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See detailContribution of Spray Droplet Pinning Fragmentation to Canopy Retention
Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Belhamra, Mohamed et al

in Crop Protection (2014), 56

Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to ... [more ▼]

Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using high speed shadowgraphy shows that bouncing and fragmentation can occur in Cassie-Baxter as well as in Wenzel wetting regimes. In this last regime, a part of the drop may remain stuck on the surface, contributing to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorophotometry for spray mixtures on excised barley leaves using a Teejet 11003 nozzle at 0.2 MPa, it is observed that about 50% of the drops that fragmented in the Wenzel state remain on the horizontal leaf. Depending on the spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 28 to 46% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is not negligible and should be considered when modelling spray retention processes. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of Transformer Core Joints via a Subproblem FEM and a Homogenization Technique
Ferreira da Luz, Mauricio Valencia; Dular, Patrick ULg; Vianei Leite, Jean et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2),

A subproblem finite element method is developed for modeling the transformer core joints. It applies magnetostatic and magnetodynamic models on progressive geometries and different components of the ... [more ▼]

A subproblem finite element method is developed for modeling the transformer core joints. It applies magnetostatic and magnetodynamic models on progressive geometries and different components of the solution, supported by different meshes. It allows an efficient and robust analysis of magnetic circuits in any frequency range, with an accurate calculation of flux density, losses, reluctance, and impedance in transformer core joint zone. The models of the study properly account for the effects of core design parameters such as length of air gaps and overlap length in stacked-lamination cores. The proposed models, which include saturation, are applied to grain-oriented silicon steel and two types of step-lap joints are considered: single-step-lap (SSL) joints and multistep-lap (MSL) joints. The values of magnetic reluctance, impedance, and Joule losses obtained with SSL joint are bigger than with MSL joint. [less ▲]

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See detailArtistic separation versus artistic mixing in European multicultural cities
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power (2014), 21(1), 1-9

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See detailMagnetospheric Science Objectives of the Juno Mission
Bagenal, Fran; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we ... [more ▼]

In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we review current understanding of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere and summarize the outstanding issues. The Juno mission profile involves (a) a several-week approach from the dawn side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, with an orbit-insertion maneuver on July 6, 2016; (b) a 107-day capture orbit, also on the dawn flank; and (c) a series of thirty 11-day science orbits with the spacecraft flying over Jupiter’s poles and ducking under the radiation belts. We show how Juno’s view of the magnetosphere evolves over the year of science orbits. The Juno spacecraft carries a range of instruments that take particles and fields measurements, remote sensing observations of auroral emissions at UV, visible, IR and radio wavelengths, and detect microwave emission from Jupiter’s radiation belts. We summarize how these Juno measurements address issues of auroral processes, microphysical plasma physics, ionosphere-magnetosphere and satellite-magnetosphere coupling, sources and sinks of plasma, the radiation belts, and the dynamics of the outer magnetosphere. To reach Jupiter, the Juno spacecraft passed close to the Earth on October 9, 2013, gaining the necessary energy to get to Jupiter. The Earth flyby provided an opportunity to test Juno’s instrumentation as well as take scientific data in the terrestrial magnetosphere, in conjunction with ground-based and Earth-orbiting assets. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Computational Homogenization Method for the Evaluation of Eddy Currents in Soft Magnetic Composites
Niyonzima, Innocent ULg; Sabariego, Ruth Vazquez; Dular, Patrick ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(02),

In this paper, a heterogeneous multiscale method technique is applied to model the behavior of electromagnetic fields in soft magnetic composites (SMC). Two problems are derived from the two-scale ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a heterogeneous multiscale method technique is applied to model the behavior of electromagnetic fields in soft magnetic composites (SMC). Two problems are derived from the two-scale homogenization theory: a macroscale problem that captures the slow variations of the overall solution, and many mesoscale problems that allow determining the constitutive laws at the macroscale. As application, an SMC core is considered. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of post remission therapy before reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission
Warlick, Erica; Paulson, Kristjan; Brazauskas, Ruta et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2014), 20(2), 202-208

The impact of pre transplant (HCT) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with ... [more ▼]

The impact of pre transplant (HCT) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the CIBMTR who received a RIC or NMA HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) donor in 2000-2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine post remission consolidation. Three year survival rates were 36% (29-43%, 95% CI) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (37-47%, 95% CI) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (p=0.16). Disease free survival was 34% (27-41%, 95% CI) and 41% (35-46%, 95% CI) (p=0.15), respectively. Three year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (30-44%, 95% CI) and 38% (33-43%, 95% CI), respectively (p=0.80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, DFS and survival. Prior to RIC/NMA HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant TRM and is reasonable if required. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation <–> Text(e) <–> Culture
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Semiotica (2014), 198

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See detailEffect of post remission therapy before reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission
Warlick, Erica; Paulson, Kristjan; Brazauskas, Ruta et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2014), 20(2), 202-208

The impact of pre transplant (HCT) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with ... [more ▼]

The impact of pre transplant (HCT) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the CIBMTR who received a RIC or NMA HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) donor in 2000-2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine post remission consolidation. Three year survival rates were 36% (29-43%, 95% CI) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (37-47%, 95% CI) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (p=0.16). Disease free survival was 34% (27-41%, 95% CI) and 41% (35-46%, 95% CI) (p=0.15), respectively. Three year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (30-44%, 95% CI) and 38% (33-43%, 95% CI), respectively (p=0.80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, DFS and survival. Prior to RIC/NMA HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant TRM and is reasonable if required. [less ▲]

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See detailWhite Matter Changes in Comatose Survivors of Anoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparative Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study
Van Der Eerden, Anke; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Perlbarg, Vincent et al

in Radiology (2014), 270

Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury ... [more ▼]

Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent from proxies and control subjects were obtained. DT imaging was performed 5–57 days after insult in 49 cardiac arrest and 40 TBI patients. To control for DT imaging–processing variability, patients’ values were normalized to those of 111 control subjects. Automated segmentation software calculated normalized axial diffusivity (λ1) and radial diffusivity (λ) in 19 predefined white matter regions of interest (ROIs). DT imaging variables were compared by using general linear modeling, and side-to-side Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. P values were corrected for multiple testing (Bonferroni). Results:In central white matter, λ1 differed from that in control subjects in six of seven TBI ROIs and five of seven cardiac arrest ROIs (all P < .01). The λ differed from that in control subjects in all ROIs in both patient groups (P < .01). In hemispheres, λ1 was decreased compared with that in control subjects in three of 12 TBI ROIs (P < .05) and nine of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .01). The λ was increased in all TBI ROIs (P < .01) and in seven of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .05). Cerebral hemisphere λ1 was lower in cardiac arrest than in TBI in six of 12 ROIs (P < .01), while λ was higher in TBI than in cardiac arrest in eight of 12 ROIs (P < .01). Diffusivity values were symmetrically distributed in cardiac arrest (P < .001 for side-to-side correlation) but not in TBI patients. Conclusion:DT imaging findings are consistent with the known predominance of cerebral hemisphere axonal injury in cardiac arrest and chiefly central myelin injury in TBI. This consistency supports the validity of DT imaging for differentiating axon and myelin damage in vivo in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and preliminary study of their self-assembling properties
Coupillaud, Paul; Fèvre, Maréva; Wirotius, Anne-Laure et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2014), 35(4), 422-430

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical ... [more ▼]

