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See detailToward and old-growth concept for grasslands, savannas, and woodlands
Veldman, Joseph W; Buisson, Elise; Durigan, Giselda et al

in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (2015), 13(3), 154162

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See detailEvaluation and Comparison of Anatomical Landmark Detection Methods for Cephalometric X-Ray Images: A Grand Challenge
Ching Wei, Wang; Cheng-Ta, Huang; Meng-Che, Hsieh et al

in IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging (2015)

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See detailA method to search for large-scale concavities in asteroid shape models
Devogele, Maxime ULg; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Tanga, Paolo et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015)

Light curve inversion is proven to produce an unique model solution only under the hypothesis that the asteroid is convex. However, it was suggested that the resulting shape model, for the case of non ... [more ▼]

Light curve inversion is proven to produce an unique model solution only under the hypothesis that the asteroid is convex. However, it was suggested that the resulting shape model, for the case of non-convex asteroid, is the convex-hull of the true asteroid non-convex shape. While a convex shape is already useful to provide the overall aspect of the target, much information about real shapes is missed, as we know that asteroids are very irregular. It is a commonly accepted evidence that large flat areas sometimes appearing on shapes derived from light curves correspond to concave areas, but this information has not been further explored and exploited so far. We present in this paper a method that allows to predict the presence of concavities from such flat regions. This method analyzes the distribution of the local normals to the facets composing shape models to predict the presence of abnormally large flat surfaces. In order to test our approach, we consider here its application to a large family of synthetic asteroid shapes, and to real asteroids with large scale concavities, whose detailed shape is known by other kinds of observations (radar and spacecraft encounters). The method that we propose is proven to be reliable and capable of providing a qualitative indication of the relevance of concavities on well-constrained asteroid shapes derived from purely photometric data sets. [less ▲]

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See detailL'environnement entre science et sens commun
Mormont, Marc ULg

in Natures Sciences Sociétés (2015), 23(3), 150-153

John Dewey propose dès 1948 une conception des rapports entre science et sens commun qui permet d'élucider les difficultés permanentes de l'apporche de l'environnement.

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See detailPreparation and characterizations of EGDE crosslinked chitosan electrospun membranes
Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Tchemtchoua, Victor T.; Colige, Alain ULg et al

in Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation (2015), 60(1), 39-50

Composite Crosslinked nanofibrous membranes of chitosan, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) and polyethy- 10 lene oxide was successfully prepared with bead free morphology via electrospinning ... [more ▼]

Composite Crosslinked nanofibrous membranes of chitosan, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) and polyethy- 10 lene oxide was successfully prepared with bead free morphology via electrospinning technique followed by heat mediated 11 chemical crosslinking. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by chemical crosslinking of 12 only 1% EGDE, and tensile strength tests revealed that increasing EGDE content has considerably enhance the elastic modu- 13 lus of nanofibers. The structure, morphology and mechanical properties of nanofibers were characterized by Attenuated Total 14 Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Instron machine, 15 respectively. Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells showedgood attachment, proliferation and viability on crosslinked electrospun 16 membranes. The results indicate a good biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the resulted membrane. [less ▲]

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See detailFocal cerebral ischemia impairs motivation in a progressive FR schedule of reinforcement in mice
Linden, Jérôme ULg; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Fassotte, Ludivine et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 279

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See detailA review of technical solutions and simulations approaches for ship collisions with lock gates
Ehlers, S; Le Sourne, H; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2015), 62

Development of Analytical method sto assess the ship impact on lock gates

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See detailThe Cellobiose Sensor CebR is the Gatekeeper of Streptomyces scabies Pathogenicity
Francis, Isolde; Jourdan, Samuel ULg; Fanara, Steven ULg et al

in MBio (2015)

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See detailPrise en charge de la neutropénie fébrile chez le patient cancéreux
FRERES, Pierre ULg; GONNE, Elodie ULg; COLLIGNON, Joëlle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 195-200

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement ... [more ▼]

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement confrontés à un effet secondaire sévère des traitements cytotoxiques, le neutropénie fébrile (NF). La NF est une complication gravissime de la chimiothérapie, car elle peut être rapidement mortelle et provoque un arrêt temporaire, voire définitif, des traitements. Dans cet article, nous résumons les dernières recommandations quant à la prise en charge thérapeutique des patients présentant une NF sous traitements anti-cancéreux. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of ciliary phosphoinositide content regulates trafficking and Sonic hedgehog signaling output
Chavez, M; Van Sande, J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A et al

in Developmental Cell (2015), 34

Ciliary transport is required for ciliogenesis, signal transduction, and trafficking of receptors to the primary cilium. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) have been associated ... [more ▼]

Ciliary transport is required for ciliogenesis, signal transduction, and trafficking of receptors to the primary cilium. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) have been associated with ciliary dysfunction; however, its role in regulating ciliary phosphoinositides is unknown. Here we report that in neural stem cells, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is found in high levels in cilia whereas phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is not detectable. Upon INPP5E inactivation, PI(4,5)P2 accumulates at the ciliary tip whereas PI4P is depleted. This is accompanied by recruitment of the PI(4,5)P2-interacting protein TULP3 to the ciliary membrane, along with Gpr161. This results in an increased production of cAMP and a repression of the Shh transcription gene Gli1. Our results reveal the link between ciliary regulation of phosphoinositides by INPP5E and Shh regulation via ciliary trafficking of TULP3/Gpr161 and also provide mechanistic insight into ciliary alterations found in Joubert and MORM syndromes resulting from INPP5E mutations. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximal bifix decoding
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Discrete Mathematics (2015), 338(5), 725742

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See detailPoly(ethylene glycol) grafted polylactide based copolymers for the preparation of PLA-based nanocarriers and hybrid hydrogel
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Schmeits, Stéphanie; Croisier, Florence ULg et al

in Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation (2015), 60

In previous works, poly(D,L-lactide-co-?CL-poly(ethylene glycol) (poly(D,L-La-co-?PEG?CL) amphiphilic graft- 10 copolymers were successfully synthesized according to a copper azide-alkyne cycloaddition ... [more ▼]

In previous works, poly(D,L-lactide-co-?CL-poly(ethylene glycol) (poly(D,L-La-co-?PEG?CL) amphiphilic graft- 10 copolymers were successfully synthesized according to a copper azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) strategy. This paper aims 11 at reporting on the behavior of this amphiphilic copolymer in water, which was not studied in the previous paper. Moreover, 12 the ability of the copolymer to stabilize a PLA nanoparticles aqueous suspension is presented. For this purpose, dynamic 13 light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are proposed to characterize the nanoparticles in solution. 14 Otherwise, the strategy developed for the synthesis of the amphiphilic copolymers was adapted and extended to the synthesis of 15 PLA-based degradable hydrogel, potentially applicable as drug-loaded degradable polymer implant. [less ▲]

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See detailAccounting for evolving pore size distribution in water retention models for compacted clays
Della Vecchia, Gabriele; Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Jommi, Cristina et al

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (2015), 39

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See detailD'une question patrimoniale à une réflexion sur l'Etat : de l'utilité de la théorie du droit pour comprendre une décision judiciaire
Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015)

The High Court of Paris was required to rule in its judgment of November 20th 2013 on the quality of public archives of telegrams written by General de Gaulle in London between 1940 and 1942. This issue ... [more ▼]

