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See detailComparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary development of the genus Bifidobacterium
Lugli, Gabriele; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2014)

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See detailIron loss calculation in steel laminations at high frequencies
Henrotte, François; Steentjes, Simon; Hameyer, Kay et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2), 333-336

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See detailPEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.
Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève ULg; Tyteca, Donatienne et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2014), sous presse

Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The ... [more ▼]

Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4hours post-delivery, whereas clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' content in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14 % of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40 % for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. [less ▲]

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See detailThe uterine and vascular actions of estetrol delineate a distinctive profile of estrogen receptor alpha modulation, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation.
Abot, Anne; Fontaine, Coralie; Buscato, Melissa et al

in EMBO molecular medicine (2014), 6(10), 1328-46

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen with a long half-life produced only by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. The crystal structures of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) ligand-binding domain ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen with a long half-life produced only by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. The crystal structures of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) ligand-binding domain bound to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and E4 are very similar, as well as their capacity to activate the two activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 and to recruit the coactivator SRC3. In vivo administration of high doses of E4 stimulated uterine gene expression, epithelial proliferation, and prevented atheroma, three recognized nuclear ERalpha actions. However, E4 failed to promote endothelial NO synthase activation and acceleration of endothelial healing, two processes clearly dependent on membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS). Furthermore, E4 antagonized E2 MISS-dependent effects in endothelium but also in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. This profile of ERalpha activation by E4, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation, characterizes E4 as a selective ER modulator which could have medical applications that should now be considered further. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disruptors: A relevant issue for neuroendocrinology also!
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Levine, Jon E.

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2014), 35(1), 1

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See detailA screening procedure for evaluating cotton for Rotylenchulus reniformis resistance in controlled conditions
Konan, N.O.; De Proft, M.; Ruano, O. et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(1), 3-9

Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important nematode pests of cotton. Currently, no cotton cultivar resistant cotton cultivar to this pest is available. In the Framework of a breeding program ... [more ▼]

Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important nematode pests of cotton. Currently, no cotton cultivar resistant cotton cultivar to this pest is available. In the Framework of a breeding program aiming at producing cotton genotype resistant to this nematode, a R. reniformis resistance evaluation protocol based on egg inoculation, extraction and counting, has been established. Two environment conditions (growth chamber and greenhouse), four sieves (75, 50, 20 and 10 µm), three doses of inoculum (1,500 ; 3,000 and 6,000 eggs), and five durations of infestation (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after inoculation) have been tested. The growth chamber programmed to provide 12h of light, 55% - 60% relative humidity and 30 - 26°C day-night air températures revealed to be adequate. The NaOCI (sodium hypochloride) - blender - sieving - centrifugation - flotation method, using 75-µm and 20-µm sieves, kaolin powder and MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate) solution (specific gravity 1.18) proved to be suitable for effective R. reniformis egg extraction (from roots) and counting. Inoculation of 6,000 eggs per seeding and 60 days duration of infestation seemed to be sufficient dose and period for a reliable resistance evaluation. The protocol developed has been tested on known susceptible and resistant cotton génotypes : G. hirsutum L (main cultivated species through the world, susceptible), G. thurberi Tod. (wild cotton species, moderately susceptible) G. longicalyx Hutch. and Lee (wild cotton species, very resistant). The results obtained were in accordance with the response expected from the génotypes tested, proving the reliability of the evaluation procedure developed. [less ▲]

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See detailA phase IIa, nonrandomized study of radium-223 dichloride in advanced breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease.
Coleman, Robert; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Naume, Bjorn et al

in Breast cancer research and treatment (2014)

Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) mimics calcium and emits high-energy, short-range alpha-particles resulting in an antitumor effect on bone metastases. This open-label, phase IIa nonrandomized study ... [more ▼]

Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) mimics calcium and emits high-energy, short-range alpha-particles resulting in an antitumor effect on bone metastases. This open-label, phase IIa nonrandomized study investigated safety and short-term efficacy of radium-223 in breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease. Twenty-three advanced breast cancer patients with progressive bone-dominant disease, and no longer candidates for further endocrine therapy, were to receive radium-223 (50 kBq/kg IV) every 4 weeks for 4 cycles. The coprimary end points were change in urinary N-telopeptide of type 1 (uNTX-1) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP) after 16 weeks of treatment. Exploratory end points included sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) to assess metabolic changes in osteoblastic bone metastases. Safety data were collected for all patients. Radium-223 significantly reduced uNTX-1 and bALP from baseline to end of treatment. Median uNTX-1 change was -10.1 nmol bone collagen equivalents/mmol creatinine (-32.8 %; P = 0.0124); median bALP change was -16.7 ng/mL (-42.0 %; P = 0.0045). Twenty of twenty-three patients had FDG PET/CT identifying 155 hypermetabolic osteoblastic bone lesions at baseline: 50 lesions showed metabolic decrease (>/=25 % reduction of maximum standardized uptake value from baseline) after 2 radium-223 injections [32.3 % metabolic response rate (mRR) at week 9], persisting after the treatment period (41.5 % mRR at week 17). Radium-223 was safe and well tolerated. Radium-223 targets areas of increased bone metabolism and shows biological activity in advanced breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLa radicalité politique au bout du travail. Du suicide des ouvriers aux suicides en séries des employés
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2014), 84

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See detailInteraction of fengycin with stratum corneum mimicking model membranes: a calorimetry study
Eeman, Marc; Oloffson, Gerd; Sparr, Emma et al

in Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2014), In Press

Based on its outstanding antifungal properties, it is reasonable to believe that fengycin might be efficient to topically treat localized dermatomycoses. Since most of the fungi species involved in the ... [more ▼]

Based on its outstanding antifungal properties, it is reasonable to believe that fengycin might be efficient to topically treat localized dermatomycoses. Since most of the fungi species involved in the formation of those mycotic skin diseases colonize primarily the stratum corneum (SC), studying the interaction between fengycin and SC-mimicking lipid membranes is a primary step to determine the potential of fengycin to overcome the physical barrier of the skin. In this respect, multilamellar lipid vesicles (MLVs), with a lipid composition mimicking that of the SC, were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of fengycin was also assessed under skin conditions and found to be 1.2 ± 0.1 μM. The molecular interactions of fengycin with SC-mimicking MLVs were investigated by both DSC and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results showed that the interactions were considerably affected by changes in lipid phase behaviour. At 40 °C and below, fengycin induced exothermic changes in the lipid structures suggesting that less-ordered lipid domains became more-ordered in presence of fengycin. At 60 °C, clearly endothermic interaction enthalpies were observed, which could arise from the “melting” of remaining solid domains enriched in high melting lipids that without fengycin melt at higher temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relationship between working memory for serial order and numerical development: a longitudinal study
Attout, Lucie ULg; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Developmental Psychology (2014), 50(6), 1667-1679

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See detailHigh-energy X-ray tomography analysis of a metal packing biofilm reactor for the production of lipopeptides by Bacillus subtilis
Zune, Quentin ULg; Soyeurt, Delphine; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2014), 89

BACKGROUND: Whereas multi-species biofilm reactors are commonly used for the treatment of liquid and solid wastes, new strategies are progressing for the development of single species biofilm for the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Whereas multi-species biofilm reactors are commonly used for the treatment of liquid and solid wastes, new strategies are progressing for the development of single species biofilm for the production of high-value metabolites. Technically, this new concept relies on the design of bioreactors able to promote biofilm formation and on the identification of the key physico-chemical parameters involved in biofilm formation. RESULTS: An experimental setting comprising a liquid continuously recirculated on a metal structured packing has been used to promote Bacillus subtilis GA1 biofilm formation. The colonization of the packing has been visualized non-invasively by X-ray tomography. This analysis revealed an uneven, conical, distribution of the biofilm inside the packing. Compared with a submerged culture carried out in a stirred tank reactor, significant modification of the lipopeptide profile has been observed in the biofilm reactorwith the disappearance of fengycin and iturin fractions and an increase of the surfactin fraction. In addition, considering the biofilm reactor design, no foam formation has been observed during the culture. CONCLUSIONS: The configuration of this biofilm reactor set-up allows for a higher surfactin production by comparison with a submerged culture while avoiding foam formation. Additionally, scale-up could easily be performed by increasing the number of packing elements. [less ▲]

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See detailChâteau fort d’Ecaussinnes-Lalaing (Hainaut) : de nouveaux matériaux pour une chronologie du bâti
Maggi, Christophe ULg; Blain, Sophie ULg; Bavay, Gérard et al

in Bulletin de la Commission royale des Monuments, Sites et Fouilles (2014), 25

Situé dans le Hainaut, dominant le vallon de la Senette, le château-fort d’Écaussinnes a fait l’objet de diverses monographies. Pourtant, bien des études du bâti restent à faire, dans la foulée de la plus ... [more ▼]

Situé dans le Hainaut, dominant le vallon de la Senette, le château-fort d’Écaussinnes a fait l’objet de diverses monographies. Pourtant, bien des études du bâti restent à faire, dans la foulée de la plus récente que l’on doit à Philippe Sosnowska. En mars 2012, une étude typologique et dendrochronologique des charpentes, à l’occasion de travaux de restauration aux toitures, apporte quelques éléments nouveaux. L’analyse porte sur les charpentes de toiture de la chapelle et des ailes ouest et nord. Elle a été demandée par les architectes Paul Delaisse et Michel Micciche dans le cadre de la restauration des toitures. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetics in patients with chronic liver disease and hepatic safety of incretin-based therapies for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014), 53(9), 773-85