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP). A PVAc precursor is first prepared at 30 °C in bulk by CMRP of VAc, using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II), Co(acac)2, and a radical source (V-70). Growth of PVBuImBr from PVAc-Co(acac)2 is accomplished by CMRP in DMF/MeOH (2:1, v/v). This PIL BCP self-assembles in the sub-micron size range into aggregated core–shell micelles in THF, whereas polymeric vesicles are observed in water, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thin-solid sample cut from raw materials analyzed by TEM shows an ordered lamellar organization by temperature-dependent synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Anion exchange can be accomplished to achieve the corresponding PIL BCP with bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (Tf2N−) anions, which also gives rise to an ordered lamellar phase in bulk samples. A complete suppression of SAXS second-order reflection suggests that this compound has a symmetric volume fraction (f ≈ 0.5). SAXS characterization of both di- and triblock PIL BCP analogues previously reported also shows a lamellar phase of very similar behavior, with only an increase of the period by about 8% at 60 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm for the separation of two-row cuts
Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Poirrier, Laurent ULg

in Mathematical Programming (2014), 143(1-2), 111-146

We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ... [more ▼]

We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ) from a quadratic number of integer hull computations to a linear number of integer hull computations. Furthermore, we present an algorithm that avoids computing all integer hulls. A polynomial running time is not guaranteed but computational results show that the algorithm runs quickly in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEpigenetic modulators mitigate angiogenesis through a complex transcriptomic network
Shiva Shankar, T.V.; Willems, Luc ULg

in Vascular Pharmacology (2014), 60

In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important ... [more ▼]

In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important transcriptional regulators of angiogenic genes in endothelial cells. Lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation inhibitors idiosyncratically tune the transcriptome and affect expression of key modulators of angiogenesis such as VEGF and eNOS. Transcriptomic profiling also reveals a series of novel genes that are concomitantly affected by epigenetic modulators. The reversibility and overall tolerability of currently available epigenetic inhibitors open up the prospect of therapeutic intervention in pathologies where angiogenesis is exacerbated. This type of multitargeted strategy has the major advantage of overcoming the compensatory feedback mechanisms that characterize single anti-angiogenic factors. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasicontinuum study of the shear behavior of defective tilt grain boundaries in Cu
Péron-Lührs, Vincent ULg; Sansoz, Frédéric; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Acta Materialia (2014), 64

Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries ... [more ▼]

Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries (GBs) that have been predicted to exhibit characteristic deformation processes of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned metals: GB-mediated dislocation emission, interface sliding, and shear-coupled GB migration. We demonstrate that such nanoscale defects have a profound impact on interfacial shear strength and underlying deformation mechanisms in copper GBs due to void-induced local stresses. In asymmetric high and low angle GBs, we find that voids become preferential sites for dislocation nucleation when the void size exceeds 4 Å. In symmetric 9(221) GBs prone to sliding, voids are shown to shield the local shear stress, which considerably reduces the extent of atom shuffling at the interface. In symmetric Sigma5(210) and Sigma27(115) GBs, we find that the effect of voids on shear-coupled GB migration depends on the GB tilt direction considered, as well as on the size and number of voids. Remarkably, large voids can completely abate the GB migration process in Sigma 27(115) GBs. For all GB types, the interfacial shear strength is shown to decrease linearly as the volume fraction of voids at the interface increases; however, this study also suggests that this decrease is much more pronounced in GBs deforming by sliding than by dislocation nucleation or migration, owing to larger void-induced stresses. [less ▲]

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See detailUne reponse allergique pour lutter contre les venins.
Marichal, Thomas ULg; Starkl, Philipp; Metz, Martin et al

in Medecine sciences : M/S (2014), 30(2), 127-30

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See detailCombination of Genomic and Proteomic Approaches to Characterize the Symbiotic Population of the Banana Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Massart, Sébastien ULg et al

in Environmental Entomology (2014)

Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with speciÞc bacteria called endosymbionts that have positive or negative impacts on their hosts. In this study, six banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel ... [more ▼]

Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with speciÞc bacteria called endosymbionts that have positive or negative impacts on their hosts. In this study, six banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel) strains from various geographical origins (Gabon, Madagascar, and Burundi) were screened to determine their symbiotic content, using complementary genomic (16S rDNA sequencing and speciÞc polymerase chain reaction) and proteomic (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis coupled with protein identiÞcation by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-ßight mass spectrometry) approaches. Despite the geographical heterogeneity, the combined methods allowed us to identify the same two symbionts in the six aphids strains tested: Buchnera aphidicola and Wolbachia. Although B. aphidicola is found in almost all aphid species, the systematic presence of Wolbachia in banana aphids is particularly interesting, as this bacterium usually has a low prevalence in aphid species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in P. nigronervosa was very similar to the strain present in aphids of the genus Cinara, known to have developed a strong and long-term symbiotic association with Wolbachia. The high level of asexual reproduction in P. nigronervosa could be linked to the presence of Wolbachia, but its prevalence also suggests that this symbiotic bacterium could play a more essential role in its aphid host. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Residual and Hierarchical Finite Element Error Estimators in Eddy Current Problems
Dular, Patrick ULg; Tang, Zuqi; Le Ménach, Yvonnick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2),

The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual ... [more ▼]

The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual and hierarchical EEs, proven to be reliable and efficient, are theoretically and numerically compared. Both estimators show similar behaviors and locations of the error. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification et régimes dans les prisons belges
Devresse, Marie-Sophie; Robert, Luc; Vanneste, Charlotte ULg

in Revue de droit pénal et de criminologie (2014)

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See detailImplementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres.
STIPULANTE, Samuel ULg; Tubes, Rebecca; Fassi, Mehdi El et al

in Resuscitation (2014), 85(2), 177-181

Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la Reanimation par Telephone) algorithm has the potential to help bystanders initiate CPR. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the implementation of this protocol in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System area. Methods: We designed a before and after study based on a 3-month retrospective assessment of victims of OHCA in 2009, before the implementation of the ALERT protocol in Liege emergency medical communication centre (EMCC), and the prospective evaluation of the same 3 months in 2011, immediately after the implementation. Results: At the moment of the call, dispatchers were able to identify 233 OHCA in the first period and 235 in the second. Victims were predominantly male (59%, both periods), with mean ages of 64.1 and 63.9 years, respectively. In 2009, only 9.9% victims benefited from bystander CPR, this increased to 22.5% in 2011 (p<0.0002). The main reasons for protocol under-utilisation were: assistance not offered by the dispatcher (42,3%), caller physically remote from the victim (20.6%). Median time from call to first compression, defined here as no flow time, was 253sec in 2009 and 168sec in 2011 (NS). Ten victims were admitted to hospital after ROSC in 2009 and 13 in 2011 (p=0.09). Conclusion: From the beginning and despite its under-utilisation, the ALERT protocol significantly improved the number of patients in whom bystander CPR was attempted. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a colorimetric method for the dosage of OI- anions and I2 in aqueous media
Bafort, Françoise ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg; Parisi, Olivier ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(1), 155-160

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See detailReliability and validity of a new French-language triage algorithm : the ELISA scale
JOBE, Jérôme ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; GERARD, P et al

in Emergency Medicine Journal (2014), 31(2), 115-20

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See detailThe role of protein modifications in senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis during storage
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh ULg; Bentaib, Azeddine ULg et al

in Microbial Cell Factories (2014)

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are ... [more ▼]

