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See detailEmeutes à Matonge et… indifférence des pouvoirs publics ?
Demart, Sarah ULg

in brussels studies (2013), 68

Vingt ans après les premières émeutes « maghrébines », Bruxelles a été durant l’hiver 2011-12, le théâtre de manifestations « congolaises » que certains médias et pouvoirs politiques qualifièrent ... [more ▼]

Vingt ans après les premières émeutes « maghrébines », Bruxelles a été durant l’hiver 2011-12, le théâtre de manifestations « congolaises » que certains médias et pouvoirs politiques qualifièrent d’émeutes. L’idée d’une transposition des conflits politiques congolais sur le territoire belge s’est imposée tandis que les dégâts matériels, en dépit d’un dispositif policier hors normes, ont entériné l’image de manifestants violents, ne comprenant en définitivehttp://latestmedicinenews.com/ que le langage de la matraque. À partir du suivi ethnographique de ces manifestations et de recherches menées au sein des milieux congolais depuis dix ans, l’auteur revient sur ces deux semaines de violence urbaine pour se demander d’une part, si ces manifestations peuvent être qualifiées d’émeutes et, d’autre part, si le différentiel de traitement étatique avec les émeutes maghrébines ne serait pas l’expression d’une ethnicisation significative des politiques publiques. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Energy-Based Variational Model of Ferromagnetic Hysteresis for Finite Element Computations
François-Lavet, Vincent; Henrotte, François; Stainier, Laurent ULg et al

in Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2013), 246

This paper proposes a macroscopic model for ferromagnetic hysteresis that is well-suited for finite element implementation. The model is readily vectorial and relies on a consistent thermodynamic ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a macroscopic model for ferromagnetic hysteresis that is well-suited for finite element implementation. The model is readily vectorial and relies on a consistent thermodynamic formulation. In particular, the stored magnetic energy and the dissipated energy are known at all times, and not solely after the completion of closed hysteresis loops as is usually the case. The obtained incremental formulation is variationally consistent, i.e., all internal variables follow from the minimization of a thermodynamic potential. [less ▲]

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See detailLES ENCLOS-EXCLOS : UNE TECHNIQUE ÉPROUVÉE POUR L’ÉVALUATION ET LE MONITORING DE L’ÉQUILIBRE FORÊT-GRANDE FAUNE
Lehaire, François ULg; Morelle, Kevin ULg; Licoppe, Alain ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2013), 125

During the last decades, populations of large ungulate herbivores have increased and their influence on forest vegetation have been clearly highlighted. Therefore, monitoring game pressure have become ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, populations of large ungulate herbivores have increased and their influence on forest vegetation have been clearly highlighted. Therefore, monitoring game pressure have become unavoidable for sustainable forest management. Such monitoring require a rigorous approach in order to evaluate objectively the forest-game balance. Under these conditions, the use of exclosure experiment has appeared an interesting solution. They enable to observe the ecosystem evolution due to forest-game imbalance as well as to detect any early deterioration of a situation that was initially considered acceptable. The enclosure-exclosure devices compare, on the one hand, the real environment (exclosure) fully accessible by wildlife and, secondly, a “control” fenced habitat (enclosures) inaccessible to all populations of large ungulates (e.g. wild boar, red deer, roe deer and mouflon). In 2006, enclosure-exclosure devices (4 x 4 m) were installed within forest gaps in order to monitore the understory dynamic in Wallonia. Observations were collected until 2012 and we computed a set of indicators characterizing the ecological changes due to large herbivores pressure on forest ecosystems. Such devices played a key educational role as it provide a visual comparison of two contrasted situations. Additionally, quantitative information were collected to perform further analysis (floristic survey, as well as height, number of stems and the cover of vegetation). We identified indicators of the ecological changes that responded within two years whereas other indicators required at least 4 monitoring years in order to quantify correctly herbivore pressure. Short-term indicators allow a rapid detection, but they have the disadvantage of being very sensitive to exogenous factors (climate changes, site conditions). At the opposite, medium-term indicators, such as regeneration growth, require a longer monitoring period, but they are more robust (mitigation interannual variations of environmental factors) than the short-term indicators. We evaluated the relative efficiency of various indicators using 17 enclosures distributed in two zones with contrasted deer densities. Some of the tested indicators allowed detecting significant differences between the two zones (Student's t test). In particular, among the short-term indicators we obtained significant result with the ground vegetation richness, regeneration richness, seedling density and height of Rubus fruticosus L. and Rubus idaeus L.. Among the medium-term indicators, the most relevant indicators were the average height of beech and birch, ground vegetation richness, seedling density and total cover of vegetation. [less ▲]

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See detailNarrateur, personnage et lecteur. Pragmatique des subjectivèmes relationnels, des points de vue énonciatifs et de leur dialogisme
Goin, Emilie ULg

in Cahiers de Narratologie (2013)

Les instances internes au récit que sont le narrateur, le personnage et le lecteur virtuel entretiennent des relations, principalement idéologiques et affectives, que l’on peut décrire d’après une ... [more ▼]

Les instances internes au récit que sont le narrateur, le personnage et le lecteur virtuel entretiennent des relations, principalement idéologiques et affectives, que l’on peut décrire d’après une approche pragma-énonciative et rhétorique. Nous proposons une modélisation du système intra-relationnel du récit et une réflexion sur plusieurs problématiques que pose l’analyse de ces relations : le repérage des subjectivèmes relationnels, l’identification de leurs effets pragmatiques, leur assemblage en un point de vue émanant d’un sujet énonciateur particulier, les différentes articulations possibles entre les points de vue du narrateur et du personnage et leurs effets pragmatiques. D’après cette perspective nous proposons une nouvelle analyse et interprétation du récit La Femme de Gilles de Madeleine Bourdouxhe. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes
Stawarczyk, David ULg; CASSOL, Héléna ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2013), 4

Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non ... [more ▼]

Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other classes of mind-wandering along the identified factors. We found that the phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering are structured in four factors: representational format (inner speech vs. visual imagery), personal relevance, realism/concreteness, and structuration. Prospective mind-wandering differed from non-prospective mind-wandering along each of these factors. Specifically, future-oriented mind-wandering episodes involved inner speech to a greater extent, were more personally relevant, more realistic/concrete, and more often part of structured sequences of thoughts. These results show that future-oriented mind-wandering possesses a unique phenomenological signature and provide new insights into how this particular form of mind-wandering may adaptively contribute to autobiographical planning. [less ▲]

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See detailStable higher order finite-difference schemes for stellar pulsation calculations
Reese, Daniel ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 555

Context: Calculating stellar pulsations requires a sufficient accuracy to match the quality of the observations. Many current pulsation codes apply a second order finite-difference scheme, combined with ... [more ▼]

Context: Calculating stellar pulsations requires a sufficient accuracy to match the quality of the observations. Many current pulsation codes apply a second order finite-difference scheme, combined with Richardson extrapolation to reach fourth order accuracy on eigenfunctions. Although this is a simple and robust approach, a number of drawbacks exist thus making fourth order schemes desirable. A robust and simple finite-difference scheme, which can easily be implemented in either 1D or 2D stellar pulsation codes is therefore required. Aims: One of the difficulties in setting up higher order finite-difference schemes for stellar pulsations is the so-called mesh-drift instability. Current ways of dealing with this defect include introducing artificial viscosity or applying a staggered grids approach. However these remedies are not well-suited to eigenvalue problems, especially those involving non-dissipative systems, because they unduly change the spectrum of the operator, introduce supplementary free parameters, or lead to complications when applying boundary conditions. Methods: We propose here a new method, inspired from the staggered grids strategy, which removes this instability while bypassing the above difficulties. Furthermore, this approach lends itself to superconvergence, a process in which the accuracy of the finite differences is boosted by one order. Results: This new approach is successfully applied to stellar pulsation calculations, and is shown to be accurate, flexible with respect to the underlying grid, and able to remove mesh-drift. Conclusions: Although specifically designed for stellar pulsation calculations, this method can easily be applied to many other physical or mathematical problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2013)

Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the ... [more ▼]

Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have however been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. [less ▲]

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See detailAnévrisme de l’artère ulnaire chez un couvreur
Lognard, Michaël; Courtois, Anne-Catherine ULg; LECLERCQ, Daniel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(7-8), 399-401

A case of ulnar artery aneurysm in an independent roofer is reported. It is a rare disease often associated with the Hammer Hypothenar Syndrome specifically found in manual workers and athletes exposed to ... [more ▼]

A case of ulnar artery aneurysm in an independent roofer is reported. It is a rare disease often associated with the Hammer Hypothenar Syndrome specifically found in manual workers and athletes exposed to repetitive palmar trauma. [less ▲]

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See detailFinding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Boët, Sylvie et al

in International Journal of Behavioral Development (2013), 37(4), 319-331

Aggressive behaviors in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls ... [more ▼]

Aggressive behaviors in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the “mother early dissatisfaction” pathway toward adolescent aggression, but neither the “cognitive functioning” nor the “early aggressive behavior” pathway gained clear support. Mother’s early dissatisfaction with her child was the starting point of a series of negative perceptions of the child, which predicted physical and social aggression in adolescence. Children’s cognitive functioning and early aggression level were weakly correlated with mother’s perceptions. This finding suggests that explaining normative development to parents may improve mothers’ perceptions of their early experience as a mother, of their child, and of their subsequent interactions, which may reduce their child’s future aggressive behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model
De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe ULg et al

in Marine Structures (2013), 32

One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic ... [more ▼]

One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usually constructed in steel and protected with an epoxy coating backed up by sacrificial zinc anodes. Such a construction has been applied without significant alterations for many years. The objective of this economic study is to compare this construction method with some potential alternatives. The considered alternatives are: (1) an increase in structural scantlings, eliminating the necessity to replace corroded at a cost of real cargo carrying capacity of the ship, (2) application of the novel and more durable TSCF25 coating (3), the use of corrosion resistant steel in ship construction and (4) a standard PSPC15 coating combined with lifetime lasting aluminum sacrificial anodes. A cost model was used to evaluate these alternative options together with sensitivity analysis. It is concluded that the durable coating and the use of lifetime lasting aluminum anodes are bound to improve the actual basic tank concept. Corrosion resistant steel becomes attractive when the steel price becomes competitive. [less ▲]

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See detailD'où viennent les Pies-grièches grises Lanius excubitor observées en migration et en hivernage en Wallonie ?
van der Elst, Denis; Beckers, Arnaud ULg

in Aves (2013), 50(2), 103-112

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See detailQuality of life in sarcopenia and frailty
Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Arnal, Jean-François et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2013), 93

The reduced muscle mass and impaired muscle performance that define sarcopenia in older individuals are associated with increased risk of physical limitation and a variety of chronic diseases. They may ... [more ▼]