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis, and about one-third of cirrhotic patients have ... [more ▼]

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis, and about one-third of cirrhotic patients have diabetes. However, the use of several antidiabetic agents, such as metformin and sulphonylureas, may be a concern in case of hepatic impairment (HI). New glucose-lowering agents targeting the incretin system are increasingly used for the management of type 2 diabetes. Incretin-based therapies comprise oral inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) (gliptins) or injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. This narrative review summarises the available data regarding the use of both incretin-based therapies in patients with HI. In contrast to old glucose-lowering agents, they were evaluated in specifically designed acute pharmacokinetic studies in patients with various degrees of HI and their hepatic safety was carefully analysed in large clinical trials. Only mild changes in pharmacokinetic characteristics of DPP-4 inhibitors were observed in patients with different degrees of HI, presumably without major clinical relevance. GLP-1 receptor agonists have a renal excretion rather than liver metabolism. Specific pharmacokinetic data in patients with HI are only available for liraglutide. No significant changes in liver enzymes were reported with DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists, alone or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, in clinical trials up to 2 years in length. On the contrary, preliminary data suggested that incretin-based therapies may be beneficial in patients with CLD, more particularly in the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nevertheless, caution should be recommended, especially in patients with advanced cirrhosis, because of a lack of clinical experience with incretin-based therapies in these vulnerable patients. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant defense stimulation by natural isolates of Bacillus depends on efficient surfactin production
Cawoy, Hélène ULg; Mariutto, Martin; Henry, Guillaume et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2014), 27

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See detailSeagrass amphipod assemblages in a Mediterranean marine protected area: a multiscale approach
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Pérez-Perera, Amanda et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2014), 506

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for conservation purposes, but few studies have assessed the responses of small macrozoobenthic assemblages to different protection levels in the Mediterranean ... [more ▼]

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for conservation purposes, but few studies have assessed the responses of small macrozoobenthic assemblages to different protection levels in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design spanning three orders of magnitude (1-10-100 metres) to investigate whether a marine protected area exerts an effect on amphipod assemblages associated with Posidonia oceanica meadows. This study reports spatial and temporal variability patterns of amphipod assemblages in four different protection levels and discusses potential confounding effects, such as habitat features. The structure of amphipod assemblages based on density data was patchy at all spatial scales investigated, but differed markedly among protection levels. Among outstanding points, multiscale analyses showed that lower densities and/or biomasses of several taxa occurred within fully protected and external areas in comparison with partially protected areas (PPAs). Furthermore, Posidonia oceanica meadow features (shoot density, leaf and epiphyte biomasses, coefficient A and litter biomass) accounted for only a low proportion of the total variability. We can consequently infer that the observed patchiness is likely to occur for multiple and interconnected reasons, ranging from the ecological and behavioural traits of amphipod species to protection-dependent processes (e.g. fish predation). Long term multiscale spatial and temporal monitoring, as well as experimental manipulations, are clearly needed to fully understand the effects of protection on macrozoobenthic assemblages. [less ▲]

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See detailFiber based optofluidic biosensors
Lismont, Marjorie ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2014)

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on ... [more ▼]

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of vitamin D in the elderly population : current status and perspectives
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Souberbielle, JC et al

in Archives of Public Health (2014), 72

Besides its well-known effect on bone metabolism, recent researches suggest that vitamin D may also play a role in the muscular, immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Double-blind RCTs support ... [more ▼]

Besides its well-known effect on bone metabolism, recent researches suggest that vitamin D may also play a role in the muscular, immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Double-blind RCTs support vitamin D supplementation at a dose of 800 IU per day for the prevention of falls and fractures in the senior population. Ecological, case–control and cohort studies have suggested that high vitamin D levels were associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases and cancer but large clinical trials are lacking today to provide solid evidence of a vitamin D benefit beyond bone health. At last, the optimal dose, route of administration, dosing interval and duration of vitamin D supplementation at a specific target dose beyond the prevention of vitamin D deficiency need to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutional Aspects of FTAs: a Colombian Perspective
Parra Santamaria, Lusmiriam Andrea ULg; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Lizarazo, Liliana et al

in European Journal of Law (2014)

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See detailClinical variability in neurohepatic syndrome due to combined mitochondrial DNA depletion and Gaucher disease
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; wanty, catherine; De Paepe, Boel et al

in Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports (2014)

A one year old girl born to consanguineous parents presented with unexplained liver failure, leading to transplantation at 19 months. Subsequent partial splenectomy for persistent cytopenia showed the ... [more ▼]

A one year old girl born to consanguineous parents presented with unexplained liver failure, leading to transplantation at 19 months. Subsequent partial splenectomy for persistent cytopenia showed the presence of foamy cells, and Gaucher disease was confirmed by homozygosity for the p.Leu483Pro mutation in the GBA gene. She was treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Clinical follow-up showed mild developmental delay, strabism, nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia. Biochemical studies revealed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and a mosaic pattern of deficient complex IV immunostaining in liver and fibroblast. Molecular analysis identified a mtDNA depletion syndrome due to the homozygous p.Pro98Leu mutation in MPV17. A younger sister unaffected by mtDNA depletion, presented with pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. ERT for Gaucher disease resulted in visceral normalization, without any neurological symptom. A third sister, affected by both conditions, had marked developmental delay, strabism and ophthalmoplegia but no liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, intrafamilal variability occurs in MPV17 related disease. The combined pathological effect of Gaucher and mitochondrial diseases can negatively impact neurological and liver functions, and influence the outcome in consanguineous families. Immunocytochemical staining of OXPHOS protein in tissues and cultured cells is a powerful tool revealing mosaic pattern of deficiency pointing to mtDNA related mitochondrial disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysicochemical characterization and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of starch yield from corn dried at different temperatures
Malumba, P.; Odjo, S.; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Stärke = Starch (2014), 66

To assess modifications induced in starch granules during high temperature drying of corn grain and their effect on the nutritive value of corn-starch, physicochemical and structural characteristics of ... [more ▼]

To assess modifications induced in starch granules during high temperature drying of corn grain and their effect on the nutritive value of corn-starch, physicochemical and structural characteristics of starch granules from corn grains dried at different temperatures have been determined. Additionally, their in vitro digestibility and fermentation patterns were investigated, using a two steps in vitro model of the pig digestive tract. High drying temperatures induced a partial gelatinization of starch granules and produced a very favorable substrate for porcine pancreatic amylase and led to an altered physical structure which affected the rate and extent of starch granules digestion by gastric and pancreatic enzymes. Starch micrographs showed that granules extracted from corn dried at 130°C were less angular, bigger, and had smoother surface than granules extracted from corn dried at lower temperature. High-temperature drying increased the digestibility of wet-milled starch granules, while the residues of starch from corn dried at lower temperature produced higher volume of gas during their in vitro fermentation, despite their more pronounced crystalline characteristic. The residues from pepsin–pancreatic digestion of overall samples analyzed showed highly degraded and pitted granules or fragmented external shells, starch from corn dried at 130°C being the most degraded. Aforementioned changes of nutritional attributes of starch granules are discussed according to the restructuration occurring within both their amorphous and crystalline phase, as well as to the changes of the granules size and purity. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction, smell, and neurodevelopmental disorders: genetic defects in different hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes.
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Rubio Almanza, Matilde; Tome Fernandez-Ladreda, Mariana et al

in Frontiers in endocrinology (2014), 5

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the ... [more ▼]

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the reproductive axis across life. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by partial or complete pubertal failure. HH may result from inadequate hypothalamic GnRH axis activation, or a failure of pituitary gonadotropin secretion/effects. In man, several genes that participate in olfactory and GnRH neuronal migration are thought to interact during the embryonic life. A growing number of mutations in different genes are responsible for congenital HH. Based on the presence or absence of olfaction dysfunction, HH is divided in two syndromes: HH with olfactory alterations [Kallmann syndrome (KS)] and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with normal smell (normosmic IHH). KS is a heterogeneous disorder affecting 1 in 5000 males, with a three to fivefold of males over females. KS is associated with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, FGF17, IL17RD, PROK2/PROKR2, NELF, CHD7, HS6ST1, FLRT3, SPRY4, DUSP6, SEMA3A, NELF, and WDR11 genes that are related to defects in neuronal migration. These reproductive and olfactory deficits include a variable non-reproductive phenotype, including sensorineural deafness, coloboma, bimanual synkinesis, craniofacial abnormalities, and/or renal agenesis. Interestingly, defects in PROKR2, FGFR1, FGF8, CHD7, DUSP6, and WDR11 genes are also associated with normosmic IHH, whereas mutations in KISS1/KISSR, TAC3/TACR3, GNRH1/GNRHR, LEP/LEPR, HESX1, FSHB, and LHB are only present in patients with normosmic IHH. In this paper, we summarize the reproductive, neurodevelopmental, and genetic aspects of HH in human pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to Mapping Diasporic Subjectivities
Munos, Delphine ULg; Pandurang, Mala

in South Asian Diaspora (2014), 6(1), 1-5

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See detailGamma interferon production and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in gestating dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.
Serrano-Perez, B; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2014), 49(2), 275-280

Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with Neospora caninum against abortion. Plasma levels of pregnancy-associated ... [more ▼]

Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with Neospora caninum against abortion. Plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (PAG-1) are a marker of placental/foetal well-being and of PAG-2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically N. caninum-infected animals. The present study examines, in cross-breed pregnancies, interactions between IFN-γ production and levels of PAG-1 and PAG-2 in non-aborting naturally Neospora-infected dairy cows. Data were obtained from 60 pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows: 44 Neospora-seropositive and 16 Neospora-seronegative; 12 became pregnant using Holstein-Friesian semen and 48 using Limousin semen. Blood samples were collected on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. Gamma interferon was only detected in the plasma of nine of the 44 Neospora-seropositive cows, all of them became pregnant using Limousin semen. Through GLM procedures, in cows inseminated with Limousin semen and Neospora-seropositive cows showing no IFN-γ production, PAG-1 concentrations were high and increased throughout gestation compared to the levels detected in cows inseminated with Holstein-Friesian semen and Neospora-seropositive cows producing IFN-γ, respectively. In Neospora-seronegative cows and in Neospora-seropositive cows showing no IFN-γ production, significantly increased PAG-2 concentrations were observed on gestation Day 120. Our findings indicate that IFN-γ production correlates negatively and the production of antibodies against N. caninum is uncorrelated with plasma PAG concentrations during gestation in Neospora-infected dairy cows. Accordingly, IFN-γ production could be linked to the transplacental migration of tachyzoites, which may cause a reduction in PAG levels. [less ▲]

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See detailDorsomedial prefrontal metabolism and unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits in Alzheimer’s disease
Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014)

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while ... [more ▼]

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in a group of 37 AD patients and in healthy controls to probe self- and hetero-evaluation of patients’ personality and we calculated differential scores between each participant’s and his/her relative’s judgments. A brain-behavior correlation was performed using FDG-PET images. The behavioral data showed that AD patients presented with anosognosia for current characteristics of their personality and their anosognosia was primarily explained by impaired third perspective taking. The brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between anosognosia for current characteristics of personality and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) activity. Behavioral and neuroimaging data are consistent with the view that impairment of different functions subserved by the dMPFC (self-evaluation, inferences regarding complex enduring dispositions of self and others, confrontation of perspectives in interpersonal scripts) plays a role in anosognosia for current characteristics of personality in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRepresentations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye
Elsen, Catherine ULg; Heylighen, Ann

in Journal of Design Research (2014), 12(4), 239-259

In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 ... [more ▼]

In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural artefact, and the way architects deal with users experiencing space differently, are topics also considered in this article. The resulting observations remind us not to mistake apparent lack of graphical clues with lack of sensibility when it comes to addressing sensory experience during architectural design. [less ▲]

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See detailLignin extraction from Mediterranean agro-wastes: Impact of pretreatment conditions on lignin chemical structure and thermal degradation behavior
Manara, Panagiota; Zabaniotou, Anastasia; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

in Catalysis Today (2014), 223

Three different types of Mediterranean, agro-industrial wastes (olive kernels, grape pomace/seeds, peach kernels), were subjected to two pretreatment processes, a chemical/organosolv and a physicochemical ... [more ▼]

Three different types of Mediterranean, agro-industrial wastes (olive kernels, grape pomace/seeds, peach kernels), were subjected to two pretreatment processes, a chemical/organosolv and a physicochemical one. The organosolv process included lignocellulosic biomass treatment with formic acid/acetic acid/water (30/50/20, v/v%), for 3 h at 107 °C, while the physicochemical method was conducted by immersing the biomass in a water/ethanol (8/92, v/v%), H2SO4 0.32 M, solvent and further exposing the slurry to microwave irradiation (maximum 250 W) for 1/2 h at 150 °C. Both processes were evaluated regarding the achieved delignification and the purity of the extracted lignins. The effect of the pretreatment processes onto the structure and thermal decomposition behavior of the extracted lignins was investigated via FT-IR and TGA analysis, respectively. The objective of the research work was to investigate potential valorization routes for these biomass agro-residues in the context of a biorefinery, focusing on lignin extraction. The pretreatment results showed that the obtained lignins, derived from both procedures, were of high purity (>82 wt%). Under the organosolv procedure, peach kernel delignification showed the maximum value (∼16 wt%), while under microwave pretreatment, olive kernel delignification showed the maximum value (∼35 wt%). Grape pomace/seeds appeared to be the most resistant in both treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Body Weight Loss on Cardiopulmonary Function assessed by 6-Minute Walk Test and Arterial Blood Gas Analysis in Obese Dogs
Manens; Ricci, R; Damoiseaux, C et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 371-378

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See detailArray-CGH analysis in Rwandan patients presenting development delay/intellectual disability with multiple congenital anomalies.
Uwineza, Annette; CABERG, Jean-Hubert ULg; Hitayezu, Janvier et al

in BMC medical genetics (2014), 15(1), 79

BACKGROUND: Array-CGH is considered as the first-tier investigation used to identify copy number variations. Right now, there is no available data about the genetic etiology of patients with development ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Array-CGH is considered as the first-tier investigation used to identify copy number variations. Right now, there is no available data about the genetic etiology of patients with development delay/intellectual disability and congenital malformation in East Africa. METHODS: Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed in 50 Rwandan patients with development delay/intellectual disability and multiple congenital abnormalities, using the Agilent's 180 K microarray platform. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (28%) had a global development delay whereas 36 (72%) patients presented intellectual disability. All patients presented multiple congenital abnormalities. Clinically significant copy number variations were found in 13 patients (26%). Size of CNVs ranged from 0,9 Mb to 34 Mb. Six patients had CNVs associated with known syndromes, whereas 7 patients presented rare genomic imbalances. CONCLUSION: This study showed that CNVs are present in African population and show the importance to implement genetic testing in East-African countries. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de Eilene Powell et al.: La novela sugestiva
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg

in Iberoamericana America Latina-Espana-Portugal (2014), (53), 218-220

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See detailBetter neuronal efficiency after emotional competences training: an fMRI study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Nelis, Delphine; Feyers, Dorothée ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54

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See detailLe myélome multiple asymptomatique : le paysage thérapeutique change
CAERS, Jo ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg

in Oncol. Hematol. (2014), 8

Le myélome multiple est le deuxième cancer hématologique en termes de fréquence avec plus de 700 nouveaux cas chaque année en Belgique. Le myélome asymptomatique, ou smoldering mye/omo, est un stade ... [more ▼]

Le myélome multiple est le deuxième cancer hématologique en termes de fréquence avec plus de 700 nouveaux cas chaque année en Belgique. Le myélome asymptomatique, ou smoldering mye/omo, est un stade précurseur du myélome multiple. En moyenne, les patients présentant un myélome asymptomatique ont un risque annuel de progression en myélome déclaré de 10%. Différents facteul"s ont été combinés dans des modélisations pronostiques: le rapport des chaînes légères, les anomalies radiologiques, la présence d'une gammapathie évolutive et l'infiltration médullaire > 60% ont récemment été identifiés comme facteurs prédictifs d'une progression précoce pour lesquels certains auteurs évoquent la mise en roùte d'un traitement anti-myélome. Cette stratégie thérapeutique précoce a démontré son efficacité dans une étude randomisée qui comparait un traitement par lénalidornide et dexaméthasone avec une approche attentiste chez des patients à risque. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a Fluid and a Solid Approach for the Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding with a Non‐Cylindrical Pin
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Dialami, Narges; Boman, Romain ULg et al

in Steel Research International (2014), 85(6), 968-979

Friction stir welding (FSW) process is a solid‐state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat‐affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is ... [more ▼]

Friction stir welding (FSW) process is a solid‐state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat‐affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is better with respect to more classical welding processes. Because of extremely high strains in the neighborhood of the tool, classical numerical simulation techniques have to be extended in order to track the correct material deformations. The Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation is used to preserve a good mesh quality throughout the computation. With this formulation, the mesh displacement is independent from the material displacement. Moreover, some advanced numerical techniques such as remeshing or a special computation of transition interface is needed to take into account non‐cylindrical tools. During the FSW process, the behavior of the material in the neighborhood of the tool is at the interface between solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. Consequently, a numerical model of the FSW process based on a solid formulation is compared to another one based on a fluid formulation. It is shown that these two formulations essentially deliver the same results in terms of pressures and temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery
HOEFFELIN, Harry; JACQUEMIN, Denise ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery ... [more ▼]

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. Materials and methods. - We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings ("in situ" in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. Results. - We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the “in situ” volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. Conclusion. - The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailLa durée de validité de l'arrêt de maintien de la détention préventive encas de requalification des faits
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2014)

Selon la gravité des faits, la décision de maintien de la détention préventive prise par les juridictions d'instruction vaut pour un ou trois mois. Qu'en est-il en cas de requalification des faits par ... [more ▼]

Selon la gravité des faits, la décision de maintien de la détention préventive prise par les juridictions d'instruction vaut pour un ou trois mois. Qu'en est-il en cas de requalification des faits par celles-ci ? [less ▲]

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See detailRemote sensing of colour, temperature and salinity – new challenges and opportunities
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Ruddick, Kevin; Minnett, Peter

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2014), 146

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See detailAntioxidant capacity of small dark fruits. Influence of cultivars and harvest time
Kevers, Claire ULg; PINCEMAIL, Joël ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of Berry Research (2014), 4

