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See detailCore cross-linked micelles of polyphosphoester containing amphiphilic block copolymers as drug nanocarriers
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Cajot, Sébastien et al

in RSC Advances (2016), 6(48), 42081-42088

Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polyphosphoester amphiphilic block copolymers are known to self-assemble into polymer micelles when dissolved into water. This work aims at reporting on the improvement of the ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polyphosphoester amphiphilic block copolymers are known to self-assemble into polymer micelles when dissolved into water. This work aims at reporting on the improvement of the stability of the micelles at high dilution by crosslinking the hydrophobic polyphosphoester micellar core. Typically, an unsaturated alkene side-chain was introduced on the cyclic phosphate monomer according to a one-step reaction followed by its organocatalyzed polymerization initiated by a poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiator. This strategy avoids the use of any organometallic compounds in order to facilitate the purification and meet the stringent requirements of biomedical applications. After self-assembly into water, the micelles were cross-linked by simple UV irradiation. These cross-linked micelles have then been loaded by doxorubicin to evaluate their potential as drug nanocarriers and monitor the impact of crosslinking on the release profile. [less ▲]

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See detailTests of a new drowsiness characterization and monitoring system based on ocular parameters
François, Clémentine ULg; Hoyoux, Thomas ULg; Langohr, Thomas ULg et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2016)

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See detailIdentifying the factors determining blooms of cyanobacteria in a set of shallow lakes
Descy, Jean-Pierre; Leprieur, Fabien; Pirlot, Samuel et al

in Ecological Informatics (2016), 34

There is a strong interest in developing a capacity to predict the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and to identify the measures to be taken to reduce water quality problems associated with the ... [more ▼]

There is a strong interest in developing a capacity to predict the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and to identify the measures to be taken to reduce water quality problems associated with the occurrence of potentially harmful taxa. Here we conducted a weekly to bi-weekly monitoring program on five shallow eutrophic lakes during two years, with the aim of gathering data on total cyanobacterial abundance, as estimated from marker pigments determined by HPLC analysis of phytoplankton extracts. We also determined bloom composition and measured weather and limnological variables. The most frequently identified taxa were Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and Anabaena spp. We used the data base composed of a total of 306 observations and an adaptive regression trees method, the boosted regression tree (BRT), to develop predictive models of bloom occurrence and composition, based on environmental conditions. Data processing with BRT enabled the design of satisfactory prediction models of cyanobacterial abundance and of the occurrence of the main taxa. Phosphorus (total and soluble reactive phosphate), dissolved inorganic nitrogen, epilimnion temperature, photoperiod and euphotic depth were among the best predictive variables, contributing for at least 10 % in the models, and their relative contribution varied in accordance with the ecological traits of the taxa considered. Meteorological factors (wind, rainfall, surface irradiance) had a significant role in species selection. Such results may contribute to designing measures for bloom management in shallow lakes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Klaren, Peter; Mariavelle, Emeline ULg et al

in Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), 42(2), 607-616

The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However ... [more ▼]

The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However, reference levels of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine (T4) and biologically active hormone 3,5,30-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. This study set out to describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in sheepshead minnow, and to correlate these with whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Eggs were collected by natural spawning in our laboratory. T4 and T3 were extracted from embryos, larvae and juveniles and an enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure whole-body hormone levels. Length and body mass, hatching success, gross morphology, thyroid hormone levels and histology were measured. The onset of metamorphosis at 12-day post-hatching coincided with surges in whole-body T4 and T3 concentrations. Thyroid follicles were first observed in pre-metamorphic larvae at hatching and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Follicle size and thyrocyte epithelial cell heights varied during development, indicating fluctuations in thyroid hormone synthesis activity. The increase in the whole-body T3/T4 ratio was indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination activity. This study establishes a baseline for thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnows, which will be useful for the understanding of thyroid hormone functions and in future studies of thyroid toxicants in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la perversion au pervers ; du sexuel à l’adaptatif
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2016), 6

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See detailCompte-rendu de L'atelier du médéiviste n°14 Les images dans l'Occident médiéval
George, Philippe ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (2016)

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See detailEmergent identity formation and the co-operative: Theory building in relation to alternative organizational forms
Nelson, Teresa; Nelson, Dylan; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg et al

in Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (2016), 28(3-4), 286-309

How are identities of alternative forms of organization constructed and how does this process differ relative to normative forms socially expected? In this research we consider identity formation in co ... [more ▼]

How are identities of alternative forms of organization constructed and how does this process differ relative to normative forms socially expected? In this research we consider identity formation in co-operatives, a population of organizations allied globally through values and practices such as democratic participation, voluntary and open membership, and limited return to capital investment. As an extension of current thinking on identity formation in entrepreneurship and organizational theory, we use co-operatives to explore social expectations and institutional arrangements around form at the societal, population, and organizational levels using a population ecology framework. We develop a research agenda based on propositions that address specific features of identity formation in less typical forms of organization, including tensions with normative business expectations, engagement with identity audiences, embeddedness in networks and alliances, structural factors influencing identity, and identity ambiguity. [less ▲]

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See detailReassessment of the acrylamide risk: Belgium as a case-study
Claes, Wendie; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Huyghebaert, André et al

in Food Control (2016), 59

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various ... [more ▼]

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various of them were implemented in the food chain. To evaluate if the mitigation strategies applied were significant, a comparison was made between two time periods (2002e2007 versus 2008e2013) in terms of acrylamide food levels and dietary exposure in Belgian. The most important changes observed are a significant decrease of the acrylamide content in potato crisps and gingerbread, and a significant increase in (instant) coffee. Additionally, the acrylamide content of breakfast cereals, bread and rolls, chocolate and baby biscuits showed a downward trend, whereas for coffee substitute and ready-to-eat French fries (mainly obtained from catering facilities), an upward, although not significant, trend was observed. These changes resulted in only a slight, but insignificant decline of the overall dietary exposure of adults, adolescents and children. The mean and P95 intake estimated in the 2008e2013 period for these consumer groups corresponded to margins of exposure (MOE) ranging between 515 and 236 and between 155 and 71, respectively, when based on the endpoint for neoplastic effects (BMDL10 ¼ 0.17 mg/kg bw per day). Such low MOE values indicate that acrylamide remains an issue for public concern, requiring renewed attention. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rexinoids LG100268 and LG101506 Inhibit Inflammation and Suppress Lung Carcinogenesis in A/J Mice.
Cao, Martine ULg; Royce, Darlene B.; Risingsong, Renee et al

in Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) (2016), 9(1), 105-14

LG101506 was originally synthesized to overcome some of the undesirable side effects of rexinoids. We compared the anticarcinogenic action of LG101506 and LG100268 and for the first time showed that both ... [more ▼]

LG101506 was originally synthesized to overcome some of the undesirable side effects of rexinoids. We compared the anticarcinogenic action of LG101506 and LG100268 and for the first time showed that both drugs are useful for prevention of lung cancer in A/J mice. These molecules markedly reduced tumor number, tumor size, and total tumor burden, when chronically administered to A/J mice that had been initiated with the mutagenic carcinogen, vinyl carbamate. Moreover, LG100268 synergized with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, for prevention of experimental lung cancer and enhanced the effect of carboplatin/paclitaxel for treatment of experimental lung cancer. Both rexinoids diminished the percentage of high-grade, highly malignant adenocarcinomas found at autopsy. In cell culture studies, the rexinoids exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties at nanoMolar concentrations. These drugs suppressed the ability of lipopolysaccharide to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL6, IL1beta, CXCL2, and CSF3, in macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The present results suggest that LG100268, LG101506, or a related rexinoid may have useful clinical applications in the field of oncology. Cancer Prev Res; 9(1); 105-14. (c)2015 AACR. [less ▲]

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See detailForce measurements reveal how small binders perturb the dissociation mechanisms of DNA duplex sequences
Burmistrova, Anastasia; Fresch, Barbara ULg; Sluysmans, Damien ULg et al

in Nanoscale (2016), 8

The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular pro- cesses like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or ... [more ▼]

The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular pro- cesses like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or destabilizing effect and thus severely affect these processes. Although the design of ligands that bind to specific sequences is a field of intense research with promising biomedical applications, so far, their effect on the force-induced strand separation has remained elusive. Here, by means of AFM-based single mole- cule force spectroscopy, we show the co-existence of two different mechanisms for the separation of a short DNA duplex and demonstrate how they are perturbed by small binders. With the support of Mole- cular Dynamics simulations, we evidence that above a critical pulling rate one of the dissociation pathways becomes dominant, with a dramatic effect on the rupture forces. Around the critical threshold, we observe a drop of the most probable rupture forces for ligand-stabilized duplexes. Our results offer a deep understanding of how a stable DNA–ligand complex behaves under force-driven strand separation [less ▲]

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See detailAn estimated glomerular filtration rate equation for the full age spectrum
Pottel, H; Hoste, L; Dubourg, L et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2016), 31(5), 798-806

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See detailReady for Change!
Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg

in Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology (2016)

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See detailModeling in Air Transportation: Cargo Loading and Itinerary Choice
Lurkin, Virginie ULg

in 4OR : Quarterly Journal of the Belgian, French and Italian Operations Research Societies (2016)

This is a summary of the author's PhD thesis supervised by Michael Schyns and defended on April 29, 2016 at the University of Li\`ege, Belgium. We examine two problems as part of this dissertation. The ... [more ▼]

This is a summary of the author's PhD thesis supervised by Michael Schyns and defended on April 29, 2016 at the University of Li\`ege, Belgium. We examine two problems as part of this dissertation. The first is a cargo loading problem. The second problem we examine involves the estimation of itinerary choice models that include price variables and correct for price endogeneity using a control function that uses several types of instrumental variables. [less ▲]

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See detailNew data about anatomy, branching, and inferred growth patterns in the Early Devonian plant Armoricaphyton chateaupannense, Montjean-sur-Loire, France
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Gensel, PG

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2016), 224(Part 1), 38-53

This study provides detailed information, based on serial peels, on the anatomy of the primary and secondary xylem, lateral branch formation, and proposed growth pattern of Armoricaphyton Strullu-Derrien ... [more ▼]