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are few studies about cellular protein deterioration causing cell defectiveness during storage. In the present study, we investigated the influence of storage temperature (−21, 4, 35°C) on the cellular protein modifications which may contribute to the senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis. Results Heterogeneous populations composed of culturable cells, viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) and dead cells were generated when freeze-dried cells were kept at −21 and 4°C for 12 months whereas higher storage temperature (35°C) mainly caused death of the cells. The analysis of stored cell proteome by 2D-DiGE demonstrated a modified pattern of protein profile for cell kept at 4 and 35°C due to the formation of protein spot trains and shift of Isoelectric point (pI). Quantification of carbonylated protein by ELISA showed that the cells stored at 4 and 35°C had higher carbonylated protein contents than fresh cells. 2D-DiGE followed by Western blotting also confirmed the carbonylation of cellular proteins involved in translation process and energy generation. The auto-fluorescent feature of cells kept at 35°C increased significantly which may be an indication of protein glycation during storage. In addition, the percentage of cellular unsaturated fatty acid and the solubility of cellular proteins decreased upon storage of cells at higher temperature suggesting that peroxidation of fatty acids and possibly protein lipidation and oxidation occurred. Conclusions High storage temperature induces some deteriorative reactions such as protein oxidation, lipidation and glycation which may cause further protein modifications like pI-shift, and protein insolubility. These modifications can partly account for the changes in cell viability. It can also be deduced that even moderate carbonylation of some critical cellular proteins (like ribosomal proteins) may lead to VBNC formation or death of freeze-dried bacteria. Moreover, it seems that other mechanisms of biomolecule deterioration preceding protein carbonylation lead to VBNC formation under very low storage temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Photobiont Switch and Cephalodia Emancipation Act as Evolutionary Drivers in the Lichen Symbiosis? A Case Study in the Pannariaceae (Peltigerales)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), 89876

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated ... [more ▼]

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated structures called cephalodia; tripartite thalli) as photosynthetic partners (photobionts). In bipartite thalli, cyanobacteria can either be restricted to a well-delimited layer within the thallus (‘pannarioid’ thalli) or spread over the thallus that becomes gelatinous when wet (‘collematoid’ thalli). We studied the collematoid genera Kroswia and Physma and an undescribed tripartite species along with representatives of the pannarioid genera Fuscopannaria, Pannaria and Parmeliella. Molecular inferences from 4 loci for the fungus and 1 locus for the photobiont and statistical analyses within a phylogenetic framework support the following: (a) several switches from pannarioid to collematoid thalli occured and are correlated with photobiont switches; the collematoid genus Kroswia is nested within the pannarioid genus Fuscopannaria and the collematoid genus Physma is sister to the pannarioid Parmeliella mariana group; (b) Nostoc associated with collematoid thalli in the Pannariaceae are related to that of the Collemataceae (which contains only collematoid thalli), and never associated with pannarioid thalli; Nostoc associated with pannarioid thalli also associate in other families with similar morphology; (c) ancestors of several lineages in the Pannariaceae developed tripartite thalli, bipartite thalli probably resulting from cephalodia emancipation from tripartite thalli which eventually evolved and diverged, as suggested by the same Nostoc present in the collematoid genus Physma and in the cephalodia of a closely related tripartite species; Photobiont switches and cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence are thus suspected to act as evolutionary drivers in the family Pannariaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms living on macroalgae: diversity, interactions, and biotechnological applications
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Michel, Gurvan et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2014)

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored ... [more ▼]

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored, however, despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. The study of this microbiota and of its relationships with algal hosts should provide crucial information for ecological investigations on algae and aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, because these microorganisms interact with algae in multiple, complex ways, they constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential, such as dehalogenases, antimicrobials, and alga-specific polysaccharidases (e.g., agarases, carrageenases, and alginate lyases). Here, to demonstrate the huge potential of alga-associated organisms and their metabolites in developing future biotechnological applications, we first describe the immense diversity and density of these microbial biofilms. We further describe their complex interactions with algae, leading to the production of specific bioactive compounds and hydrolytic enzymes of biotechnological interest. We end with a glance at their potential use in medical and industrial applications. [less ▲]

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See detailLes enjeux stratégiques de l’Union européenne et de la Turquie dans les Balkans occidentaux
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

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See detailDevelopment of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?
Millot, Sandie; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14

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See detailSubspace-based identification of a nonlinear spacecraft in the time and frequency domains
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Marchesiello, Stefano; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2014), 43(1-2), 217-236

The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and frequency domains are exploited, referred to as the TNSI and FNSI methods, respectively. The modal parameters of the underlying linear structure and the coefficients of the nonlinearities will be estimated by these two approaches based on periodic random measurements. Their respective merits will also be discussed in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency and the use of stabilisation diagrams in nonlinear system identification will be introduced. The application of interest is the SmallSat spacecraft developed by EADS-Astrium, which possesses an impact-type nonlinear device consisting of eight mechanical stops limiting the motion of an inertia wheel mounted on an elastomeric interface. This application is challenging for several reasons including the non-smooth nature of the nonlinearities, high modal density and high non-proportional damping. [less ▲]

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See detailSoft power chinois et Hollywood: de la méfiance à la coopération?
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

"La culture et les industries culturelles restent jusqu’à présent un facteur méconnu de la puissance chinoise"

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See detailINFLUENCE OF JUMPING STRATEGY ON KINETIC PARAMETERS
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Quievre, Jacques; Harris Nigel et al

in Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2014), 54

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence neuromuscular adaptation would be beneficial for coaches and athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these variations in the vertical jump influenced kinematic and kinetic parameters as measured by a force platform. Methods: Ten male subjects performed, eight kinds of vertical jumps on a force platform : (1) squat jump (SJ); (2) shallow counter-movement jump (S-CMJ); (3) natural counter-movement jump (N-CMJ); (4) deep counter-movement jump (D-CMJ); (5) loaded (20kg) counter-movement jump (20-CMJ); (6) shallow drop jump (S-DJ); (7) deep drop jump (D-DJ); (8) six consecutive jump test (6CJ). Customised Labview software was used to calculate time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, power, impulse and stiffness. After statistical analysis, jumping variables were grouped to achieve spécific training objectives. Results: The mechanical parameters were largely influenced by the jump strategy, all the deep jumps produced superior jump heights and concentric velocities as compared to the shallow jumps. The exercises associated with greater power outputs were the S-DJ (5386±1095w) and 6CJ (5795±1365w) that involved short impulse durations and very high accelerations. The greatest values of muscle stiffness were not recorded during the highest vertical jumps, meaning that stiffness is not critical for jumping high. Conclusion: This study gives an overview of what is changing when we manipulate jumping variables and instructions given to the athletes. Plyometric exercises should be carefully selected according to the sport and specific individual needs. [less ▲]

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See detailVeroordeelde RV op dividenden: zijn de aanpassingen te beperkt ?
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Fiscologue International (2014), 361

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See detailProduction écrite en langue étrangère, feedback correctif et révision assistée: une étude de cas
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Babylonia (2014)

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes ... [more ▼]

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes different forms that range from the approximate localization of the error to the explanation of the rule that underlies the error that the student committed. In this case study, we wanted to compare the types of written corrective feedback that research has identified to those used by a foreign language teacher working in a French speaking secondary school. We also wanted to determine the quantity of errors that the students corrected while revising their written production with the help of the teacher, the researcher, their schoolmate and reference books. The results show, on the one hand, that the teacher mainly uses corrective feedback that can be rapidly delivered and, on the other hand, that the students manage to correct most errors, whatever the type of corrective feedback may be. These encouraging results may be attributed to the teaching activity, which allowed the teacher and the researcher to explain part of the corrective feedback that the students could not have understood by themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailResidual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: Measurement by hole-drilling
Fukushima, K. A.; Sadoun, M. J.; Cesar, P. F. et al

in Dental materials (2014), 30(2), 105-111

OBJECTIVES: The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). METHODS: The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. RESULTS: The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. SIGNIFICANCE: Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the ... [more ▼]