BACKGROUND: Small dark fruits represent one of the most important sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity in the human diet. The content of health-promoting antioxidants in these fruits ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Small dark fruits represent one of the most important sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity in the human diet. The content of health-promoting antioxidants in these fruits may be important information to take into account when a fruit producer has to choose which cultivar to grow. OBJECTIVE: It is important to know how antioxidant capacity and antioxidant compounds as total phenolics and ascorbic acid vary between 9 small dark fruit species and for each species among cultivars (2 to 10 per species). METHODS: The antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay), total phenolic (Folin-Ciocalteu) and ascorbic acid content were measured in 9 fruits (plums, blackcurrants, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, redcurrants, raspberries, white currants and gooseberries) / 42 cultivars harvested at maturity during their high production period. RESULTS: The comparison of the average of the various cultivars of each small fruits showed that blackcurrants had the best antioxidant capacity (with plums), the highest ascorbic acid content and the highest total phenolic content (with blackberries). The present study shows that total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity strongly differed between genotypes of each small dark fruits. Other parameters as harvest time, culture conditions and maturity degree at the harvest may also influence the antioxidant capacity of small fruits. CONCLUSION: Among small dark fruits, blackcurrants have high qualities. Choices of variety, harvest time and maturity degree are important for all fruits. [less ▲]

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See detaille mythe de l'infaillibilité médicale menace sérieusement la sécurité du patient !
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2014), 77

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See detailInflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
ESSER, Nathalie ULg; Legrand, Sylvie ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2014)

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic ... [more ▼]

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic inflammatory markers are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and its macrovascular complications. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and pancreas are themselves sites of inflammation in presence of obesity. An infiltration of macrophages and other immune cells is observed in these tissues associated with a cell population shift from an anti-inflammatory to a pro-inflammatory profile. These cells are crucial for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which act in an autocrine and paracrine manner to interfere with insulin signaling in peripheral tissues or induce β-cell dysfunction and subsequent insulin deficiency. Particularly, the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The objectives of this review are to expose recent data supporting the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and to examine various mechanisms underlying this relationship. If type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, anti-inflammarory therapies could have a place in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailcompte rendu de : Eleanor DICKEY, The Colloquia of the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana. Volume I. Colloquia Monacensia-Einsidlensia, Leidense-Stephani, and Stephani
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Gnomon : Kritische Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Klassische Altertumswissenschaft (2014), 86(7), 596-600

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See detailObituary Ivan Impens (1935-2014). Poor is the disciple who does not surpass his master
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Nijs, I; Ceulemans, R

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(1), 110-111

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See detailExpression pattern of synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) isoforms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis
CREVECOEUR, Julie ULg; Kaminski, RM; Rogister, Bernard ULg et al

in Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology (2014), 40(2), 191-204

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See detailHigh Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Three-vessel Coronary Artery Disease.
Durieux, R.; VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Labropoulos, N. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing coronary angiography and to determine the risk factors and a coronary profile associated with AAA. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, abdominal aortic ultrasound was performed on 1,000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected or known CAD, or prior to valve surgery. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. RESULTS: The overall number of previously repaired, already diagnosed, and new cases of AAA in the study population was 42, yielding a prevalence of 4.2%. Among the patients with newly detected AAAs, only two had an AAA diameter of >54 mm and were therefore treated surgically. In men aged >/=65 years, the prevalence reached 8.6%, while in men with three-vessel CAD it was 14.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that age >/=65 years (p = .003), male gender (p = .003), family history of AAA (p = .01), current smoking (p = .002), and three-vessel CAD (p < .001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AAA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AAA was high in men aged >/=65 years and in those with three-vessel CAD regardless of age. While our findings do not prove the cost-effectiveness of screening for AAA in these high risk patients, they do support the usefulness of a quick ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta during routine transthoracic echocardiography in such patients. [less ▲]

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See detaildeltaPlotR: An R package for differential item functioning analysis with Angoff's Delta Plot
Magis, David ULg; Facon, Bruno

in Journal of Statistical Software (2014), 59(1), 1-19

Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by ... [more ▼]

Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot by describing the original method and its recent improvements in a user-oriented way, and to illustrate the structure and performances of the deltaPlotR package. A real data set about language skill assessment is being analyzed as an illustrative example. [less ▲]

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See detailNew mutations in ADC-type beta-lactamases from Acinetobacter spp. affect cefoxitin and ceftazidime hydrolysis.
Perez, Astrid; Perez-Llarena, Francisco Jose; Garcia, Patricia et al

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Two natural variants of ADC-type beta-lactamases of Acinetobacter spp., ADC-1 and ADC-5, differ by nine mutations in their protein sequence. ADC-5 hydrolyses cefoxitin better than ADC-1 and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Two natural variants of ADC-type beta-lactamases of Acinetobacter spp., ADC-1 and ADC-5, differ by nine mutations in their protein sequence. ADC-5 hydrolyses cefoxitin better than ADC-1 and the opposite is true for ceftazidime. We produced single and combined mutations in ADC-5 and characterized the variants microbiologically and biochemically to determine which amino acid residues are involved in the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in this family of beta-lactamases. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis, with blaADC-5 as a source of DNA, was used to generate nine single mutated and three combined mutated enzymes. The proteins (wild-type and derivatives) were then expressed in isogenic conditions in Escherichia coli. MICs of beta-lactams were determined using Etest strips. ADC-1, ADC-5, ADC-5-P167S and ADC-5-P167S/D242G/Q163K/G342R were also purified and the kinetic parameters determined for ceftazidime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and ampicillin. RESULTS: Single mutations did not significantly convert the hydrolysis spectrum of the ADC-5 enzyme into that of the ADC-1 enzyme, although among all studied mutants only the quadruple mutant (ADC-5-P167S/D242G/Q163K/G342R) displayed microbiological and biochemical properties consistent with those of ADC-1. CONCLUSIONS: Although some single mutations are known to affect cefepime hydrolysis in ADC-type beta-lactamases, little is known about ceftazidime and cefoxitin hydrolysis in this family of beta-lactamases. Hydrolysis of these antibiotics appears to be positively and negatively affected, respectively, by the Q163K, P167S, D242G and G342R amino acid replacements. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dermatoporose, un "vintage" de l'atrophodermie et de la "peau transparente".
FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; Hermanns, J.F.; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

Le vieillissement de la peau se marque à terme par une atrophodermie, parfois sévère. La corticothérapie, qu’elle soit systémique ou topique, exerce un effet atrophiant qui copie l’effet du grand âge. Cet ... [more ▼]

Le vieillissement de la peau se marque à terme par une atrophodermie, parfois sévère. La corticothérapie, qu’elle soit systémique ou topique, exerce un effet atrophiant qui copie l’effet du grand âge. Cet état d’atrophodermie a été décrit comme la «peau transparente» il y a une quarantaine d’années, et il a reçu plus récemment la nouvelle dénomination de dermatoporose. Il est connu de longue date que cet état entraîne des conséquences cliniques parfois majeures qui conduisent à des lésions diverses sous forme de purpura de Bateman, de cicatrices stellaires, et de plaies faisant suite à des traumatismes mineurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors.
Pruvot, Benoist ULg; Curé, Yoann ULg; Djiotsa, Joachim et al

in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2014), 274

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See detailLe Manet de Bourdieu
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Acta Fabula : Revue des Parutions en Théorie Littéraire (2014)

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See detailPhotic memory for executive brain responses
Chellappa*, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly*, Julien ULg; Meyer, Christelle ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014), Epub ahead of print

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See detailThe year 2013 in the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.
Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(7), 730-735

The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in ... [more ▼]

The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection of vitamin D insufficiency with combined strontium ranelate and vitamin D3 in osteoporotic patients.
Rizzoli, R.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Kaufman, J.-M. et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2014), 170(3), 441-50

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily vs strontium ranelate 2 g daily for correcting vitamin D ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily vs strontium ranelate 2 g daily for correcting vitamin D insufficiency in osteoporosis. DESIGN: A 6-month international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study. METHODS: A total of 518 men and postmenopausal women aged >/=50 years with primary osteoporosis (T-score </=-2.5 s.d.) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) >22.5 nmol/l were included. Patients were allocated to strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily (n=413) or strontium ranelate 2 g daily (n=105). The participants received calcium 1 g daily. The primary endpoint was serum 25(OH)D at last post-baseline evaluation during 3 months. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable at baseline. Mean baseline of 25(OH)D was 44.1+/-14.6 nmol/l. After 3 months, the percentage of patients with 25(OH)D >/=50 nmol/l was higher with strontium ranelate/vitamin D3 vs strontium ranelate (84 vs 44%, P<0.001; adjusted between-group odds ratio=6.7; 95% CI, 4.2-10.9). The efficacy of the fixed-dose combination on 25(OH)D was maintained at 6 months (86 vs 40%, P<0.001). Mean 25(OH)D was 65.1 and 49.5 nmol/l, respectively, after 3 months and 66.9 and 45.4 nmol/l after 6 months. Physical performance improved in both groups. Falls were 17 and 20% in the strontium ranelate/vitamin D3 and strontium ranelate groups respectively. Parathyroid hormone levels were inversely correlated with 25(OH)D. No clinically relevant differences in safety were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU for correction of vitamin D insufficiency in osteoporotic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of kinetics and the crystal structure of a novel type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate: dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase from Streptococcus pneumoniae.
de Ruyck, Jerome; Janczak, Matthew W.; Neti, Syam Sundar et al

in Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology (2014), 15(10), 1452-1458

Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) is a key enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and is required for all organisms that synthesize isoprenoid metabolites from mevalonate. Type 1 IDI (IDI-1 ... [more ▼]

Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) is a key enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and is required for all organisms that synthesize isoprenoid metabolites from mevalonate. Type 1 IDI (IDI-1) is a metalloprotein that is found in eukaryotes, whereas the type 2 isoform (IDI-2) is a flavoenzyme found in bacteria that is completely absent from human. IDI-2 from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetic studies of the enzyme indicated that FMNH2 (KM =0.3 muM) bound before isopentenyl diphosphate (KM =40 muM) in an ordered binding mechanism. An X-ray crystal structure at 1.4 A resolution was obtained for the holoenzyme in the closed conformation with a reduced flavin cofactor and two sulfate ions in the active site. These results helped to further approach the enzymatic mechanism of IDI-2 and, thus, open new possibilities for the rational design of antibacterial compounds against sequence-similar and structure-related pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques de reproduction de la femelle trypanotolérante de race N’Dama.
Okouyi, Marcel; Kamga Waladjo, Alain; Diarra, S et al

in Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales [=RASPA] (2014), 12(1), 3-7

Knowledge about the reproductive N’Dama remain old and very general, observations have been most often performed on a limited number of animals and in different contexts. This inventory confirms the need ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about the reproductive N’Dama remain old and very general, observations have been most often performed on a limited number of animals and in different contexts. This inventory confirms the need to continue and intensify so as federated possible studies to further clarify the characteristcs and reproductive performance of this important development potential of cattle that represents the N’Dama to Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory.
Fiori, Marina; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mikolajczak, Moira et al

in PloS one (2014), 9(6), 98827

The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey ... [more ▼]

The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability. This implies that conclusions about the value of EI as a meaningful construct and about its utility in predicting various outcomes mainly rely on the properties of this test. We tested whether individuals who have the highest probability of choosing the most correct response on any item of the test are also those who have the strongest EI ability. Results showed that this is not the case for most items: The answer indicated by experts as the most correct in several cases was not associated with the highest ability; furthermore, items appeared too easy to challenge individuals high in EI. Overall results suggest that the MSCEIT is best suited to discriminate persons at the low end of the trait. Results are discussed in light of applied and theoretical considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells on lung function after unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning
MOERMANS, Catherine ULg; LECHANTEUR, Chantal ULg; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg et al

in Transplantation (2014), 98(3), 348-353

Background: In the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used to promote engraftment and prevent graft- versus-host-disease. However, in animal ... [more ▼]

Background: In the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used to promote engraftment and prevent graft- versus-host-disease. However, in animal models, MSC were shown to cause pulmonary alterations after systemic administration. The impact of MSC infusion on lung function has not been studied in humans. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of MSC co-infusion on lung function and airway inflammation as well as on the incidence of pulmonary infections and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation after HSCT. Methods: We have prospectively followed 30 patients who underwent unrelated HSCT with MSC co-infusion after non-myeloablative conditioning (NMA). Each patient underwent detailed lung function testing (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, RV, TLC, DLCO and KCO) and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide before HSCT and 3, 6 and 12 months posttransplant. The incidence of pulmonary infections and CMV reactivation were also monitored. This group was compared with another group of 28 patients who underwent the same type of transplantation but without MSC co-infusion. Results: Lung function tests did not show important modifications over time and did not differ between the MSC and control groups. There was a higher 1-year incidence of infection, particularly of fungal infections, in patients having received a MSC co-infusion. There was no difference between groups regarding the 1-year incidence of CMV reactivation. Conclusions: MSC co-infusion does not induce pulmonary deterioration 1 year after HSCT with NMA conditioning. MSC appear to be safe for the lung but close monitoring of pulmonary infections remains essential. [less ▲]

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See detailKeping Tabs on Dioxins
Focant, Jean-François ULg

in The Analytical Scientist (2014), 15

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See detailPrevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo
Kabwang a Mpalang, Rosette; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Journal of Infection in Developing Countries [=JIDC] (2014), 8

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A ... [more ▼]

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in different sample groups was 41.2%, 37.2%, 23.7%, and 35.1% for goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this [less ▲]

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See detailPAI-1 mediates the antiangiogenic and profibrinolytic effects of 16K prolactin.
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Herkenne, Stéphanie ULg; Thijssen, Victor L. et al

in Nature Medicine (2014), sous presse

The N-terminal fragment of prolactin (16K PRL) inhibits tumor growth by impairing angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we found that 16K PRL binds the fibrinolytic inhibitor ... [more ▼]

The N-terminal fragment of prolactin (16K PRL) inhibits tumor growth by impairing angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we found that 16K PRL binds the fibrinolytic inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is known to contextually promote tumor angiogenesis and growth. Loss of PAI-1 abrogated the antitumoral and antiangiogenic effects of 16K PRL. PAI-1 bound the ternary complex PAI-1-urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-uPA receptor (uPAR), thereby exerting antiangiogenic effects. By inhibiting the antifibrinolytic activity of PAI-1, 16K PRL also protected mice against thromboembolism and promoted arterial clot lysis. Thus, by signaling through the PAI-1-uPA-uPAR complex, 16K PRL impairs tumor vascularization and growth and, by inhibiting the antifibrinolytic activity of PAI-1, promotes thrombolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Memory Traces Quality in Directed Forgetting: A Comparison of Young and Older Participants
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Grandjean, Julien; Lorant, Caroline ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54(4), 310-327

The presence of a reduced directed-forgetting (DF) effect in normal aging has been frequently observed with the item method. These results were interpreted as age-related difficulties in inhibiting the ... [more ▼]

The presence of a reduced directed-forgetting (DF) effect in normal aging has been frequently observed with the item method. These results were interpreted as age-related difficulties in inhibiting the processing of irrelevant information. However, since the performance of older adults is usually lower on items to remember, the age effect on DF abilities could also be interpreted as reflecting memory problems. Consequently, the present study aimed at investigating the influence of memory traces quality on the magnitude of the DF effects in normal aging. We predicted that increasing the quality of memory traces (by increasing presentation times at encoding) would be associated with attenuated DF effects in older participants due to the increased difficulty of inhibiting highly activated memory traces. A classical item-method DF paradigm was administered to 48 young and 48 older participants under short and long encoding conditions. Memory performance for information to memorize and to suppress was assessed with recall and recognition procedures, as well as with a Remember/Know/Guess (RKG) paradigm. The results indicated that, when memory traces are equated between groups, DF effects observed with the recall, recognition and RKG procedures are of similar amplitude in both groups (all ps>0.05). This suggests that the decreased DF effect previously observed in older adults might not actually depend on their inhibitory abilities but may rather reflect quantitative and qualitative differences in episodic memory functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland
Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Ecology (2014), 95(3), 737-748

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities ... [more ▼]

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining ;80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte-Cristo chimiste et physicien des communications : du télégraphe optique au télégraphe électrique
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Cahiers Alexandre Dumas (2014), 41

La scène du télégraphe optique, dans Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, aide à mettre en lumière la modernité du roman. Cette modernité tient pour une part à une ligne de continuité établie entre chronique ... [more ▼]

La scène du télégraphe optique, dans Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, aide à mettre en lumière la modernité du roman. Cette modernité tient pour une part à une ligne de continuité établie entre chronique judiciaire et fable romanesque, sur fond de réseau télégraphique. Elle tient plus encore au fait que cet épisode du télégraphe rend singulièrement visible l’allégorie de la communication que le roman développe à différents niveaux de sa construction narrative, allant de son incipit très sémiologique à la « voile blanche » qui signalera sur fond d’azur méditerranéen, quatorze cents pages plus loin, le départ d’un Monte-Cristo ayant recouvré son identité perdue, en passant par les deux figures successivement incarnées par son héros, dépeint en victime sacrificielle puis en expert d’une communication dont il saura jouer de tous les ressorts — rapidité de déplacement, contrôle de l’information, maîtrise des formes spéculatives et fiduciaires de l’économie, dévoiement des formes anthropologiques de l’échange social, etc. — pour l’emporter finalement sur les trois pouvoirs coalisés de la Politique (Morcerf), de la Justice (Villefort) et de la Banque (Danglars) ; tout cela orchestré par une triple métaphore du sang, de l’argent et de l’information, dont la signification réversible ne peut être séparée d’une doctrine saint-simonienne que Dumas à la fois relaie et révoque. De même que le couloir de communication établi au château d’If entre la cellule de Dantès et celle de Faria, la scène du télégraphe fait ainsi office de point de cristallisation d’une symbolique diffuse. Cette scène si cardinale, il s'agit ici de montrer qu’elle est non seulement grosse encore de tout un savoir à dimension technique autant qu’anthropologique, mais également porteuse, vers d’autres zones du roman, d’une assez étonnante préfiguration du télégraphe électrique, en cheville avec une modernité technique dont Dumas faufile les signes de façon plus ou moins cryptée dans la trame de son roman. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux et conséquences de la vannerie dans les aires protégées de Madagascar
Guillaud, Sylvie; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2014), 320(2), 43-57

La Réserve spéciale de Manombo (Sud-Est de Madagascar) est un cas typique de zone de conflits entre conservation de l’environnement et développement rural. Elle contient un vestige de forêt littorale ... [more ▼]