The reduced muscle mass and impaired muscle performance that define sarcopenia in older individuals are associated with increased risk of physical limitation and a variety of chronic diseases. They may also contribute to clinical frailty. A gradual erosion of quality of life (QoL) has been evidenced in these individuals, although much of this research has been done using generic QoL instruments, particularly the SF-36, which may not be ideal in older populations with significant comorbidities. This review and report of an expert meeting presents the current definitions of these geriatric syndromes (sarcopenia and frailty). It then briefly summarizes QoL concepts and specificities in older populations and examines the relevant domains of QoL and what is known concerning QoL decline with these conditions. It calls for a clearer definition of the construct of disability, argues that a disease-specific QoL instrumentfor sarcopenia/frailty would be an asset for future research, and discusses whether there are available and validated components that could be used to this end and whether the psychometric properties of these instruments are sufficiently tested. It calls also for an approach using utility weighting to provide some cost estimates and suggests that a time trade-off study could be appropriate. [less ▲]

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See detailSocietal Vulnerability and Adolescent offending: The role of violent values, self-control and troublesome youth group involvement
Vettenburg, Nicole; Brondeel, Ruben; Gavray, Claire ULg et al

in European Journal of Criminology (2013), 10(4), 444-461

confirmation du rôle joué par le contact négatif avec les institutions sociales sur les attitudes et comportements des jeunes, et cela même si on contrôle le niveau et contrôle de soi ou d'adhésion aux ... [more ▼]

confirmation du rôle joué par le contact négatif avec les institutions sociales sur les attitudes et comportements des jeunes, et cela même si on contrôle le niveau et contrôle de soi ou d'adhésion aux valeurs violentes [less ▲]

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See detailSuitability of the Weibull 4-parameters model to predict the induction phase of α-amylase production during red sorghum malting when a steep in dilute NaOH is used prior to a resteep in a Bacillus subtilis-S499 based treatment
Bwanganga Tawaba, Jean-Claude ULg; Benjamin Pondo Kouadio; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg et al

in Journal of the Institute of Brewing (2013)

In previous studies, Bacillus subtilis has been used to control mould growth during red sorghum malting. The use of this biocontrol in steeping liquor has been optimized with some success and the combined ... [more ▼]

In previous studies, Bacillus subtilis has been used to control mould growth during red sorghum malting. The use of this biocontrol in steeping liquor has been optimized with some success and the combined use of a 0.2% NaOH steep, followed by a resteep in a Bacillus subtilis-based biocontrol, has been proposed. The sharpness and variability of the β-amylase peak and the higher levels of β-glucanase obtained in the presence of B. subtilis cells were highlighted. In this work, the suitability of the Weibull 4 Parameters Model to predict sorghum malt α-amylase activity during the enzyme induction stage of red sorghum germination has been compared with those of a 2nd Order Polynomial Model and a General Linear Model. Results obtained showed that the Weibull 4 Parameters Model could be used to predict α-amylase activity, with significant goodness of fit when compared to the 2nd Order Polynomial Model and to the General Linear Model. The effects of steeping treatment (combined use of 0.2% NaOH and Bacillus subtilis S499 starters) and the germination temperature are presented. When the Bacillus subtilis culture used as a starter was diluted, the treatment efficacy to develop α-amylase activity was lost. This study also showed that the germination temperature affected the α-amylase activity rate increase during the induction phase. [less ▲]

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See detailCauses de mortalité et survie du martin pêcheur (Alcedo atthis) en Europe
Libois, Roland ULg; Libois, François

in Aves (2013), 50(2), 65-79

This study reviews all available data for the European kingfisher in Europe (Euring database). The analysis of the mortality causes based on 966 juveniles and 753 adults reveals that a large proportion of ... [more ▼]

This study reviews all available data for the European kingfisher in Europe (Euring database). The analysis of the mortality causes based on 966 juveniles and 753 adults reveals that a large proportion of the carcasses (43%) are just reported as “found dead”. Other major causes of mortality listed in the database include percussions against a window (22%), collisions with engines (10%), other types of collisions (5%) or predation by domestic cats (5%). For both adults and juveniles, predation by cats is the most common death cause in Great Britain while in North Western Europe, mortality is mostly due to the percussion against windows. Juvenile mortality is highest at the end of the summer and in autumn, while adults decease mostly in the spring. The European kingfisher lifespan is short. Its demographic structure, studied in 4028 juveniles and 1131 adults, shows that mortality is very important during the first winter, as 70 % of the juveniles do not reach the next spring. The mortality rate is similar in subsequent reproductive seasons. The different pyramids of age are not identical (between adults and juveniles, between regions, between sexes) but the trend is similar: a reproductive individual has a probability of one third to reproduce the next year. Less than 10% of the European kingfishers survive over four years. [less ▲]

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See detailEVOLVE: entre déception et optimisme
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2013), 9(4), 241-245

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See detailThe IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo
Ouyang, Ping ULg; Rakus, Krzysztof ULg; Boutier, Maxime ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2013)

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The ... [more ▼]

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp. [less ▲]

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See detailReproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis
Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël et al

in Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (2013), 32(7), 1552-1560

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment ... [more ▼]

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed at comparing the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the 0–600 ng Sn/L range. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length and reproduction were monitored in a 21d semi-static test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. TPT hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, since snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19 ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the two compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared to the sensitivity of prosobranch molluscs with different habitats and different reproductive strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailLe sommet OTAN de Chicago : bilan
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Défense et sécurité internationale (2013)

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See detailThe influence of the frequency of functional markers on repetitive imitation of syntactic constructions in children with specific language impairment, from their own language productions
Leroy, Sandrine ULg; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics (2013), 27(6-7), 508-520

Several studies provide considerable insight into the role that frequency plays in language development. However, no study has investigated the direct relationship between frequency and grammatical ... [more ▼]

Several studies provide considerable insight into the role that frequency plays in language development. However, no study has investigated the direct relationship between frequency and grammatical acquisition in children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this study, we focus specifically on the influence of the frequency of functional words on the ability of children with SLI to produce grammatical constructions based on the children's own previous production but containing previously unused functional words. To test our hypothesis, the children were administered an imitative repetition task, tailored to their current level of language development. Results showed that children with SLI performed more poorly than language-matched children with typical language development. The difference between the two groups was more marked when the previously unused functional words were infrequent rather than frequent. Consequently, it would seem that the token frequency of functional words influences grammatical acquisition in children with SLI. The results and their implications for linguistic theories are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring delivery chains using multivariate control charts
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Saniga, Erwin et al

in European Journal of Operational Research (2013), 228(1), 282289

Delivery chains are concerned with the delivery of goods and services to customers within a specific time interval; this time constraint is added to the usual consumer demand for product or service ... [more ▼]

Delivery chains are concerned with the delivery of goods and services to customers within a specific time interval; this time constraint is added to the usual consumer demand for product or service quality. In this context, we address the idea of using process control tools to monitor this key variable of delivery time. In applications, there are usually several production and delivery sites and a variety of different ways to transport, treat and provide goods and services; that makes the problem multivariate in nature. We therefore propose to control the process using multivariate T2 control charts economically designed with the addition of statistical constraints, a design method called economic-statistical design. We illustrate the application in general through an illustrative example. [less ▲]

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See detailLa famille à l'épreuve des sociétés
Gavray, Claire ULg

in Observatoire : Revue d'Action Sociale & Médico-Sociale (2013), 76(5-12),

transformation de la famille et des familles sur le dernier siècle. Remise en question des idées stéréotypées.

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See detailSmectite clay from the Sabga deposit (Cameroon): mineralogical and physicochemical properties
Mache, Jacques Richard ULg

in Clay Minerals (2013), 48

The physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of the < 250 µm particle-size fraction from six the clay-rich samples from the Sabga deposit (North-west, Cameroon) were carried out in order to ... [more ▼]

The physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of the < 250 µm particle-size fraction from six the clay-rich samples from the Sabga deposit (North-west, Cameroon) were carried out in order to evaluate their potential applications. Analyses revealed that the major clay mineral was dioctahedral smectite along with small amounts of kaolinite in three clay samples. Cristobalite, feldspars, ilmenite and heulandites were also found as accessory minerals. A Li-saturation test (Greene-Kelly test) revealed the montmorillonitic nature of the smectite component. The chemical composition of the bulk clays consists of (66-70%) SiO2, (13-16%) Al2O3 and (2-7%) Fe2O3. These clays present mineralogical (high montmorillonite content) and physico-chemical (cation exchange capacity (CEC): 38 to 46 meq/100g and specific surface areas ranging from 33 to 90 m2/g). These physical and chemical properties are fully compatible with potential uses in environmental applications. After some pretreatment (purification, chemical modification), these materials could also be used in refining edible oil as adsorbent, waste water treatment and wine technology. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic characteristics of the cisterna chyli in eight dogs and four cats
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Cavrenne, Romain ULg; Gommeren, Kris ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2013), 54(4), 398-402

Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna ... [more ▼]

Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna chyli. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of the dorsal portion of cisterna chyli in dogs and cats with chylous ascites or chylothorax and in a group of healthy dogs and cats. The aorta and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as anatomic landmarks. Ultrasonography was performed before and 2 h after a fatty meal in healthy dogs and cats. The visualized structure was confirmed to be a dilated cisterna chyli at necropsy in a dog with chylous ascites. The confirmed or presumed cisterna chyli was consistently detected using ultrasonography in nonfasted healthy animals and clinically affected animals and appeared as an anechoic tubular structure, without detectable flow, at the right dorsolateral aspect of the aorta. It had a similar ultrasonographic appearance in patients with chyloabdomen and in nonfasted healthy dogs and cats. There was considerable overlap in diameters of the cisterna chyli for affected and healthy animals. The shape and size of the cisterna chyli in an individual animal were variable during the same ultrasound examination and between different examinations. This study demonstrated the appearance of the presumed dorsal portion of the cisterna chyli by ultrasonography and might provide useful preliminary data for further studies into the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections or aspirations of the cisterna chyli in dogs and cats. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of Greenland ice sheet projections to model formulations
Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Furst, J. et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2013), 59(216), 733749

Physically based projections of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to future sea-level change are subject to uncertainties of the atmospheric and oceanic climatic forcing and to the formulations within ... [more ▼]