This study provides detailed information, based on serial peels, on the anatomy of the primary and secondary xylem, lateral branch formation, and proposed growth pattern of Armoricaphyton Strullu-Derrien et al., an Early Devonian (Pragian) basal euphyllophyte. The centrarch primary xylem strand is circular to oval in cross section and includes P-type tracheids. The pattern of lateral branch departure is described in detail based on serial peels. The secondary xylem, illustrated in transverse, radial and tangential longitudinal sections, includes P-type tracheids with similar pitting in radial and tangential walls. The presence of one-walled spaces interpreted as rays is confirmed. This study also documents the earliest occurrence of secondary xylem at bases of next higher order of branches. A model of growth for this unusual Early Devonian plant is presented, with documented epidogenetic, menetogenetic and possible apoxogenetic phases. The difference in proportion of primary tosecondary xylem is postulated to be a result of this mode of growth. The possible implications of xylem size and organization in the lateral organ in Armoricaphyton relative to the early evolution of the megaphyllous leaf are briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of six (endo-) symbiotic bacteria in Belgian mosquitoes: first step towards the selection of appropriate paratransgenesis candidates
Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

in Parasitology Research (2016)

Actually, the use of symbiotic bacteria is one of alternative solution to avoid vector resistance to pesticides. In Belgium, among 31 identified mosquito species, 10 were considered as potential vectors ... [more ▼]

Actually, the use of symbiotic bacteria is one of alternative solution to avoid vector resistance to pesticides. In Belgium, among 31 identified mosquito species, 10 were considered as potential vectors. Given to introduction risks of arbovirosis, the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of symbiosis bacteria in potential mosquito vectors. Eleven species caught from 12 sites in Belgium were used: Culex pipiens s.l., Culex torrentium, Culex hortensis, Anopheles claviger, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles plumbeus, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus geniculatus, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, Aedes albopictus, and Coquillettidia richiardii. Six genera of symbiotic bacteria were screened: Wolbachia sp., Comamonas sp, Delftia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Asaia sp.Atotal of 173 mosquito individuals (144 larvae and 29 adults) were used for the polymerase chain reaction screening. Wolbachia was not found in any Anopheles species nor Cx. torrentium. A total absence of Comamonas and Delftia was observed in all species. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Asaia were found in most of species with a high prevalence for Pseudomonas. These results were discussed to develop potential strategy and exploit the variable occurrence of symbiotic bacteria to focus on them to propose biological ways of mosquito control. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique de l'ostéosynthèse des fractures de jambe en République démocratique du Congo
Amisi Kitoko, R.; Asolanyongo, M.K.; Losimba, J.L. et al

in Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et traumatologique (2016), 102(3), 306-9

La prise en charge chirurgicale de la traumatologie à Kisangani (République démocratique du Congo) se heurte à des contraintes médico-économiques et culturelles qui aboutissent souvent à des prises en ... [more ▼]

La prise en charge chirurgicale de la traumatologie à Kisangani (République démocratique du Congo) se heurte à des contraintes médico-économiques et culturelles qui aboutissent souvent à des prises en charge retardées. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les délais de prise en charge, les délais opératoires et de les corréler aux complications postopératoires. Les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels des fractures de jambe ont été également évalués. Notre hypothèse était que le taux de complications est significativement plus élevé en cas de prise en charge retardée. Cette étude rétrospective a été réalisée aux cliniques universitaires de Kisangani de 1996 à 2009. Soixante-seize fractures de jambe ou du pilon tibial traitées par ostéosynthèse interne ou externe à foyer fermé ou ouvert ont été analysées. Les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels ont été évalués à 12 mois minimum. La prise en charge des patients était tardive. Le délai moyen d’admission à l’hôpital était de 19 ± 18,28 jours (extrêmes de 1 à 90 jours) avec une différence significative des complications selon le délai d’admission (p < 0,05) aux dépens des patients admis tardivement. Le délai opératoire moyen après l’admission était de 9,5 ± 8,51 jours (extrêmes de 1 à 30 jours) avec une différence significative des complications selon le délai opératoire (p < 0,05) aux dépens des patients opérés tardivement (infections, pseudarthrose). Le délai d’admission ou opératoire n’influençait pas les résultats fonctionnels (p > 0,05). Ces résultats sont cohérents avec ceux rapportés dans la littérature. Le retard de la chirurgie est associé à l’augmentation de complications postopératoires (infection, pseudarthrose) et de la durée d’hospitalisation. Un retard opératoire de plus de 48 heures doit être évité, sauf pour les patients médicalement instables qui nécessitent une période de stabilisation médicale. Niveau de preuve. – Niveau IV : rétrospectif – série historique. [less ▲]

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See detailDes terrasses de fond de vallée de la Meuse dans la région de Huy (Belgique)
Juvigné, Etienne ULg; Demoulin, Alain ULg; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg et al

in BSGLg (2016), 65

Des alluvions mosanes mises au jour dans quatre chantiers de la ville d’Andenne et d’autres fossilisées dans le méandre abandonné de Leumont (Huy) sont mises en relation avec d’autres terrasses mosanes ... [more ▼]

Des alluvions mosanes mises au jour dans quatre chantiers de la ville d’Andenne et d’autres fossilisées dans le méandre abandonné de Leumont (Huy) sont mises en relation avec d’autres terrasses mosanes signalées antérieurement dans des travaux géotechniques réalisés entre Andenne et Hermalle-sous-Huy. Enfoui sous des dépôts atteignant localement 30 m d’épaisseur, le dernier cailloutis du méandre recoupé de Leumont se raccorde parfaitement à la plaine alluviale actuelle à sa sortie, et est en fait une section abandonnée de cette dernière. À l’entrée du méandre, il se situe toutefois 1,5 à 2 m au-dessus du cailloutis de la plaine alluviale actuelle, ce pour quoi nous l’appelons Terrasse (T.) locale de Wanze 2. Dans ce même méandre, il existe un autre cailloutis mosan qui se situe, de base à base, 6 m plus haut que le niveau précité et est lui-même fossilisé sous une vingtaine de mètres dépôts ; nous l’avons nommé T. de Wanze 1. Les âges respectifs du recoupement du méandre et de la T. de Wanze 1 ont été estimés de façon indirecte, suggérant qu’à Huy, (1) la plaine alluviale est à son niveau actuel depuis le début de la dernière glaciation, et (2) la Meuse a été active sur la T. de Wanze 1 pendant l’avant-dernière glaciation (Stade Isotopique Marin 6). Des taux d’incision de la Meuse et de la surrection régionale qui l’a occasionnée sont estimés à partir de la T. de Wanze 1 et d’une terrasse plus élevée présente à Naxhelet, juste à l’ouest du méandre de Leumont. Ils suggèrent une vitesse constante de ~0,06 mm/a pour la surrection de la région de Huy depuis ~600 ka. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-ovarian aromatization is required to activate female sexual motivation in testosterone-treated ovariectomized quail
de Bournonville, Catherine; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2016), 83

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See detailEffet inflammatoire des extraits de Cupressus sempervirens planté dans l’Est de l’Algérie : du modèle murin à la stimulation des cellules BEAS-2B par l’allergène majeur Cup s 1
Bouguenoun, Imene; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Bensakhri, Z et al

in Revue Française d'Allergologie (2016), 56

Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions ... [more ▼]

Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions de l’extrait pollinique de cette espèce peut moduler la réponse immunitaire chez les souris, et, ensuite, la stimulation des cellules épithéliales bronchiques humaines (BEAS-2B) par l’allergène majeur, identifié par spectrométrie de masse et purifié par chromatographie échangeuse d’ions. La sensibilisation des souris a révélé, d’une part, une diminution du nombre de neutrophiles et une augmentation des éosinophiles, et, d’autre part, une augmentation significative du total cellulaire dans le liquide du lavage bronchoalvéolaire.L’étude histologique des poumons a montré une présence d’infiltrat inflammatoire et d’oedème péri-bronchique. La spectrométrie de masse nous a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de l’allergène majeur Cup s 1 dans toutes les fractions avec une présence spécifique du Cup s 3 et Cupa 1 dans la fraction 4. Cet allergène avait le potentiel pour stimuler la libération de l’IL-8 et l’IL-6 par la ligné cellulaire, BEAS-2B, in vitro d’une manière dose-dépendante [less ▲]

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See detailImproving Farmers’ Profitability, Soil and Water Conservation through an Adapted Tillage Technique: Experiences from the Cultivation of Potatoes in Bamiléké’s Hills, Cameroon
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh et al

in International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research (2016), 4(4), 708-716

On farms situated on slopes, such as those in the Western Highlands of Cameroon, the implementation of soil and water conservation techniques remains a major concern. The land preparation methods commonly ... [more ▼]

On farms situated on slopes, such as those in the Western Highlands of Cameroon, the implementation of soil and water conservation techniques remains a major concern. The land preparation methods commonly practiced in the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon are ridging along the steepest slopes (RASS) and the flatbed (FB). Field observations showed FB and RASS promote erosion by runoff, thereby compromising some agriculture functions (environmental function, production function and even social function). In order to ensure soil stability and maintain good water quality for rivers, a new land preparation method, tied ridging (TR), was tested. Erosion by runoff tests were conducted with four blocks of three plots on each of the most commonly exploited slopes, namely 11% and 29% gradient. With the main crop in the area (potato, Solanum tuberosum L.), the performance of RASS, FB, and TR were compared during crop years 2013 and 2014. The water runoff and sediments were collected per plot and per block after every rainfall. The results showed a significant difference between the FB or RASS and TR in terms of soil loss (Fmin(2, 2) = 322.7, p = 0.003), yields (F(2, 2) = 287.7, p = 0.003), and runoff water (Fmin(2, 12) = 2.4x106, p < 0.001). The TR technique generated a 7% increase in seedlings density, a 41% increase in the workforce, and an 81% and 100% increase in yields compared to FB in 11% and 29% slopes, respectively. The TR increased farmer’s profitability by 686 US$.ha-1 and 1420 US$.ha-1 over RASS in 11% and 29% slopes, respectively. The TR showed undeniable advantages: for the producer, the stress of additional work was offset by the gain in yields while creating additional job opportunities and improving the conservation of soil and water. Although the technique has several advantages, the provision of financial means for its implementation could be a negative point. Twelve farmers were involved in the experiment. The test results convinced the participants and other curious farmers who adopted the technology during the second experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteoarthritis biomarkers derived from cartilage extracellular matrix: Current status and future perspectives.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Bay-Jensen, A. C. et al

in Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine (2016)

Specific soluble biomarkers can be powerful tools for the diagnosis, prognosis and personalized management of osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers are potential indicators of the effect of a drug on cartilage ... [more ▼]

Specific soluble biomarkers can be powerful tools for the diagnosis, prognosis and personalized management of osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers are potential indicators of the effect of a drug on cartilage metabolism and provide crucial information about the mechanisms of drug action. In this review, we address key questions concerning the use of biomarkers in OA management: Why do we need soluble biomarkers? What are the most widely investigated biomarkers derived from cartilage extracellular matrix? What are the most common pitfalls in interpreting soluble biomarker measurements? What are the perspectives and future research directions in this field? We review current evidence to propose that cartilage-derived soluble biomarkers are complementary "drug development tools" that can be applied during drug development from preclinical research to clinical evaluation. In the future, such biomarkers could be surrogate markers of clinical and/or imaging outcomes. Successful standardization and implementation of automated biomarker assays will facilitate their use in companion diagnostics in the context of personalized medicine for enhanced management of OA. [less ▲]