The High Court of Paris was required to rule in its judgment of November 20th 2013 on the quality of public archives of telegrams written by General de Gaulle in London between 1940 and 1942. This issue leads to a question about the status of Free France as a State, and its coexistence with Vichy France. This paper analyzes the Court's decision through the prism of Legal Theory mobilizing Hart’s reflection in terms of internal and external points of view. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecialist plant species harbour higher reproductive performances in recently restored calcareous grasslands than in reference habitats
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2015), 148(2),

Background and aims_Calcareous grasslands are local biodiversity hotspots in temperate regions that suffered intensive fragmentation. Ecological restoration projects took place all over Europe. Their ... [more ▼]

Background and aims_Calcareous grasslands are local biodiversity hotspots in temperate regions that suffered intensive fragmentation. Ecological restoration projects took place all over Europe. Their success has traditionally been assessed using a plant community approach. However, population ecology can also be useful to assess restoration success and to understand underlying mechanisms. Methods_We took advantage of three calcareous grassland sites in Southern Belgium, where reference parcels coexist with parcels restored in the late twentieth century and with more recently restored parcels. We evaluated the colonization stage of three specialist species (Sanguisorba minor, Potentilla neumanniana and Hippocrepis comosa) using occurrence data. We also measured the reproductive traits of 120 individuals per species and compared components of fitness between recent restorations, old restorations and reference habitats. Key results_We found that the occurrence of H. comosa was similar in the different restoration classes, whereas both P. neumanniana and S. minor occurrences decreased from reference grasslands to recent restorations. In contrast, these two latter species exhibited a much higher reproductive output in recent restorations, thanks to an increased production of flowers and seeds. Conclusions_Our results suggest that, during colonization of recently restored calcareous grasslands, favourable environmental conditions, low competition and sufficient genetic mixing may lead to an increased fitness of individuals and a faster population growth than in the reference habitat. These results demonstrate how population processes can increase ecological resilience and highlight the interest of a population-based approach to assess the success of ecological restoration. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic analysis of heat stress effects on yield traits, udder health, and fatty acids of Walloon Holstein cows
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2015), 98(7), 4956-4968

Genetic parameters that considered tolerance for heat stress were estimated for production, udder health, and milk composition traits. Data included 202,733 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein ... [more ▼]

Genetic parameters that considered tolerance for heat stress were estimated for production, udder health, and milk composition traits. Data included 202,733 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score (SCS), 10 individual milk fatty acids (FA) predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry, and 7 FA groups. Data were from 34,468 first-lactation Holstein cows in 862 herds in the Walloon region of Belgium and were collected between 2007 and 2010. Test-day records were merged with daily temperature-humidity index (THI) values based on meteorological records from public weather stations. The maximum distance between each farm and its corresponding weather station was 21km. Linear reaction norm models were used to estimate the intercept and slope responses of 23 traits to increasing THI values. Most yield and FA traits had phenotypic and genetic declines as THI increased, whereas SCS, C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, and 4 FA groups (unsaturated FA, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and long-chain FA) increased with THI. Moreover, the latter traits had the largest slope-to-intercept genetic variance ratios, which indicate that they are more affected by heat stress at high THI levels. Estimates of genetic correlations within trait between cold and hot environments were generally high (>0.80). However, lower estimates (< = 0.67) were found for SCS, fat yield, and C18:1 cis-9, indicating that animals with the highest genetic merit for those traits in cold environments do not necessarily have the highest genetic merit for the same traits in hot environments. Among all traits, C18:1 cis-9 was the most sensitive to heat stress. As this trait is known to reflect body reserve mobilization, using its variations under hot conditions could be a very affordable milk biomarker of heat stress for dairy cattle expressing the equilibrium between intake and mobilization under warm conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSFX Miscellaneous Free Ejournals Target: Usage Survey among the SFX Community
Renaville, François ULg; Branse, Yosef; Chen, Xiaotian et al

in Serials Review (2015), 41(2), 58-68

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE ... [more ▼]

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE EJOURNALS target contained more than 24,000 portfolios of all kinds. The SFX Knowledge Base Advisory Board (KBAB) carried out an international survey to get an overview of the usage of this target by the SFX community and to precisely identify what could be done to improve it. The target is widely used among the community. However, many respondents complained about three major problems: (a) incorrect links, (b) full texts actually not free, and (c) incorrect or missing thresholds (years and volumes information). [less ▲]

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See detailGLO-Roots: an imaging platform enabling multidimensional characterization of soil-grown root systems
Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Lindner, Heike et al

in eLife (2015)

Root systems develop different root types that individually sense cues from their local environment and integrate this information with systemic signals. This complex multi-dimensional amalgam of inputs ... [more ▼]

Root systems develop different root types that individually sense cues from their local environment and integrate this information with systemic signals. This complex multi-dimensional amalgam of inputs enables continuous adjustment of root growth rates, direction and metabolic activity that define a dynamic physical network. Current methods for analyzing root biology balance physiological relevance with imaging capability. To bridge this divide, we developed an integrated imaging system called Growth and Luminescence Observatory for Roots (GLO-Roots) that uses luminescence-based reporters to enable studies of root architecture and gene expression patterns in soil-grown, light-shielded roots. We have developed image analysis algorithms that allow the spatial integration of soil properties, gene expression and root system architecture traits. We propose GLO-Roots as a system that has great utility in presenting environmental stimuli to roots in ways that evoke natural adaptive responses and in providing tools for studying the multi-dimensional nature of such processes.Author keywordsResearch organism [less ▲]

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See detailLe secret des plus grands "géants" en partie percé
Beckers, Albert ULg

in Vaisseaux, Coeur, Poumons (2015), 20(4),

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See detailConservation research presence protects: a case study of great ape abundance in the Dja region, Cameroon
Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Duarte, Jesus et al

in Animal Conservation (2015)

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See detailClosure to “Parapet Wall Effect on Piano Key Weir Efficiency”
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Machiels, Olivier; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Engineering (2015), 141(1), 07014033

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See detailMonoclonal antibodies against GARP/TGF-b1 complexes inhibit the immunosuppressive activity of human regulatory T cells in vivo
Cuende, Julia; Liénart, Stéphanie; Dedobbeleer, Olivier et al

in Science Translational Medicine (2015)

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to prevent autoimmunity, but excessive Treg function contributes to cancer progression by inhibiting antitumor immune responses. Tregs exert contact-dependent ... [more ▼]

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to prevent autoimmunity, but excessive Treg function contributes to cancer progression by inhibiting antitumor immune responses. Tregs exert contact-dependent inhibition of immune cells through the production of active transforming growth factor–b1 (TGF-b1). On the Treg cell surface, TGF-b1 is in an inactive form bound to membrane protein GARP and then activated by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that GARP is involved in this activation mechanism. Two anti-GARP monoclonal antibodies were generated that block the production of active TGF-b1 by human Tregs. These antibodies recognize a conformational epitope that requires amino acids GARP137–139 within GARP/TGF-b1 complexes. A variety of antibodies recognizing other GARP epitopes did not block active TGF-b1 production by Tregs. In a model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease in NSG mice, the blocking antibodies inhibited the immunosuppressive activity of human Tregs. These antibodies may serve as therapeutic tools to boost immune responses to infection or cancer via a mechanism of action distinct from that of currently available immunomodulatory antibodies. Used alone or in combination with tumor vaccines or antibodies targeting the CTLA4 or PD1/PD-L1 pathways, blocking anti-GARP antibodies may improve the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailInscriptiones Lesbi, Tenedi, Nesi. Concordance des éditions
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Horos (2015), 26-29