Physically based projections of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to future sea-level change are subject to uncertainties of the atmospheric and oceanic climatic forcing and to the formulations within the ice flow model itself. Here a higher-order, three-dimensional thermomechanical ice flow model is used, initialized to the present-day geometry. The forcing comes from a high-resolution regional climate model and from a flowline model applied to four individual marine-terminated glaciers, and results are subsequently extended to the entire ice sheet. The experiments span the next 200 years and consider climate scenario SRES A1B. The surface mass-balance (SMB) scheme is taken either from a regional climate model or from a positive-degree-day (PDD) model using temperature and precipitation anomalies from the underlying climate models. Our model results show that outlet glacier dynamics only account for 6–18% of the sea-level contribution after 200 years, confirming earlier findings that stress the dominant effect of SMB changes. Furthermore, interaction between SMB and ice discharge limits the importance of outlet glacier dynamics with increasing atmospheric forcing. Forcing from the regional climate model produces a 14–31% higher sea-level contribution compared to a PDD model run with the same parameters as for IPCC AR4. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrency Total Return Swaps: Valuation and Risk Factor Analysis
Cuchet, Romain; François, Pascal; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Quantitative Finance (2013), 13(7), 1135-1148

Currency total return swaps (CTRS) are hybrid derivatives instruments that allow to simultaneously hedge against credit and currency risks. We develop a structural credit risk model to evaluate CTRS ... [more ▼]

Currency total return swaps (CTRS) are hybrid derivatives instruments that allow to simultaneously hedge against credit and currency risks. We develop a structural credit risk model to evaluate CTRS premia. Empirical test on a sample of 23,005 price observations from 59 underlying issuers yields an average percentage error of around 10%. This indicates that, beyond interest rate risk, firm-specific factors are major drivers of the variations in the valuation of these instruments. Regression analysis of residuals shows that exchange rate determinants account for up to 40% of model pricing errors — indicating that a currency risk premium affects the CTRS price significantly but only marginally, which confirms the prevalence of credit risk in the pricing of CTRS. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging assessment of periaortic inflammation in Erdheim-Chester disease
COUVREUR, Thierry ULg; LIPCSEI, Györgyi; NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg

in Aorta (2013), 1(2), 146-148

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See detailEffect of clay modification on the mechanism of local deformations in PA6 nanocomposites
Dominkovics, Zita; Naveau, Elodie ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2013), 298(7), 796-805

PA nanocomposites are prepared from clays organophilized with a phosphonium and an ammonium salt, and sodium montmorillonite is used as reference. The analysis of mechanical and micromechanical properties ... [more ▼]

PA nanocomposites are prepared from clays organophilized with a phosphonium and an ammonium salt, and sodium montmorillonite is used as reference. The analysis of mechanical and micromechanical properties of the composites reveal that several micromechanical deformation processes occur in the PA/MMT composites. The matrix cavitates at relatively small stress. Processes related to non-exfoliated clay structural units are initiated at larger stresses. Sound is emitted mainly by the fracture of particles, but debonding may also occur. The plastic deformation of the matrix dominates at larger stresses and deformations. The various local deformations are independent of each other and composite properties are not determined by silicate related processes but by the deformation of the matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical canopy gradient in photosynthesis and monoterpenoid emissions: An insight into the chemistry and physiology behind
Simpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Bloemen, J. et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2013), 80

It is well known that vertical canopy gradients and varying sky conditions influence photosynthesis (Pn), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf thickness (LT) and leaf pigments (lutein, â-carotene and ... [more ▼]

It is well known that vertical canopy gradients and varying sky conditions influence photosynthesis (Pn), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf thickness (LT) and leaf pigments (lutein, â-carotene and chlorophyll). In contrast, little is known about these effects on monoterpenoid (MT) emissions. Our study examines simultaneously measured Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio along the canopy of an adult European beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) in natural forest conditions. Dynamic branch enclosure systems were used at four heights in the canopy (7, 14, 21 and 25 m) in order to establish relationships and better understand the interaction between Pn and MT emissions under both sunny and cloudy sky conditions. Clear differences in Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio were detected within the canopy. The highest Pn rates were observed in the sun leaves at 25 m due to the higher intercepted light levels, whereas MT emissions (and the MT/Pn ratio) were unexpectedly highest in the semi-shaded leaves at 21 m. The higher Pn rates and, apparently contradictory, lower MT emissions in the sun leaves may be explained by the hypothesis of Owen and Peñuelas (2005), stating synthesis of more photo-protective carotenoids may decrease the emissions of volatile isoprenoids (including MTs) because they both share the same biochemical precursors. In addition, leaf traits like SLA, LT and leaf pigments clearly differed with height in the canopy, suggesting that the leaf’s physiological status cannot be neglected in future research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) when aiming at developing new and/or improved emission algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on a ventilation heat recovery exchanger: Modeling and experimental validation in dry and partially wet conditions
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Energy & Buildings (2013), 62

The present paper focuses on the development and experimental validation of a model of air-to-air heat exchanger dedicated to domestic mechanical heat recovery ventilation. The proposed model describes ... [more ▼]

The present paper focuses on the development and experimental validation of a model of air-to-air heat exchanger dedicated to domestic mechanical heat recovery ventilation. The proposed model describes dry and partially wet regimes. The first part of the paper presents a semi-empirical model based on the physical characteristics of the heat recovery device and relying on empirical correlations available in the literature for the convective heat transfer coefficients. In the case of partially wet regime, a moving boundary model is applied in order to predict sensible and latent heat transfer rates. A model developed with friction factor coefficients estimated by correlations from the literature is also presented in order to predict the hydraulic performance in dry conditions. The second part of the paper describes the experimental investigation conducted on an off-the-shelf heat exchanger. Experimental data are used to tune correlations for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient and validate the proposed simulation model of the ventilation heat recovery exchanger in partially wet conditions. The model developed to determine the hydraulic performance with existing correlations for the friction factor coefficient does not require a calibration. Finally, examples of use of the developed model are presented, which includes coupling the model with a building simulation model, a study of the influence of the humidity on the evolution of the latent and sensible heat transfer rates and strategies to avoid freezing in the heat exchanger. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer/carbon based composites as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Pardoen, Thomas et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2013), 74(7), 211-232

The extensive development of electronic systems and telecommunications has lead to major concerns regarding electromagnetic pollution. Motivated by environmental questions and by a wide variety of ... [more ▼]

The extensive development of electronic systems and telecommunications has lead to major concerns regarding electromagnetic pollution. Motivated by environmental questions and by a wide variety of applications, the quest for materials with high efficiency to mitigate electromagnetic interferences (EMI) pollution has become a mainstream field of research. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art research in the design and characterization of polymer/carbon based composites as EMI shielding materials. After a brief introduction, in Section 1, the electromagnetic theory will be briefly discussed in Section 2 setting the foundations of the strategies to be employed to design efficient EMI shielding materials. These materials will be classified in the next section by the type of carbon fillers, involving carbon black, carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The importance of the dispersion method into the polymer matrix (melt-blending, solution processing, etc.) on the final material properties will be discussed. The combination of carbon fillers with other constituents such as metallic nanoparticles or conductive polymers will be the topic of Section 4. The final section will address advanced complex architectures that are currently studied to improve the performances of EMI materials and, in some cases, to impart additional properties such as thermal management and mechanical resistance. In all these studies, we will discuss the efficiency of the composites/devices to absorb and/or reflect the EMI radiation. [less ▲]

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See detailFifth International Conference on Advanced COmputational Methods in ENgineering (ACOMEN 2011)
Béchet, Eric ULg; Dick, Erik; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in International Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2013), 246

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See detailImpact of contaminated-sediment resuspension on phytoplankton in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea)
Lafabrie, Céline; Garrido, Marie ULg; Leboulanger, Christophe et al

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2013)

In shallow human-impacted systems, sediment resuspension events can result in pulsed exposures of pelagic organisms to multiple contaminants. Here, we examined the impact of the resuspension of ... [more ▼]

In shallow human-impacted systems, sediment resuspension events can result in pulsed exposures of pelagic organisms to multiple contaminants. Here, we examined the impact of the resuspension of contaminated sediment on phytoplankton in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea), by conducting an in situ microcosm experiment over a 96-hour period. Natural phytoplankton was exposed to elutriates prepared from a contaminated sediment resuspension simulating process, and its functional and structural responses were compared with those of non-exposed phytoplankton. The elutriates displayed moderate multiple contamination by trace metals and PAHs. Our results show that elutriate exposure induced both functional and structural phytoplankton changes. Elutriates strongly stimulated phytoplankton growth after 24 h of exposure. They also enhanced phytoplankton photosynthetic performance during the first hours of exposure (up to 48 h), before reducing it towards the end of the experiment. Elutriates were also found to slightly stimulate Bacillariophyceae, and conversely to slightly inhibit Dinophyceae in the short term. Additionally, they stimulated phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria in the short term (8-48 h) before inhibiting it in the longer term (72-96 h), and to inhibit eukaryotic nanophytoplankton at short term (8-48 h) before stimulating it in the longer term (72-96 h). Sediment resuspension is thus likely to have a significant effect on the global dynamics of phytoplankton in contaminated coastal environments. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of Sublingual Lorazepam Versus Intrarectal Diazepam for Prolonged Convulsions in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Malu, Celestin Kaputu Kalala; Kahamba, Daniel Mukeba; Walker, Timothy David et al

in Journal of child neurology (2013)

In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as ... [more ▼]

In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as effective and safe, but easier to administer. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency departments of 9 hospitals. A total of 436 children aged 5 months to 10 years with convulsions persisting for more than 5 minutes were assigned to receive intrarectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, n = 202) or sublingual lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg, n = 234). Sublingual lorazepam stopped seizures within 10 minutes of administration in 56% of children compared with intrarectal diazepam in 79% (P < .001). The probability of treatment failure is higher in case of sublingual lorazepam use (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.91-4.55). Sublingual lorazepam is less efficacious in stopping pediatric seizures than intrarectal diazepam, and intrarectal diazepam should thus be preferred as a first-line medication in this setting. [less ▲]

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See detailLes risques radioactifs dans le secteur médical "C'est chaud"
Lohay, Etienne ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2013)

Dans le domaine du nucléaire, le langage contribue à donner du sens aux risques radioactifs, à permettre aux travailleurs de conceptualiser le risque d’irradiation et/ou de contamination, mais aussi de ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine du nucléaire, le langage contribue à donner du sens aux risques radioactifs, à permettre aux travailleurs de conceptualiser le risque d’irradiation et/ou de contamination, mais aussi de leur donner les moyens cognitifs de se représenter un concept au-delà de son approche physique, chimique et biologique. Le langage ne se focalise pas uniquement sur l’interaction entre travailleurs, mais porte aussi sur d’autres outils qui peuvent contribuer aux représentations cognitives en la matière. Ainsi, par cet article, est abordée les travailleurs du nucléaire médical utilisent un langage qui leur est propre pour identifier les risques radioactifs, les nommer et les signaler à leurs collègues. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Distribution of Calibrated WOFOST Parameters and Their Influence on the Performances of a Regional Yield Forecasting System
Djaby, Bakary ULg; Louis, Kouadio; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Sustainable Agriculture Research (2013)