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See detailLes soins de santé primaires, plus que des soins de première ligne
Crismer, André ULg; Belche, Jean ULg; van der Vennet, Jean

in Santé Publique : Revue Multidisciplinaire pour la Recherche et l'Action (2016)

Primary health care are often spoken about , but they are rarely defined. This article explores this concept and founds two different understandings of primary health care, both issued from Alma Ata ... [more ▼]

Primary health care are often spoken about , but they are rarely defined. This article explores this concept and founds two different understandings of primary health care, both issued from Alma Ata Declaration. As long as the expression « primary health care » may correspond to two types of contents, or a level of care, or a global approach of the health system, it will be useful to clarify it, when using it. [less ▲]

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See detailTECHNIQUE, DIFFICULTY, AND ACCURACY OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED TRANSLAMINAR AND TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBOSACRAL EPIDURAL AND INTRAARTICULAR LUMBAR FACET JOINT INJECTIONS IN DOGS.
Liotta, Annalisa Pia ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Couvreur, Thierry et al

in Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association (2016), 57(2), 191-8

In human medicine, spinal pain and radiculopathy are commonly managed by computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections and by transforaminal or translaminar epidural injections. In dogs, CT ... [more ▼]

In human medicine, spinal pain and radiculopathy are commonly managed by computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections and by transforaminal or translaminar epidural injections. In dogs, CT-guided lumbosacral epidural or lumbar facet joint injections have not been described. The aim of this experimental, ex vivo, feasibility study was to develop techniques and to assess their difficulty and accuracy. Two canine cadavers were used to establish the techniques and eight cadavers to assess difficulty and accuracy. Contrast medium was injected and a CT scan was performed after each injection. Accuracy was assessed according to epidural or joint space contrast opacification. Difficulty was classified as easy, moderately difficult, or difficult, based on the number of CT scans needed to guide insertion of the needle. A total of six translaminar and five transforaminal epidural and 53 joint injections were performed. Translaminar injections had a high success rate (100%), were highly accurate (75%), and easy to perform (100%). Transforaminal injections had an moderately high success rate (75%), were accurate (75%), and moderately difficult to perform (100%). Success rate of facet joint injections was 62% and was higher for larger facet joints, such as L7-S1. Accuracy of facet joint injections ranged from accurate (37-62%) to highly accurate (25%) depending on the volume injected. In 77% of cases, injections were moderately difficult to perform. Possible complications of epidural and facet joint injections were subarachnoid and vertebral venous plexus puncture and periarticular spread, respectively. Further studies are suggested to evaluate in vivo feasibility and safety of these techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation posologique des médicaments et fonction rénale : Quel(s) estimateur(s) faut-il choisir?
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Flamant, M; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2016), 12(1), 18-31

Le choix de la formule d’estimation du de´ bit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) a` utiliser pour l’adaptation posologique fait encore de´ bat, principalement entre la formule de Cockcroft et les équations ... [more ▼]

Le choix de la formule d’estimation du de´ bit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) a` utiliser pour l’adaptation posologique fait encore de´ bat, principalement entre la formule de Cockcroft et les équations plus récentes, MDRD (pour Modified Diet in Renal Disease) et CKD-EPI (pour Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology). Les arguments mis en avant en faveur de l’utilisation de la formule de Cockcroft sont : qu’elle a été préférentiellement utilisée pour décider des adaptations posologiques avant la mise sur le marché des médicaments, qu’elle permettrait une meilleure prédiction du risque de survenue des effets indésirables a` l’accumulation des médicaments, qu’elle permettrait de limiter le surdosage médicamenteux chez la personne âgée. Dans cet article d’opinion, nous discutons les faiblesses de l’argumentaire des partisans du maintien de l’utilisation de la formule de Cockcroft dans le contexte de l’adaptation posologique, ainsi que les limites et le manque de fiabilité de cette formule. Nous soutenons la recommandation de la Haute Autorité de sante´ (HAS) sur l’utilisation systématique, en 2015, de l’équation CKD-EPI pour l’estimation du DFG. Lorsque le DFG est e´ value´ dans le but d’adapter la posologie d’un médicament, la désindexation de la surface corporelle est préférable. Compte tenu des difficultés d’estimation du DFG chez la personne âgée et chez les individus a` gabarit hors norme, nous recommandons d’utiliser en priorité dans ces populations, des médicaments pour lesquels un suivi pharmacologique est disponible, ou d’avoir recours à une méthode de référence de mesure du DFG. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude des potentialités des systèmes d’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) pour les traitements phytosanitaires en céréaliculture (synthèse bibliographique)
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses ... [more ▼]

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses hydrauliques conventionnelles. Littérature. Cette revue investigue la potentialité de la CDA par rapport aux buses hydrauliques dans le cadre du désherbage précoce des adventices (2-3 feuilles). En termes de rétention, les études reliant les caractéristiques des gouttes (taille, vitesse et direction) et l’architecture, la densité et la mouillabilité du feuillage, en fonction de la formulation de bouillies, ont été abordées. Ces études montrent que des gouttes de 300 μm avec un adjuvant approprié et des jets émis 60° vers l’avant par rapport à la verticale contribuent à l’augmentation de la rétention sur les cibles problématiques à port dressé. L’effet des réductions des volumes d’application pour ces deux techniques est étudié sur base de la moyenne, du coefficient de variation et du taux de couverture des dépôts. Néanmoins, les résultats de ces études ne peuvent être généralisés du fait des différences de réglages opératoires entre les deux techniques d’application. Quant à la dérive, les atomiseurs CDA orientés horizontalement présentent un potentiel de dérive plus important que les buses hydrauliques pour lesquelles le spray est orienté vers le bas. La dérive augmente avec la vitesse du vent et diminue lorsque le diamètre médian volumétrique (DV50) augmente. Conclusions. De nouveaux réglages des atomiseurs de la CDA en termes de DV50 et de direction du jet peuvent répondre aux défis de l’agriculture de précision. Les pistes d’innovations proposées sont d’une part une amélioration de la résistance à l’usure des dents situées en bordure des disques et, d’autre part, une distribution granulométrique plus étroite. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of methods of detection of water estrogenicity for their use as monitoring tools in a process of estrogenicity removal
Blavier; Songulashvili; Simon, Coraline ULg et al

in Environmental Technology (2016)

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See detailExternal Costs as Competitiveness Factors for Freight Transport — A State of the Art
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in Transport Reviews (2016)

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies ... [more ▼]

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies. This paper has two purposes. It first identifies the recent work achieved in the field of external costs of road and intermodal freight transport, where each paper is assessed in terms of its perspective (academic or project oriented), its objective (prescription, application, projection), the type of externality (air pollution, climate change, noise, accidents, congestion) and the type of cost (marginal, average, total) that is considered. The literature review reveals a gap in the development of generic mathematical functions for external costs of transport. The second objective of the paper is thus to highlight the usefulness of such functions by identifying the main parameters that influence freight transport competitiveness in terms of external costs, and by determining which of these parameters should be incorporated in further research works. [less ▲]

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See detailCheatgrass is favored by warming but not CO2 enrichment in a semi-arid grassland
Blumenthal, Dana; Kray, Julie; Ortmans, William ULg et al

in Global Change Biology (2016), Early view

Elevated CO2 and warming may alter terrestrial ecosystems by promoting invasive plants with strong community and ecosystem impacts. Invasive plant responses to elevated CO2 and warming are difficult to ... [more ▼]

Elevated CO2 and warming may alter terrestrial ecosystems by promoting invasive plants with strong community and ecosystem impacts. Invasive plant responses to elevated CO2 and warming are difficult to predict, however, because of the many mechanisms involved, including modification of phenology, physiology, and cycling of nitrogen and water. Understanding the relative and interactive importance of these processes requires multifactor experiments under realistic field conditions. Here, we test how free-air CO2 enrichment (to 600 ppmv) and infrared warming (+1.5 °C day/3 °C night) influence a functionally and phenologically distinct invasive plant in semi-arid mixed-grass prairie. Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a fast-growing Eurasian winter annual grass, increases fire frequency and reduces biological diversity across millions of hectares in western North America. Across 2 years, we found that warming more than tripled B. tectorum biomass and seed production, due to a combination of increased recruitment and increased growth. These results were observed with and without competition from native species, under wet and dry conditions (corresponding with tenfold differences in B. tectorum biomass), and despite the fact that warming reduced soil water. In contrast, elevated CO2 had little effect on B. tectorum invasion or soil water, while reducing soil and plant nitrogen (N). We conclude that (1) warming may expand B. tectorum's phenological niche, allowing it to more successfully colonize the extensive, invasion-resistant northern mixed-grass prairie, and (2) in ecosystems where elevated CO2 decreases N availability, CO2 may have limited effects on B. tectorum and other nitrophilic invasive species. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based alternative meat products in Western countries
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Quality & Preference (2016)

During the past few years, entomophagy has been increasing in significance. As insects are generally high in protein, they are principally considered as meat substitutes. Nevertheless, in Western ... [more ▼]

During the past few years, entomophagy has been increasing in significance. As insects are generally high in protein, they are principally considered as meat substitutes. Nevertheless, in Western countries, meat substitute consumption is actually very low, principally due to food neophobia and poor sensory qualities in comparison with meat. In insect particular case, food neophobia is clearly high. To reduce insect food neophobia, previous studies suggest to insert invisible insect in food preparation and/or to associate them with known flavors. In this study, a survey on entomophagy perception and hedonic tests were realized to assess the level of sensory-liking of hybrid insect-based burgers (beef, lentils, mealworms and beef, mealworms and lentils). Participants’ overall liking of the four burgers differed between genders and was influenced by burger appearance and taste. Women clearly preferred beef burger appearance, whereas men preferred the appearance of beef and insect-based burgers. Concerning insect-based burger taste, participants (men and women) rated it intermediately, between that of the beef and lentil burger, with a preference for the mealworm and beef burger. Results also showed that people with previous entomophagy experience was limited but that they gave globally higher ratings to all preparations. In conclusion, insect tasting sessions are important to decrease food neophobia, as they encourage people to “take the first step” and become acquainted with entomophagy. Nevertheless, insect integration into Western food culture will involve a transitional phase with minced or powdered insects incorporated into ready-to-eat preparations, as people are not ready to add insects to their diets in “whole form.” [less ▲]