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the spectrometric analysis of Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at that site between 1989 and 2012. The investigation is based on a multi-microwindow approach, two encompassing pairs of absorption lines belonging to the R-branch of the strong ν3 band of CF4 centered at 1283 cm−1, and two additional ones to optimally account for weak but overlapping HNO3 interferences. The analysis reveals a steady accumulation of the very long-lived CF4 above the Jungfraujoch at mean rates of (1.38 ± 0.11) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1989 to 1997, and (0.98 ± 0.02) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1998 to 2012, which correspond to linear growth rates of 1.71 ± 0.14 and 1.04 ± 0.02% yr−1 respectively referenced to 1989 and 1998. Related global CF4 anthropogenic emissions required to sustain these mean increases correspond to 15.8 ± 1.3 and 11.1 ± 0.2 Gg yr−1 over the above specified time intervals. Findings reported here are compared and discussed with respect to relevant northern mid-latitude results obtained remotely from space and balloons as well as in situ at the ground, including new gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch since 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR ... [more ▼]

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2014) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9%) at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0%) at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la Chandeleur, la crêpe reprend vigueur
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg; Lempereur, Françoise ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Entretien avec Françoise Lempereur autour de l’origine de cette fête et des multiples coutumes qui y sont liées

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See detailOn transvaginal endoscopy for elucidating pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian endometria
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Gynecological Surgery (2014), 11(1),

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See detailProbabilistic parameterisation of the surface mass balance–elevation feedback in regional climate model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the ... [more ▼]

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) regional climate model. The motivation is to dynamically adjust SMB as the GrIS evolves, allowing us to force ice sheet models with SMB simulated by MAR while incorporating the SMB–elevation feedback, without the substantial technical challenges of coupling ice sheet and climate models. This also allows us to assess the effect of elevation feedback uncertainty on the GrIS contribution to sea level, using multiple global climate and ice sheet models, without the need for additional, expensive MAR simulations. We estimate this relationship separately below and above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA, separating negative and positive SMB) and for regions north and south of 77° N, from a set of MAR simulations in which we alter the ice sheet surface elevation. These give four "SMB lapse rates", gradients that relate SMB changes to elevation changes. We assess uncertainties within a Bayesian framework, estimating probability distributions for each gradient from which we present best estimates and credibility intervals (CI) that bound 95% of the probability. Below the ELA our gradient estimates are mostly positive, because SMB usually increases with elevation: 0.56 (95% CI: −0.22 to 1.33) kg m−3 a−1 for the north, and 1.91 (1.03 to 2.61) kg m−3 a−1 for the south. Above the ELA, the gradients are much smaller in magnitude: 0.09 (−0.03 to 0.23) kg m−3 a−1 in the north, and 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.59) kg m−3 a−1 in the south, because SMB can either increase or decrease in response to increased elevation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes aventures du corps et de l’identité dans la photographie de mode
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les manières dont elle-même théorise le fonctionnement plus général de l’univers de la mode. [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure
Capet, Arthur ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg; Cartensen, Jacob et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2014), 64(3), 315-324

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method ... [more ▼]

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth, and the cold content of its Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88\% of its variation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a liquid chromatographic method for thesimultaneous quantification of curcumin, -arteether,tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin. Application to lipid-based formulations
Memvanga Bondo, Patrick; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88(-), 447-456

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space ... [more ▼]

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space methodology. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, flow rate of the mobile phase and column temperature on the analytes separation was investigated. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (125 mm × 4 mm, 5 µm) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:ammonium acetate (pH 4; 10 mM) (80/20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45 ml/min and a column temperature of 32.5◦C. This method was then validated for simultaneous quantification of curcumin and B -arteether contained in lipid-based formulations taking into account the B -expectation tolerance interval for the total error measurement. Finally, the suitability of the proposed liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of curcumin and B -arteether loaded in lipid-based formulations has been proven. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: A case of a learning process
Hubert, Cédric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Houari, Sabah ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallothioneins pattern during ontogeny of coastal dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Argentina
Polizzi, P.S.; Romero, M.B.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N. et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2014)

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN ... [more ▼]

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN. Metallothionein, copper and zinc in Franciscana were assessed in two geographic groups; one inhabits La Plata River estuary, anthropogenically impacted, and the other inhabits marine coastal ecosystems, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, hepatic and renal MT concentrations were similar, but there was a declining trend from early to later developmental stages. Metallothionein K/L, Cu and Zn levels corresponded to normal reported ranges. MT was not related with Cd. Fetal concentrations were higher than its mother. These results and the health status of dolphins are suggesting that MT correspond to physiological ranges for the species, and they are closely to homeostasis of Zn and Cu, according to its ontogenetic changes. The information constitutes the first MT information on Franciscana dolphin and can be considered as baseline for the species conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of periodic orbits of two-dimensional homogeneous granular crystals with no pre-compression
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 76(April 2014), 673-696

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i ... [more ▼]

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i.e., under condition of 1:1 resonance); this type of Hamiltonian periodic orbits have been labeled as nonlinear normal modes. To this end we formulate an auxiliary system which consists of a two-dimensional, vibro-impact lattice composed of non-uniform “effective particles” oscillating in an anti-phase fashion. The analysis is based on the idea of balancing linear momentum in both horizontal and vertical directions for separate, groups of particles, whereby each such a group is represented by the single effective particle of the auxiliary system. It is important to emphasize that the auxiliary model can be defined for general finite, squarely packed granular crystals composed of n rows and m columns. The auxiliary model is successful in predicting the total number of such periodic orbits, as well as the amplitude ratios for different periodic regimes including strongly localized ones. In fact this methodology enables one to systematically study the generation of mode localization in these strongly nonlinear, highly degenerate dynamical systems. Good correspondence between the results of the theoretical model and direct numerical simulations is observed. The results presented herein can be further extended to study the intrinsic dynamics of the more complex granular materials, such as heterogeneous two-dimensional and three-dimensional granular crystals and multi-layered structures. [less ▲]

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See detailMilli-Interacting Dark Matter Interpretation of the Direct-Search Experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with ... [more ▼]

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with the absence of signal in the XENON100, CDMS-II/Ge, and LUX detectors. Dark atoms, interacting with standard atoms through a kinetic mixing between photons and dark photons and a mass mixing of sigma mesons with dark scalars, diffuse elastically in terrestrial matter where they deposit all their energy. Reaching underground detectors through gravity at thermal energies, they form bound states with nuclei of the active medium by radiative capture, which causes the emission of photons that produce the observed signals. The parameter space of the model is explored and regions reproducing the results at the 2 sigma level are obtained for each experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and biological evaluation of amino acid methyl ester conjugates of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid against the production of nitric oxide (NO)
Onyango, Evans; Liangfeng, Fu; Cao, Martine ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014)

2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO, 2) was condensed with various amino acid methyl esters at the C-28 carboxylic acid. The new amide conjugates were evaluated for their inhibition of ... [more ▼]

2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO, 2) was condensed with various amino acid methyl esters at the C-28 carboxylic acid. The new amide conjugates were evaluated for their inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ). Of these new compounds, CDDO conjugates with alanine, valine, and serine are nearly equipotent to CDDO-ethyl amide (4), a triterpenoid with promising biological activity in numerous disease models. Some of these conjugates also induce the in vitro expression of heme oxygenase-1, and inhibit the proliferation of Panc-1343 pancreatic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of decreased glomerular filtration rate in intensive care units: serum cystatin C versus serum creatinine
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Morel, Jérôme et al

in BMC Nephrology (2014), 15(9), 1471-2369

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See detailLa Caléfaction
Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Dupeux, Guillaume; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

in Reflets de la physique (2014), 37

Ingénieurs et physiciens s’intéressent depuis plusieurs siècles au comportement des liquides volatils sur des plaques chaudes, et à la lévitation du liquide sur un coussin de vapeur, ou caléfaction, qui ... [more ▼]