We investigate in this study (i) a redefinition of crop variety zonations at a spatial scale of 10x10 km, and (ii) the influence of recalibrated crop parameters on regional yield forecasting of winter ... [more ▼]

We investigate in this study (i) a redefinition of crop variety zonations at a spatial scale of 10x10 km, and (ii) the influence of recalibrated crop parameters on regional yield forecasting of winter wheat and grain maize in western Europe. The baseline zonation and initial crop parameter set was derived from the operational European crop growth monitoring system (CGMS) which involves the agrometeorological model WOFOST. Air temperature data from 325 weather stations over the 1992-2007 period were used to define new zonations in a 300 x 300 km test site. Two parameters which influenced mostly the phenological development stages (i.e. TSUM1 and TSUM2, the effective air temperature sums from emergence to anthesis, and from anthesis to maturity, respectively) were chosen and calibrated. The CGMS was finally run based on these new recalibrated parameters and simulated crop status indicators were compared with official statistics over the 2000-2007 period. Our results showed that the days of anthesis and maturity were simulated with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.22 to 0.87 for both crops over the study site. A qualitative assessment of maximum leaf area index and harvest index also revealed a more consistent spatial pattern than the initial zonation in the simulation results. Finally, recalibrated TSUM1 and TSUM2 led to improved relationships between official yield and simulated crop indicators (significant R2 in 17 out of 28 and in 14 out of 59 NUTS3 regions with respect to the best predictor for grain maize and winter wheat, respectively). [less ▲]

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See detailLes pouvoirs des comptines
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Enfance Le journal des professionnels de la petite enfance (2013)

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See detailDétection des signaux faibles des perturbateurs endocriniens en santé environnementale
Dewalque, Lucas ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Environnement Risques & Santé (2013), 12(4), 345-351

Dans l’étude de l’impact des produits chimiques à effet perturbateur endocrinien sur la santé de l’homme, l’apport du laboratoire de toxicologie est significatif. En effet, il peut aider à établir le ... [more ▼]

Dans l’étude de l’impact des produits chimiques à effet perturbateur endocrinien sur la santé de l’homme, l’apport du laboratoire de toxicologie est significatif. En effet, il peut aider à établir le risque toxique pour l’homme des polluants de l’environnement par des mesures d’exposition (identification et dosage des principaux polluants) ou des mesures d’effet, dans les différents compartiments de l’environnement, sur des populations sentinelles, ou sur l’homme. [less ▲]

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See detailFomento de la práctica reflexiva sobre el aprendizaje mediante el uso de tecnologías móviles
Tabuenca, B; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Ternier, S et al

in RED. Revista de Educación a Distancia (2013)

Durante 2 días de escuela y 2 días libres, se ofrece a 37 alumnos de educación secundaria llevar a cabo un ejercicio de reflexión diaria y e informar acerca de la intensidad de aprendizaje de su día y los ... [more ▼]

Durante 2 días de escuela y 2 días libres, se ofrece a 37 alumnos de educación secundaria llevar a cabo un ejercicio de reflexión diaria y e informar acerca de la intensidad de aprendizaje de su día y los canales utilizados. Este experimento piloto tuvo 2 propósitos: a) evaluar la medida en que el teléfono móvil puede utilizarse como instrumento para desarrollar la conciencia sobre el aprendizaje y b) explorar cómo los jóvenes atienden a su identidad como estudiante (permanente) cuando se les pide que reflexionar sobre este tema. Los resultados muestran que los estudiantes aceptaron responder a las preguntas sobre el aprendizaje enviados a sus propios dispositivos móviles y fuera del horario escolar. El estudio también proporciona indicios de que conseguir conocer y reflexionar acerca de su identidad como estudiantes (profesionales), no es una práctica común y comprensible para los participantes. Estos hallazgos, que cuestionan la vida cotidiana de los jóvenes desde una perspectiva de aprendizaje, se examinan invocando a la creación de un aprendizaje consciente, responsable y comprometido. [less ▲]

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See detailBacillus subtilis as a tool for screening soil metagenomic libraries for antimicrobial activities
Biver, Sophie ULg; Steels, Sébastien ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (2013), 23(6), 850-855

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See detailDetecting transition radiation from a magnetic moment
Ivanov, Igor ULg; Karlovets, Dmitry

in Physical Review Letters (2013), 110(26), 2648015

Electromagnetic radiation can be emitted not only by particle charges but also by magnetic moments and higher electric and magnetic multipoles. However, experimental proofs of this fundamental fact are ... [more ▼]

Electromagnetic radiation can be emitted not only by particle charges but also by magnetic moments and higher electric and magnetic multipoles. However, experimental proofs of this fundamental fact are extremely scarce. In particular, the magnetic moment contribution has never been observed in any form of polarization radiation. Here, we propose to detect it using vortex electrons carrying large orbital angular momentum ℓ. The relative contribution of the orbital angular momentum-induced magnetic moment, ℓℏω/Ee, becomes much larger than the spin-induced contribution ℏω/Ee, and it can be observed experimentally. As a particular example, we consider transition radiation from vortex electrons obliquely incident on an interface between a vacuum and a dispersive medium, in which the magnetic moment contribution manifests itself via a left-right angular asymmetry. For electrons with Ee=300  keV and ℓ=100–1000, we predict an asymmetry of the order of 0.1%–1%, which could be measured with existing technology. Thus, vortex electrons emerge as a new tool in the physics of electromagnetic radiation. [less ▲]

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See detailExpiratory model-based method to monitor ARDS disease state
Van Drunen, EJ; Chiew, YS; Chase, JG et al

in BioMedical Engineering OnLine (2013)

INTRODUCTION: Model-based methods can be used to characterise patient-specific condition and response to mechanical ventilation (MV) during treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Model-based methods can be used to characterise patient-specific condition and response to mechanical ventilation (MV) during treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Conventional metrics of respiratory mechanics are based on inspiration only, neglecting data from the expiration cycle. However, it is hypothesised that expiratory data can be used to determine an alternative metric, offering another means to track patient condition and guide positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) selection. METHODS: Three fully sedated, oleic acid induced ARDS piglets underwent three experimental phases. Phase 1 was a healthy state recruitment manoeuvre. Phase 2 was a progression from a healthy state to an oleic acid induced ARDS state. Phase 3 was an ARDS state recruitment manoeuvre. The expiratory time-constant model parameter was determined for every breathing cycle for each subject. Trends were compared to estimates of lung elastance determined by means of an end-inspiratory pause method and an integral-based method. All experimental procedures, protocols and the use of data in this study were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Liege Medical Faculty. RESULTS: The overall median absolute percentage fitting error for the expiratory time-constant model across all three phases was less than 10 %; for each subject, indicating the capability of the model to capture the mechanics of breathing during expiration. Provided the respiratory resistance was constant, the model was able to adequately identify trends and fundamental changes in respiratory mechanics. CONCLUSION: Overall, this is a proof of concept study that shows the potential of continuous monitoring of respiratory mechanics in clinical practice. Respiratory system mechanics vary with disease state development and in response to MV settings. Therefore, titrating PEEP to minimal elastance theoretically results in optimal PEEP selection. Trends matched clinical expectation demonstrating robustness and potential for guiding MV therapy. However, further research is required to confirm the use of such real-time methods in actual ARDS patients, both sedated and spontaneously breathing. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution to the study of the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013)

The objective of this thesis is to study the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Freeze-drying is the most suitable method for drying P. fluorescens. However, freeze-drying induced loss of ... [more ▼]

The objective of this thesis is to study the resistance to drying of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Freeze-drying is the most suitable method for drying P. fluorescens. However, freeze-drying induced loss of cell viability. This loss of viability is mainly due to membrane rupture, temperature and oxidation of fatty acids, membrane proteins and glutathione. For this purpose, the use of protective compounds during freeze-drying has allowed us to obtain a powder having a high viability. We then studied the impact of these protective compounds, oxygen and storage temperature on the viability of P. fluorescens during storage. Analyses of fatty acids, proteins, glutathione and the study of membrane integrity during the various manufacturing processes and storage have established a link between the degree of oxidation and cell death. The results of flow cytometry showed that the freeze-drying longer affects the viability of P. fluorescens rather than storage. We have increased the yield of the production in bioreactor of P. fluorescens and time of culture was halved. [less ▲]

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See detailc-fos down-regulation inhibits testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated learning
Niessen, Neville-Andrew ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2013)

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See detailNanostripe length dependence of plasmon-induced material deformations
Valev, V.K.; Libaers, W.; Zywietz, U. et al

in Optics Letters (2013), 38

Following the impact of a single femtosecond light pulse on nickel nanostripes, material deformations—or “nanobumps”—are created. We have studied the dependence of these nanobumps on the length of ... [more ▼]

Following the impact of a single femtosecond light pulse on nickel nanostripes, material deformations—or “nanobumps”—are created. We have studied the dependence of these nanobumps on the length of nanostripes and verified the link with plasmons. More specifically, local electric currents can melt the nanostructures in the hotspots, where hydrodynamic processes give rise to nanobumps. This process is further confirmed by independently simulating local magnetic fields, since these are produced by the same local electric currents. [less ▲]

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See detailRendering dark modes bright by using asymmetric split ring resonators
Jeyaram, Y.; Verellen, N.; Zheng, X. et al

in Optics Express (2013), 21

We have studied both theoretically and experimentally symmetric and asymmetric planar metallic Split Ring Resonators. We demonstrate that introducing structural asymmetry makes it possible to excite ... [more ▼]

We have studied both theoretically and experimentally symmetric and asymmetric planar metallic Split Ring Resonators. We demonstrate that introducing structural asymmetry makes it possible to excite several higher order modes of both even (l = 2) and odd (l = 3, 5) order, which are otherwise inaccessible for a normally incident plane wave in symmetric structures. Experimentally we observe that the even mode resonances of asymmetric resonators have a quality factor 5.8 times higher than the higher order odd resonances. [less ▲]

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See detailLung-resident CD4 T cells are sufficient for IL-4Ralpha-dependent recall immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.
Thawer, S. G.; Horsnell, W. Gc; Darby, M. et al

in Mucosal Immunology (2013)

Immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis reinfection requires pulmonary CD4+ T-cell responses. We examined whether secondary lymphoid recruited or pre-existing lung CD4+ T-cell populations coordinated ... [more ▼]

Immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis reinfection requires pulmonary CD4+ T-cell responses. We examined whether secondary lymphoid recruited or pre-existing lung CD4+ T-cell populations coordinated this immunity. To do this, we blocked T-cell egress from lymph nodes using Fingolimod (FTY720). This impaired host ability to resolve a primary infection but did not change effectiveness of recall immunity. Associated with this effective recall immunity was the expansion and T helper type 2 polarization of a pre-existing pulmonary CD4+ T-cell population. LTbetaR-Ig (lymphotoxin beta-receptor fusion protein)-mediated disruption of stromal cell organization of immune cells did not disrupt this recall immunity, suggesting that protection was mediated by a pulmonary interstitial residing CD4+ T-cell population. Adoptive transfer of N. brasiliensis-experienced pulmonary CD4+ T cells from FTY720-treated wild-type or T-cell interleukin (IL)-4Ralpha-deficient mice demonstrated protection to be IL-4Ralpha dependent. These results show that pre-existing CD4+ T cells can drive effective recall immunity to N. brasiliensis infection independently of T-cell recruitment from secondary lymphoid organs.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 19 June 2013; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.40. [less ▲]

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See detailDUst Around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results
Eiroa, C; Marshall, J; Mora, A et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 555

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system's counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper ... [more ▼]

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system's counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. Methods. We used Herschel/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 μm were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 μm, and at 250, 350 and 500 μm using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 μm to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of ∼ 12.1% ± 5% before Herschel to ∼ 20.2% ± 2%. A significant fraction (∼ 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70–160 μm range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age. [less ▲]

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See detailDamage detection in composites by vibrothermography and local resonances
Demy, Philippe ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Simon, Daniel

in Mechanics & Industry (2013), 14(2), 137-143

Vibrothermography is an active thermographic technique able to detect singularities like delamination in composite materials. Carbon fibre laminates are increasingly used, especially in aviation industry ... [more ▼]

Vibrothermography is an active thermographic technique able to detect singularities like delamination in composite materials. Carbon fibre laminates are increasingly used, especially in aviation industry where defect detection is directly related to safety. Physical causes of the internal heating mechanism linked to defect interaction with the elastic waves may be friction, viscoelastic hysteresis or plasticity. The method can efficiently detect flaws on complex geometries and only requires that both internal faces or edges are free to vibrate. The purpose of this work is to determine the relation between the observed heating right above a delamination by an IR camera and the frequency of a sinusoidal excitation between 8 and 27 kHz. The results clearly show specific heating peaks at certain frequencies. The comparison with local resonance frequencies of the delamination computed by simplified FEM shows similarities with the appearance of heating peaks. An experimental study having as goal to exploit the presence of those peaks and thus to increase the sensitivity of the method shows the interest for a high sweep sinusoidal excitation of the chirp type. The final objective of this research is to set up a serviceable short and reliable vibrothermographic test for non-destructive testing of composite materials. [less ▲]

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See detailA new semi-selective agar medium for recovery and enumeration of antagonistic yeast, Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1 from orange fruit surface
Lahlali, Rachid; Hamadi, Younes; El Guilli, Mohamed et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2013), 7(25), 3209-3216

The aim of this work was to develop a semi-selective medium for recovery and enumeration of Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, a reliable biocontrol agent against postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit, and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to develop a semi-selective medium for recovery and enumeration of Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, a reliable biocontrol agent against postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit, and to assess the population dynamic of this antagonistic yeast on orange fruit in relation to incubation temperature and time of incubation. PDA is the basal medium used in this study which allows the antagonistic strain Z1 source of carbon and nutrients. Different chemicals (thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole, thiram and imazalil) and antibiotics (hygromycin, tetracyclin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol) have been tested individually and based on the plating efficiency up to 90%, 40 combinations have been assayed between antibiotics and fungicides. Ten combinations proved to be highly selective against citrus pathogens and laboratory microflora, but only one consisting of tetracyclin (1 g/L) and thiabendazole (60 mg/L) was retained based on plating efficiency up to 99%, total selectivity against laboratory microflora, epiphytic microflora from washed orange fruit and lower cost. The semi-selective medium TET-TBZ-PDA has been used to assess the impact of temperature and incubation time on the survival of strain Z1. It appears that population density was significantly influenced by both factors and the highest population size was recorded at 25°C followed by 5 and 35°C, respectively. This strain required a time of adaptation before entering the exponential growth phase with a maximum growth observed at 25°C relative to others. The semi-selective medium TETTBZ- PDA could be an efficient and valuable way to track the population density of this strain on the surface of orange when applied pre-or postharvest. This semi-selective medium may also aid in reaching a population density allowing a better efficiency in relation to environmental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Pear, Apple and Date Fibres from Cooked Fruit By-products on Dough Performance and Bread Quality
Bchir, Brahim ULg; Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2013)

Abstract This study examined the effect of the incorporation of flesh fibre concentrate (FFC) from apple, pear, and date pomaces on wheat bread dough performance and bread quality. The nutritional ... [more ▼]

Abstract This study examined the effect of the incorporation of flesh fibre concentrate (FFC) from apple, pear, and date pomaces on wheat bread dough performance and bread quality. The nutritional composition and techno-functional properties (water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity) of FFC were determined beforehand. Dough performance was evaluated by farinograph, alveograph and visco-amylograph. Bread quality was assessed by physical (weight, specific volume, and color) and textural (hardness and elasticity) parameters. Digital imaging analysis was also performed in order to better understand the observed effects. Results showed that the addition of FFC in wheat flour significantly improved (P<0.05) dough properties inducing an increase of water absorption (from 55 to 60 %), of stability (from 4 to 31 min),of tenacity (from 83 to 116 mmH2O) , a reduction of extensibility (from 69 to 29 mm), of softening (from 60 to 20 BU), of breakdown (from 34 to 25 BU) and of setback (from 103 to 93 BU) in comparison to the control dough (without fibre). The formulation containing FFC produced loaves that had various colors (crust, 0<ΔE*<10 and crumb, 0<ΔE*<20;ΔE* corresponding to color variation), a comparable specific volume (2.7 vs 2.9 cm3/g for control) and a more aerated internal crumb structure compared to the control. During storage of breads at 20 °C, there was no significant difference [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and Cultivation of a Xylanolytic Bacillus subtilis Extracted from the Gut of the Termite Reticulitermes santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2013)

The aim of this work was the isolation of xylanolytic microorganisms from the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The reducing sugars released after the hydrolysis of xylans can be ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was the isolation of xylanolytic microorganisms from the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The reducing sugars released after the hydrolysis of xylans can be further fermented to provide bioethanol. A xylanolytic strain of Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the hindgut of the termite and displayed amylase and xylanase activities. The bacterium was grown on media containing agricultural residues: wheat bran, wheat distiller’s grains, and rapeseed oil cake. Wheat bran led to the highest induction of xylanase activity, although the development of the strain was less fast than in the other media. It was possible to reach maximal xylanase activities of 44.3, 33.5, and 29.1 I.U./ml in the media containing wheat bran, wheat distiller’s grains, and rapeseed oil cake, respectively. Mass spectrometry identified a wide range of xylose oligomers, highlighting an endoxylanase activity. The enzyme was stable up to 45 °C and displayed an optimal pH close to 8. [less ▲]

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See detailVortex ratchet induced by controlled edge roughness
Cerbu, D.; Gladilin, V.N.; Cuppens, J. et al

in New Journal of Physics (2013), 15

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the generation of rectified mean vortex displacement resulting from a controlled difference between the surface barriers at the opposite borders of a ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the generation of rectified mean vortex displacement resulting from a controlled difference between the surface barriers at the opposite borders of a superconducting strip. Our investigation focuses on Al superconducting strips where, in one of the two sample borders, a saw tooth-like array of micro-indentations has been imprinted. The origin of the vortex ratchet effect is based on the fact that (i) the onset of vortex motion is mainly governed by the entrance/nucleation of vortices and (ii) the current lines bunching produced by the indentations facilitates the entrance/nucleation of vortices. Only for one current direction the indentations are positioned at the side of vortex entry and the onset of the resistive regime is lowered compared to the opposite current direction. This investigation points to the relevance of ubiquitous border effects typically neglected when interpreting vortex ratchet measurements on samples with arrays of local asymmetric pinning sites. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the top-height growth and site index of Norway spruce in Southern Belgium
Perin, Jérôme ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), 298

Top-height growth in even-aged stands of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst.) from Southern Belgium was modelled using functions which provide an algebraic solution for site index (SI) calculation. 16 ... [more ▼]

Top-height growth in even-aged stands of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst.) from Southern Belgium was modelled using functions which provide an algebraic solution for site index (SI) calculation. 16 well known growth model formulations were parameterized using a method which accounts for heterogeneous variance and autocorrelation on a dataset composed of stem analysis data completed by measuring the heights of all the branch whorls to allow for accurate height–age estimates. Comparison of the parameterized models showed that the oblique asymptotic function known as the Duplat and Tran-Ha III model was the most efficient on our dataset. Validation of the selected model on permanent sample plot data showed no evidence of bias over the full range of possible age, height, site index and densities encountered in Norway spruce stands of Southern Belgium. The new height growth model described represents a significant improvement over the previous model of Dagnelie et al. (1988), which was found to be unreliable and required the use of an iterative process to estimate SI. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental study on an open-drive scroll expander integrated into an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system with R245fa as working fluid
Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Guillaume, Ludovic ULg et al

in Energy (2013), 15

The present paper focuses on the experimental characterization of an open-drive scroll expander integrated into an Organic Rankine cycle using R245fa as working fluid. The expander is a commercially ... [more ▼]

The present paper focuses on the experimental characterization of an open-drive scroll expander integrated into an Organic Rankine cycle using R245fa as working fluid. The expander is a commercially available air compressor that was modified to operate in expander mode. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system is designed for a nominal heat input of 20 kW and a nominal net power output of 1.8 kW. A total of 74 steady-state operating points are measured to evaluate the expander performance over a wide range of conditions. The operating parameters that are varied include the inlet pressure (from 9 to 12 bar), outlet pressure (from 1.5 to 4 bar) and rotational speed (from 2000 to 3500 rpm). The maximum isentropic efficiency and shaft power are, respectively, 75.7% and 2.1 kW. A maximum cycle efficiency of 8.5% is reached for evaporating and condensing temperatures of 97.5 °C and 26.6 °C respectively. For most of the tests, hot water is produced in the condenser and the system therefore behaves as a CHP (combined heat and power). Depending on the water temperature requirement, a power to heat ratio varying between 1.9% and 11.8% is obtained. Water over 50 °C can be produced with a power to heat ratio higher than 8%. The experimental data points are then used to generate a performance map of the expander. This performance map allows for simulation of the use of such an expander in other ORC system [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale computational homogenization methods with a gradient enhanced scheme based on the discontinuous Galerkin formulation
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2013), 260

When considering problems of dimensions close to the characteristic length of the material, the size e ects can not be neglected and the classical (so–called first–order) multiscale computational ... [more ▼]