Concordance of the whole corpus of inscriptions of Lesbus, in relation with the inventory of the collection stored in the Archaeological Museum (Lesbus)

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See detailPhenotype Classification of Zebrafish Embryos by Supervised Learning
Jeanray, Nathalie ULg; Marée, Raphaël ULg; Pruvot, Benoist et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(1), 01169891-20

Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances ... [more ▼]

Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100 % agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification. [less ▲]

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See detailA new ent-clerodane diterpenoid from Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. (Asteraceae).
Tchinda, Alembert T.; Mouokeu, Simplice R.; Ngono, Rosalie A. N. et al

in Natural product research (2015)

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1 ... [more ▼]

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1), together with two known flavonoids 3',5-dihydroxy-4',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (3). The compounds were tested against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 2 showed weak activity (IC50 = 10.1 g/mL) whilst compounds 1 and 3 were inactive. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by using detailed spectral analyses, especially 1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMBC and HR-ESI-MS. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical spreading depression decreases Fos expression in rat periaqueductal gray matter.
Borysovich Bogdanov, Volodymir; LOMBARD, Arnaud ULg; Multon, Sylvie ULg et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2015)

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See detailDetermination of muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in Standardbred racehorses as an aid to predicting exertional rhabdomyolysis
Houben, Rosa ULg; Leleu, Claire; Fraipont, Audrey ULg et al

in Mitochondrion (2015), 24

This prospective cohort study evaluated the potential of high-resolution respirometry applied to permeabilized muscle fibers for fitness evaluation in French Standardbred racehorses. Fitness evaluation by ... [more ▼]

This prospective cohort study evaluated the potential of high-resolution respirometry applied to permeabilized muscle fibers for fitness evaluation in French Standardbred racehorses. Fitness evaluation by means of respirometric parameters did not correlate with racing performance registered over the following racing season. However, altered mitochondrial energy metabolism was associated with higher risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis, a common cause of exercise intolerance in racehorses. These data represent a first step towards establishing reference values for muscle OXPHOS capacity in this breed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe involvement of hydrogen-producing and ATP-dependent NADPH-consuming pathways in setting the redox poise in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in anoxia.
Clowez, Sophie; Godaux, Damien ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2015), 290(13), 8666-76

Photosynthetic microalgae are exposed to changing environmental conditions. In particular, microbes found in ponds or soils often face hypoxia or even anoxia, and this severely impacts their physiology ... [more ▼]

Photosynthetic microalgae are exposed to changing environmental conditions. In particular, microbes found in ponds or soils often face hypoxia or even anoxia, and this severely impacts their physiology. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one among such photosynthetic microorganisms recognized for its unusual wealth of fermentative pathways and the extensive remodeling of its metabolism upon the switch to anaerobic conditions. As regards the photosynthetic electron transfer, this remodeling encompasses a strong limitation of the electron flow downstream of photosystem I. Here, we further characterize the origin of this limitation. We show that it stems from the strong reducing pressure that builds up upon the onset of anoxia, and this pressure can be relieved either by the light-induced synthesis of ATP, which promotes the consumption of reducing equivalents, or by the progressive activation of the hydrogenase pathway, which provides an electron transfer pathway alternative to the CO2 fixation cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of Quaternary uplift of the Corinth rift southern border (N Peloponnese, Greece) revealed by fluvial landscape morphometry
Demoulin, Alain ULg; Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg

in Geomorphology (2015), 246

The Rift of Corinth is a world-class example of young active rifting and, as such, is an ideal natural laboratory of continental extension. However, though much investigated for two decades, several ... [more ▼]

The Rift of Corinth is a world-class example of young active rifting and, as such, is an ideal natural laboratory of continental extension. However, though much investigated for two decades, several aspects of the mechanisms at work are still poorly understood. The aim of this paper is a detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift of the rift southern shoulder in order to reconstruct the rift's Quaternary evolution, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. Based on the use of a large set of catchment and long profile metrics complemented by the newR/SR integrative approach of the regional drainage network, we identified three distinct episodes of uplift of the northern Peloponnese coastal tract, of which the intermediate one, dated around 0.35–0.4 Ma, is only recorded in the topography of the central part of the rift shoulder, and the youngest one appears to have propagated from east to west over the last 10–20 ka. While net uplift remained minimum in the eastern part of the study area during the whole Quaternary, it shows a clear maximumin the central part of the rift shoulder since 0.4 Ma and an eastward shift of this maximumin recent times. Maximum uplift rates calculated from the morphometric data are of N1.05 and 2–5 mmyear−1 for, the mid-Middle Pleistocene and Holocene uplift episodes, respectively. The morphometric evidence reveals an onshore uplift history remarkably consistent with the rift evolution reconstructed from other data sets. In the long term, it shows a stable pattern of maximum activity in the central part of the rift, confirming previous conclusions about the absence of rift propagation. In the short term, it sheds light on a possible E–Wmigration of the zone of recent uplift, suggesting that in the near future fault activity and seismic hazard might concentrate in the Heliki–Aegion area, at the western tip of this uplift wave. [less ▲]

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See detailA quality by design approach for longitudinal quality attributes
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Giacoletti, Katherine; Scherder, Tara et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior knowledge gathered during pharmaceutical development studies to provide a scientific rationale for the manufacturing process of a product and provide guarantee of future quality. This poses several challenges from a statistical standpoint and requires a shift in paradigm from traditional statistical practices. First, to provide “assurance of quality” of future lots implies the need to make predictions regarding the quality given past evidence and data. Second, the quality attributes described in the Q8 guidelines are not always a set of unique, independent measurements. In many cases, these criteria are com- plicated longitudinal data with successive acceptance criteria over a defined period of time. A common example is a dissolution profile for a modified or extended-release solid dosage form that must fall within acceptance limits at several time points. A Bayesian approach for longitudinal data obtained in various conditions of a design of experiment is provided to elegantly address the ICH-Q8 recommendation to provide assurance of quality and derive a scientifically sound design space. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensity of prolactinoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: towards another gender difference.
KREUTZ, Julie ULg; VROONEN, Laurent ULg; Cattin, Françoise et al

in Neuroradiology (2015)

INTRODUCTION: Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin (PRL) levels. This preponderance could be attributed to a greater proliferative potential of the tumors. Differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at diagnosis have not been yet clearly evaluated. METHODS: We conduct a retrospective study comparing MRI signal intensity (SI) on T2-weighted images (T2-WI) between 41 men and 41 women to investigate whether or not men prolactinoma present specific features. RESULTS: In addition to the size of the adenoma and PRL levels (P < 0001), prolactinomas in men also exhibit differences from those in women in signal on T2-WI on MRI (P < 0001). Women's prolactinomas are mostly of high SI on T2-WI while men's prolactinomas exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of SI on T2-WI. Prolactinomas presenting with low SI on T2-WI are almost exclusively encountered in men. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of T2-WI hypointensities in pituitary adenoma can be predictive of a different subtype of prolactinoma almost encountered in men and possibly translate the presence of spherical amyloid deposits, in agreement with the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailFreikofel Formation
Pondrelli, Monica; Pas, Damien ULg; Spalletta, Claudia et al

in Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt (2015), 69

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See detailOn the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Molecular Biosystems (2015), 11

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between ... [more ▼]