Ingénieurs et physiciens s’intéressent depuis plusieurs siècles au comportement des liquides volatils sur des plaques chaudes, et à la lévitation du liquide sur un coussin de vapeur, ou caléfaction, qui en résulte. Plusieurs phénomènes nouveaux ont été récemment décrits, en particulier si l’on texture le solide (friction spéciale, autopropulsion). Mais ces systèmes sont aussi un moyen de produire une situation modèle, où l’on manipule ou place sous champ un liquide détaché de son support. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-103b: a new planet at the edge of tidal disruption
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP-103b is significantly more massive (1.49+-0.09 Mjup) and larger (1.53-0.07+0.05 Rjup) than Jupiter. Its large size and extreme irradiation (around 9 10^9 erg/s/cm^2) make it an exquisite target for a thorough atmospheric characterization with existing facilities. Furthermore, its orbital distance is less than 20% larger than its Roche radius, meaning that it might be significantly distorted by tides and might experience mass loss through Roche-lobe overflow. It thus represents a new key object for understanding the last stage of the tidal evolution of hot Jupiters. [less ▲]

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See detailWind collisions in three massive stars of Cygnus OB2
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from ... [more ▼]

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from XMM-Newton and Swift are used, as well as archival ROSAT and Suzaku data. Results. Our results on Cyg OB2 #8A improve the phase coverage of the orbit and confirm previous studies: the signature of a wind- wind collision is conspicuous. In addition, signatures of a wind-wind collision are also detected in Cyg OB2 #5, but the X-ray emission appears to be associated with the collision between the inner binary and the tertiary component orbiting it with a 6.7 yr period, without a putative collision inside the binary. The X-ray properties strongly constrain the orbital parameters, notably allowing us to discard some proposed orbital solutions. To improve the knowledge of the orbit, we revisit the light curves and radial velocity of the inner binary, looking for reflex motion induced by the third star. Finally, the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 #12 is also analyzed. It shows a marked decrease in recent years, compatible with either a wind-wind collision in a wide binary or the aftermath of a recent eruption. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Tax protein and the minichromosome maintenance protein complex MCM2-7 affect cell replication and viral transcription
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 96

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase ... [more ▼]

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase and binds to origins of DNA replication (Boxus et al, 2012 Blood 119:151). In fact, Tax modulates the spatiotemporal program of origin activation during the S phase of cell cycle. By this mechanism, Tax accelerates S phase progression through early firing of late replication origins. By interacting with the 5’ LTR, the MCM2-7 complex also modulates Tax transactivation. Together, our data thus demonstrates that interaction between Tax and MCM2-7 modulates reprogramming of replication origins as well as viral transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailCheckpoints modulation by the Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 90

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the ... [more ▼]

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the proteins encoded by HTLV-1, Tax appears to play an important role in the mechanisms leading to pathogenicity. We are interested in the mechanisms of cell transformation by Tax and more particularly in the interplay between the viral Tax oncoprotein and the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrated that transient expression of Tax results in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and activation of the DDR. In fibroblasts, cell cycle arrest occurs at the G1 and G2 phases depending on the p53 background. Although Tax induces apoptosis and senescence in fibroblasts, HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes proliferate continuously and appear to be adapted to the checkpoint control. This mechanism allows infected lymphocytes to proliferate despite the presence of genomic lesions. With these observations, we propose a novel therapeutic approach based on the principle of synthetic lethality. [less ▲]

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See detailReversibly crosslinked thermo- and redox-responsive nanogels for controlled drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(1), 77-88

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink the PVOH corona, above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNVCL block. The stability of the as-prepared nanogels against heating and diluting with water was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) to follow the evolution of the hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution. Stability under reductive conditions was also studied by DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT) buffer solutions at different pH. The reversibility of the crosslinking was evaluated by treating the de-crosslinked nanogels with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) above the LCST. As a hydrophobic drug model, Nile red (NR) was loaded into the nanogels, and triggered release behaviours were studied after exposure to the same DTT buffer solutions. Moreover, two PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with different compositions and LCST were used to evaluate the effect of the LCST on the release behaviours of the nanogels. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels against a mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line was assessed via the MTS assay, and preliminary studies on cellular uptake of the nanogels within human melanoma MEL-5 cells were also carried out by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 4

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two ... [more ▼]

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailHyper-replicative bovine leukemia virus by mutation of an envelope N-linked glycosylation site
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(1), 141

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound ... [more ▼]

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound to the BLV envelope glycoprotein (SU). A commonly accepted hypothesis is that addition of carbohydrates to the SU protein potentially creates a structure called « glycan shield » that confers resistance to the virus against the host immune response. On the other hand, glycosylation can also modulate attachment of the virus to the cell membrane. To unravel the role of SU glycosylation, three complementary strategies were developed: pharmacological inhibition of different glycosylation pathways, interference with glycan attachment and site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in an infectious BLV provirus. The different approaches show that glycosylation is required for cell fusion, as expected. Simultaneous mutation of all 8 potential N-glycosylation sites destroys infectivity. Surprisingly, mutation of the asparagine residue at position 230 creates a virus having an increased capacity to form syncytia in vitro. Compared to wild-type BLV, mutant N230 also replicates at accelerated rates in vivo. Collectively, this data thus illustrates an example of a N-glycosylation site that restricts viral replication, contrasting with the hypothesis supported by glycan shield model. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat-triggered drug release systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles filled with a maghemite core and phase-change molecules as gatekeepers
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(1), 59-70

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous ... [more ▼]

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous cavities, while phase-change molecules (PCMs), e.g. 1-tetradecanol (TD) with a melting temperature (Tm) of 39 °C, were introduced as gatekeepers to regulate the release behaviours. An overall loading amount of ca. 20 wt% (TD/DOX ca. 50/50 wt/wt) was confirmed. Heat-triggered release of DOX evidenced a “zero premature release” (<3% of the entire payload in 96 h release) under physiological conditions (37°C), and however, a sustainable release (ca. 40% of the entire payload in 96 h) above Tm of TD (40 °C). It also demonstrated the possibility to deliver drug payloads in small portions (pulsatile release mode) via multiple heating on/off cycles, due to the reversible phase change of the PCMs. In vitro heattriggered release of DOX within cell culture of the MEL-5 melanoma cell line was also tested. It was found that DOX molecules were trapped efficiently within the mesopores even after internalization within the cytoplasm of MEL-5 cells at 37 °C, with the potential toxicity of DOX strongly quenched (>95% viability after 72 h incubation). However, continuous cell apoptosis was detected at cell culture temperature above Tm of TD, due to the heat-triggered release of DOX (<50% viability after 72 h incubation at 40 °C). Moreover, due to the presence of a maghemite core within the DDS, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performance was also confirmed. These as-designed core–shell nanoparticles are envisaged to become promising DDS for “on-demand” heat-triggered release. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding the scope of controlled radical polymerization via cobalt–tellurium radical exchange reaction
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Bourguignon, Maxime et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3(1), 114-118

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular structures. In particular, the present work highlights the benefits of this strategy for the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate)-based block copolymers. A range of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)s (PVAc) were first produced via CMRP using the bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex (Co(acac)2) as a regulating agent. Substitution of a methyltellanyl moiety for Co(acac)2 at the ω-chain end of the precursor was then achieved upon treatment with dimethylditelluride. In contrast to the PVAc prepared by TERP, the ones produced by sequential CMRP and Co/Te exchange reaction almost exclusively consist of regular head-to-tail-TeMe chain-end species that can be activated by TERP. Ultimately, a series of monomers problematic in Co(acac)2-mediated radical polymerization including N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (ADAME), n-butyl acrylate (BA), isoprene (IP), and vinylimidazole (NVIm) were polymerized by TERP from the PVAc–TeMe macroinitiators leading to novel diblock copolymers that cannot be made by each technique used separately. [less ▲]