La Réserve spéciale de Manombo (Sud-Est de Madagascar) est un cas typique de zone de conflits entre conservation de l’environnement et développement rural. Elle contient un vestige de forêt littorale subissant des pressions constantes exercées par les populations riveraines qui, faute d’alternatives économiques, dépendent fortement de leur environnement. La vannerie représente une activité traditionnelle importante et les peuplements de Lepironia mucronata (mahampy), Cypéracée utilisée dans la vannerie, subissent une collecte excessive de tiges. Dans ce travail, trois peuplements de L. mucronata ont été étudiés afin d’évaluer l’impact de la vannerie sur cette ressource. Pour cela, des mesures de hauteur, de diamètre et de densité de tiges ont permis d’évaluer la productivité de chaque peuplement, et ainsi des différences ainsi significatives ont été constatées entre les trois marais. Parallèlement, une méthode indirecte d’estimation a été mise au point pour évaluer la pression annuelle sur les marais, exprimée en nombre de femmes venant se fournir en tiges. Outre confirmer la surexploitation de cette ressource par la vannerie, cette approche permet de déduire le nombre maximal de femmes pouvant se procurer des tiges sans menacer la régénération naturelle de L. mucronata. Enfin, des enquêtes socioéconomiques réalisées auprès des ménages et des commerçantes ont permis d’analyser la filière vannerie traditionnelle ainsi que les retombées économiques dans la région. Cela a permis de mettre en évidence le rôle primordial de cette activité, qui procure souvent les seuls revenus monétaires de nombreux ménages ruraux. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Adherence to a Convulsion management Protocol for Children in Rwanda
kaputu-kalal-malu, Célestin; D'Amour Birindabagabo, Jean; Walker, Timothy David et al

in Journal of Tropical Pediatrics (2014), 60(2), 124-128

Inappropriate seizure management may result in high morbidity and mortality. We assessed the adherence of health professionals in southern Rwanda to a national protocol for pharmacological management of ... [more ▼]

Inappropriate seizure management may result in high morbidity and mortality. We assessed the adherence of health professionals in southern Rwanda to a national protocol for pharmacological management of seizures in children. A questionnaire featuring a 5-year-old child with generalized prolonged seizures was administered. The questions focused on the choice of initial treatment and the sequence of management following failure of the initial treatment choice. Benzodiazepine was chosen as initial therapy by 93.7% of physicians and 90.9% of nurses. Only 49.2% of physicians and 41% of nurses would repeat the initial treatment in case of failure of the first dose and 47% of doctors would wait 30 min to intervene. In case of refractory status epilepticus, 34% of physicians would give three doses of benzodiazepine, whereas 19% did not know what to do. These results suggest poor adherence to national protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailIntense pulsed light in infantile hemangiomas.
PAQUET, Philippe ULg; Caucanas, Marie; FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg et al

in Open Access Journal of Science and Technology (2014), 2

For more than 70 years, the watchful-waiting management of infantile strawberry hemangiomas still prevails in a number of clinical settings. This concept appears now outdated since the introduction of ... [more ▼]

For more than 70 years, the watchful-waiting management of infantile strawberry hemangiomas still prevails in a number of clinical settings. This concept appears now outdated since the introduction of well-suited beta-blockers, as well as noncoherent light and laser therapies. The aim of this work was to revisit the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy on infantile hemangioma. Information was collected from the peer-reviewed literature and illustrated by personal cases. When applied early in the evolution of infantile hemangiomas, IPL treatment stops the growth phase and induces regression with minimal cosmetic adverse effects and psychological damage. Initiating an adequate treatment is important because damage due to hemangiomas can be diminished by a timely and adequate approach. Beta-blockers have revolutionized the therapeutic strategy of infantile hemangiomas. The flash light therapy (IPL) represents an alternative therapy for some patients. [less ▲]

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See detailL’engagement en présence : l’atelier de théâtre-action comme support à une participation sociale et politique ?
Brahy, Rachel ULg

in Lien social et politiques (2014), 71(Printemps),

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See detailThe premature ejaculation ‘disorder ’: Questioning the criterion of one minute of penetration
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; Desseilles, Martin ULg

in Sexologies : Revue Européenne de Santé Sexuelle = European Journal of Sexual Health (2014), 23

The current trend is to reserve the diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for cases where penetration lasts for about one minute or less. The rationale is that the aetiology is primarily bio ... [more ▼]

The current trend is to reserve the diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for cases where penetration lasts for about one minute or less. The rationale is that the aetiology is primarily bio-constitutional, and that long-term pharmacological treatment is the only viable option. However, the literature contains little scientific evidence to support this argument. In fact, a good number of individuals who suffer from overly rapid ejaculation present with penetration duration exceeding one minute, and even severe forms of PE have responded favourably to psycho-sexological treatment. Moreover, although certain biological variables are known to influence ejaculation latency time, nothing indicates that they play an exclusive role of psychosocial etiological factors in severe PE. Therefore, it would be ‘premature’ to base a PE diagnosis on a maximum penetration duration of one minute, which should instead be considered a severity gradient. Given that desired criteria for penetration duration often exceed biological norms, it would be inappropriate to propose that only the most severe forms of PE have constitutional origins. In any case, the constitution is relatively flexible, and can respond to adaptive learning. An adaptive learning approach would undoubtedly be more difficult to apply in severe cases, but not impossible. The issue of whether to use pharmacological versus psycho-sexological treatment could be side-stepped by moving beyond the single criterion of ejaculation latency. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle de l’entourage au sein de l’hôpital africain : une thématique négligée ?
Schnitzler, Marie ULg

in Sciences Sociales et Santé (2014), 32(1), 39-64

En mobilisant le cadre théorique interactionniste pensé par Strauss (1992), cet article décrit les différentes tâches effectuées par l’entourage du malade dans un hôpital béninois afin de montrer comment ... [more ▼]

En mobilisant le cadre théorique interactionniste pensé par Strauss (1992), cet article décrit les différentes tâches effectuées par l’entourage du malade dans un hôpital béninois afin de montrer comment ce travail réalisé gratuitement par des travailleurs profanes favorise le fonctionnement au jour le jour de la structure. Les concepts d’« intermédiation » et de « dépendance » permettent de saisir les contraintes familiales exercées sur le patient en plus du contrôle médical. En conclusion, cet article prône le développement d’études sur les garde-malades pour renouveler les recherches sur la relation thérapeutique et sur l’organisation hospitalière en Afrique de l’Ouest. [less ▲]

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See detailCoherent Backscattering in Fock Space: A Signature of Quantum Many-Body Interference in Interacting Bosonic Systems
Engl, Thomas; Dujardin, Julien ULg; Argüelles, Arturo et al

in Physical Review Letters (2014), 112

We predict a generic signature of quantum interference in many-body bosonic systems resulting in a coherent enhancement of the average return probability in Fock space. This enhancement is robust with ... [more ▼]

We predict a generic signature of quantum interference in many-body bosonic systems resulting in a coherent enhancement of the average return probability in Fock space. This enhancement is robust with respect to variations of external parameters even though it represents a dynamical manifestation of the delicate superposition principle in Fock space. It is a genuine quantum many-body effect that lies beyond the reach of any mean-field approach. Using a semiclassical approach based on interfering paths in Fock space, we calculate the magnitude of the backscattering peak and its dependence on gauge fields that break time-reversal invariance. We confirm our predictions by comparing them to exact quantum evolution probabilities in Bose-Hubbard models, and discuss their relevance in the context of many-body thermalization. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary synovial (osteo)chondromatosis of the elbow.
Houbart, M. A.; Passoglou, V.; Gerard, L. et al

in JBR-BTR : organe de la Societe royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR) (2014), 97(3), 154-5

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See detailCR de Anna Drzewicka, "Volez oïr…". Études sur la littérature française du Moyen Âge, Articles des années 1974-2008
Henrard, Nadine ULg

in Bulletin Bibliographique de la Société Rencesvals (2014), 2013-2014(45), 208-212

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See detailElaboration of Thin Foils in Copper and Zinc by Self-Induced Ion Plating
Giraud, Eliane; Pace, Sergio ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Materials Science (2014), 20(2), 160-164

The aim of this work was to determine the ability to produce thin metallic foils by self-induced ion plating. Foils of pure copper and pure zinc with a thickness of 35 μm have been successfully produced ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to determine the ability to produce thin metallic foils by self-induced ion plating. Foils of pure copper and pure zinc with a thickness of 35 μm have been successfully produced and their characteristics have been compared to foils obtained by conventional techniques (i. e. electroplating and rolling). Results show the following: (i) more or less compact microstructures can be obtained by self-induced ion plating depending on gas pressure and substrate temperature; (ii) microstructures obtained by self-induced ion plating are quite different from those obtained by electroplating and rolling; (iii) Young’s modulus depends on foils roughness; (iv) hardness depends on grain size by exhibiting a Hall-Petch behavior in the case of copper foils and an “inverse” Hall-Petch behavior in the case of zinc foils. [less ▲]

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See detailReproductive ecology of Coula edulis Baill., source of a valuable non-timber forest product
Moupela, Christian ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Tropical Ecology (2014), 55(3), 327-338

The reproductive ecology of Coula edulis (Olacaceae), source of a highly valuable non-timber product for African populations, has been investigated on a large tree sample size in a Gabonese forest for a 3 ... [more ▼]