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailRoughness evolution of sol–gel optical coatings by ion beam sputtering
Gailly, Patrick ULg; Dubreuil, Olivier ULg; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg

in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B (2015)

The surface roughness evolution of two silica-based sol–gel materials under 650 eV argon ion beam sputtering has been investigated. The liquid sol–gel solutions were applied on silicon substrates using ... [more ▼]

The surface roughness evolution of two silica-based sol–gel materials under 650 eV argon ion beam sputtering has been investigated. The liquid sol–gel solutions were applied on silicon substrates using the dip coating technique and thermally cured to obtain thin solid films and their thicknesses were then controlled over the samples surface using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surface roughness of the sol–gel films was measured using both interferometric profilometry and atomic force microscopy depending on the obtained sputtering depths. We observed a significant increase of the roughness according to the sputtering depth, faster in the case of sol–gel layers than with bulk fused silica. Interestingly, the sputtering rates of the sol–gel layers were found much higher than the rate obtained on bulk fused silica. The development of micron scale holes with relatively stable interstices is supposed to rule the surface roughness evolution. AFM measurements revealed a regular submicron scale lateral structure which nanometric amplitude is amplified within sputtering. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Approach to the 2-Regularity of the ℓ-Abelian Complexity of 2-Automatic Sequences
Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg; Rowland, Eric ULg et al

in The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(1), 127

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem ... [more ▼]

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem to develop a general approach for studying the l-abelian complexity of 2-automatic sequences. In particular, we prove that the period-doubling word and the Thue--Morse word have 2-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. Along the way, we also prove that the 2-block codings of these two words have 1-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological interpretation of the slope during an isokinetic fatigue test
Bosquet, L.; Gouadec, K.; Berryman, N. et al

in International Journal of Sports Medicine (2015)

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See detailNovel magneto-electric multiferroics from first-principles calculations
Varignon, Julien ULg; Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Physique (2015), 16

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed ... [more ▼]

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed behaviours, the trend has evolved and, nowadays, density functional theory calculations have become also an essential predicting tool for identifying original rules to achieve multiferroism and design new magneto-electric compounds. This chapter aims at highlighting the key advances in the field of multiferroics, to which first-principles methods have contributed significantly. The essential theoretical developments that made this research possible are also briefly presented. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Procedure Validation and the Quality by Design Paradigm
Rozet, Eric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Michiels, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for ... [more ▼]

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for analytical procedure developments to follow a similar approach. While development and optimization of analytical procedure following QbD principles have been largely discussed and described, the place of analytical procedure validation in this framework has not been clarified. This article aims at showing that analytical procedure validation is fully integrated into the QbD paradigm and is an essential step in developing analytical procedures that are effectively fit for purpose. Adequate statistical methodologies have also their role to play: such as design of experiments, statistical modelling, and probabilistic statements. The outcome of analytical procedure validation is also an analytical procedure design space, and from it, control strategy can be set. [less ▲]

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See detailMolécules issues de la valorisation de la lignine
Wertz, Jean-Luc; Richel, Aurore ULg; Gérin, Patrick

in ValBiom (2015), (Mars), 1-37

La valorisation de la lignine, dans le cadre de la bioraffinerie lignocellulosique du futur, est une thématique particulièrement prometteuse. En effet, la lignine est la principale matière première ... [more ▼]

La valorisation de la lignine, dans le cadre de la bioraffinerie lignocellulosique du futur, est une thématique particulièrement prometteuse. En effet, la lignine est la principale matière première renouvelable composée de motifs aromatiques. Ce polymère est le plus souvent valorisé uniquement par combustion dans les papeteries pour la production d’énergie. La mise en route de bioraffineries destinées à convertir la biomasse lignocellulosique en carburants de transport générera en général plus de lignine que nécessaire pour alimenter l’installation en énergie2. Dès lors, des efforts sont en cours pour transformer la lignine en produits à valeur ajoutée. Sa valorisation en composés aromatiques de bas poids moléculaires (tels que benzène, toluène, xylènes: BTX) permettrait une plus-value considérable dans la mesure où les BTX sont des molécules de base de la pétrochimie et représentent en 2015 un marché de 100 milliards de dollars3. On estime généralement que l’étude de la valorisation de la cellulose en particulier en éthanol a eu lieu il y a 20 ans, celle de la valorisation des hémicelluloses il y a 10 ans et celle de la valorisation de la lignine a lieu actuellement. [less ▲]

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See detailOne shot learning and generation of dexterous grasps for novel objects
Kopicki, Marek; Detry, Renaud ULg; Adjigble, Maxime et al

in International Journal of Robotics Research (2015)

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See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for T-prolymphocytic leukemia: a report from the French society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC)
Guillaume, Thierry; Beguin, Yves ULg; Tabrizi, Reza et al

in European Journal of Haematology (2015), 94

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ... [more ▼]

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might possibly serve to consolidate the response to initial chemotherapy. The current report summarizes the outcome of 27 T-PLL cases identified in the registry in French Society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC). Prior to HSCT, 14 patients were in complete remission (CR), 10 in partial response, three refractory, or in progression. Following HSCT, 21 patients achieved CR as best response. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 33 (range, 6–103) months, 10 patients are still alive in continuous CR. Overall survival and progression-free survival estimates at 3 yr were 36% (95% CI: 17–54%) and 26% (95% CI: 14–45%), respectively. The relapse incidence after HSCT was 47% occurring at a median of 11.7 (range, 2–24) months. Overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 31% at 3 yr. These results suggest that HSCT may allow long-term survival in patients with T-PLL following induction treatment; however, it is associated with a significant rate of toxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailAbnormal glomerular filtration rate in children, adolescents and young adults starts below 75 mL/min/1.73 m2
Pottel, Hans; Hoste, Liesbeth; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

in Pediatric Nephrology : Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (2015), 30(5), 821-828

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See detailLetter to the Editor.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism (2015), 44(5), 15

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See detailCharge Redistribution Effects on the UV-VIS Spectra of Small Ligated Gold Clusters: a Computational Study
Lugo Preciado, Jesus Gustavo ULg; Schwanen, Valérie ULg; Fresch, Barbara ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(20), 10969-10980

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See detailValidation of an extended French version of ID MigraineTM as a migraine-screening tool
Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2015), 35(5), 437-442

Introduction: Migraine has a considerable social, economic, physical and emotional burden but remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. A specific migraine screening tool could help remove barriers to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Migraine has a considerable social, economic, physical and emotional burden but remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. A specific migraine screening tool could help remove barriers to health care and be an attractive instrument for epidemiological studies. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of an extended French version of ID MigraineTM as a migraine-screening tool. Methods: Sixty-seven subjects from the NESCaV study (2010–2012) completed the migraine screen and were diagnosed by a neurologist specializing in headache medicine using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria (gold standard). Agreement between the two diagnoses was evaluated by Cohen kappa coefficient (k). Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the migraine screen were calculated. Results: Migraine was diagnosed in 21 (31.3%) of the 67 subjects according to the screening tool and in 24 (35.8%) by the neurologist (k¼0.90). The prevalence of migraine was unrelated to age, gender, education and perception of financial resources. Sensitivity and specificity of the screen were 87.5% and 100%, respectively. The screen prevalence of migraine with aura was 10.4% (sensitivity and specificity: 83.3% and 96.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The extended French version of ID MigraineTM (ef-ID Migraine) is a validated tool to screen migraine in French-speaking countries. [less ▲]

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See detailSpore assemblages from Upper Ordovician and Lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia
Wellman, Charles H.; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Miller, M.A.

