was detected in many animal groups, but contrasting results were also highlighted. This study evaluated the existence of Rensch's patterns for body size and for the number of caudal vertebrae in salamandrid caudate amphibians. Furthermore, we tested the support of alternative hypotheses on processes that may determine allometric patterns: sexual selection, fecundity selection and constraining selection by performing separate analyses on species with male- and female-biased SSD. We used the literature and original data to gather information on body size and number of caudal vertebrae in 52 species of salamandrids over four continents. We then tested the support of the three hypotheses using a phylogenetic approach. Rensch's rule was valid for body size in salamanders only for species with male-biased dimorphism. No allometric relationships were detected by analyses on all the species, or by analyses on female-biased SSD species. Analyses performed on the number of caudal vertebrae showed no significant patterns. Our study supports the role of sexual selection in promoting positive allometry for body size in male-biased SSD species, whereas the alternative hypotheses were not supported by our data. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing male- and female-biased species as different evolutionary pressures and constraints may be at the basis of evolution of SSD in these groups. [less ▲]

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See detailAn unusual cervicalgy.
PIAZZA, Justine ULg; BRASSEUR, Edmond ULg; GHUYSEN, Alexandre ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2014), 69(S1), 23

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See detailComputational homogenization of cellular materials
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2014), 51(11-12), 2183-2203

In this work we propose to study the behavior of cellular materials using a second–order multi–scale computational homogenization approach. During the macroscopic loading, micro-buckling of thin ... [more ▼]

In this work we propose to study the behavior of cellular materials using a second–order multi–scale computational homogenization approach. During the macroscopic loading, micro-buckling of thin components, such as cell walls or cell struts, can occur. Even if the behavior of the materials of which the micro–structure is made remains elliptic, the homogenized behavior can lose its ellipticity. In that case, a localization band is formed and propagates at the macro–scale. When the localization occurs, the assumption of local action in the standard approach, for which the stress state on a material point depends only on the strain state at that point, is no–longer suitable, which motivates the use of the second-order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme. At the macro–scale of this scheme, the discontinuous Galerkin method is chosen to solve the Mindlin strain gradient continuum. At the microscopic scale, the classical finite element resolutions of representative volume elements are considered. Since the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit voids on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the periodic boundary conditions are reformulated and are enforced by a polynomial interpolation method. With the presence of instability phenomena at both scales, the arc–length path following technique is adopted to solve both macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

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See detailCompost Pile Monitoring Using Different Approaches:GC-MS, E-nose and dynamic olfactometry
Gutierrez, M. C.; Chica, A. F.; Martin, M. A. et al

in Waste and Biomass Valorization (2014), 5(3), 469-479

The evaluation of odour emissions associated to the composting process is complex because these emissions depend on several factors such as the raw material to be composted, the different stages of the ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of odour emissions associated to the composting process is complex because these emissions depend on several factors such as the raw material to be composted, the different stages of the composting process, meteorological conditions, and others. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to compare complementary approaches to monitor odours. The odour source selected for this study is green waste compost at different maturity stages. The study site is a composting facility located in the south of Belgium. The compared approaches were: a portable e-nose developed by the Environmental Monitoring Research team (Arlon, Belgium) to monitor odorous emissions from the composting piles; chemical analyses performed in the laboratory using a GC–MS (manufactured by Thermo) to analyse volatile organic compounds which were collected by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent simultaneously to the in situ e-nose measurements and olfactometric measurements to determine the odour concentration (ouE/m3) using the Odile olfactometer (Odotech). The portable e-nose was also used in the laboratory with compost odour samples collected in bags. The large numbers of data sets obtained were explored by statistical methods such as principal components analysis. The results obtained highlight the advantages of monitoring the composting process with these three approaches. Each approach gives different information about the composting process and the emissions generated. While the e-nose is capable of identifying some chemical family emissions and some activities such as turning steps, the GC–MS identifies each chemical compound emitted and dynamic olfactometry quantifies the odour concentration (ouE/m3) in relationship with these emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Three Object Triangulation Algorithm for Mobile Robot Positioning
Pierlot, Vincent ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Robotics (2014), 30(3), 566-577

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications. It can be achieved in many ways. Among them, triangulation based on angles measured with the help of beacons is a proven technique. Most of ... [more ▼]

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications. It can be achieved in many ways. Among them, triangulation based on angles measured with the help of beacons is a proven technique. Most of the many triangulation algorithms proposed so far have major limitations. For example, some of them need a particular beacon ordering, have blind spots, or only work within the triangle defined by the three beacons. More reliable methods exist; however, they have an increasing complexity or they require to handle certain spatial arrangements separately. In this paper, we present a simple and new three object triangulation algorithm, named ToTal, that natively works in the whole plane, and for any beacon ordering. We also provide a comprehensive comparison between many algorithms, and show that our algorithm is faster and simpler than comparable algorithms. In addition to its inherent efficiency, our algorithm provides a very useful and unique reliability measure, assessable anywhere in the plane, which can be used to identify pathological cases, or as a validation gate in Kalman filters. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of SOx and NOx Emissions from a Medium Size Biomass Boiler Biomass and Bioenergy
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Restivo, Yannick ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomass and Bioenergy (2014), 65

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low ... [more ▼]

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low cost, the corresponding investment per unit of rated power significantly rises when the installed power decreases. In these cases, secondary pollutant emissions control measures are most of the time not economically viable and primary emissions control must be used alone to avoid the formation of undesired compounds such as $NO_x$ and $SO_x$. Primary control measures require the careful optimization of fuel quality and combustion process. For plant operators, being able to accommodate biomass quality changes in order to minimize the fuel cost can be of great importance in order to guarantee the profitability of the plant. This contribution is dedicated to the development of a zero-dimensional (input-output) combustion simulation model able to predict the pollutants emissions resulting from complete and incomplete combustion with respect to varying combustion operation (ambient temperature, humidity, fumes recirculation,..). This tool is intended to be integrated in a global simulation model of the CHP plant and the attached district heating network installed on the University campus in Liège. Doing so, the plant operation can be optimized with respect to economic as well as environmental and energetic aspects (3E approach) thus ensuring the sustainability of the approach. [less ▲]

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