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See detailBi-directional Modulation of Somatosensory Mismatch Negativity with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An event Related Potential Study
Chen, Jui-Cheng; Hammerer, Dorothea; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg et al

in The journal of Physiology (2014)

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See detailThe effect of surface orientation on spray retention
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying ... [more ▼]

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying equipment is an increase of the spatial resolution and new actuators that are able to target very small areas. However, there is a lack of methods for assigning rates of herbicides relating target to optimal droplet features. A wide range of droplet impact angles occurs during the spray application process because of droplet trajectories and the variability of leaf orientation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to highlight the effect of surface orientation on droplet impact outcomes (adhesion, rebound or splashing) on two very difficult-to-wet surfaces: an artificial surface with a regular roughness pattern and an excised black-grass leaf with an anisotropic roughness pattern. Measurements were performed for different surface orientations with a high-speed camera coupled with backlighting LED. Droplets of two formulations (distilled water and distilled water + a surfactant) were produced with a moving flat-fan hydraulic nozzle to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes and velocities, which were measured by image analysis. Increasing surface angle reduces surface area available for droplet capture. Droplet impact behaviors are then modified since surface tilt induces a tangential velocity component at impact and, consequently, a reduction of the normal component. Impact modifications have also been observed due to the anisotropic roughness pattern of a black-grass leaf. The integration of droplet-surface interaction information offers a significant way to further improve the precision spraying efficiency by considering the optimal droplet size, speed and ejection angle depending on the target surface and architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS
Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N. et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2014), 1401

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence ... [more ▼]

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD47887 and HD47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km/s) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD47887 and HD47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD47887 and HD47777 to be 9.4+/-0.7 M0 and 7.6+/-0.5 M0. Interestingly, HD47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Auvergne, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD ... [more ▼]

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Unique Nitrogen Isotopic Ratio in Cometary Ices
Rousselot, Philippe; Pirali, Olivier; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2014), 780

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in ... [more ▼]

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]2[/SUB] radical produced by the photodissociation of [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]3[/SUB]. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N isotopic ratio in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This ratio, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N[SUB]2[/SUB] and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This ratio also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N[SUB]2[/SUB], supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH[SUB]3[/SUB], these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location. [less ▲]

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See detailLes datacenters, métaphore du capitalisme
Thoreau, François ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2014), 83(1), 66-73

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See detailAssessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2014)

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of ... [more ▼]

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then describe a non-invasive technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with high-density electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), which has allowed us to detect the presence or absence of consciousness in different physiological, pathological and pharmacological states. Some potential underlying mechanisms of the loss of consciousness will then be discussed. In conclusion, TMS-EEG is highly promising in identifying markers of consciousness at the individual level and might be of great value for clinicians in the assessment of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses:development and psychometric testing
De Vliegher, Kristel; Aaertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja et al

in Primary Health Care Research & Development (2014)

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See detailEntre permis forestier et permis minier, la diff icile émergence des forêts communautaires au Gabon
Morin, Amélie; Meunier, Quentin; Moumbogou et al

in Parcs et Réserves (2014), 68(4), 16-22

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche ... [more ▼]

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche sur l’une d’entre elles, à savoir la superposition des permis d’exploitation (minier, forestier) avec l’espace utilisé traditionnellement par les communautés locales et candidates à l’obtention d’une forêt communautaire. Quelques situations rencontrées sur le terrain sont présentées et discutées. Il est urgent qu’un réel aménagement du territoire voie le jour au Gabon, qui détermine la place de chaque activité, hiérarchise l’affectation de l’espace et détermine le cas échéant les conditions de « cohabitation » de plusieurs permis. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'apportent les nouvelles recommandations américaines à propos de la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ? Comparaison avec les recommandations européennes et belges
Descamps, O; Rietzschel, E; Langlois, M et al

in Louvain Medical (2014), 133(1), 26-35

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches ... [more ▼]

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches habituelles. Entre autres, elles ont éradiqué la nécessité de « cible » de LDL-C à atteindre en fonction du niveau de risque cardiovasculaire et ont proposé plutôt une stratégie basée sur l’intensité de la réduction relative du LDL-C. L’examen critique et la comparaison des recommandations font apparaitre, toutefois, plus de similitudes que de différences, tout en encourageant à repenser certains aspects de notre pratique et à raviver notre motivation pour le plus grand bien des patients. [less ▲]

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See detailA Management Control Perspective of Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: In Search of a Holistic View
Ceulemans, Kim; Van Caillie, Didier ULg; Molderez, Ingrid et al

in ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives (2014), III(1), 1-17

Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts ... [more ▼]

Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts undertaken, it is currently still challenging for their internal and external stakeholders to assess an institution’s sustainability-related activities and the extent of their implementation within the different activities of higher education. Since sustainability reporting in higher education is currently still in its early stages, and because a holistic view of sustainability integration in higher education on a management level is often lacking, this paper researches possible contributions of management control to sustainability reporting and the sustainability integration process in higher education. The paper adheres to a management control approach by applying Simons’ (1995) Levers of Control Framework to the field of sustainability in higher education, in search for a theoretical framework for reporting and integrating sustainability on a strategic level into higher education institutions. The research stresses the need for a holistic approach and for further in-depth study into certain aspects of the control framework, i.e., practical implementation of vision and mission statements, the concept of materiality, staff development, diagnostic indicator development, and the study of stakeholder engagement processes in higher education [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailTecemotide (L-BLP25) versus placebo after chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (START): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Butts, Charles; Socinski, Mark A.; Mitchell, Paul L. et al

in The Lancet. Oncology (2014), 15(1), 59-68

BACKGROUND: Effective maintenance therapies after chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer are lacking. Our aim was to investigate whether the MUC1 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy tecemotide improves ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Effective maintenance therapies after chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer are lacking. Our aim was to investigate whether the MUC1 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy tecemotide improves survival in patients with stage III unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer when given as maintenance therapy after chemoradiation. METHODS: The phase 3 START trial was an international, randomised, double-blind trial that recruited patients with unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer who had completed chemoradiotherapy within the 4-12 week window before randomisation and received confirmation of stable disease or objective response. Patients were stratified by stage (IIIA vs IIIB), response to chemoradiotherapy (stable disease vs objective response), delivery of chemoradiotherapy (concurrent vs sequential), and region using block randomisation, and were randomly assigned (2:1, double-blind) by a central interactive voice randomisation system to either tecemotide or placebo. Injections of tecemotide (806 mug lipopeptide) or placebo were given every week for 8 weeks, and then every 6 weeks until disease progression or withdrawal. Cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m(2) (before tecemotide) or saline (before placebo) was given once before the first study drug administration. The primary endpoint was overall survival in a modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00409188. FINDINGS: From Feb 22, 2007, to Nov 15, 2011, 1513 patients were randomly assigned (1006 to tecemotide and 507 to placebo). 274 patients were excluded from the primary analysis population as a result of a clinical hold, resulting in analysis of 829 patients in the tecemotide group and 410 in the placebo group in the modified intention-to-treat population. Median overall survival was 25.6 months (95% CI 22.5-29.2) with tecemotide versus 22.3 months (19.6-25.5) with placebo (adjusted HR 0.88, 0.75-1.03; p=0.123). In the patients who received previous concurrent chemoradiotherapy, median overall survival for the 538 (65%) of 829 patients assigned to tecemotide was 30.8 months (95% CI 25.6-36.8) compared with 20.6 months (17.4-23.9) for the 268 (65%) of 410 patients assigned to placebo (adjusted HR 0.78, 0.64-0.95; p=0.016). In patients who received previous sequential chemoradiotherapy, overall survival did not differ between the 291 (35%) patients in the tecemotide group and the 142 (35%) patients in the placebo group (19.4 months [95% CI 17.6-23.1] vs 24.6 months [18.8-33.0], respectively; adjusted HR 1.12, 0.87-1.44; p=0.38). Grade 3-4 adverse events seen with a greater than 2% frequency with tecemotide were dyspnoea (49 [5%] of 1024 patients in the tecemotide group vs 21 [4%] of 477 patients in the placebo group), metastases to central nervous system (29 [3%] vs 6 [1%]), and pneumonia (23 [2%] vs 12 [3%]). Serious adverse events with a greater than 2% frequency with tecemotide were pneumonia (30 [3%] in the tecemotide group vs 14 [3%] in the placebo group), dyspnoea (29 [3%] vs 13 [3%]), and metastases to central nervous system (32 [3%] vs 9 [2%]). Serious immune-related adverse events did not differ between groups. INTERPRETATION: We found no significant difference in overall survival with the administration of tecemotide after chemoradiotherapy compared with placebo for all patients with unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. However, tecemotide might have a role for patients who initially receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and further study in this population is warranted. FUNDING: Merck KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany). [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailCircadian and circannual variations in cord blood hematopoietic cell composition
Servais, Sophie ULg; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg; Brichard, B. et al