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

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See detailThe ciliogenic transcription factor Rfx3 is required for the formation of the thalamocortical tract by regulating patterning of prethalamus and ventral telencephalon.
Magnani, D; Morlé, L; Hasenpusch-Theil, K et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015), 24

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of ... [more ▼]

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of primary cilia underlie a large number of human syndromes collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Often, ciliopathies are associated with mental retardation (MR) and malformation of the corpus callosum. However, the possibility of defects in other forebrain axon tracts, which could contribute to the cognitive disorders of these patients, has not been explored. Here, we investigate the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts in mice mutant for Rfx3, which regulates the expression of many genes involved in ciliogenesis and cilia function. Using DiI axon tracing and immunohistochemistry experiments, we show that some Rfx3-/- corticothalamic axons abnormally migrate toward the pial surface of the ventral telencephalon (VT). Some thalamocortical axons (TCAs) also fail to leave the diencephalon or abnormally project toward the amygdala. Moreover, the Rfx3-/- VT displays heterotopias containing attractive guidance cues and expressing the guidance molecules Slit1 and Netrin1. Finally, the abnormal projection of TCAs toward the amygdala is also present in mice carrying a mutation in the Inpp5e gene, which is mutated in Joubert Syndrome and which controls cilia signaling and stability. The presence of identical thalamocortical malformations in two independent ciliary mutants indicates a novel role for primary cilia in the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts by establishing the correct cellular environment necessary for its development. [less ▲]

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See detailNew palaeobotanical data from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain)
Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Rial, Gonzalo; Xue, Jinzhuang et al

in Historical Biology (2015), 27(3-4), 299307

Recent fieldwork has uncovered three new localities from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain) with further plant mega-fossils and the first record of micro-fossils. Such plant ... [more ▼]

Recent fieldwork has uncovered three new localities from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain) with further plant mega-fossils and the first record of micro-fossils. Such plant remains have been interpreted as belonging to a basal euphyllophyte, Taeniocrada-like stems, Hostinella genus and paired sporangia. Fourteen spore taxa were recovered, including Ambitisporites, Aneurospora, Brochotriletes, Chelinospora, Emphanisporites, Gneudnaspora and Retusotriletres, among others. New evidence confirms a Lochkovian age for this outcrop and suggests that the plant diversity was more complex than originally documented. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing the scotogenic model with lepton flavor violating processes
Vicente, Avelino ULg; Yaguna, Carlos

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2015), 1502

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See detailDeficiency in mouse hyaluronidase 2: a new mechanism of chronic thrombotic microangiopathy.
Onclinx, Cecile; Dogne, Sophie; Jadin, Laurence et al

in Haematologica (2015)

Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx. Its main somatic degrading enzymes are the hyaluronidases 1 and 2, none of which is active in the bloodstream. We generated ... [more ▼]

Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx. Its main somatic degrading enzymes are the hyaluronidases 1 and 2, none of which is active in the bloodstream. We generated hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice. They suffer from mild chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia, in parallel with a 10-fold increase in plasma hyaluronan concentration. The current study explores the mechanism of these hematological anomalies. The decreased erythrocyte and platelet counts were assigned to peripheral consumption. The erythrocyte half-life was reduced from 25 to 8 days without signs of premature aging. Hyaluronidase 2 deficient platelets were functional. Major intrinsic defects in erythrocyte membrane or stability, as well as detrimental effects of high hyaluronan levels on erythrocytes, were ruled out in vitro. Normal erythrocytes transfused into hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice were quickly destroyed but neither splenectomy nor anti-C5 administration prevented from chronic hemolysis. Schistocytes were present in hyaluronidase 2 deficient smears at a level of 1 to 6%, while virtually absent in control mice. Hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice had increased markers of endothelial damage and microvascular fibrin deposition, without renal failure, accumulation of ultra-large multimers of von Willebrand factor, deficiency of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin type 1 motifs, member 13 (ADAMTS13), or hypertension. There was no sign of structural damage in hepatic or splenic sinusoids, or in any other microvessels. We conclude that hyaluronidase 2 deficiency induces chronic thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolytic anemia in mice. The link between this uncommon condition and hyaluronidase 2 remains to be explored in man. [less ▲]

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See detailOperational entanglement families of symmetric mixed N-qubit states
Bastin, Thierry ULg; Mathonet, Pierre ULg; Solano, Enrique

in Physical Review A (2015), 91

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See detailA note on the equivalence between observed and expected information functions with polytomous IRT models
Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Educational & Behavioral Statistics (2015), 40

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating scale and nominal response models), but not for the class of difference models (including the graded response and modified graded response models). Yet, observed information function remains positive in both classes. Straightforward connections with dichotomous IRT models and further implications are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Biodiversité Autrement... Avec les lunettes d’une sociologie modeste
Mougenot, Catherine ULg; Petit, Sandrine

in Revue d'Anthropologie des Connaissances (2015), 9(2), 291-310

Biodiversity is not just a concept, it is also a story, an encounter, a place, a good one is in charge of, a familiar and sensitive reality, “attached” to a multitude of ties. This reality possesses the ... [more ▼]

Biodiversity is not just a concept, it is also a story, an encounter, a place, a good one is in charge of, a familiar and sensitive reality, “attached” to a multitude of ties. This reality possesses the stories of about sixty researchers who accepted an extraordinary experience for them: tell their story and which of their works. In these stories, the making of scientific facts is set in practices, anecdotes, personal or institutional relationships, in choices which become entangled. This experience raises the question of knowing how to encompass the totality or, more modestly how to attest? In this article, our point consists of adopting the glasses of a modest sociology, that is to say: follow the reality in its making (1), experiment stories that account for it and argue about their capacities (2) and feel concerned and responsible of our descriptions of the world (3). These are three proposals which work together and match to the will of producing “situated” knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantity and spatial distribution of seeds dispersed by a western lowland gorilla population in south-east Cameroon
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki; Beudels-Jamar et al

in Journal of Tropical Ecology (2015)

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See detailBehavior of various types of seeds of two species of yams tuber (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) in Gabon
Ondo Ovono, Paul; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg

in International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science (2015), 5

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds ... [more ▼]

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds of two species of yams Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea rotundata, cultivated on the experimental ground of the Higher National Institute of Agronomy and Biotechnology (INSAB), a test was realized in a randomized complete block design with six replications. The samples were cut and three levels of each tuber were used :proximal, medial and distal parts of the tuber. The fragments of tuber and the whole tuber represent the various types of seed used in this work. The results showed significant (P<0.05) differences in number of plants emerged and time of emergence in a mixture of 40% soil and 60% sand three months and half after planting. For all species, the proximal parts sprouted earlier than the medium parts and then the distal parts. The fragmentation of tubers in 3 parts can show the existence of a gradient alone the tuber in its potential for sprouting and growth. There was a highly significant (P<0.05) difference between yield performances after 9 months of culture. This technique improves the production of tubers in both species. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic synthesis of bio-based cyclic carbonates from CO2 and vegetable oils
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2015), 5

Bio-based cyclic carbonates were synthesized by coupling CO2 with epoxidized linseed oil using a catalytic platform composed of a bicomponent organocatalyst. A screening of the catalytic activity of a ... [more ▼]