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See detailViser le développement de la composante éthique du savoir-agir professionnel des enseignants et formateurs.
Poumay, Marianne ULg; Pirard, Florence ULg

in Les Dossiers du GREE - Éthique en éducation et en formation - Questions d'éthique et de formation en éducation et en santé (2016), 3(2), 79-95

L'article interroge la formation déontologique des enseignants et formateurs en Sciences de l’éducation à partir de la description de dispositifs mis en place depuis 2001 à l’Université de Liège. Cette ... [more ▼]

L'article interroge la formation déontologique des enseignants et formateurs en Sciences de l’éducation à partir de la description de dispositifs mis en place depuis 2001 à l’Université de Liège. Cette description montre l’importance accordée à l’étude et la résolution fictive de cas concrets, vécus par les participants en tant qu’élèves ou dans une activité professionnelle. L’article explicite les fondements de sa méthodologie, propose une réflexion sur les difficultés rencontrées et ouvre sur une discussion présentant des perspectives de régulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPalindromic sequences generated from marked morphisms
Labbé, Sébastien ULg; Pelantova, Edita

in European Journal of Combinatorics (2016), 51

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See detailEdaphic niches of metallophytes from southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for post-mining restoration
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Lebrun, Julie et al

in Journal for Nature Conservation (2016)

In southeastern D. R. Congo, about 550 metallophytes grow on soils with high copper and cobalt concentrations, 57 of which are endemics to these metalliferous environments. About 70% of those endemics are ... [more ▼]

In southeastern D. R. Congo, about 550 metallophytes grow on soils with high copper and cobalt concentrations, 57 of which are endemics to these metalliferous environments. About 70% of those endemics are considered threatened by destruction of habitats through mining activities. To provide guidelines for future restoration programs, the edaphic ecological niches of eight copper endemics were studied using a pragmatic sampling method adapted for urgent conservation needs. Niches were modelled using violin plot along Cu, Co and C:N gradients representing the two main independent edaphic gradients among nine edaphic variables (C, N, C:N, K, P, pH, Co, Cu, and Mn). Copper endemics presented distinct edaphic niches along the copper and cobalt gradients, but differentiation was lower along the C:N gradient. In addition, edaphic elements presented covariations among them and metalliferous soils had higher nutrient and element content compared to the non-metalliferous soils of the region dominated by the Miombo woodland. The complexity of the soil composition and the edaphic niches of copper endemics revealed an important challenge in the implementation of the species conservation and the habitat restoration strategies of post-mining sites. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cognitivo-linguistique : pour une tentative de rapprochement de la clinique et de l'actuariel
Courtain, Audrey ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique [= RICPTS] (2016), 1

Anchored in the actuarial field, risk assessment is a tool clinicians are more and more likely to use (because they can or have to) among delinquents. But, due to epistemological differences, an important ... [more ▼]

Anchored in the actuarial field, risk assessment is a tool clinicians are more and more likely to use (because they can or have to) among delinquents. But, due to epistemological differences, an important debate has been occurring between the clinical evaluation and the actuarial one since the fifties. This paper suggests a media between those perspectives through cognitive linguistics: it allows a complementary articulation, while insisting on what is at stake for both clinical and actuarial developments. Linking language and cognitions, the paper introduces a reflexion that may be useful to actuarial assessment and clinical support, and may facilitate rapprochement between the latter. In this case, our linguistic approach focusses on different matters targeted by actuarial tools and whose clinical understanding may be deepened by studying the link between language and cognition; this clinical understanding bringing singularity to risk assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperuricémie et risque potentiel de pathologie cardiovasculiare et rénale
Schils, Raphaël ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016)

Besides the well accepted need to treat hyperuricemia associated with gout, some large observational studies and small prospective therapeutic trials have suggested that treating asymptomatic ... [more ▼]

Besides the well accepted need to treat hyperuricemia associated with gout, some large observational studies and small prospective therapeutic trials have suggested that treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia, especially by xanthine oxidase inhibition, the enzyme producing uric acid, could be beneficial for cardiovascular and renal risk prevention. This article discusses the literature about this promising approach, which, however, requests prospective validation. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of selenium protection against methylmercury toxicity in harbour seal leucocytes in vitro
Das, Krishna ULg; Dupont, Aurélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016), 108

Previous studies described high concentrations of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in the blood of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina from the North Sea. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro potential ... [more ▼]

Previous studies described high concentrations of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in the blood of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina from the North Sea. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro potential protective effects of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell proliferation of harbour seal lymphocytes exposed to MeHgCl 0.75 µM. In vitro exposure of ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes resulted in severe inhibition of DNA synthesis, likely linked to severe loss of mitochondrial membrane potential at 0.75 µM. Neither selenite nor SeMet showed a protective effect against MeHg toxicity expressed at the T lymphocyte proliferation level for harbour seals. Selenite and SeMet did not show negative effects regarding lymphocyte proliferation and mitochondrial membrane potential. To conclude, our results clearly demonstrated that MeHg affected in vitro immune cells exposure with no protective effects of selenium at a molar ratio Hg:Se of 1:10 in harbour seals from the North Sea. [less ▲]

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See detailHearing “quack” and remembering a duck: Evidence for fluency attribution in young children
Geurten, Marie ULg; Lloyd, Marianne; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Child Development (2016)

Previous research has suggested that fluency does not influence memory decisions until age 7-8. In two experiments (n=96 and n=64, respectively), children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years (Experiment 1-2), and ... [more ▼]

Previous research has suggested that fluency does not influence memory decisions until age 7-8. In two experiments (n=96 and n=64, respectively), children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years (Experiment 1-2), and adults (Experiment 2) studied a list of pictures. Participants completed a recognition test during which each study item was preceded by a sound providing either a highly predictive or mildly predictive context in order to make some test items more conceptually fluent. Overall, highly predictive items were recognized at a higher rate than mildly predictive items demonstrating an earlier development of the fluency heuristic than previously observed. The study provides insight on how children develop metacognitive expectations and when they start to use them to guide their memory responses. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting Reversibility of Anticancer Drugs-Related Cardiac Dysfunction: A New Piece to the Routine Use of Deformation Imaging.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Moonen, Marie; Jerusalem, Guy ULg

in Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) (2016), 33(4), 504-9

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See detailSex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.
van Hemmen, J.; Saris, I. M. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. et al

in Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) (2016)

Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the ... [more ▼]

Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate white matter (WM) microstructure in 46,XY women with CAIS (n = 20), 46,XY comparison men (n = 30), and 46,XX comparison women (n = 30). Widespread sex differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), with higher FA in comparison men than in comparison women, were observed. Women with CAIS showed female-typical FA throughout extended WM regions, predominantly due to female-typical radial diffusivity. These findings indicate a predominant role of sex hormones in the sexual differentiation of WM microstructure, although sex chromosome genes and/or masculinizing androgen effects not mediated by the androgen receptor might also play a role. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the management of osteoarthritis-Transitioning evidence-based guidelines into practical guidance for real-world clinical practice
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Cooper, C.

in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2016), 45(4 Suppl), 1-2

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See detailImplicit learning: A way to improve visual search in spatial neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Geurten, Marie ULg; Colson, Catherine et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016)

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without being able to verbalize their knowledge. In order to better control for the involvement of explicit processes, the present study sought to test neglect patients’ ability to detect more complex associations between stimuli using tasks similar to those used in implicit learning studies. Our results demonstrate that neglect patients had difficulties implicitly learning complex associations, contrary to what we found with controls. The possible influence of attentional and working memory impairments are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPermanence de l'utilitarisme - évolution des politiques d'immigration et d'intégration en Belgique-
Bousetta, Hassan ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2016), 94(mars-avril2016), 28-31

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique d’immigration comme on l’entend parfois ? Pas si vite... [less ▲]

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See detailCOMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNITEC RESONANCE FINDINGS IN ATHLETES AT RISK FOR SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH
GHEKIERE, olivier; Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg; BIJNENES, Eric et al

in Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology (2016), 44

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See detailLe syndrome thyro-gastrique auto-immun : actualités cliniques et thérapeutiques
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; SID, Sélim ULg; LUTTERI, Laurence ULg et al

in Vaisseaux, Coeur, Poumons (2016), 21(4), 11-15

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See detailOntogenic variation and effect of collection procedure on leaf biomechanical properties of Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile
de los santos, Carmen; Vicencio, Barbara; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

in Marine Ecology (2016)

Leaf mechanical traits are important to understand how aquatic plants fracture and deform when subjected to abiotic (currents or waves) or biotic (herbivory attack) mechanical forces. The likely ... [more ▼]

Leaf mechanical traits are important to understand how aquatic plants fracture and deform when subjected to abiotic (currents or waves) or biotic (herbivory attack) mechanical forces. The likely occurrence of variation during leaf onto- geny in these traits may thus have implications for hydrodynamic performance and vulnerability to herbivory damage, and may be associated with changes in morphologic and chemical traits. Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, consist of shoot bundles holding several leaves with different developmental stages, in which outer older leaves protect inner younger leaves. In this study we examined the long-lived seagrass Posidonia oceanica to determine ontogenic variation in mechanical traits across leaf position within a shoot, representing different devel- opmental stages. Moreover, we investigated whether or not the collection proce- dure (classical uprooted shoot versus non-destructive shoot method: cutting the shoot without a portion of rhizome) and time span after collection influence mechanical measurements. Neither collection procedure nor time elapsed within 48 h of collection affected measurements of leaf biomechanical traits when sea- grass shoots were kept moist in dark cool conditions. Ontogenic variation in mechanical traits in P. oceanica leaves over intermediate and adult developmen- tal stages was observed: leaves weakened and lost stiffness with aging, while mid- aged leaves (the longest and thickest ones) were able to withstand higher break- ing forces. In addition, younger leaves had higher nitrogen content and lower fiber content than older leaves. The observed patterns may explain fine-scale within-shoot ecological processes of leaves at different developmental stages, such as leaf shedding and herbivory consumption in P. oceanica. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent advances in composite CAD/CAM blocks.
Mainjot, Amélie ULg

in International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry (2016), 11(2), 275-80

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See detailLes ambiguïtés de l’anthropomorphisme : de la divinité agissante à sa statue dans la céramique grecque
Collard, Hélène ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2016), 5

L’image, sous ses divers aspects, a joué un rôle essentiel dans la vie des anciens Grecs, en particulier dans le domaine religieux, puisque elle était l’une des modalités de perception du divin. En Grèce ... [more ▼]