in Haematologica (2014)

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See detailDétermination des propriétés de couches dans le béton à l'aide d'un géoradar commercial à hautes fréquences: approche pic-à-pic et analyse fréquentielle du coefficient de réflexion
Van der Wielen, Audrey ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Courard, Luc ULg

in Annales du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (2014)

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for the non-destructive inspection of concrete structures. It is widely used for the detection of rebars or humid zones or for evaluating the ... [more ▼]

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for the non-destructive inspection of concrete structures. It is widely used for the detection of rebars or humid zones or for evaluating the thickness of elements. But when an element contains a thin layer, the radar waves are submitted to multiple reflections on the interfaces and the layer appears in the radargram as a single reflection, whose detailed analysis can allow determining the thickness and the permittivity of the thin layer. Two approaches were considered in this paper. In the first one, the analysis is based on the peak-to-peak reflection amplitude. The second approach uses a frequency analysis of the reflection coefficient, whose amplitude and phase can then be calculated for several frequencies. With this method, the thickness and permittivity of the layer can in theory be simultaneously determined. Both methods were numerically validated through finite difference simulations and experimentally tested on concrete samples containing an air layer of variable thickness. We showed that the frequency analysis allowed to reach a higher precision in the parameters estimation for a limited additional computing cost. The method efficiency depends on the conditions and is optimal for layers with a high permittivity presenting a large contrast with the matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutralising properties of peptides derived from CXCR4 extracellular loops towards CXCL12 binding and HIV-1 infection
Chevigné, Andy; Fievez, Virginie; Szpakowska, Martyna ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Cell Research (2014)

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See detailWater soluble exo-polysaccharide from Syncephalastrum racemosum, a strong inducer of plant defence reactions
Valepyn, Emmanuel ULg; Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014), 101

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the ... [more ▼]

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the fungus culture condition in shake flasks (pH, temperature and different carbon and nitrogen sources) on EPS and biomass production were evaluated. In order to enhance EPS production, a new protocol based on two-stage pH fermentation in a 3 L stirred fermentor was developed. Under this condition, EPS production increased by 3.55 times, compared to a constant pH process, reaching a maximal EPS concentration of 2.62 g/L. Structurally, the EPS contains a polyglucuronic acid backbone, linked essentially with mannose and fucose units and some galactose and glucose units. The bioactivity of EPS as inducer of defence reactions in plant suspension-cultured cells was also studied. Our results show, for first time, that EPS from S. racemosum CBS 443.59 induces, depending on the concentration, PAL activation and H2O2 synthesis in Arabidospsis thaliana cell suspensions. [less ▲]

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See detailAutograph/Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in Arabic Script [Conference Review]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter (2014), 7

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See detailAn Easy, Convenient Cell and Tissue Extraction Protocol for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics.
Matheus, Nicolas ULg; Hansen, Sylvain ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Phytochemical analysis : PCA (2014)

INTRODUCTION: As a complement to the classic metabolomics biofluid studies, the visualisation of the metabolites contained in cells or tissues could be a very powerful tool to understand how the local ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: As a complement to the classic metabolomics biofluid studies, the visualisation of the metabolites contained in cells or tissues could be a very powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways could be affected by external or internal stimuli or pathologies. Therefore, extraction and/or lysis is necessary to obtain samples adapted for use with the current analytical tools (liquid NMR and MS). These extraction or lysis work-ups are often the most labour-intensive and rate-limiting steps in metabolomics, as they require accuracy and repeatability as well as robustness. Many of the procedures described in the literature appear to be very time-consuming and not easily amenable to automation. OBJECTIVE: To find a fast, simplified procedure that allows release of the metabolites from cells and tissues in a way that is compatible with NMR analysis. METHODS: We assessed the use of sonication to disrupt cell membranes or tissue structures. Both a vibrating probe and an automated bath sonicator were explored. RESULTS: The application of sonication as the disruption procedure led to reproducible NMR spectral data compatible with metabolomics studies. This method requires only a small biological tissue or cell sample, and a rapid, reduced work-up was applied before analysis. The spectral patterns obtained are comparable with previous, well-described extraction protocols. CONCLUSION: The rapidity and the simplicity of this approach could represent a suitable alternative to the other protocols. Additionally, this approach could be favourable for high- throughput applications in intracellular and intratissular metabolite measurements. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement de l'informatique en Belgique francophone : état des lieux
Joris, Noémie ULg; Henry, Julie ULg

in 1024 - Bulletin de la société informatique de France (2014), (2), 107-116

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See detailFourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria
Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche; Soetens, Oriane et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2014), 69

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods: Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicro- bial agents using Etest methodology. Results: According to EUCAST breakpoints, .90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were sus- ceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/ 4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993 – 94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011 – 12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions: Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian children faeces for their probiotic properties
Bahri, F.; Lejeune, Annick ULg; Dubois-Dauphin, R. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2014), 8(3), 297-303

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli ... [more ▼]

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli strains having probiotic traits, isolated from Algerian healthy children faeces on the purpose of using them further in children diarrheal illnesses. One hundred and twenty (120) lactic acid bacteria isolates were selected from faecal samples of healthy Algerian children aged between five and ten years. Gram positive rods and catalase negative bacteria (52 isolates) were screened, in vitro, for their probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, adherence to Caco-2 cells and their antimicrobial activity. The results show that only five strains resisted in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 and pepsin. Four of them were resistant to simulated intestinal conditions at pH 8 and pancreatin and have a good adherence. In the end, three of them were retained as they display interesting probiotic profiles characterized by a strong antimicrobial effect against some intestinal pathogenic bacteria. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum F12, Lactobacillus brevis G6 and Lactobacillus paracasei B13. [less ▲]

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See detailLe canon littéraire au crible des Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2014), 1

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830 ... [more ▼]

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830-1845 comme le laboratoire de bien des esthétiques modernes, ce corpus étant d’autant plus inventif qu’il procède pour une grande part des poétiques d’écriture hybrides et expansives de la presse. Parce qu'elles sont enclines à traiter du personnel, des lieux et des pratiques littéraires à partir d'une fraction symboliquement réprouvée, sinon marginale, de la production littéraire, les Physiologies peuvent assumer tout à la fois une fonction de régulation et de révélation des processus de légitimation. L'article met en évidence ce double rôle d'élucidation et d'observation participante manifestée par ces textes. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative analysis using near infrared spectroscopy, application to tablet content uniformity test, II
Ginot, Y.-M.; Bernard-Moulin, P.; Boiret, M. et al

in STP Pharma Pratiques (2014), 24(1), 3-36

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared ... [more ▼]