Bio-based cyclic carbonates were synthesized by coupling CO2 with epoxidized linseed oil using a catalytic platform composed of a bicomponent organocatalyst. A screening of the catalytic activity of a series of organic salts and ionic liquids used in combination with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors was realized before highlighting the synergistic effect between the organocatalyst and the most efficient cocatalysts. These kinetics studies, followed by IR spectroscopy under pressure, enabled to optimize the reaction conditions and to provide quantitative formation of the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil in short reaction time without using any organic solvent. [less ▲]

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See detailCardioPulse: cardiac imaging of adult cancer patients on chemotherapy.
Galderisi, Maurizio; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal (2015), 36(15), 889-90

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See detailEditorial. Un regard pluriel sur l’évaluation offert aux scientifiques francophones et construit par eux
Demeuse, Marc; Fagnant, Annick ULg; Dupriez, Vincent

in Evaluer. Journal international de recherche en éducation et formation (2015), 1(1), 5-10

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See detailRecommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015), 16(3), 233-70

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the ... [more ▼]

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailAntidiabétiques oraux dans le traitement du diabète de type 2 : perspectives historique et médico-économique
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques (2015), 9(2), 186-197

Oral therapy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is becoming increasingly complex during the last decade, with first the launch of glitazones, then that of gliptins and finally, very recently, that of gliflozins ... [more ▼]

Oral therapy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is becoming increasingly complex during the last decade, with first the launch of glitazones, then that of gliptins and finally, very recently, that of gliflozins. However, the two oral glucose-lowering agents developed more than 50 years ago, metformin and sulfonylureas, still remain the leaders in the market. After failure of metformin monotherapy, the choice of antidiabetic medications is difficult and should be made taking into account the benefit-risk balance, with a special attention to cost of therapy and a focus on a patient-centered approach. This strategy is recommended in the recently updated joint ADA-EASD position statement, in January 2015. If the main principles of T2D therapy are universal, particularities should probably be discussed regarding regional situations, and the African continent obviously presents specificities in this respect. [less ▲]

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See detailExploratory Study of Depressed Adolescents’ Life Narratives
Boulard, Aurore ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2015), 55(2), 87-100

The aim of this study was to explore the life stories of depressive adolescents and compare them with non-clinical adolescents’ life stories.

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See detailMetagenomic analysis of the bacterial microbiota linked to the traditional Algerian date product "Btana"
Abekhti, Abdelkader; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Kihal, Mabrouk et al

in Annals of Microbiology (2015)

In this study, using high throughput pyrosequencing, we highlighted the bacterial diversity of the traditional Algerian date product "Btana" that is produced in southern Algeria using both direct (DBM ... [more ▼]

In this study, using high throughput pyrosequencing, we highlighted the bacterial diversity of the traditional Algerian date product "Btana" that is produced in southern Algeria using both direct (DBM) and indirect (UBM) methods. Metagenomic analysis yielded a total of 103,379 reads, with a 606 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected. Firmicutes represented 84.79 % of the total pyrosequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bacillales represented 90.20 % ± 15.12 % of the total reads. Among the phylotypes detected, Bacillus was the dominant genus (39.53 %). While Bacillus megaterium was shared among all of the samples, its distribution varied widely. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis showed that UBM samples clustered together, and three main OTUs were found in these UBM samples: Paenibacillus polymyxa, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, and Planomicrobium JN082684. Correlation analysis showed no association between parametersof the samples (age, pH, water activity) and the specific microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailLe trésor des reliques de la chartreuse de Liège
George, Philippe ULg

in analecta cartusiana (2015), 306

Etude critique et édition du trésor des reliques de la chartreuse retrouvé grâce à une source d'archive de 1905

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See detailClimate-controlled palynofacies and miospore biostratigraphy of the Early Devonian Jauf Formation, northern Saudi Arabia
Breuer, Pierre; Leszczynski, S.; Miller, M.A. et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and ... [more ▼]

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and extensively sampled, boreholes that for a 940 ft composite section. The Jauf Formation ranges in age from late Pragian to latest Emsian. The palynological assemblages, recognized herein, provide the basis for recognizing depositional environments present in the Early Devonian of northern Saudi Arabia. Transgressive – regressive cycles are indicated, not only by lithology but by marked changes in the marine to terrestrially dominated palynological assemblages. Flooding events are recognized by the replacement of spore dominated assemblages by organic-walled microphytoplankton. The maximum flooding interval for the Jauf is reinterpreted based on a correlative event consisting of diverse acritarchs and abundant chitinozoans. [Add details on the paly and sequence stratigraphy here. No.cycles and order.] The new northern Gondwanan biozonation developed by Breuer and Steemans (2012) and used here allows a high-resolution regional biozonation for the Arabian Plate and more intercontinental [?] correlation of the Jauf Formation with other Gondwanan and Euramerican localities. One new spore genus (Zonohilates) and four spore species (Insculptospora maxima, Camarozonotriletes alruwailii, Devonomonoletes crassus and Zonohilates vulneratus) are newly proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying of a single cherry tomato: Modeling and experimental study
Bennamoun, Lyes; Khama, Reda; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Food and Bioproducts Processing (2015), 94

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See detailINTERMÈDE. COUP DE THÉÂTRE ET CHANGEMENT DE RÔLES
Dawans, Stéphane ULg

in CLARA Architecture/Recherche (2015), 3

Architecture is often perceived as "not pure". Too much or not enough, It resists in many rankings. But this fundamental indeterminacy can be seen as an obstacle to the rationality or becoming itself a ... [more ▼]

Architecture is often perceived as "not pure". Too much or not enough, It resists in many rankings. But this fundamental indeterminacy can be seen as an obstacle to the rationality or becoming itself a real subject of research. We believe that architecture can help other disciplines' researchers to interrupte their "dogmatic slumber." [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Esser, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2015), 24(3), 283-307

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease ... [more ▼]

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These observations suggest that pharmacological strategies, which reduce inflammation, may be therapeutically useful in treating obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated CVD. Area covered: The article covers novel strategies, using either small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. These strategies include: approaches targeting IKK-b-NF-kB (salicylates, salsalate), TNF-alpha (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), IL-1beta (anakinra, canakinumab) and IL-6 (tocilizumab), AMP-activated protein kinase activators, sirtuin-1 activators, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 antagonists. Expert opinion: The available data supports the concept that targeting inflammation improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function; it also ameliorates glucose control in insulin-resistant patients with inflammatory rheumatoid diseases as well in patients with metabolic syndrome or T2DM. Although promising, the observed metabolic effects remain rather modest in most clinical trials. The potential use of combined anti-inflammatory agents targeting both insulin resistance and insulin secretion appears appealing but remains unexplored. Large-scale prospective clinical trials are underway to investigate the safety and efficacy of different anti-inflammatory drugs. Further evidence is needed to support the concept that targeting inflammation pathways may represent a valuable option to tackle the cardiometabolic complications of obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailPractices of Incident Reporting in a Nuclear Research Center: A Question of Solidarity
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg

in Safety Science (2015), 80

Incident reporting is usually considered as an effective means to improve the safety of “at risk” socio-technical systems (e.g. nuclear plants, large industrial facilities, hospitals), as it allows ... [more ▼]