The reproductive ecology of Coula edulis (Olacaceae), source of a highly valuable non-timber product for African populations, has been investigated on a large tree sample size in a Gabonese forest for a 3-year period, in order to propose options for its domestication. Reproduction is annual and the minimum tree diameter for flowering was 10.6 cm while the diameter for regular fructification was 23 cm. The annual diameter increment (ADI; mean = 0.22 cm year-1) was affected by crown exposure, but not by initial tree diameter or fruit production. Tree diameter influenced fruiting frequency and fruit production. There was a strong correlation between fruit production of 2011 and 2012 (Pearson's r = 0.85; P < 0.001), suggesting a high heritability of that trait. Phenotypical selection should be performed prior to any propagation activity. Moreover, as most of C. edulis fruits were sterile (64 %), we propose that sylvicultural strategies should be based on vegetative propagation. [less ▲]

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See detailcompte rendu de : Eleanor DICKEY, The Colloquia of the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana. Volume I. Colloquia Monacensia-Einsidlensia, Leidense-Stephani, and Stephani
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Gnomon : Kritische Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Klassische Altertumswissenschaft (2014), 86(7), 596-600

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See detailRecommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography: EACVI update 2014.
Flachskampf, Frank A.; Wouters, Patrick F.; Edvardsen, Thor et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(4), 353-65

With this document, we update the recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. The document focusses on the areas of interventional ... [more ▼]

With this document, we update the recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. The document focusses on the areas of interventional TOE, in particular transcatheter aortic, mitral, and left atrial appendage interventions, as well as on the role of TOE in infective endocarditis, adult congenital heart disease, and aortic disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the policy implications of changing longevity
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

in CESifo Ecoonmic Studies (2014), 60

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See detailHearing capacities and otolith size in two ophidiiform species (Ophidion rochei and Carapus acus)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

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See detailEvidence for an own-age bias in age estimation from voices in older persons
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Beaufort, Aline ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in European Journal of Ageing (2014)

Previous studies have investigated the effect of ageing on age estimation from faces as well as the occur- rence of an own-age bias in such age estimation from faces. To the best of our knowledge, the ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have investigated the effect of ageing on age estimation from faces as well as the occur- rence of an own-age bias in such age estimation from faces. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of an own age effect on age estimation from voices has never been examined earlier using an experimental design in which the age of participants (young vs. old) and the age of voice stimuli (young vs. old) were crossed. Results revealed an own-age bias in older adults only. In comparison with younger adults, older participants showed age estimation abilities that are preserved for voices from their own age group and impaired for younger voices. This own age bias was absent in younger participants. [less ▲]

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See detailV. Van Saaze, Installation Art and the Museum : Presentation and Conservation of Changing Artworks
D'Haenens, Manon ULg

in CeROArt : Conservation, Exposition, Restauration d'Objets d'Art (2014), (9),

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See detailTeaching conservation-restoration in an art school: sharing expériences
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg; Breuil, Marie-Hélène

in CeROArt : Conservation, Exposition, Restauration d'Objets d'Art (2014)

Teaching conservation-restoration in an art school can be considered a blessing as well as a challenge: What is the position of a conservator-restorator in this environment? What are the relationships ... [more ▼]

Teaching conservation-restoration in an art school can be considered a blessing as well as a challenge: What is the position of a conservator-restorator in this environment? What are the relationships between art conservation and creation, creation and technique? What legitimises research in conservation-restoration, scientific or applied, in this context? This paper, based on our teaching experiences in France and in Belgium reveals a field of expertise and the necessity of understanding the processes of art creation holistically. [less ▲]

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See detailSECOND ORDER SYMMETRIES OF THE CONFORMAL LAPLACIAN
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg; Radoux, Fabian ULg; Silhan, Josef

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications [=SIGMA] (2014), 10(016), 26

Let (M,g) be an arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension at least 3. We determine the form of all the conformal symmetries of the conformal (or Yamabe) Laplacian on (M,g), which are given by ... [more ▼]

Let (M,g) be an arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension at least 3. We determine the form of all the conformal symmetries of the conformal (or Yamabe) Laplacian on (M,g), which are given by differential operators of second order. They are constructed from conformal Killing 2-tensors satisfying a natural and conformally invariant condition. As a consequence, we get also the classification of the second order symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Our results generalize the ones of Eastwood and Carter, which hold on conformally flat and Einstein manifolds respectively. We illustrate our results on two families of examples in dimension three. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dermocosmétique en appui de traitements oncologiques ciblés.
FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; Lesuisse, Marianne; PIERARD, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 35-37

Some recently introduced targeted treatments in cancerology are responsible for adverse effects on the skin. These events alter the patient well-being. Adequate dermocosmetic management allows to curb the ... [more ▼]

Some recently introduced targeted treatments in cancerology are responsible for adverse effects on the skin. These events alter the patient well-being. Adequate dermocosmetic management allows to curb the unwanted skin conditions without interfering with the targeted therapeutic effects. However, evidence-based support for using dermocosmetic products as adjunctive cancer treatment remains scarce. It remains nonetheless that the clinical perception is unanimously favourable for such procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of dissolved organic matter by phytoplankton and its uptake by heterotrophic prokaryotes in large tropical lakes
Morana, Cédric; Sarmento, Hugo; Descy, Jean-Pierre et al

in Limnology & Oceanography (2014), 59(4), 1364-1375

In pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton extracellular release can extensively subsidize the heterotrophic prokaryotic carbon demand. Time-course experiments were carried out to quantify primary production ... [more ▼]

In pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton extracellular release can extensively subsidize the heterotrophic prokaryotic carbon demand. Time-course experiments were carried out to quantify primary production, phytoplankton excretion, and the microbial uptake of freshly released dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from phytoplankton extracellular release (DOCp) in four large tropical lakes distributed along a productivity gradient: Kivu, Edward, Albert, and Victoria. The contributions of the major heterotrophic bacterial groups to the uptake of DOCp was also analyzed in Lake Kivu, using microautoradiography coupled to catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescent in situ hybridization. The percentage of extracellular release (PER) varied across the productivity gradient, with higher values at low productivity. Furthermore, PER was significantly related to high light and low phosphate concentrations in the mixed layer and was comparatively higher in oligotrophic tropical lakes than in their temperate counterparts. Both observations suggest that environmental factors play a key role in the control of phytoplankton excretion. Standing stocks of DOCp were small and generally contributed less than 1% to the total DOC because it was rapidly assimilated by prokaryotes. In other words, there was a tight coupling between the production and the heterotrophic consumption of DOCp. None of the major phylogenetic bacterial groups that were investigated differed in their ability to take up DOCp, in contrast with earlier results reported for standard labeled single-molecule substrates (leucine, glucose, adenosine triphosphate). It supports the idea that the metabolic ability to use DOCp is widespread among heterotrophic prokaryotes. Overall, these results highlight the importance of carbon transfer between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in large African lakes. [less ▲]

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See detailUn monde entre accélération et incertitudes
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

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See detailDetermination of Particle Size, Surface Area, and Shape of Supplementary Cementitious Materials by Using Different Techniques
Arvaniti, Eleni; Juenger, Maria; Bernal, Susan et al

in Materials and Structures (2014)

The particle size distribution, surface area and shape are fundamental characteristics of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Accurate measurement of these properties is required in computational ... [more ▼]

The particle size distribution, surface area and shape are fundamental characteristics of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Accurate measurement of these properties is required in computational efforts to model the hydration process, and the characterization of these parameters is also an important practical issue during the production and use of blended cements. Since there are no standard procedures specifically for the determination of physical properties of SCMs, the techniques that are currently used for characterizing Portland cement are applied to SCMs. Based on the fact that most of the techniques have been developed to measure cements, limitations occur when these methods are used for other materials than cement, particularly when these have lower fineness and different particle shape and mineralogical composition. Here, samples of fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume were tested. Different results obtained using several methods for the determination of specific surface area are presented. Recommendations for testing SCMs using air permeability, sieving, laser diffraction, BET, image analysis and MIP are provided, which represent an output from the work of the RILEM Technical Committee on Hydration and Microstructure of Concrete with Supplementary Cementitious Materials (TC-238-SCM). [less ▲]

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See detailSex Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: the Role of Sex Hormones.
Makrygiannis, Georgios ULg; Courtois, Audrey ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annals of vascular surgery (2014)

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in males, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently ... [more ▼]

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in males, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature we examined human and animal, in vivo and in vitro studies, to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17beta-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in males and females, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA. [less ▲]

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See detailGoal-directed treatment of osteoporosis in Europe.
Kanis, J. A.; McCloskey, E.; Branco, J. et al

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2014), 25(11), 2533-2543

Despite the proven predictive ability of bone mineral density, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(R)), bone turnover markers, and fracture for osteoporotic fracture, their use as targets for treatment of ... [more ▼]