L’image, sous ses divers aspects, a joué un rôle essentiel dans la vie des anciens Grecs, en particulier dans le domaine religieux, puisque elle était l’une des modalités de perception du divin. En Grèce, la figuration anthropomorphe des dieux est largement majoritaire. Toutefois, en se tournant vers un support particulier, le vase peint, et un type de représentation particulier, la statue divine, on montrera ici que l’anthropomorphisme a pu amener une certaine ambiguïté. Dans la céramique, les représentations de statues fonctionnent sur plusieurs modes, selon la chronologie. C’est ce que l’on propose d’analyser, en examinant un groupe de vases décorés d’un thème semblable et sur lesquels une divinité est représentée, mais soit sous la forme d’une figure « vivante », soit d’une statue plus ou moins bien caractérisée. Cette étude permettra d’aborder les concepts de « fixité » et de « mouvement » de/dans l’image, mais aussi d’explorer quelques pistes de réflexions sur l’image divine et, plus largement, sur les modes de représentation du divin en Grèce ancienne. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-continuity across time in schizophrenia: an exploration of phenomenological and narrative continuity in the past and future
Allé, M. C.; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Schneider, P. et al

in Comprehensive Psychiatry (2016), 69

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See detailEffects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs-A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.
Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2016), 98(1), 1-17

Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes ... [more ▼]

Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs to treat or prevent sarcopenia
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Cooper, Cyrus; Rizzoli, René et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2016), 28(1), 47-58

Purpose: Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a considerable social and economic burden. Potential treatments are under development but, as yet, no guidelines support regulatory studies for new drugs to manage sarcopenia. The objective of this position paper is therefore to suggest a set of potential endpoints and target population definitions to stimulate debate and progress within the medico-scientific and regulatory communities. Methods: A multidisciplinary expert working group was hosted by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, which reviewed and discussed the recent literature from a perspective of clinical experience and guideline development. Relevant parallels were drawn from the development of definition of osteoporosis as a disease and clinical assessment of pharmaceutical treatments for that indication. Results A case-finding decision tree is briefly reviewed with a discussion of recent prevalence estimations of different relevant threshold values. The selection criteria for patients in regulatory studies are discussed according to the aims of the investigation (sarcopenia prevention or treatment) and the stage of project development. The possible endpoints of such studies are reviewed and a pleais made for the establishment of a core outcome set to be used in all clinical trials of sarcopenia. Conclusions : The current lack of guidelines for the assessment of new therapeutic treatments for sarcopenia could potentially hinder the delivery of effective medicines to patients at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite joints under M-N at elevated temperatures
Haremza, Cécile; Santiago, Aldina; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2016), 124

The Eurocodes recognise robustness as a way to ensure the structural integrity of a building frame subjected to an unforeseen event and therefore to avoid a so-called “progressive failure” mode in extreme ... [more ▼]

The Eurocodes recognise robustness as a way to ensure the structural integrity of a building frame subjected to an unforeseen event and therefore to avoid a so-called “progressive failure” mode in extreme loading situations. However, few practical guidelines exist nowadays which would allow a designer to design a structure accordingly. Within the European RFCS ROBUSTFIRE project, the behaviour of steel and composite car parks subjected to localised fire leading to a column loss was investigated. Under such a scenario, the beam-to-column joints play a key role in the global structural response. Indeed, these joints, initially loaded in bending, may be subjected to elevated temperatures and to combined axial load “N”, bending moment “M” and shear forces “V”. In this paper, a methodology to predict the mechanical response of bolted composite beam-to-column joints at elevated temperatures under M-N is presented and validated through comparison with detailed numerical results and experimental tests. This methodology is based on an analytical method able to predict M-N resistance interaction curves for steel and composite joints and which is in full agreement with the component model recommended by the Eurocode. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation et neurosciences I : craintes, société, méthodologie, finalité
Desseilles, Martin ULg

in Santé Mentale au Québec (2016), XL(3), 209-221

Cetarticleestlepremierdedeuxarticlesexplorantlesliensbidirection- nels entre le concept d’adaptation et celui de neurosciences. Nous verrons tout d’abord dans cet article que les neurosciences peuvent ... [more ▼]

Cetarticleestlepremierdedeuxarticlesexplorantlesliensbidirection- nels entre le concept d’adaptation et celui de neurosciences. Nous verrons tout d’abord dans cet article que les neurosciences peuvent être perçues comme ambi- tieuses et toutes-puissantes oscillant entre un danger réductionniste et déshuma- nisant ou bien cristallisant certains fantasmes de maîtrise. Nous verrons ensuite que la société s’adapte aux neurosciences en intégrant certaines méthodologies et certaines découvertes dans des domaines très variés, au point que nous pouvons nous questionner sur la neurosociété de demain. Ensuite nous verrons que la méthodologie des neurosciences est elle-même fréquemment remise en question et nécessite que chacun en connaisse les limites sans s’en tenir aux seules pro- messes. Après cela, nous verrons que l’adaptation vue comme une promesse d’un but déterminé et fini peut s’avérer rassurante mais est surtout improbable. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic diversity, Population structure, parentage analysis, and construction of core collections in the French apple germplasm based on SSR markers
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa et al

in Plant Molecular Biology Reporter (2016)

In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 ... [more ▼]

In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 accessions with 24 SSR markers in order to evaluate its genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships, to link these features with cultivar selection date or usage (old or modern, dessert or cider cultivars), and to construct core collections. Most markers were highly discriminating and powerful for varietal identification, with a probability of identity P(ID) over the 21 retained SSR loci close to 10-28. Pairwise comparisons revealed 34% redundancy and 18.5% putative triploids. The results showed that the germplasm is highly diverse with an expected heterozygosity He of 0.82 and observed heterozygosity Ho of 0.83. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach revealed a weak but significant structure in three subgroups (FST = 0.014-0.048) corresponding, albeit approximately, to the three subpopulations defined beforehand (Old Dessert, Old Cider and Moderncultivars). Parentage analyses established already known and yet unknown relationships, notably between old cultivars, with the frequent occurrence of cultivars such as ‘King of Pippin’ and ‘Calville Rouge d’Hiver’ as founders. Finally, core collections based on allelic diversity were constructed. A large dessert core collection of 278 cultivars contained 90% of the total dessert allelic diversity, whereas a dessert sub-core collection of 48 cultivars contained 71% of diversity. For cider apples, a 48-cultivars core collection contained 83% of the total cider allelic diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailMelting processes and mantle sources of lavas on Mercury
Namur, Olivier; Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard ULg et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 439

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See detailDrivers of earthworm incidence and abundance across European forests
De Wandeler, Hans; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Ampoorter, Evy et al

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2016), 99

Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling ... [more ▼]

Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling their distribution across European forests. Optimised sampling techniques, as well as more advanced statistical tools and geographical information systems have facilitated studies at the landscape scale. But these, and even larger-scale studies, are scarce due to data limitations, taxonomic inconsistencies and practical issues in linking existing databases. In this continental-scale field-based study we used boosted regression tree modelling to identify and evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors explaining earthworm incidence (presence/absence) and abundance (density and biomass) in European forests. To parameterise our models earthworms were sampled in six forest landscapes along a latitudinal gradient from the boreal north to the Mediterranean south in spring or autumn of 2012, together with several environmental variables. Earthworms were sampled using a combined method of mustard extraction and hand sorting of litter and a soil monolith, after which they were weighed and identified to functional group (epigeic, endogeic and anecic). We found that litter- and soil-related variables best explained earthworm incidence and biomass in European forests, leaving only a minor role to climaterelated variables. Among the litter related variables, understory vegetation played an important role in explaining earthworm incidence and abundance. The relative importance of explanatory variables differed between models for incidence, density and biomass and between earthworm functional groups. Our results suggested that threshold values for soil C:N ratio, forest floor pH and understory plant biomass and plant nutrient concentrations have to be attained before earthworms can occur. Beyond these threshold values, variables like soil C:N ratio, tree litter C:P ratio and forest floor mass further explain earthworm biomass. Mechanisms behind these observations are discussed in the light of future earthworm distribution modelling at continental scale. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of context on psychomotor sensitization to ethanol and cocaine
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Caroline; Dieupart, Julie et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2016), 27(2 & 3), 173-181

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to ... [more ▼]

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to cocaine is context dependent as its expression is reduced in an environment that was not paired with cocaine administration. In contrast, the effects of the test context on ethanol sensitization remain unclear. In the present study, female OF1 mice were repeatedly injected with 1.5 g/kg ethanol to test for both the effects of context novelty/familiarity and association on ethanol sensitization. A first group of mice was extensively pre-exposed to the test context before ethanol sensitization and ethanol injections were paired with the test context (familiar and paired group). A second group was not pre-exposed to the test context, but ethanol injections were paired with the test context (nonfamiliar and paired group). Finally, a third group of mice was not pre-exposed to the test context and ethanol was repeatedly injected in the home cage (unpaired group). Control groups were similarly exposed to the test context, but were injected with saline. In a second experiment, cocaine was used as a positive control. The same behavioral procedure was used, except that mice were injected with 10 mg/kg cocaine instead of ethanol. The results show a differential involvement of the test context in the sensitization to ethanol and cocaine. Cocaine sensitization is strongly context dependent and is not expressed in the unpaired group. In contrast, the expression of ethanol sensitization is independent of the context in which it was administered, but is strongly affected by the relative novelty/familiarity of the environment. Extensive pre-exposure to the test context prevented the expression of ethanol sensitization. One possible explanation is that expression of ethanol sensitization requires an arousing environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system
Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2016), 157

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were ... [more ▼]

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with \{AT\} being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{DIC\} and pH, \{DIC\} to ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{AT\} and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using \{AT\} and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using \{DIC\} and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity–borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity–boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency. [less ▲]

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See detailA Simple Tiered Methodology for the Determination of Ambient Air Quality Guidelines
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Brouhon, Jean-Marc; Fourmeaux, Annick et al

in Clean : Soil, Air, Water (2016), 44

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See detailImpact of feeding and housing on the development ofosteochondrosis in foals—A longitudinal study
Mendoza García, Luis ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Caudron, Isabelle ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 127

Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a developmental orthopedic disease caused by a failure of the endochondral ossification in epiphyseal plates and joint cartilage. This trouble may induce the presence of ... [more ▼]

Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a developmental orthopedic disease caused by a failure of the endochondral ossification in epiphyseal plates and joint cartilage. This trouble may induce the presence of osteochondral fragments in the articulation, fissures or subchondral bone cysts in the growth cartilage. Occurrence of osteochondrosis is influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Among these, the effect of the housing and the feeding of the foals during their first months of life, have been described as risk factors for the development of osteochondrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of OCD lesions with a longitudinal study in 204 young foals from 6 to 18 months in comparison to the type of feeding and the type of housing conditions. These factors and OCD status were obtained by a questionnaire and radiological examination, respectively. This allowed dividing the foals into four groups according to the initial OCD status and the evolution of the condition. As a result, we found that foals fed with concentrates show a higher probability to develop OCD lesions (p = 0.06), while foals not receiving concentrates, had a higher probability to heal from existing OCD lesions (p = 0.001). This study supports the theory that management factors such as feeding or housing may influence the evolution of the osteochondrosis disease. [less ▲]