Incident reporting is usually considered as an effective means to improve the safety of “at risk” socio-technical systems (e.g. nuclear plants, large industrial facilities, hospitals), as it allows implicated actors to learn from past incidents. Safety could thus be enhanced via the use of an institutionalized Incident Reporting System (IRS), enabling organizations to improve the quality of actions and reactions in case of a deviation from normality, or to prevent such deviations from happening in the first place. Yet, there is a lack of inductive analyses of actual, on-site uses of IRS. In this paper, we address this gap, using the results of 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with agents from the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK•CEN). The study relies on a vulnerability-oriented Science and Technology Studies (STS) approach. Our results show that practices of incident reporting are more varied than the institutionalized ones. Indeed, actual reporting practices are to be related to specific expressions of solidarity between colleagues within a negotiated drift – a pragmatic interpretation of the reporting procedure. These results are discussed in a vulnerability-oriented perspective. Overall, the paper displays a grounded analysis of incident reporting practices which may contribute to a better understanding of how safety is co-constructed by workers, and provides opportunities for further research and concrete path of actions for practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailTooling Materials and Solutions for Thixoforming: A key to the process industrialization
Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Solid State Phenomena (2015), 217-218

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on ... [more ▼]

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on adapted steels and materials as well as near-net shaping investigations, the issue of mass production raised and thus induced some other challenges mainly on die life and process automation and cycling. High working temperatures and components complexity were then the main locks to mass productions. In most of reported literature, none of the involved research group reached or real production and industrialization criteria. The euro group holds most of these research investigations [1]. We have reported many of these results in previous communications and this paper presents a continuity of what have already been presented. Some advanced tooling materials and solutions are presented and applied to a real complex industrial component. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of the elementary evolution operator with the motional states of an ion in an anharmonic trap
Santos, Ludovic; Justum, Yves; Vaeck, Nathalie et al

in The journal of chemical physics (2015), 142

Following a recent proposal of L. Wang and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 064301 (2012), we theoretically illustrate the possibility of using the motional states of a Cd+ ion trapped in a slightly ... [more ▼]

Following a recent proposal of L. Wang and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 064301 (2012), we theoretically illustrate the possibility of using the motional states of a Cd+ ion trapped in a slightly anharmonic potential to simulate the single-particle time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The simulated wave packet is discretized on a spatial grid and the grid points are mapped on the ion motional states which define the qubit network. The localization probability at each grid point is obtained from the population in the corresponding motional state. The quantum gate is the elementary evolution operator corresponding to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of the simulated system. The corresponding matrix can be estimated by any numerical algorithm. The radio-frequency field able to drive this unitary transformation among the qubit states of the ion is obtained by multi-target optimal control theory. The ion is assumed to be cooled in the ground motional state and the preliminary step consists in initializing the qubits with the amplitudes of the initial simulated wave packet. The time evolution of the localization probability at the grids points is then obtained by successive applications of the gate and reading out the motional state population. The gate field is always identical for a given simulated potential, only the field preparing the initial wave packet has to be optimized for different simulations. We check the stability of the simulation against decoherence due to fluctuating electric fields in the trap electrodes by applying dissipative Lindblad dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailCan meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoir be modelled with the 2D shallow water equations?
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2015)

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using ... [more ▼]

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using the academic flow model WOLF 2D, which includes a depth-averaged k- model accounting for the horizontal and vertical turbulent length-scales. The bottom friction was modelled with the Colebrook-White formula and different roughness heights were considered. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was applied to the simulation results to extract the behaviour of the main structures responsible for the meandering flow. The same POD analysis was also performed for the reference experimental flow fields, obtained by Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry. The first two POD modes obtained from the numerical simulations assuming a smooth bottom are in good agreement with the experimental modes in terms of energy, as well as temporal and spatial variations, whatever the shallowness. In contrast, the remaining simulated modes are not well rendered. The effect of an increased roughness height in the simulations is finally discussed. It leads to an improved reproduction of the first two modes and of the following modes, except when significant viscous effects govern in the flow. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for PEM fuel cells
Job, Nathalie ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Zubiaur, Anthony ULg et al

in Catalysts (2015), 5

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See detailClinical significance of dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance in two populations at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Gabriels, Charlien; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Van De Bruaene, Alexander et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015), 16

AIMS: Patients at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may present with abnormal dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during exercise. However, its clinical significance remains unclear ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Patients at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may present with abnormal dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during exercise. However, its clinical significance remains unclear. The present study aimed at analysing the meaning of dynamic PVR in two populations at risk of PAH: secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult patients with corrected ASD were consecutively selected from the database of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease of the University Hospitals Leuven. Patients with SSc were consecutively selected from the rheumatology database of the University Hospital Liege. At inclusion, all underwent a rest and bicycle stress echocardiography to obtain baseline right heart characteristics and dynamic PVR. Routine follow-up echocardiography was performed. Twenty-eight patients with corrected ASD (mean age 41 +/- 17 years, 79% female) were followed for a median time of 3.7 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.9-4.1] years. No patient developed PAH. Dynamic PVR was significantly associated with right atrial dilatation at latest follow-up (Spearman's rho 0.51, P = 0.013). Forty-five SSc patients (mean age 54 +/- 13 years, 76% female) were followed for a median time of 2.4 (IQR 0.8-2.9) years. Thirteen patients (30%) developed PAH. Dynamic PVR was the only independent predictor of PAH (hazards ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.47). No significant right heart morphometric changes occurred. CONCLUSION: Dynamic PVR predicted PAH development in patients with SSc, whereas dynamic PVR was associated with right heart morphometric changes after ASD closure. The predictive role of dynamic PVR might depend on the underlying disease type. Larger studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding misidentification of bands in planetary Raman spectra
Harris, Liam; McHugh, Melissa; Hutchinson, Ian B. et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2015)

Raman spectroscopy has been identified as a powerful tool for astrobiology and remote robotic planetary exploration. It can be used to identify and characterise rock matrices, mineral inclusions and ... [more ▼]

Raman spectroscopy has been identified as a powerful tool for astrobiology and remote robotic planetary exploration. It can be used to identify and characterise rock matrices, mineral inclusions and organic molecules and is demonstrablyeffective at identifying biomarkers, or indicators of biological activity. The ExoMars rover, jointly operated by the European and Russian Federal Space Agencies, will carry the first Raman spectrometer into space when it launches in 2018 and two further Raman instruments have recently been announced as part of the payload onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars 2020 rover. Each of these spectrometers however will, by necessity, have poorer resolution than the most sophisticated laboratory instruments because of mass, volume and power constraints and the space readiness of the requisite technologies. As a result, it is important to understand the minimum instrument specification requiredto achieve the scientific objectives of a mission, in terms of parameters such as spectral resolution and laser footprint size. This requires knowledge of the target minerals and molecules between which there may be ambiguity when identifying bands in spectra from geological samples. Here, we present spectra from a number of Mars analogue samples that include a range of such molecules, highlighting where such confusion may occur and identifying the most useful bands for differentiation. It is recommended that a Ramanspectrometer achieves a resolution of at least 3 cm-1 and covers a spectral range from 100 to 4000 cm-1 in order to differentiate between all of the target molecules presented here. [less ▲]

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See detailTax evasion and social information: an experiment in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands
Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in International Tax and Public Finance (2015), 22

We experimentally study how receiving information about tax compliance of others affects individuals’ occupational choices and subsequent evading decisions. In one treatment individuals receive ... [more ▼]