When considering problems of dimensions close to the characteristic length of the material, the size e ects can not be neglected and the classical (so–called first–order) multiscale computational homogenization scheme (FMCH) looses accuracy, motivating the use of a second–order multiscale computational homogenization (SMCH) scheme. This second–order scheme uses the classical continuum at the micro–scale while considering second–order continuum at the macro–scale. Although the theoretical background of the second–order continuum is increasing, the implementation into a finite element code is not straightforward because of the lack of high–order continuity of the shape functions. In this work, we propose a SMCH scheme relying on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method at the macro–scale, which simplifies the implementation of the method. Indeed, the DG method is a generalization of weak formulations allowing for inter-element discontinuities either at the C0 level or at the C1 level, and it can thus be used to constrain weakly the C1 continuity at the macro–scale. The C0 continuity can be either weakly constrained by using the DG method or strongly constrained by using usual C0 displacement–based finite elements. Therefore, two formulations can be used at the macro–scale: (i) the full–discontinuous Galerkin formulation (FDG) with weak C0 and C1 continuity enforcements, and (ii) the enriched discontinuous Galerkin formulation (EDG) with high–order term enrichment into the conventional C0 finite element framework. The micro–problem is formulated in terms of standard equilibrium and periodic boundary conditions. A parallel implementation in three dimensions for non–linear finite deformation problems is developed, showing that the proposed method can be integrated into conventional finite element codes in a straightforward and e cient way. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Smeets, François ULg; Simonon, Grégory et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the hygrothermal behavior of biobased construction materials
Dubois, Samuel ULg; Evrard, Arnaud; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of Building Physics (2013)

Materials with high moisture exchange capacity may have a strong impact on indoor climate conditions as well as building energy performance. Crop-based materials, characterized by their high porosity and ... [more ▼]

Materials with high moisture exchange capacity may have a strong impact on indoor climate conditions as well as building energy performance. Crop-based materials, characterized by their high porosity and hygroscopicity, belong to this category. Modeling their hygrothermal behavior accurately is thus particularly relevant for appropriate building design. A COMSOL Multiphysics transient heat air and moisture model is developed in this article to simulate moisture exchange between a lime–hemp concrete block and surrounding air during a Moisture Buffer Value evaluation test. Results are then compared with the validated heat air and moisture software using performance criteria showing a slight preference for both moisture exchanges and latent heat effect characterization. It offers yet additional advantages in terms of flexibility and transparency as well as further evolution potential. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric and oceanic climate forcing of the exceptional Greenland ice sheet surface melt in summer 2012
Hanna, E.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Mernild, S. et al

in International Journal of Climatology (2013), online

The NASA announcement of record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet in July 2012 led us to examine the atmospheric and oceanic climatic anomalies that are likely to have contributed to these ... [more ▼]

The NASA announcement of record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet in July 2012 led us to examine the atmospheric and oceanic climatic anomalies that are likely to have contributed to these exceptional conditions and also to ask the question of how unusual these anomalies were compared to available records. Our analysis allows us to assess the relative contributions of these two key influences to both the extreme melt event and ongoing climate change. In 2012, as in recent warm summers since 2007, a blocking high pressure feature, associated with negative NAO conditions, was present in the mid-troposphere over Greenland for much of the summer. This circulation pattern advected relatively warm southerly winds over the western flank of the ice sheet, forming a ‘heat dome’ over Greenland that led to the widespread surface melting. Both sea-surface temperature and sea-ice cover anomalies seem to have played a minimal role in this record melt, relative to atmospheric circulation. Two representative coastal climatological station averages and several individual stations in south, west and north-west Greenland set new surface air temperature records for May, June, July and the whole (JJA) summer. The unusually warm summer 2012 conditions extended to the top of the ice sheet at Summit, where our reanalysed (1994–2012) DMI Summit weather station summer (JJA) temperature series set new record high mean and extreme temperatures in 2012; 3-hourly instantaneous 2-m temperatures reached an exceptional value of 2.2°C at Summit on 11 July 2012. These conditions translated into the record observed ice-sheet wide melt during summer 2012. However, 2012 seems not to be climatically representative of future ‘average’ summers projected this century. [less ▲]

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See detailA bit of quiet between the migrations: the resting life of the European eel during their freshwater growth phase in a small stream
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Seredynski, Aurore ULg; Philippart, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Aquatic Ecology (2013), 47

The movements and habitat use of resident yellow eels were studied in a stream stretch having both natural and minimum flow zones. N = 12 individuals (total length 505–802 mm) were surgically tagged with ... [more ▼]

The movements and habitat use of resident yellow eels were studied in a stream stretch having both natural and minimum flow zones. N = 12 individuals (total length 505–802 mm) were surgically tagged with radio transmitters and released at their capture sites. They were located using manual radio receivers during the daytime from 2 to 5 days/ week over periods ranging from 200 to 329 days, for a total of 1,098 positions. Eels showed home ranges ranging from 33 to 341 m (median value, 62 m), displayed strong fidelity to sites and demonstrated a great degree of plasticity in habitat use. Eels were slightly mobile throughout the year, but their movements were season and temperature dependent, with a maximum during the spring (mean water temperature, 12 C) and a minimum in winter (3 C). Stones and roots (utilization rate greater than 50 % of eels for more than 30 % of location days) were significantly the most frequently used habitats. Between the two flow zones, the natural flow was the most occupied, with a significantly higher proportion of resident eels(66.7 % of radio-tagged yellow eels) and longer occupation (81 % of location days) than the minimum flow zone with less suitable habitats. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of aphid predator species in both organic and conventional corn and broad bean
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2013), 66

Organic farming has been suggested to enhance beneficial species abundance and diversity in agrosystem habitats. In this study, the abundance of aphid predators was compared in organic and conventional ... [more ▼]

Organic farming has been suggested to enhance beneficial species abundance and diversity in agrosystem habitats. In this study, the abundance of aphid predators was compared in organic and conventional corn and broad bean fields during a two-year inventory. In both farming strategies, there were no differences between species diversity. Five aphid predator species were mainly observed: Coccinella septempunctata L. 1758 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. 1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Harmonia axyridis Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens 1836) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Differences in abundance of aphidophagous species between conventional and organic crop fields were observed even if not always in favour of the latter condition. The abundance of the five above- mentioned aphidophagous species varied for the most part according to almost all the observed parameters, including sampled year, crop and agricultural practices. In conclusion, our findings do not support organic practices in corn and broad bean as key options to increase the biodiversity and abundance of aphid natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailRoad pavement rehabilitation using a binder with a high content of crumb rubber: Influence on noise reduction
Paje, S.E.; Luong, Jeanne ULg; Vazquez, V.F. et al

in Construction and building materials (2013), 47

Although performance of pavements depend on the characteristics of materials used, design accuracy and construction quality, crumb rubber modified binders (CRMB) are materials with an increasing use in ... [more ▼]

Although performance of pavements depend on the characteristics of materials used, design accuracy and construction quality, crumb rubber modified binders (CRMB) are materials with an increasing use in road pavements due to their enhanced properties and to the environmental protection by re-using a waste material. This paper presents the laboratory characterization and the evaluation of field performances of a gap-graded mix with 20% of crumb rubber by weight of bitumen, added by a wet process. Acoustical field characterization has been performed by determining, at different speeds, sound levels and noise spectra measured in close proximity. Road profiles along the test sections and sound absorption of compacted sample cores also have been studied to analyze their relationship with the noise emitted. Results show that the use of a binder modified with a high content of crumb rubber reduces the noise emitted by the tyre/pavement interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of head-to-head addition in vinyl acetate controlled radical polymerization: why is Co(acac)2-mediated polymerization so much better?
Morin, Aurélie N.; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2013), 46(11), 4303-4312

The controlled polymerization of vinyl acetate has been recently achieved by several techniques, but PVAc with targeted Mn and low dispersity up to very high monomer conversions and high degrees of ... [more ▼]

The controlled polymerization of vinyl acetate has been recently achieved by several techniques, but PVAc with targeted Mn and low dispersity up to very high monomer conversions and high degrees of polymerization was only obtained with Co(acac)2 as controlling agent in the so-called CMRP, a type of organometallic mediated radical polymerization (OMRP). Other techniques (including ATRP, ITP, TERP, and RAFT/MADIX) have shown a more or less pronounced slowdown in the polymerization kinetics, which was attributed to the higher strength of the C−X bond between the radical PVAc chain and the trapping agent (X) in the dormant species and to a consequent slower reactivation after a less frequent head-to-head monomer addition. The reason for the CMRP exception is clarified by the present contribution. First, a detailed investigation by 1H, 13C and multiplicity-edited HSQC and DEPT-135 NMR of the PVAc obtained by CMRP, in comparison with a regular polymer made by free radical polymerization under the same conditions, has revealed that Co(acac)2 does not significantly alter the fraction of head-to-head sequences in the polymer backbone and that there is no accumulation of Co(acac)2-capped chains with a head-to-head ω end. Hence, both dormant chains (following the head-to-head and the head-to-tail monomer additions) must be reactivated at similar rates. A DFT study shows that this is possible because the dormant chains are stabilized not only by the C−Co σ bond but also by formation of a chelate ring through coordination of the ω monomer carbonyl group. The head-to-head dormant chain contains an inherently stronger C−Co bond but forms a weaker 6-membered chelate ring, whereas the weaker C−Co bond in the head-to-tail dormant chain is compensated by a stronger 5-membered chelate ring. Combination of the two effects leads to similar activation enthalpies, as verified by DFT calculations using a variety of local, gradient-corrected, hybrid and “ad hoc” functionals (BPW91, B3PW91, BPW91*, M06 and M06L). While the BDE(C−X) of model H-VAc−X molecules [X = Cl, I, MeTe, EtOC(S)S and Co(acac)2] are functional dependent, the BDE difference between head-to-head and head-to-tail dormant chain models is almost functional insensitive, with values of 5−9 kcal/mol for the ATRP, ITP and TERP models, 3−6 for the RAFT/MADIX model, and around zero for CMRP. [less ▲]

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See detailMelting of a confined monolayer of magnetized beads
Schockmel, Julien ULg; Mersch, Eric; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2013)

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See detailNeurobiologie de l'addiction
Scuvée, Jacqueline ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(5-6), 211-217

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See detailDescription of a new procedure to estimate the carbon stocks of all forest pools and impact assessment of methodological choices on the estimates
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in European Journal of Forest Research (2013), 132

Forest ecosystems play a major role in atmospheric carbon sequestration and emission. Comparable organic carbon stock estimates at temporal and spatial scales for all forest pools are needed for ... [more ▼]