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See detailSHIP2 controls plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 thereby participating in the control of cell migration in 1321 N1 glioblastoma.
Edimo, William S Elong; Ghosh, Somadri; Derua, Rita et al

in Journal of cell science (2016)

Phosphoinositides, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, and PI(4,5)P2, are recognized by SHIP2 a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. SHIP2 dephosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P3 to form PI(3,4)P2; the ... [more ▼]

Phosphoinositides, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, and PI(4,5)P2, are recognized by SHIP2 a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. SHIP2 dephosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P3 to form PI(3,4)P2; the latter interacts with specific target proteins (e.g. lamellipodin). Although the SHIP2 preferred substrate is PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 could also be dephosphorylated to PI4P. Through depletion of SHIP2 in a glioblastoma cell line 1321 N1 cells, we show that SHIP2 inhibits cell migration. In different glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures, SHIP2 staining at the plasma membrane partly overlaps with PI(4,5)P2 immunoreactivity. PI(4,5)P2 was upregulated in SHIP2-deficient N1 cells as compared to control cells; in contrast, PI4P was very much decreased in SHIP2-deficient cells. Therefore, SHIP2 controls both PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(4,5)P2 levels in intact cells. In N1 cells, the PI(4,5)P2 binding protein myosin-1c was identified as a new interactor of SHIP2. Regulation of PI(4,5)P2 and PI4P content by SHIP2 controls N1 cell migration through the organization of focal adhesions. Thus, our results reveal a novel role of SHIP2 in the control of PI(4,5)P2, PI4P and cell migration in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma N1 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSevere Prolonged Cough as Presenting Manifestation of FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ Chronic Eosinophilic Leukaemia: A Widely Ignored Association.
Roufosse, Florence; Heimann, Pierre; LAMBERT, Frédéric ULg et al

in Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases (2016)

Chronic eosinophilic leukaemia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ CEL) is a rare cause of marked persistent hypereosinophilia, arising almost exclusively in male patients. Clinical ... [more ▼]

Chronic eosinophilic leukaemia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ CEL) is a rare cause of marked persistent hypereosinophilia, arising almost exclusively in male patients. Clinical presentations are heterogeneous with a higher incidence of eosinophil-mediated cardiomyopathy than in other hypereosinophilic syndrome variants. Features of chronic myeloproliferative disease are often present, including splenomegaly and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. The diagnosis is made by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showing the deletion of the CHIC2 locus and/or RT-PCR showing the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion transcript. Treatment with imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, results in rapid and complete resolution of hypereosinophilia and associated symptoms, except for those related to sub-endocardial fibrosis that may be irreversible. We report the case of a male patient in whom isolated intractable cough remained the only clinical manifestation of F/P+ CEL for 4 years. Furthermore, eosinophil autofluorescence, an as yet unreported artefact in this setting, precluded the detection of the CHIC2 deletion and further delayed diagnosis, underlining that both FISH and RT-PCR should be performed when this disease is suspected. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of fish predation on Posidonia oceanica amphipod assemblages
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Pérez-Perera, Amanda et al

in Marine Biology (2016), 163

Amphipod assemblages that inhabit Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows are potentially relevant trophic resources for ichthyofauna. However, the effects of fish predation on amphipod assemblages in this ... [more ▼]

Amphipod assemblages that inhabit Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows are potentially relevant trophic resources for ichthyofauna. However, the effects of fish predation on amphipod assemblages in this system have received little attention. To address this gap in knowledge, experimental manipulations of predation intensity (exclusion and inclusion cages) were conducted at two sites in a Mediterranean marine protected area, where different levels of fish predation were expected to occur. We found that in the absence of predatory fishes (exclusion cages), total amphipod density and biomass were higher than in uncaged areas and partially controlled cages. At the species level, Caprella acanthifera and Iphimedia minuta responded to caging with increased abundance, while in most cases different species did not exhibit differences in density or biomass between treatments. The presence of one enclosed labrid fish predator (inclusion cages) resulted in a lower density and biomass of Aora spinicornis and a lower biomass of Phtisica marina, although total amphipod density and biomass were unchanged. In the inclusion cages, a size-frequency analysis revealed that predators mainly targeted large A. spinicornis and Apherusa chiereghinii individuals. Our results suggest that predation by fish may be an important factor in controlling amphipod abundances and biomasses in P. oceanica meadows. Overall, amphipod community composition was not affected by exclusion or inclusion of fish predators. However, some significant effects at the species level point to more complex interactions between some amphipods and fish. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient P- and Ag-doped titania for the photocatalytic degradation of waste water organic pollutants
Bodson, Céline ULg; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg; Tasseroul, Ludivine ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys & Compounds (2016), 682

In this work, physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of three types of dried or dried and calcined TiO2 materials, synthesized by the cogelation method, were studied: (i) a pure TiO2 ... [more ▼]

In this work, physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of three types of dried or dried and calcined TiO2 materials, synthesized by the cogelation method, were studied: (i) a pure TiO2 xerogel ; (ii) TiO2 xerogels doped with Ag ; (iii) TiO2 xerogels co-doped with Ag and P. The presence of silver nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the oxidation state of silver after calcination was examined by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) measurements. The physico-chemical properties of xerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DR UV-Vis) and from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was quantified for the p-nitrophenol degradation under visible light. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of hydrophilic CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots with different polymeric shells and study of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility
Speranskaya, Elena Sergeevna; Sevrin, Chantal ULg; De Saeger, Sarah et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2016)

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage Cluny. Les moines et la société au premier age féodal
George, Philippe ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (2016)

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See detailSex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.
Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences (2016), 371(1688),

A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the ... [more ▼]

A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. [less ▲]

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See detailHighlights in migraine electrophysiology: are controversies just reflecting disease heterogeneity?
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Lisicki Martinez, Marco ULg; Coppola, Gianluca

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2016), 29(3)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In migraine, the brain is 'hyperresponsive', which refers to a deficit of habituation to repeated sensory stimuli between attacks. This deficit normalizes in peri-ictal and ictal phases ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In migraine, the brain is 'hyperresponsive', which refers to a deficit of habituation to repeated sensory stimuli between attacks. This deficit normalizes in peri-ictal and ictal phases. A decreased cortical preactivation of thalamo-cortical origin and an impaired intracortical inhibition are probably involved in its pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The reality of a habituation deficit of visual evoked potentials, a neurophysiological 'hallmark' of interictal migraine, has been questioned. Blinding may be an issue, but some genetic, environmental, or behavioural differences could also exist between populations. A habituation deficit is found interictally in other sensory modalities, and strongly depends on the time of the recordings within the migraine cycle. An impaired thalamocortical drive is demonstrated in interictal phase, and normalizes in ictal phase as well as in chronic migraine, where a strength enhancement of primary cortical activation is observed. An interictal dysexcitability, of subcortical or primary cortical origin, is suggested by magnetic stimulation. These phenomena could occur in varying degrees depending on patients and on the migraine cycle, and account for the heterogeneity of electrophysiological results. SUMMARY: Finding a reliable electrophysiological biomarker for such a multifaceted and cycling disease as migraine is still a challenge. A better standardization of protocols would be worthwhile. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine and social regulation of adult neurogenesis in songbirds.
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory F.

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2016)

The identification of pronounced seasonal changes in the volume of avian song control nuclei stimulated the discovery of adult neurogenesis in songbirds as well as renewed studies in mammals including ... [more ▼]

The identification of pronounced seasonal changes in the volume of avian song control nuclei stimulated the discovery of adult neurogenesis in songbirds as well as renewed studies in mammals including humans. Neurogenesis in songbirds is modulated by testosterone and other factors such as photoperiod, singing activity and social environment. Adult neurogenesis has been widely studied by labeling, with tritiated thymidine or its analog BrdU, cells duplicating their DNA in anticipation of their last mitotic division and following their fate as new neurons. New methods based on endogenous markers of cell cycling or of various stages of neuronal life have allowed for additional progress. In particular immunocytochemical visualization of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin has provided an integrated view of neuronal replacement in the song control nucleus HVC. Multiple questions remain however concerning the specific steps in the neuronal life cycle that are modulated by various factors and the underlying cellular mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la grammaire pure logique à la grammaire philosophique. La grammaire des concepts chez Wittgenstein
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016)

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See detailCrystal structure of bassetite and saléeite: new insight into autunite-group minerals
Dal Bo, Fabrice ULg; Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Mees, Florias et al

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2016)

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See detailFluorodeoxyglucose F Positron Emission Tomography Coupled With Computed Tomography in Suspected Acute Renal Allograft Rejection.
Lovinfosse, P.; Weekers, L.; Bonvoisin, C. et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2016)

Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary ... [more ▼]

Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary biopsy. AR involves recruitment of leukocytes avid for fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (18 F-FDG), thus 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) coupled with computed tomography (CT) may noninvasively distinguish nonrejection from AR. From January 2013 to February 2015, we prospectively performed 32 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans in 31 adult KTRs with suspected AR who underwent transplant biopsy. Biopsies were categorized into four groups: normal (n = 8), borderline (n = 10), AR (n = 8), or other (n = 6, including 3 with polyoma BK nephropathy). Estimated GFR was comparable in all groups. PET/CT was performed 201 +/- 18 minutes after administration of 3.2 +/- 0.2 MBq/kg of 18 F-FDG, before any immunosuppression change. Mean standard uptake values (SUVs) of both upper and lower renal poles were measured. Mean SUVs reached 1.5 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.3, 2.9 +/- 0.8, and 2.2 +/- 1.2 for the normal, borderline, AR, and other groups, respectively. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference of mean SUVs among groups. A positive correlation between mean SUV and acute composite Banff score was found, with r2 = 0.49. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93, with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity using a mean SUV threshold of 1.6. In conclusion, 18 F-FDG PET/CT may help noninvasively prevent avoidable transplant biopsies in KTRs with suspected AR. [less ▲]

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See detailManipulation et mobilisation en cas de cervicalgie
Demoulin, Christophe ULg

in Cochrane (2016)

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See detailHidden Markov Model-based population synthesis
Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg et al

in Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2016), 90

Micro-simulation travel demand and land use models require a synthetic population, which consists of a set of agents characterized by demographic and socio-economic attributes. Two main families of ... [more ▼]