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared spectroscopy. It seems appropriate to complete this description by detailing the different steps involved through illustrated examples and by proposing useful guidelines for new users. The quantitative analysis example chosen is that of content uniformity (CU) of tablet type solid forms (cf. Ph. Eur. 2.9.6/2.9.40) [2], a test required in the pharmaceutical industry and for which this alternative quantitative analysis could offer substantial gains. It should be noted that the approach described applies to other types of quantitative analysis (mean assay, water content in raw materials, polymorph assay within a tablet, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailA climate analysis tool for passive heating and cooling strategies in hot humid climate based on Typical Meteorological Year data sets
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Energy & Buildings (2014), 68(Part C), 756-763

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for ... [more ▼]

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for Vietnamese was proposed based on Fanger’s theory [1] and the comfort zone of this chart was then extended by calculating the effects of passive heating and cooling strategies. Typical Meteorological Year weather data are used for extracting and graphically printing of hourly environmental parameters on the psychrometric chart and for climate analysis, subsequently. The limitation and the scope of this method are also specified. The climates of three climatic regions in Vietnam have been used as case studies using all year, seasonal and monthly analysis. The results show that natural ventilation is an effective cooling solution as thermal comfort improvement varies with the climatic zones, increasing from 24.8% in Hanoi, 22.1% in Danang to 32.0% in Hochiminh city. Meanwhile, passive solar heating is only effective under the climate of Hanoi. Direct evaporative cooling also shows great cooling potential for comfort improvement but probable elevated humidity is not expected. Total possible comfort in a year of each location indicates that further climate modification methods are inevitable to achieve comfort during extreme weather conditions, especially in Hanoi. [less ▲]

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See detailDIRECTED INFORMATION TRANSFER IN SCALP ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RECORDINGS: INSIGHTS ON DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Marinazzo, Daniele; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the differences in spontaneous electroencephalography between patients in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state, emergence of the minimally conscious state and age-matched healthy control subjects. <br />Methods: Forty recording of spontaneous scalp electroencephalography were performed in 27 patients who were comatose on admission, and on healthy controls. Multivariate Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy were applied on the data. <br />Results: Distinctive patterns of putative bottlenecks of information were associated to each conscious state. Healthy controls are characterized by a greater amount of synergetic contributions from duplets of variables. <br />Conclusion: A novel set of measures was tested to get a novel insight on the pattern of information transfer in a network of scalp electrodes in patients with disorders of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailA vibrotactile P300-based BCI for consciousness detection and communication
Lugo, Zulay; Rodriguez, Javi; Lechner, Alexander et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual ... [more ▼]

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual stimuli to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) could elicit a P300 wave, using a vibrotactile oddball paradigm for establishing somatosensory BCI-based communication. Six chronic LIS patients performed 2electroencephalography (EEG)-based vibrotactile P300 oddball tasks. After a simple mental counting task of the target stimuli, participants were instructed to answer 5 questions by counting the vibration on either the right wrist for “yes” or the left wrist for “no.” All participants were able to elicit a P300 wave using the vibrotactile oddball paradigm BCI task. In the counting task, 4 patients got accuracies of 100% (average above chance). In the communication task, one patient achieved 100% accuracy (average above chance). We have shown the feasibility of eliciting a P300 response using vibrotactile stimulation in patients with LIS. The present study provides evidence that this approach can be used for EEG-based BCI communications in this patient group. This is the first study to prove the feasibility of a BCI based on somatosensory (vibratory) stimulation in a group of braininjured patients. Furthermore, this approach could be used for the detection of consciousness in non-communicating patients due to severe brain injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualité d'accueil fait débat
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Revue [Petite] Enfance (2014), 113

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche ... [more ▼]

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée dans une démarche de théorisation ancrée, cet article donne de manière synthétique une grille de lecture de différentes manières de considérer la qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants dans un cadre professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailAn ecological study of Electra posidoniae Gautier, 1954 (Cheilostomata, Anasca), a bryozoan epiphyte solely found on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Mouchette, Olivier; Pelaprat, Corine et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2014), 144(1), 51-63

The bryozoan Electra posidoniae Gautier is found solely on the leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, dominating the leaf epifauna of this seagrass. Epiphytes of marine angiosperms ... [more ▼]

The bryozoan Electra posidoniae Gautier is found solely on the leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, dominating the leaf epifauna of this seagrass. Epiphytes of marine angiosperms (or seagrasses) often play an important role in ecosystem functioning, for example as food web suppliers. As dysfunction of epiphytic compartment is often implied in human-induced seagrass decline, it is important to understand the dynamics and life traits of this community in pristine areas. This study involved the monthly assessment of colonization dynamics, biomass seasonality and diet composition through stable isotopes measurements of E. posidoniae at a depth of 10 m in the Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea). Ancestrulae (i.e. colony founders) appeared towards the end of winter and were very selective in their settlement position along the P. oceanica leaves. A maximum of 100,000 colonies per square meter was recorded. E. posidoniae colonies dominated the epiphytic community biomass in early spring, and were over-covered by epiphytic algae in June. Food shortage could be also involved in this decrease. Although stable isotope ratios of C, N and S showed that this suspension feeder mainly relies on the water column productivity for its food, other food sources such as re-suspended epiphytic diatoms could be important in late spring (i.e. after the phytoplanktonic bloom). Additionally, a contribution of seagrass phytodetritus to the diet of this species cannot be excluded. The species was almost absent in winter, raising the question of its recruitment in spring. This study confirms the quantitative importance of this species in the seagrass meadow and explores its role in the relationship between the water column and this seagrass ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods with phase-changing polymer corona for remotely near-infrared-triggered drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2014), 9(1), 275-288

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol ... [more ▼]

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) polymer corona (GNR@PCL-b-PEG). The underlying mechanism of the drugloading and triggered-release behaviors involves the entrapment of drug payloads among the PCL crystallites and a heat-induced phase change, respectively. A low premature release of the pre-loaded doxorubicin was observed in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C (<10% of the entire payload after 48 h). However, release could be activated within 30 min by conventional heating at 50 °C, above the Tm of the crystalline PCL domain (43.5 °C), with about 60% release over the subsequent 42 h at 37 °C. The NIR-induced heating of an aqueous suspension of GNR@PCL-b- PEG under NIR irradiation (802 nm) was investigated in terms of the irradiation period, power, and concentrationdependent heating behavior, as well as the NIR-induced shape-transformation of the GNR cores. Remotely NIR-triggered release was also explored upon NIR irradiation for 30 min and about 70% release was achieved in the following 42 h at 37°C, with a mild warming (<4 °C) of the surroundings. The cytotoxicity of GNR@PCL-b-PEG against the mouse fibroblastic-like L929 cell-line was assessed by MTS assay and good compatibility was confirmed with a cell viability of over 90% after incubation for 72 h. The cellular uptake of GNR@PCL-b-PEG by melanoma MEL-5 cells was also confirmed, with an averaged uptake of 1250 ( ± 110) particles cell-1 after incubation for 12 h (50 mg mL-1). This GNR@PCL-b-PEG DDS is aimed at addressing the different requirements for therapeutic treatments and is envisaged to provide new insights into DDS targeting for remotely triggered release by NIR activation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix n'est pas infatigable
Tréger, Isabelle; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in L'Orthophoniste (2014), 335

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