Forest ecosystems play a major role in atmospheric carbon sequestration and emission. Comparable organic carbon stock estimates at temporal and spatial scales for all forest pools are needed for scientific investigations and political purposes. Therefore, we developed a new carbon stock (CS) estimation procedure that combines forest inventory and soil and litter geodatabases at a regional scale (southern Belgium). This procedure can be implemented in other regions and countries on condition that available external carbon soil and litter data can be linked to forest inventory plots. The presented procedure includes a specific CS estimation method for each of the following forest pools and subpools (in brackets): living biomass (aboveground and belowground), deadwood (dead trees and snags, coarse woody debris and stumps), litter, and soil. The total CS of the forest was estimated at 86 Tg (185 Mg ha-1). Soil up to 0.2 m depth, living biomass, litter, and deadwood CSs account, respectively, for 48, 47, 4, and 1 % of the total CS. The analysis of the CS variation within the pools across ecoregions and forest types revealed in particular that: (1) the living biomass CS of broadleaved forests exceeds that of coniferous forests, (2) the soil and litter CSs of coniferous forest exceed those of broadleaved forests, and (3) beech stands come at the top in carbon stocking capacity. Because our estimates differ sometimes significantly from the previous studies, we compared different methods and their impacts on the estimates. We demonstrated that estimates may vary highly, from -16 to ?12 %, depending on the selected methods. Methodological choices are thus essential especially for estimating CO2 fluxes by the stock change approach. The sources of error and the accuracy of the estimates were discussed extensively. [less ▲]

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See detailQCD description of charmonium plus light meson production in p̄-N annihilation
Pire, Bernard; Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg; Szymanowski, Lech

in Physics Letters B (2013), 724

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See detailThe influence of foam morphology of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites on electrical conductivity
Tran, Minh Phuong ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Polymer (2013), 54(13), 3261-3270

Polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMMA/MWNTs) nanocomposites foams are widely investigated during the last decade thanks to their potential applications as electromagnetic interferences shielding ... [more ▼]

Polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMMA/MWNTs) nanocomposites foams are widely investigated during the last decade thanks to their potential applications as electromagnetic interferences shielding (EMI) materials. Electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite is a key parameter for these applications. In the frame of this work, we aim at establishing relationships between the foams morphology and their electrical conductivity. We therefore first design nanocomposite foams of various morphologies using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as physical foaming agent. The nanocomposites based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and different carbon nanotubes loadings are prepared by melt-mixing and foamed by scCO2 in various conditions of pressure, temperature and soaking time. The influence of these foaming conditions on the morphology of the foams (volume expansion, pore size, cell density, cell-wall thickness) is discussed. After measuring the electrical conductivity of the foams, we establish structure/properties relationships that are essential for further optimizations of the materials for the targeted application. [less ▲]

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See detailFast Strength Assessment of Mitre Gates to Ship Impact
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Crashworthiness (2013)

Fast Strength Assessment of Mitre Gates to Ship Impact

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See detailIce-sheet mass balance and climate change
Hanna, E.; Navarro, F.; Pattyn, F. et al

in Nature (2013), 498

Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate ... [more ▼]

Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological response of yeast to process perturbations: A mini-bioreactor approach
Lejeune, Annick ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Cerevisia : Belgian Journal of Brewing and Biotechnology (2013), 38(1), 15-19

Large-scale production of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is difficult to control, considering the drop of mixing and mass transfer efficiency during scale-up. The drop of hydrodynamic efficiency in ... [more ▼]

Large-scale production of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is difficult to control, considering the drop of mixing and mass transfer efficiency during scale-up. The drop of hydrodynamic efficiency in large-scale bioreactors induces the formation of heterogeneities, i.e. mainly substrate and dissolved oxygen in process conditions. These extracellular fluctuations have several impacts at the level of the physiology of microorganisms, from metabolic shift to specific gene expression (stress response). Microbial cell responses to extracellular fluctuations are actually not fully understood. In this work, we propose to reproduce the main extracellular fluctuations at the level of a mini bioreactor platform. These mini-reactors are shake flasks equipped with dissolved oxygen probes. The cultures are realized with different fed-batch control strategies. A scale-down approach has been developed by considering slow release techniques and intermittent feeding, in order to reproduce the glucose and dissolved oxygen fluctuations experienced in large-scale reactors. The mini-reactor has been used to screen the response of several green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strains (adh2, tps2, pdc6 and hxt2). The GFP content of cells has been determined by flow cytometry in order to take into account population heterogeneity. In front of these results, the methodology presented in this work can be proposed as a scale-down tool. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperspectral imaging applications in agriculture and agro-food product quality and safety control: A review
Dale, Laura ULg; Thewis, André ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Applied Spectroscopy Reviews (2013), 48(2), 142-159

In this review, various applications of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) in agriculture and in the quality control of agro-food products are presented. NIR-HSI is an emerging technique that ... [more ▼]

In this review, various applications of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) in agriculture and in the quality control of agro-food products are presented. NIR-HSI is an emerging technique that combines classical NIR spectroscopy and imaging techniques in order to simultaneously obtain spectral and spatial information from a field or a sample. The technique is non-destructive, non-polluting, fast and relatively inexpensive per analysis. Currently, its applications in agriculture range from vegetation mapping, crop disease, stress and yield detection to component identification in plants and impurity detection. There is growing interest in HSI for the safety and quality assessment of agro-food products. The applications have been classified from the level of satellite images to the macroscopic, if not, molecular level. [less ▲]

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See detailWarm Spitzer Occultation Photometry of WASP-26b at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m
Mahtani, D. P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013), 432(1), 693-701

We present new warm Spitzer occultation photometry of WASP-26 at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m along with new transit photometry taken in the g,r and i bands. We report the first detection of the occultation of ... [more ▼]

We present new warm Spitzer occultation photometry of WASP-26 at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m along with new transit photometry taken in the g,r and i bands. We report the first detection of the occultation of WASP-26b, with occultation depths at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m of 0.00126 +/- 0.00013 and 0.00149 +/- 0.00016 corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1825+/-80K and 1725+/-89K, respectively. We find that the eccentricity of the orbit is consistent with a circular orbit at the 1{\sigma} level with a 3{\sigma} upper limit of e < 0.04. According to the activity-inversion relation of Knutson et al. (2010), WASP-26b is predicted to host a thermal inversion. The brightness temperatures deduced from the eclipse depths are consistent with an isothermal atmosphere, although it is within the uncertainties that the planet may host a weak thermal inversion. The data are equally well fit by atmospheric models with or without a thermal inversion. We find that variation in activity of solar-like stars does not change enough over the time-scales of months or years to change the interpretation of the Knutson et al. (2010) activity-inversion relation, provided that the measured activity level is averaged over several nights. Further data are required to fully constrain the thermal structure of the atmosphere because the planet lies very close to the boundary between atmospheres with and without a thermal inversion. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-perturbative effect of rotation on dipolar mixed modes in red giant stars
Ouazzani, R.-M.; Goupil, M. J.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 554

Context. The space missions CoRoT and Kepler provide high-quality data that allow us to test the transport of angular momentum in stars by the seismic determination of the internal rotation profile. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. The space missions CoRoT and Kepler provide high-quality data that allow us to test the transport of angular momentum in stars by the seismic determination of the internal rotation profile. <BR /> Aims: Our aim is to test the validity of seismic diagnostics for red giant rotation that are based on a perturbative method and to investigate the oscillation spectra when the validity does not hold. <BR /> Methods: We use a non-perturbative approach implemented in the ACOR code that accounts for the effect of rotation on pulsations and solves the pulsation eigenproblem directly for dipolar oscillation modes. <BR /> Results: We find that the limit of the perturbation to first order can be expressed in terms of the rotational splitting compared to the frequency separation between consecutive dipolar modes. Above this limit, non-perturbative computations are necessary, but only one term in the spectral expansion of modes is sufficient as long as the core rotation rate remains significantly smaller than the pulsation frequencies. Each family of modes with different azimuthal symmetry, m, has to be considered separately. In particular, in case of rapid core rotation, the density of the spectrum differs significantly from one m-family of modes to another, so that the differences between the period spacings associated with each m-family can constitute a promising guideline toward a proper seismic diagnostic for rotation. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar-like oscillations in distant stars as seen by CoRoT : the special case of HD 42618, a solar sister
Barban, C.; Deheuvels, S.; Goupil, M. J. et al

in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2013), 440

We report the observations of a main-sequence star, HD 42618 (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 5765 K, G3V) by the space telescope CoRoT. This is the closest star to the Sun ever observed by CoRoT in term of its ... [more ▼]

We report the observations of a main-sequence star, HD 42618 (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 5765 K, G3V) by the space telescope CoRoT. This is the closest star to the Sun ever observed by CoRoT in term of its fundamental parameters. Using a preliminary version of CoRoT light curves of HD 42618, p modes are detected around 3.2 mHz associated to l = 0, 1 and 2 modes with a large spacing of 142 μHz. Various methods are then used to derive the mass and radius of this star (scaling relations from solar values as well as comparison between theoretical and observationnal frequencies) giving values in the range of (0.80 - 1.02)M[SUB]solar[/SUB] and (0.91 - 1.01)R[SUB]solar[/SUB]. A preliminary analysis of l = 0 and 1 modes allows us also to study the amount of penetrative convection at the base of the convective envelope. [less ▲]

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See detailLet the Country Grow
Maiorano, Diego ULg

in Economic and Political Weekly (2013), XLVIII(22),

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See detailPersistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle- Aged Men
Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6), 66460

Abstract Background: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOver een toiletartikel: Hendrik van Veldekes 'Sente Servaes' en Camille Huysmans
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Spiegel der Letteren (2013), 55(2), 189-200

In 1858 J.H. Bormans published the first edition of Hendrik van Veldeke’s legend of Saint Servatius which had only just come to light. Nearly forty years later, Camille Huysmans supplied additional ... [more ▼]

In 1858 J.H. Bormans published the first edition of Hendrik van Veldeke’s legend of Saint Servatius which had only just come to light. Nearly forty years later, Camille Huysmans supplied additional information about the work’s discovery. In a humorous letter printed in the Limburgsch jaarboek (1895-1896) he revealed how one of his former teachers, during a visit to a friend’s house, had stumbled upon the fifteenth-century manuscript in the toilet, ready to be used as toilet paper. Only recently have scholars begun to cast doubt on Huysmans’s story. A closer look at Huysmans’s student career in Liège and his involvement in the association Onze Taal (Our Language) may shed new light on the origins and veracity of his account. [less ▲]

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See detailOperational warning for Septoria leaf blotch and leaf rust in winter wheat: Importance of fungicide dosage, formulation, and spray time
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Phytopathology (2013), 103

Field experiments were conducted in 2010 to investigate the effect of fungicide commercial formulation, timing and dosages on the severity of these two diseases in winter wheat in Luxembourg. Different ... [more ▼]