Micro-simulation travel demand and land use models require a synthetic population, which consists of a set of agents characterized by demographic and socio-economic attributes. Two main families of population synthesis techniques can be distinguished: (a) fitting methods (iterative proportional fitting, updating) and (b) combinatorial optimization methods. During the last few years, a third outperforming family of population synthesis procedures has emerged, i.e., Markov process-based methods such as Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations. In this paper, an extended Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach is presented, which can serve as a better alternative than the existing methods. The approach is characterized by a great flexibility and efficiency in terms of data preparation and model training. The HMM is able to reproduce the structural configuration of a given population from an unlimited number of micro-samples and a marginal distribution. Only one marginal distribution of the considered population can be used as a boundary condition to “guide” the synthesis of the whole population. Model training and testing are performed using the Survey on the Workforce of 2013 and the Belgian National Household Travel Survey of 2010. Results indicate that the HMM method captures the complete heterogeneity of the micro-data contrary to standard fitting approaches. The method provides accurate results as it is able to reproduce the marginal distributions and their corresponding multivariate joint distributions with an acceptable error rate (i.e., SRSME=0.54 for 6 synthesized attributes). Furthermore, the HMM outperforms IPF for small sample sizes, even though the amount of input data is less than that for IPF. Finally, simulations show that the HMM can merge information provided by multiple data sources to allow good population estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process based Agro-Land Surface Model: model description and evaluation over Europe
Wu, Xiuchen; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P. et al

in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions [=GMDD] (2016), 8

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See detailSafety, efficacy and clinical generalization of the STAR protocol: a retrospective analysis
Stewart, K. W.; Pretty, C. G.; Tomlinson, H. et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2016), 6(1),

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and ... [more ▼]

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia difficult. In addition, clinical practices can vary significantly, thus making GC protocols difficult to generalize across units.The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the safety, performance and workload of the stochastic targeted (STAR) glycemic control (GC) protocol to demonstrate that patient-specific, safe, effective GC is possible with the STAR protocol and that it is also generalizable across/over different units and clinical practices. Methods: Retrospective analysis of STAR GC in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU), New Zealand (267 patients), and the Gyula Hospital, Hungary (47 patients), is analyzed (2011–2015). STAR Christchurch (BG target 4.4–8.0 mmol/L) is also compared to the Specialized Relative Insulin and Nutrition Tables (SPRINT) protocol (BG target 4.4–6.1 mmol/L) implemented in the Christchurch Hospital ICU, New Zealand (292 patients, 2005–2007). Cohort mortality, effectiveness and safety of glycemic control and nutrition delivered are compared using nonparametric statistics. Results: Both STAR implementations and SPRINT resulted in over 86 % of time per episode in the blood glucose (BG) band of 4.4–8.0 mmol/L. Patients treated using STAR in Christchurch ICU spent 36.7 % less time on protocol and were fed significantly more than those treated with SPRINT (73 vs. 86 % of caloric target). The results from STAR in both Christchurch and Gyula were very similar, with the BG distributions being almost identical. STAR provided safe GC with very few patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia (BG < 2.2 mmol/L, <5 patients, 1.5 %). Conclusions: STAR outperformed its predecessor, SPRINT, by providing higher nutrition and equally safe, effective control for all the days of patient stay, while lowering the number of measurements and interventions required. The STAR protocol has the ability to deliver high performance and high safety across patient types, time, clinical practice culture (Christchurch and Gyula) and clinical resources. © 2016, Stewart et al. [less ▲]

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See detailSubunit Asa1 spans all the peripheral stalk of the mitochondrial ATP synthase of the chlorophycean alga Polytomella sp.
Colina-Tenorio, Lilia; Miranda-Astudillo, Hector; Cano-Estrada, Araceli et al

in Biochimica et biophysica acta (2016)

Mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase of chlorophycean algae is dimeric. It contains eight orthodox subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, OSCP, a and c) and nine atypical subunits (Asa1 to 9). These ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase of chlorophycean algae is dimeric. It contains eight orthodox subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, OSCP, a and c) and nine atypical subunits (Asa1 to 9). These subunits build the peripheral stalk of the enzyme and stabilize its dimeric structure. The location of the 66.1kDa subunit Asa1 has been debated. On one hand, it was found in a transient subcomplex that contained membrane-bound subunits Asa1/Asa3/Asa5/Asa8/a (Atp6)/c (Atp9). On the other hand, Asa1 was proposed to form the bulky structure of the peripheral stalk that contacts the OSCP subunit in the F1 sector. Here, we overexpressed and purified the recombinant proteins Asa1 and OSCP and explored their interactions in vitro, using immunochemical techniques and affinity chromatography. Asa1 and OSCP interact strongly, and the carboxy-terminal half of OSCP seems to be instrumental for this association. In addition, the algal ATP synthase was partially dissociated at relatively high detergent concentrations, and an Asa1/Asa3/Asa5/Asa8/a/c10 subcomplex was identified. Furthermore, Far-Western analysis suggests an Asa1-Asa8 interaction. Based on these results, a model is proposed in which Asa1 spans the whole peripheral arm of the enzyme, from a region close to the matrix-exposed side of the mitochondrial inner membrane to the F1 region where OSCP is located. 3D models show elongated, helix-rich structures for chlorophycean Asa1 subunits. Asa1 subunit probably plays a scaffolding role in the peripheral stalk analogous to the one of subunit b in orthodox mitochondrial enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailShear Response of Prestressed Thin-Webbed Continuous Girders
Collins, Michael; Xie, Liping; Mihaylov, Boyan ULg et al

in ACI Structural Journal (2016)

While different design codes provide similar guidance for the flexural design of prestressed thin: webbed continuous girders, the shear design provisions differ greatly. This paper investigates these ... [more ▼]

While different design codes provide similar guidance for the flexural design of prestressed thin: webbed continuous girders, the shear design provisions differ greatly. This paper investigates these discrepancies with the help of eleven experiments and a number of analytical studies. Together these provide the basis for recommendations for engineers conducting the shear design for new girders or evaluating the shear capacity of existing girders. It is shown that the traditional ACI approach of taking Vc as the smaller of Vci, flexural:shear cracking load, and Vcw, web:shear cracking load, can significantly overestimate the shear strength of such girders particularly if they are highly prestressed and contain relatively small quantities of shear reinforcement. The other codes evaluated provided more conservative predictions. It is shown that the ACI predictions can be improved significantly by taking into account the effect of flexural stresses on web shear cracking. While the ACI code uses different shear strength equations for members subjected to external axial loads versus members subjected to internal prestressing forces, the studies summarized in this paper support the idea that unification of these ACI shear provisions is possible. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection of a discriminant and biorelevant in vitro dissolution test for the development of fenofibrate self-emulsifying lipid-based formulations
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Krier, Fabrice; Brouwers, Adeline et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016)

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See detailNew insights into sound production in Carapus mourlani (Carapidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lecchini, David

in Bulletin of Marine Science (2016), 92(3),

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See detailRelationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging
Manard, Marine ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Brain Research (2016), 1642

This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young ... [more ▼]

This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18 to 30 years old) and 43 seniors (60 to 75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in “frontal” brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. [less ▲]

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See detailTropical moss floras: a homogeneous assemblage of highly mobile species? Insights from their spatial patterns of beta diversity
Nik Norhazrina Binti Nik Mohd Kamil, ULg; Jairo, Patiño; Laurens, Geffert et al

in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (2016)

The biotic poverty of tropical Africa has been interpreted in terms of massive extinctions caused by historical climate shifts. While recolonisation has been hampered in tropical angiosperms that are ... [more ▼]

The biotic poverty of tropical Africa has been interpreted in terms of massive extinctions caused by historical climate shifts. While recolonisation has been hampered in tropical angiosperms that are characterized by low dispersal capacities, tropical bryophytes exhibit high dispersal syndromes. Using tropical mosses as a model, we test here the hypotheses that (i) species-turnover is higher within than among continents and (ii) in tropical Africa, extant distribution patterns are better explained by variation in environmental conditions (species turnover) than by the ordered loss of species along gradients of recolonisation from putative refugia (species nestedness). Global beta diversity was slightly, but significantly higher among than within tropical regions, suggesting that geographic isolation rather than regional environmental variation shapes macroecological patterns of moss species distributions. Species turnover was, however, systematically higher than nestedness within each tropical region, and nestedness in tropical Africa was not significantly higher than in other tropical regions. The results therefore do not support the hypothesis of an ordered loss of species due to delays in the recolonisation of formerly savanna areas from refugia. Rather, the low species richness in Africa is interpreted in terms of shifts towards specialized, but species-poor communities along sharp ecological gradients. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of intact virus-like particles of human papillomavirus by capillary electrophoresis
Bettonville, Virginie ULg; Nicol, Jérôme ULg; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2016), 37

Virus-like particles of human papillomavirus (HPV-VLP), resulting from the self-assembly of the capsid proteins (L1 or L1 and L2), have been widely used to study HPV as they are similar to the native ... [more ▼]

Virus-like particles of human papillomavirus (HPV-VLP), resulting from the self-assembly of the capsid proteins (L1 or L1 and L2), have been widely used to study HPV as they are similar to the native virion. Moreover, two prophylactic vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, are based on HPV-VLP L1. Analytical techniques currently used to characterize HPV-VLP, such as SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, are time-consuming and semi-quantitative. In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was evaluated for the analysis of intact HPV16-VLP. The usefulness of capillary inner wall coating as well as various BGEs, pH and detergent additives were investigated. Reproducible HPV-VLP analysis in CE was achieved using poly(ethylene oxide) coated capillary and a BGE containing high salt concentration and low SDS concentration. The developed method enables HPV-VLP detection in less than 10 min (migration times RSD : 1.6 %). The identity of HPV-VLP peak was confirmed by comparison with a sample obtained from a wild-type baculovirus and with VLP-based vaccine, Gardasil®, after adjuvant dissolution. Finally, we applied the developed methodology to VLP-based vaccines, demonstrating that CE could be successfully used for vaccine quality control. [less ▲]

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See detailRisques et périls d'opposer "Langue de culture" et "Langue de service"
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Cahiers de l’ASDIFLE (2016), 27

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See detailDecline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory
Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2016), 13

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See detailPolytype Attainability in III-V Semiconductor Nanowires
Johansson, J.; Zanolli, Zeila ULg; Dick, K. A.

in Crystal Growth & Design (2016), 16(1), 371-379

We propose a model that explains the phenomenon of polytypism in metal particle-seeded III-V semiconductor nanowires. The model is based on classical nucleation theory, utilizing the axial next-nearest ... [more ▼]