Despite the proven predictive ability of bone mineral density, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(R)), bone turnover markers, and fracture for osteoporotic fracture, their use as targets for treatment of osteoporosis is limited. INTRODUCTION: Treat-to-target is a strategy applied in several fields of medicine and has recently become an area of interest in the management of osteoporosis. Its role in this setting remains controversial. This article was prepared following a European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group meeting convened under the auspices of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) to discuss the feasibility of applying such a strategy in osteoporosis in Europe. METHODS: Potential targets range from the absence of an incident fracture to fixed levels of bone mineral density (BMD), a desired FRAX(R) score, a specified level of bone turnover markers or indeed changes in any one or a combination of these parameters. RESULTS: Despite the proven predictive ability of all of these variables for fracture (particularly BMD and FRAX), their use as targets remains limited due to low sensitivity, the influence of confounders and current lack of evidence that targets can be consistently reached. CONCLUSION: ESCEO considers that it is not currently feasible to apply a treat-to-target strategy in osteoporosis, though it did identify a need to continue to improve the targeting of treatment to those at higher risk (target-to-treat strategy) and a number of issues for the research agenda. These include international consensus on intervention thresholds and definition of treatment failure, further exploration of the relationship between fracture and BMD, and FRAX and treatment efficacy and investigation of the potential of short-term targets to improve adherence. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic and kinetic characterization of the novel AmpC beta-lactamases DHA-6 and DHA-7.
Perez-Llarena, Francisco Jose; Zamorano, Laura; Kerff, Frédéric ULg et al

in Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2014)

During a Spanish surveillance study, two natural variants of DHA beta-lactamases, DHA-6 and DHA-7 were found, with the replacements Ala226Thr and Phe322Ser respect to DHA-1, respectively. The enzymes were ... [more ▼]

During a Spanish surveillance study, two natural variants of DHA beta-lactamases, DHA-6 and DHA-7 were found, with the replacements Ala226Thr and Phe322Ser respect to DHA-1, respectively. The enzymes were isolated from Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates, respectively. The aim of the study was the genetic, microbiological and biochemical characterization of the DHA-6 and DHA-7 beta-lactamases. The blaDHA-6 andblaDHA-7 genes were located in I1 and HI2 incompatibility group plasmids of 87.3 and 310.4 kb, respectively. The gene context of both blaDHA-6 andblaDHA-7 was similar to that already described for blaDHA-1 gene and included the qnrB4 and aadA genes. The MICs for cephalothin, aztreonam, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 8 to 30 fold lower for the DHA-6 than for DHA-1 and DHA-7 expressed in the same isogenic E.coli TG1 strain. Interestingly the MIC for cefoxitin was higher in DHA-6 expressing transformant compared to DHA-1 and DHA-7. Biochemical studies with pure beta-lactamases revealed a slightly lower catalytic efficiency of DHA-6 against cephalothin, ceftazidime and cefotaxime compared to DHA-1 and DHA-7. To understand this behavior, stability experiments were carried out and showed that the DHA-6 protein displayed a significantly higher stability than DHA-1 and DHA-7 enzymes. The proximity of Thr226 to the N-terminal in the tertiary protein structure in DHA-6 may promote this stabilization and consequently could induce a slight reduction of the dynamic of this enzyme primarily affecting the hydrolysis of some of the bulkiest antibiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of aging and hearing status on verbal working memory
Verhaegen, Clémence ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2014), 21(4), 464-482

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See detailRapid aqueous synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbons: Investigation of synthesis variables and application as anode materials for Li-ion batteries
Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Gommes, Cédric ULg; Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Microporousand Mesoporous Materials (2014), 195

Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) were synthesized via a direct templating pathway by a synthesis route that features short duration, moderate temperature and aqueous media. Resorcinol was used as carbon ... [more ▼]

Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) were synthesized via a direct templating pathway by a synthesis route that features short duration, moderate temperature and aqueous media. Resorcinol was used as carbon precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as a source of formaldehyde and ammonia to respectively cross-link the framework and regulate the pH. The temperature of the heat treatment leading to the formation of the solid polymer was shown to have a strong influence on the structural and textural parameters. In particular, moderate temperatures led to the coexistence of differently-sized entangled hexagonal mesostructures, whereas the higher temperatures led to a sharp decrease in the mesopore volume. The performance of these materials as anode materials for Li-ion batteries has been investigated in detail. Although these OMC show reversible capacities similar to those reported for hard carbons, their long-term cycling remains very stable for over 100 cycles of charge/discharge. The optimization of the reported short preparation pathway offers new possibilities regarding the application of ordered mesoporous carbons in various fields, such as energy storage, sorption and heterogeneous catalysis [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and Reliability of the French version of the STarT Back Screening Tool for patients with low back pain.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Demoulin, Maryline; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Spine (2014), 39(2), 123-128

Study Design. Observational prospective study.Objective. Our objective was to assess the reliability and validity of the French version of the Keele STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST).Summary of Background ... [more ▼]

Study Design. Observational prospective study.Objective. Our objective was to assess the reliability and validity of the French version of the Keele STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST).Summary of Background Data. The SBST is a recently validated tool developed to identify subgroups of patients with low back pain (LBP) to guide early secondary prevention in primary care.Methods. Outpatients with LBP aged 18 years or more, attending a rehabilitation centre, a back school, a private physiotherapy unit or a fitness centre were included. Patients were assessed through the SBST, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMPSQ), Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and a pain visual analogic scale (VAS). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Kappa score or the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency of the psychological subscale with the Cronbach alpha coefficient, construct validity with the Spearman's correlation coefficient, and floor and ceiling effects by percentage frequency of lowest or highest possible score achieved by respondents.Results. 108 patients with LBP were included. The test-retest reliability of the SBST total score was excellent with an ICC of 0.90 (0.81-0.95). The Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.73 showing a good internal consistency for the psychological subscale. High Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.74 between SBST and RMDQ, and 0.74 between the SBST and OMPSQ were observed. As expected, low to moderate correlations were observed between the SBST total score and some dissimilar measures of the SF-36. The lowest possible SBST score was observed for 8 patients (7.4%) whereas only three patients (2.8%) had the highest possible SBST score.Conclusion. The French version of the SBST is a reliable and valid questionnaire consistent with the original English version. Therefore, this new version may help French-speaking clinicians and scientists to stratify patients with LBP. [less ▲]

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See detailAUTOMATISATION DE LA DÉTECTION DES CRATÈRES LUNAIRES SUR DES IMAGES ET MNT PLANÉTAIRES
Renson, Pierre; Poncelet, Nadia; Vandeloise, Yannick et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2014), 61

This research is part of the preparation of a lunar mission. Its objective is to implement, test and validate an automated method that detects craters on the lunar surface from planetary products (images ... [more ▼]

This research is part of the preparation of a lunar mission. Its objective is to implement, test and validate an automated method that detects craters on the lunar surface from planetary products (images and DTM). In this context, the automation of the process is essential because the craters represent a landing risk and landmarks for visual navigation. It is also the key challenge because it is difficult to develop high level automatic processing comparable to the thinking carried out in a traditional visual interpretation. Our method automatically establishes a semantic diagnosis based on the combination of crater descriptors computed on the planetary products used. Finally, this application is part of a decision support tool and an assessment system of landing and mission survival risks. It also aims to feed a landmarks database for automatic visual navigation of a lunar landing spacecraft. [less ▲]

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See detailQue vaut le travail de l'avocat?
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), 2013(3-4), 509-514

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See detailDe Jacques Antoine aux éditions des Eperonniers : l'édition littéraire en Belgique au passé et au présent (première partie)
Durand, Pascal ULg; Habrand, Tanguy ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2014), 45

Première partie (POSITION ÉDITORIALE ET PATRIMONIALISATION LITTÉRAIRE : JACQUES ANTOINE) d'un article en deux volets dont le second porte sur la transition des éditions Jacques Antoine aux éditions des ... [more ▼]

Première partie (POSITION ÉDITORIALE ET PATRIMONIALISATION LITTÉRAIRE : JACQUES ANTOINE) d'un article en deux volets dont le second porte sur la transition des éditions Jacques Antoine aux éditions des Eperonniers et sur l'histoire et la politique éditoriale de cette dernière maison (CRÉATION CONTEMPORAINE ET POLITIQUES DU LIVRE : LYSIANE D’HAEYERE AUX ÉPERONNIERS). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dimethylsulfide Cycle in the Eutrophied Southern North Sea: A Model Study Integrating Phytoplankton and Bacterial Processes
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULg et al

in Plos One (2014), 9(1)(e85862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085862),

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical ... [more ▼]

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical processes (including DMS air-sea exchange). This module was integrated in the MIRO ecological model and applied in a 0D frame in the Southern North Sea (SNS). The DMS(P) module is built on parameterizations derived from available knowledge on DMS(P) sources, transformations and sinks, and provides an explicit representation of bacterial activity in contrast to most of existing models that only include phytoplankton process (and abiotic transformations). The model is tested in a highly productive coastal ecosystem (the Belgian coastal zone, BCZ) dominated by diatoms and the Haptophyceae Phaeocystis, respectively low and high DMSP producers. On an annual basis, the particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production simulated in 1989 is mainly related to Phaeocystis colonies (78%) rather than diatoms (13%) and nanoflagellates (9%). Accordingly, sensitivity analysis shows that the model responds more to changes in the sulfur:carbon (S:C) quota and lyase yield of Phaeocystis. DMS originates equally from phytoplankton and bacterial DMSP-lyase activity and only 3% of the DMS is emitted to the atmosphere. Model analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of DMS emission towards the atmosphere to the description and parameterization of biological processes emphasizing the need of adequately representing in models both phytoplankton and bacterial processes affecting DMS(P) dynamics. This is particularly important in eutrophied coastal environments such as the SNS dominated by high non-diatom blooms and where empirical models developed from data-sets biased towards open ocean conditions do not satisfactorily predict the timing and amplitude of the DMS seasonal cycle. In order to predict future feedbacks of DMS emissions on climate, it is needed to account for hotspots of DMS emissions from coastal environments that, if eutrophied, are dominated not only by diatoms. [less ▲]

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