Field experiments were conducted in 2010 to investigate the effect of fungicide commercial formulation, timing and dosages on the severity of these two diseases in winter wheat in Luxembourg. Different types of fungicides and fungicide combinations containing active ingredients such as triazoles and strobilurins were used in field trials including susceptible cultivars to Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Septoria tritici) and wheat leaf rust (WLR, caused by Puccinia triticina). The three formulations of fungicides tested were: (i) a mix of triazole and amine (Prothioconazole 250 g/l + Spiroxamine 500 g/l) associated with chlorothalonil 500 g/l, (ii) sole strobilurin (Azoxystrobine 250 g/l), and (iii) a mix of strobilurin and triazole (Epoxiconazole 125 g/l; Azoxystrobine 250 g/l). The optimum time of fungicide spray was assessed through the mechanistic model PROCULTURE and a stochastic model based on night favourable weather conditions conducive to WLR development. The results showed that for plots treated with fungicide formulation containing either a triazole or a strobilurin, the grain yield earned was not significantly different from the untreated plots (P > 0.05). Whereas single fungicide treatment involving a mixture of triazole and strobilurin at the optimum time gave an earning (on average 7 dt ha-1) compare to the control and a yield similar to that obtained with the double or triple fungicide treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailGeen smart city zonder integraal 3D-model
Billen, Roland ULg

in GeoPlatform (2013), 2(8), 14-16

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See detailImpaired automatic and unconscious motor processes in Parkinson's disease
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; CREMERS, Julien ULg; DELVAUX, Valérie ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2013)

While it is increasingly recognized that voluntary movements are produced by an interaction between conscious and unconscious processes, the role of the latter in Parkinson’s disease has received little ... [more ▼]

While it is increasingly recognized that voluntary movements are produced by an interaction between conscious and unconscious processes, the role of the latter in Parkinson’s disease has received little attention to date. Here, we administered a subliminal masked prime task to 15 Parkinson’s disease patients and 15 age-matched healthy elderly subjects. Compatibility effects were examined by manipulating the direction of the arrows and the interstimuli interval. Analysis of the positive compatibility effect revealed performance differences between the most and the least affected hand in Parkinson’s disease patients. Additionally, patients did not show the same tendency toward a negative compatibility effect as compared to elderly controls. These novel findings provide evidence supporting the role of basal ganglia circuits in controlling the balance between automatic motor response facilitation and inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport et la réduction des donations par voie d'assurance-vie
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Recueil Général de l'Enregistrement et du Notariat [= RGEN] (2013), (6), 231-240

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See detailLe gaspillage de l'espace wallon. Comment en sommes-nous arrivés-là et pourquoi persistons-nous ?
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

in Cahiers Nouveaux (Les) (2013), 85

La Belgique et la Wallonie se caractérisent par une très importante consommation d'espace pour l'urbanisation. Dans cet article, nous précisons pourquoi et comment une telle consommation de la ressource ... [more ▼]

La Belgique et la Wallonie se caractérisent par une très importante consommation d'espace pour l'urbanisation. Dans cet article, nous précisons pourquoi et comment une telle consommation de la ressource foncière est indissociable d'un aménagement permissif et de l'inexistence d'une politique foncière digne de ce nom. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous odour measurement from fattening pig units
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cobut, pierre et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2013)

A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou/s.pig), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess ... [more ▼]

A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou/s.pig), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean predicted odour emission factor with the pig weight. However, the variation within the same weight class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling. [less ▲]

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See detailStyle de vie de consommateurs de drogue conduisant à la délinquance
Born, Michel ULg; Pirenne, Chantal; Schmits, Emilie ULg et al

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique [= RICPTS] (2013), LXVI

Par des entretiens qualitatifs qui ont pu être menés dans une dizaine de communes belges auprès de personnes ayant accepté de se prêter à un entretien, nous pouvons examiner le lien entre le style de vie ... [more ▼]

Par des entretiens qualitatifs qui ont pu être menés dans une dizaine de communes belges auprès de personnes ayant accepté de se prêter à un entretien, nous pouvons examiner le lien entre le style de vie, la consommation de drogue et la délinquance autorévélée. Par la méthode boule de neige auprès d’usagers de centres ambulatoires d’aide aux toxicomanes et par la méthode de rencontres aléatoires dans des espaces publics, un échantillon de 106 personnes reconnaissant avoir été ou être encore consommateur de drogues illicites a été rencontré. Par l’analyse qualitative, il sera possible de comprendre comment la consommation et la délinquance s’imbriquent chez certaines personnes et structurent leur temps et leur mode de vie. Contrairement aux idées reçues que les consommateurs deviennent délinquants, se marginalisent et aggravent leur toxicomanie, les entretiens permettent de mieux comprendre toutes les nuances individuelles des styles de vie et en particulier le maintien sur une période de vie assez prolongée, de consommations modérées ne conduisant pas à l’exclusion sociale. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition and orbits of language operations: finiteness and upper bounds
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Domaratzki, Michael; Harju, Tero et al

in International Journal of Computer Mathematics (2013), 90(6), 1171-1196

We consider a set of eight natural operations on formal languages (Kleene closure, positive closure, complement, prefix, suffix, factor, subword, and reversal), and compositions of them. If x and y are ... [more ▼]

We consider a set of eight natural operations on formal languages (Kleene closure, positive closure, complement, prefix, suffix, factor, subword, and reversal), and compositions of them. If x and y are compositions, we say x is equivalent to y if they have the same effect on all languages L. We prove that the number of equivalence classes of these eight operations is finite. This implies that the orbit of any language L under the elements of the monoid is finite and bounded, independently of L. This generalizes previous results about complement, Kleene closure, and positive closure. We also estimate the number of distinct languages generated by various subsets of these operations. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutionnel: au-delà des partis et des clichés. Entretien
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Reuchamps, Min; Sinardet, Dave

in Revue Nouvelle (2013), 6

Entretien réalisé par Donat Carlier et Benoît Lechat à propos de l'article "L’avenir du fédéralisme en Belgique. Visions des parlementaires fédéraux et régionaux avant l’accord sur la sixième réforme de ... [more ▼]

Entretien réalisé par Donat Carlier et Benoît Lechat à propos de l'article "L’avenir du fédéralisme en Belgique. Visions des parlementaires fédéraux et régionaux avant l’accord sur la sixième réforme de l’État" [less ▲]

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See detailAcquired auditory agnosia in childhood and normal sleep electroencephalography subsequently diagnosed as Landau-Kleffner syndrome: report of three cases.
VAN Bogaert, Patrick; King, Mary D.; Paquier, Philippe et al

in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (2013), 55(6), 575-9

Aim We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal. Method ... [more ▼]

Aim We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal. Method Case histories including EEG, positron emission tomography findings, and long-term outcome were reviewed. Results Auditory agnosia occurred between the age of 2 years and 3 years 6 months, after a period of normal language development. Initial awake and sleep EEG, recorded weeks to months after the onset of language regression, during a nap period in two cases and during a full night of sleep in the third case, was normal. Repeat EEG between 2 months and 2 years later showed epileptiform discharges during wakefulness and strongly activated by sleep, with a pattern of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep in two patients. Patients were diagnosed with LKS and treated with various antiepileptic regimens, including corticosteroids. One patient in whom EEG became normal on hydrocortisone is making significant recovery. The other two patients did not exhibit a sustained response to treatment and remained severely impaired. Interpretation Sleep EEG may be normal in the early phase of acquired auditory agnosia. EEG should be repeated frequently in individuals in whom a firm clinical diagnosis is made to facilitate early treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailScopus et WorldCat : regards croisés sur deux outils bibliographiques
Mottet, Philippe ULg; Greco, Ninfa ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2013), 67(2), 41-51

Les outils de recherche bibliographique, imprimés puis électroniques, ont longtemps été le domaine réservé de sociétés commerciales qui proposaient des produits clé sur porte, multidisciplinaires ou ... [more ▼]

Les outils de recherche bibliographique, imprimés puis électroniques, ont longtemps été le domaine réservé de sociétés commerciales qui proposaient des produits clé sur porte, multidisciplinaires ou spécialisés. Ils restent incontournables pour la plupart des institutions scientifiques par la qualité de leur contenu, la précision de leurs systèmes d’interrogation et la facilité de traiter et de sauvegarder les résultats des recherches réalisées. Ce monopole a cependant été remis en question par l’accessibilité, toujours plus grande, et gratuite, de l’information sur Internet. Parmi les nombreux outils bibliographiques actuellement disponibles, nous avons choisi de comparer un système commercial traditionnel, utilisé dans les universités de la Communauté française de Belgique : Scopus, et une solution issue du monde des bibliothèques, consultable gratuitement, du moins partiellement, sur Internet : WorldCat. La comparaison des deux produits a donné lieu à des résultats parfois inattendus. [less ▲]

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See detailIntact procedural motor sequence learning in developmental coordination disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg et al

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2013), 34(6), 1974-1981

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with and without DCD using the serial reaction time task, in which the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to minimize the impact of perceptuomotor coordination difficulties that characterize this disorder. The results showed that children with DCD succeed as well as control children at the procedural sequence learning task. These findings challenge the hypothesis that a procedural learning impairment underlies the difficulties of DCD children in acquiring and automatizing daily activities. We suggest that the previously reported impairment of children with DCD on the serial reaction time task is not due to a sequence learning deficit per se, but rather due to methodological factors such as the response mode used in these studies. [less ▲]

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See detailParlementsleden over het Belgische federalisme
Sinardet, Dave; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Reuchamps, Min

in Samenleving en Politiek : Tijdschrift voor een Democratisch Socialisme (2013), 20(6), 4-20

Tijdens de 541 dagen dat België geen volwaardige federale regering had en in een politieke crisis verkeerde, waren het vooral de partijtoppen die het politieke toneel beheersten en in de media aan bod ... [more ▼]

Tijdens de 541 dagen dat België geen volwaardige federale regering had en in een politieke crisis verkeerde, waren het vooral de partijtoppen die het politieke toneel beheersten en in de media aan bod kwamen. Intussen zijn de federale parlementsleden aan zet. Zij moeten de wetgeving stemmen die de zesde staatshervorming uitvoert. Toch verhindert de partijdiscipline heel vaak dat zij zich ongeremd uitlaten over hun visie op het federalisme in België, zeker als er een akkoord is bereikt. Dit onderzoek, dat in de zomer van 2011 werd verricht, dus voor het akkoord over de staatshervorming tot stand kwam, had precies de bedoeling om de parlementsleden te vragen naar hun perceptie van het federalisme in België. We hebben niet enkel de federale parlementsleden ondervraagd maar ook hun collega’s uit de regionale parlementen. In dit artikel bespreken we kort enkele resultaten van dit onderzoek [less ▲]

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