We experimentally study how receiving information about tax compliance of others affects individuals’ occupational choices and subsequent evading decisions. In one treatment individuals receive information about the highest tax evasion rates of others in past experimental sessions with no such social information; in another treatment they receive information about the lowest tax evasion rates observed in the past sessions with no such social information. We observe an asymmetric effect of social information on tax compliance. Whereas examples of high compliance do not have any disciplining effect, we find evidence that examples of low compliance significantly increase tax evasion for certain audit probabilities. No major differences are found across countries [less ▲]

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See detailThe retirement of the migrant labor force: pension portability and beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

in CESifo Economic Studies (2015), 61(2), 416-437

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision-making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non-negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailNot on my network! App exclusion and the net neutrality debate
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

in LCII Policy Brief (2015), (2015/1),

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On ... [more ▼]

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On February 26, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved new regulations for broadband internet, preserving the net neutrality.ii In brief, the net neutrality proponents seem to be winning the debate. In a recent economic paper, Sébastien Broos and Axel Gautier analyze whether this toughened stance of regulatory authorities is the best way forward. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Characterization, Technological Functionality and Physiological Aspects of Fungal β-D-Glucans : A Review
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition (2015)

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See detailA linear accelerator for levitated micro-objects
Sari, Ibrahim; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical (2015)

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See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailMedical education and training in geriatrics in the 21st centrury. Where do we come from - where do we go ?
Roller, Regina Elisabeth; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in European Geriatric Medicine (2015), in press

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See detailProceedings of the Ninth International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings - SSB 2014
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Randaxhe, François ULg

in System Simulation in Buildings (2015)

This 9th International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings has been the opportunity to gather researchers coming from 13 countries, sharing the last results of their research works. Some of the ... [more ▼]

This 9th International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings has been the opportunity to gather researchers coming from 13 countries, sharing the last results of their research works. Some of the presented works were conducted in the frame of projects from the International Energy Agency’s Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (EBC). [less ▲]

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See detailBifix codes and interval exchanges
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (2015), 219(7), 27812798

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See detailA novel inactivating mutation of the LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor with impaired membrane trafficking leading to Leydig cell hypoplasia type 1.
Rivero-Muller, Adolfo; Potorac, Iulia ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies (2015), 172(6), 27-36

OBJECTIVE: The LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a central role in male sexual differentiation, regulation of ovarian follicular maturation ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a central role in male sexual differentiation, regulation of ovarian follicular maturation, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum and pregnancy, as well as maintenance of testicular testosterone production. Mutations in the LHCGR gene are very rare. The aim of this work was to study the clinical and molecular characteristics of a rare familial LHCGR mutation. METHODS: Five affected members of a family, including a phenotypically female, but genotypically male (46,XY), patient with Leydig cell hypoplasia type 1 and four genotypically female siblings with reproductive abnormalities, were studied genetically. Cell trafficking studies as well as signalling studies of mutated receptor were performed. RESULTS: The five affected patients were all homozygous for a novel mutation in the LHCGR gene, a deletion of guanine in position 1850 (1850delG). This resulted in a frameshift affecting most of the C-terminal intracellular domain. In vitro studies demonstrated that the 1850delG receptor was completely incapable of transit to the cell membrane, becoming trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum. This could not be rescued by small-molecule agonist treatment or stimulated intracellularly by co-expression of a yoked human chorionic gonadotrophin. CONCLUSIONS: This novel LHCGR mutation leads to complete inactivation of the LHCGR receptor due to trafficking and signalling abnormalities, which improves our understanding of the impact of the affected structural domain on receptor trafficking and function. [less ▲]

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See detailWestern lowland gorilla seed dispersal: Are seeds adapted to long gut retention times?
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2015)

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (2015), 178(1), 271-296

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailDes chiffres de la politique à la politique du chiffre Le cas des réformes du financement de la recherche dans les universités belge francophones.
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015)

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them ... [more ▼]

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them nor the conditions of their utilization in government. And yet the use of numbers and data in political arguments contribute to transform the terms of the debate: politics can transform data and indicators, but one should not neglect how numbers affect policymaking. This article proposes as case study the analysis of some recent transformations of public research funding mechanism in universities in French speaking Belgium. It questions the systemic effects of the use of performance indicators in public management in this sector and it proposes some starting points for a discussion of their impact on the quality of the political debate. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid combined to 6-Benzylaminopurine on callus induction, total phenolic and ascorbic acid production, and antioxidant activities in leaf tissue cultures of Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia
Chaabani, Ghaya; Tabart, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2015), 37

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant activities in leaf-derived calli of Crataegus azarolus (hawthorn). The supplementation of 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP to MS medium was found to be the most efficient for callus induction (as percentage and fresh weigh). The results of biochemical analysis showed that the highest total phenols contents were obtained in callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP (52 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g DM) and were significantly lower than those of intact leaves (76 ± 1.72 mg GAE/g DM). However, the highest ascorbic acid contents were found in callus cultured on MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP (0.96 ± 0.13 mg AAE/g DM) and these amounts were statistically similar to those found in leaves tissues (0.74 ± 0.07 mg AAE/g DM). Antioxidant activities of callus extracts were determined using two TEAC assays and results showed that extract of callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP have the greatest antiradical activities against DPPH (124 ± 2.92 mg TE/g DM) and ABTS (0.19 ± 0.02 mg TE/g DM) compared to the leaves of field-grown plant. Thus, the use of high level of 2,4-D over BAP can be suitable to enhance the quality more than the quantity of bioactive compounds in leaf callus culture of hawthorn. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression microarray as a tool to identify candidate blood biomarkers in horses suffering from inflammatory airway disease
Ramery, Eve ULg; Fraipont, Audrey ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Veterinary Clinical Pathology (2015), 44(1), 37-46

Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires ... [more ▼]

Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires sedation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify candidate blood biomarkers of IAD using species-specific expression microarrays. Methods: Horse Gene Expression Microarrays were used to investigate global mRNA expression in circulating leukocytes from healthy and IAD-affected standardbreds and endurance horses. Results: Nine genes were significantly differentially regulated in standardbreds and 61 in endurance horses (P < 0.001). These genes were mainly related to inflammation (eg. ALOX15B, PLA2G12B and PENK), oxidant/antioxidant balance (eg. DUOXA2 and GSTO1-1) and stress (eg. V1aR, GRLF1, Homer-2 and MAOB). DUOXA2, ALOX15B, PLA2G12B, MAOB and GRLF1 variations of expression were further validated by RT-qPCR. The deregulation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance was demonstrated at the protein level by an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in heparinised whole blood of IAD-affected standardbreds (P = 0.0025) and endurance horses (P = 0.0028). There was good correlation (r = 0.7354) between BAL neutrophil percentage and whole blood GPx activity in all horses. Conclusions: There is accumulating evidence that, even when systemic clinical signs are not evident, circulating leukocyte gene expression can reflect responses of other tissues, leading to potential diagnostic applications in the future. Although not specific for IAD, whole blood GPx activity appears to reflect BAL neutrophil percentage. This finding should be further assessed by testing a larger number of horses. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete analytical procedure to assess the response of a frame submitted to a column loss
Huvelle, Clara; Hoang, Van Long ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Engineering Structures (2015), 86

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a ... [more ▼]

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a complete analytical method to assess the response of a 2D frame losing statically one of its columns is presented in details. This method is based on the development of alternative load paths in the damaged structure and takes into account the couplings between the different parts of the structure which are differently affected by the column loss. Also, the validation of the developed method through comparison to experimental and numerical evidences is presented. [less ▲]

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