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See detailSedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of recent sediments from New Caledonia
Jadot, Hélène ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Special Publication - Geological Society of London (2015), 414

The interpretation of the primary origin of the minerals carrying the magnetic susceptibility (MS) signal from ancient rocks suffers notably from the scarcity of studies on Recent sediments. To bring new ... [more ▼]

The interpretation of the primary origin of the minerals carrying the magnetic susceptibility (MS) signal from ancient rocks suffers notably from the scarcity of studies on Recent sediments. To bring new data, a study of tropical coastal sediments of New Caledonia was undertaken. This island is surrounded by a nearly uninterrupted reef barrier, isolating a wide lagoon from the open ocean. The erosion of extremely varied rocks (from mantle rocks to laterites) produces different types of detrital sediments, which are mixed with the indigenous precipitated carbonates. This generates different types of coastal sediments, detrital- or carbonate-dominated or mixed. More than 300 samples were analysed for grain size, nature of sediment, MS and geochemistry (major elements). The first results show that: (a) carbonate sands and carbonate silts are characterized by lower MS than detrital sediments; (b) the MS signal of mixed sediments is mostly influenced by the proportion of detrital sediments; (c) MS is directly correlated with Mn and Fe content; (d) beachrocks are characterized by lower MS than equivalent loose sediment; (e) the MS signal of carbonate sediments is locally positively correlated with granulometry; (f) there is no MS change between surface and 20 cm deep samples; and (g) when the subsurface sediment is reducing, the MS is higher than that from surface sediment. [less ▲]

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See detailAbnormal glomerular filtration rate in children, adolescents and young adults starts below 75 mL/min/1.73 m2
Pottel, Hans; Hoste, Liesbeth; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

in Pediatric Nephrology : Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (2015), 30(5), 821-828

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See detailBurden of frailty in the elderly population: perspectives for a public health challenge.
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Rolland, Yves; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Archives of public health = Archives belges de sante publique (2015), 73(1), 19-25

Frailty is a major health condition associated with ageing. Although the concept is almost universally accepted, its operational definition remains controversial. Anyway, this geriatric condition ... [more ▼]

Frailty is a major health condition associated with ageing. Although the concept is almost universally accepted, its operational definition remains controversial. Anyway, this geriatric condition represents a huge potential public health issue at both the patient and the societal levels because of its multiple clinical, societal consequences and its dynamic nature. Here, we review existing definitions and assessment tools for frailty, we highlight consequences of this geriatric condition and we discuss the importance of its screening and prevention to limit its public health burden. [less ▲]

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See detailFocal cerebral ischemia impairs motivation in a progressive FR schedule of reinforcement in mice
Linden, Jérôme ULg; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Fassotte, Ludivine et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 279

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See detailModulating effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on interference resolution during a working memory task
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; DIDEBERG, Vinciane ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Brain & Cognition (2015), 95

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates ... [more ▼]

Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates underlying inhibitory processes and updating in working memory (WM). In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we administered a modified version of the Sternberg probe recency task (Sternberg, 1966) to 43 young healthy volunteers, varying the level of interference across successive items. The task was divided into two parts (high vs. low interference) to induce either proactive or reactive control processes. The participants were separated into three groups according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV); Val/Met (VM); Met/Met (MM)]. The general aim of the study was to determine whether COMT polymorphism has a modulating effect on the neural substrates of interference resolution during WM processing. Results indicate that interfering trials were associated with greater involvement of frontal cortices (bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left precentral and superior frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus) in VV homozygous subjects (by comparison to Met allele carriers) only in the proactive condition of the task. In addition, analysis of peristimulus haemodynamic responses (PSTH) revealed that the genotype-related difference observed in the left SFG was specifically driven by a larger increase in activity from the storage to the recognition phase of the interfering trials in VV homozygous subjects. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on inhibitory processes during a WM task, with an advantage for Met allele carriers. Interestingly, this impact on frontal areas is present only when the level of interference is high, and especially during the transition from storage to recognition in the left superior frontal gyrus. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge Redistribution Effects on the UV-VIS Spectra of Small Ligated Gold Clusters: a Computational Study
Lugo Preciado, Jesus Gustavo ULg; Schwanen, Valérie ULg; Fresch, Barbara ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(20), 10969-10980