We propose a model that explains the phenomenon of polytypism in metal particle-seeded III-V semiconductor nanowires. The model is based on classical nucleation theory, utilizing the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model to account for interlayer interaction up to the third nearest-neighboring layer. We investigate the limits of polytypism by varying the ANNNI interaction parameters. These calculations lead to attainability diagrams, which show the regions in interaction energy space where certain polytypes can be attained given that the supersaturation is precisely tuned. We calculate the values of the ANNNI interaction parameters for six common III-V materials from first principles by means of the projector-augmented wave method. We discuss our calculated values in view of previous results. Using these calculated values in our nucleation model, our analysis suggests that besides the commonly observed 3C (zinc blende) and 2H (wurtzite) polytypes the higher order polytypes 4H and 6H can also be attained, in agreement with experimental observations. © 2015 American Chemical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale signatures of unconsciousness are consistent with a departure from critical dynamics
Tagliazucchi, E.; Chialvo, D. R.; Siniatchkin, M. et al

in Journal of the Royal Society Interface (2016), 13(114),

Loss of cortical integration and changes in the dynamics of electrophysiological brain signals characterize the transition from wakefulness towards unconsciousness. In this study, we arrive at a basic ... [more ▼]

Loss of cortical integration and changes in the dynamics of electrophysiological brain signals characterize the transition from wakefulness towards unconsciousness. In this study, we arrive at a basic model explaining these observations based on the theory of phase transitions in complex systems. We studied the link between spatial and temporal correlations of large-scale brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging during wakefulness, propofol-induced sedation and loss of consciousness and during the subsequent recovery. We observed that during unconsciousness activity in frontothalamic regions exhibited a reduction of long-range temporal correlations and a departure of functional connectivity from anatomical constraints. A model of a system exhibiting a phase transition reproduced our findings, as well as the diminished sensitivity of the cortex to external perturbations during unconsciousness. This framework unifies different observations about brain activity during unconsciousness and predicts that the principles we identified are universal and independent from its causes. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCapitalizing in fine milk composition for breeding and management of dairy cows
Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Dehareng, Fréderic et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2016), 99

The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of ... [more ▼]

The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of action, both need relevant phenotypes that allow for precise monitoring of the status of the cows, and their health, behavior, and well-being as well as their environmental impact and the quality of their products (i.e., milk and subsequently dairy products). Milk composition has been identified as an important source of information because it could reflect, at least partially, all these elements. Major conventional milk components such as fat, protein, urea, and lactose contents are routinely predicted by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry and have been widely used for these purposes. But, milk composition is much more complex and other nonconventional milk components, potentially predicted by MIR, might be informative. Such new milk-based phenotypes should be considered given that they are cheap, rapidly obtained, usable on a large scale, robust, and reliable. In a first approach, new phenotypes can be predicted from MIR spectra using techniques based on classical prediction equations. This method was used successfully for many novel traits (e.g., fatty acids, lactoferrin, minerals, milk technological properties, citrate) that can be then useful for management and breeding purposes. An innovation was to consider the longitudinal nature of the relationship between the trait of interest and the MIR spectra (e.g., to predict methane from MIR). By avoiding intermediate steps, prediction errors can be minimized when traits of interest (e.g., methane, energy balance, ketosis) are predicted directly from MIR spectra. In a second approach, research is ongoing to detect and exploit patterns in an innovative manner, by comparing observed with expected MIR spectra directly (e.g., pregnancy). All of these traits can then be used to define best practices, adjust feeding and health management, improve animal welfare, improve milk quality, and mitigate environmental impact. Under the condition that MIR data are available on a large scale, phenotypes for these traits will allow genetic and genomic evaluations. Introduction of novel traits into the breeding objectives will need additional research to clarify socio-economic weights and genetic correlations with other traits of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailSaturn’s auroral morphology and field-aligned currents during a solar wind compression
Badman, S.V.; Provan, G.; Bunce, E.J. et al

in Icarus (2016)

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See detailReview of dietary supplements for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs in studies from 2004 to 2014
Comblain, Fanny ULg; Serisier, Samuel; Barthelemy, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2016), 39

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See detailAssociation Between Necropsy Evidence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Hemostatic Variables Before Death in Horses With Colic.
Cesarini Latorre, Carlota ULg; Cotovio, M.; Rios, J. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016), 30(1), 269-75

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is frequent in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. Postmortem studies have found fibrin microthrombi in tissues of these horses, but ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is frequent in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. Postmortem studies have found fibrin microthrombi in tissues of these horses, but studies relating these histopathological findings with antemortem hemostatic data are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: Antemortem classification of coagulopathy is related to the presence and severity of fibrin deposits observed postmortem in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. ANIMALS: Antemortem hemostatic profile data and postmortem tissue samples (kidney, lung, liver) from 48 horses with colic. METHODS: Tissue samples were stained with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and immunohistochemical methods for histological examination. A fibrin score (grades 0-4) was assigned for each technique, tissue and horse, as well as the presence or absence of DIC at postmortem examination. D-dimer concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and antithrombin (AT) activity, as well as the clinicopathological evidence of coagulopathy, were determined from plasma samples collected 0-24 hours before death or euthanasia. Histologic and clinicopathologic data from the same horses were compared retrospectively. RESULTS: No association was found between antemortem classification of coagulopathy and postmortem diagnosis of DIC based on tissue fibrin deposition. None of the hemostatic parameters was significantly different between horses with or without postmortem diagnosis of DIC. There was no association between horses with fibrin in tissues or different cut-offs for D-dimer concentration and postmortem evidence of DIC. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Abnormalities of the routine clotting profile, including D-dimer concentration, were not useful in predicting histologic evidence of DIC at necropsy in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral blood stem cell graft compared to bone marrow after reduced intensity conditioning regimens for acute leukemia–A report from the ALWP of the EBMT
Savani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Blaise, Didier et al

in Haematologica (2016)

Increasing numbers of patients are receiving reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We hypothesized that the use of bone-marrow graft might decrease the ... [more ▼]

Increasing numbers of patients are receiving reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We hypothesized that the use of bone-marrow graft might decrease the risk of graft-versus-host-disease compared to peripheral-blood after reduced-intensity-conditioning regimens without compromising graft-versus-leukemia effects. Patients who underwent reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from 2000-2012 for acute leukemia and reported to the acute-leukemia-working-party of the EBMT were included in the study. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients receiving bone-marrow grafts were compared with 9011 peripheral-blood transplant recipients after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 27 months. Cumulative incidence of engraftment (neutrophil≥0.5x109/L at day 60) was lower in bonemarrow recipients, 88 vs. 95% (p<0.0001). Grade II to IV acute graft-versus-hostdisease was lower in bone-marrow recipients, 19% vs. 24% for peripheral-blood (p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for differences between both groups, overall survival (HR 0.90; p=0.05) and leukemia-free-survival (HR 0.88; p=0.01) were higher in patients transplanted with peripheral-blood compared to bone-marrow grafts. Furthermore, peripheral-blood graft was also associated with decreased risk of relapse (HR 0.78; p=0.0001). Non-relapse-mortality was not significantly different between recipients of bone-marrow and peripheral-blood grafts, and chronic graft-versus-host-disease was significantly higher after peripheral blood grafts (HR 1.38; p<0.0001). Despite the limitation of a retrospective registry based study, we found that peripheral-blood grafts after reduced-intensity-conditioning regimens had better overall and leukemia-free survival than bone-marrow grafts. However, there is an increase in chronic graft-versus-host-disease after peripheral-blood grafts. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify if chronic graft-versus-host-disease related deaths might increase the risk of late morbidity and mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailIgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.
Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp et al

in Seminars in Immunopathology (2016)

IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis ... [more ▼]

IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. [less ▲]

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See detailWeakening of Jupiter's main auroral emission during January 2014
Badman, S. V.; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Fujimoto, M. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2016), 43(3), 988-997

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is ... [more ▼]

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is attributed to a decrease in auroral current density rather than electron energy. This could be caused by a decrease in the source electron density, an order of magnitude increase in the source electron thermal energy, or a combination of these. Both can be explained either by expansion of the magnetosphere or by an increase in the inward transport of hot plasma through the middle magnetosphere and its interchange with cold flux tubes moving outward. In the latter case the hot plasma could have increased the electron temperature in the source region and produced the intense, low-latitude features, while the increased cold plasma transport rate produced the shift of the main oval. © 2016. The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailA Mixed Integer Programming formulation for the three dimensional bin packing problem deriving from an air cargo application
Paquay, Célia ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in International Transactions in Operational Research (2016), 23(1-2), 187-213

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin ... [more ▼]

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problems. The approach includes an extensive set of constraints encountered in real-world applications in the three-dimensional case: the stability, the fragility of the items, the weight distribution and the possibility to rotate the boxes. It also includes the specific situation in which containers are truncated parallelepipeds. This is typical in the field of air transportation. While most papers on cutting and packing problems describe ad-hoc procedures, this paper proposes a mixed integer linear program. The validity of this model is tested on small instances. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of a suitable in vitro dissolution test for itraconazole-based solid dispersions
Thiry, Justine ULg; Broze, Guy ULg; Pestieau, Aude ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016)

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See detailReduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: A critical analysis.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Diabetes & metabolism (2016), 42(2), 71-6

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See detailImpact of injection solvent composition on protein identification incolumn-switching chip-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
Houbart, Virginie ULg; COBRAIVILLE, Gaël ULg; Nys, Gwenaël ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2016), 1445

In shotgun proteomics, the gold standard technique is reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupledto mass spectrometry. Many researches have been carried out to study the effects on identification per ... [more ▼]

In shotgun proteomics, the gold standard technique is reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupledto mass spectrometry. Many researches have been carried out to study the effects on identification per-formances of chromatographic parameters such as the stationary phase and column dimensions, mobilephase composition and flow rate, as well as the gradient slope and length. However, little attention isusually paid to the injection solvent composition.In this study, we investigated the effect of the injection solvent on protein identification parameters(number of distinct peptides, amino acid coverage and MS/MS search score) as well as sensitivity. Trypticpeptides from six different proteins, covering a wide range of physicochemical properties, were employedas training set. Design of experiments was employed as a tool to highlight the factors related to thecomposition of the injection solvent that significantly influenced the obtained results. Optimal resultsfor the training set were applied to analysis of more complex samples. The experiments pointed outoptimising the composition of the injection solvent had a strong beneficial effect on all the consideredresponses. On the basis of these results, an approach to determine optimal conditions was proposed tomaximise the protein identification performances and detection sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailÉthologie et criminologie clinique : Debuyst avec Demaret pour une éthique de l’adaptation
Adam, Christophe; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Cahiers de Psychologie Clinique (2016), 47

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