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See detailBiological control in the microbiome era: Challenges and opportunities
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Jijakli, Haissam ULg

in Biological Control (2015), 89

Biocontrol research has long been focused on the study of single strains of biocontrol agents (BCAs) and on their interaction with pathogens and host plants. Further focus on plant-associated microbial ... [more ▼]

Biocontrol research has long been focused on the study of single strains of biocontrol agents (BCAs) and on their interaction with pathogens and host plants. Further focus on plant-associated microbial communities was suggested several years ago, but significant advances only occurred recently. The advent of high-throughput sequencing (or next-generation sequencing – NGS) technologies is now driving a paradigm change that allows researchers to integrate microbial community studies into the traditional biocontrol approach. This integration could answer old scientific questions, and will raise new biocontrol hypotheses. Microbial communities could impact disease control through their interaction with host plants, pathogens, and BCAs. A better understanding of these interactions will provide unexpected opportunities to develop innovative biocontrol methods against plant pathogens. For example, formulation or timing of BCA application can be improved, ‘‘helper’’ microbial strains can be selected, or molecules driving the microbiota to a pathogen-resistant composition (‘‘prebiotic’’ approach) can be developed. The five main challenges of microbiome implementation in biocontrol research are also described, i.e. (i) the management of technical errors and biases, (ii) the growing importance of bioinformatics, (iii) the adaptation of experimental schemes, (iv) the appropriate interplay between NGS and other technologies, and (v) the need to complete current genome databases [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of Quaternary uplift of the Corinth rift southern border (N Peloponnese, Greece) revealed by fluvial landscape morphometry
Demoulin, Alain ULg; Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg

in Geomorphology (2015), 246

The Rift of Corinth is a world-class example of young active rifting and, as such, is an ideal natural laboratory of continental extension. However, though much investigated for two decades, several ... [more ▼]

The Rift of Corinth is a world-class example of young active rifting and, as such, is an ideal natural laboratory of continental extension. However, though much investigated for two decades, several aspects of the mechanisms at work are still poorly understood. The aim of this paper is a detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift of the rift southern shoulder in order to reconstruct the rift's Quaternary evolution, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. Based on the use of a large set of catchment and long profile metrics complemented by the newR/SR integrative approach of the regional drainage network, we identified three distinct episodes of uplift of the northern Peloponnese coastal tract, of which the intermediate one, dated around 0.35–0.4 Ma, is only recorded in the topography of the central part of the rift shoulder, and the youngest one appears to have propagated from east to west over the last 10–20 ka. While net uplift remained minimum in the eastern part of the study area during the whole Quaternary, it shows a clear maximumin the central part of the rift shoulder since 0.4 Ma and an eastward shift of this maximumin recent times. Maximum uplift rates calculated from the morphometric data are of N1.05 and 2–5 mmyear−1 for, the mid-Middle Pleistocene and Holocene uplift episodes, respectively. The morphometric evidence reveals an onshore uplift history remarkably consistent with the rift evolution reconstructed from other data sets. In the long term, it shows a stable pattern of maximum activity in the central part of the rift, confirming previous conclusions about the absence of rift propagation. In the short term, it sheds light on a possible E–Wmigration of the zone of recent uplift, suggesting that in the near future fault activity and seismic hazard might concentrate in the Heliki–Aegion area, at the western tip of this uplift wave. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EChO science case
Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2015), 1502

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general ... [more ▼]

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment, as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. A 1m class telescope is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision. The spectral coverage (0.5-11 micron, goal 16 micron) and SNR to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would enable a very accurate measurement of the atmospheric composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cellobiose Sensor CebR is the Gatekeeper of Streptomyces scabies Pathogenicity
Francis, Isolde; Jourdan, Samuel ULg; Fanara, Steven ULg et al

in MBio (2015)

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See detailCompte rendu de Alan C. BOWEN, "Simplicius on the Planets and their Motions. In Defense of a Heresy"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2015), 113(1), 188-190

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See detailA new ent-clerodane diterpenoid from Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. (Asteraceae).
Tchinda, Alembert T.; Mouokeu, Simplice R.; Ngono, Rosalie A. N. et al

in Natural product research (2015)

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1 ... [more ▼]

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1), together with two known flavonoids 3',5-dihydroxy-4',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (3). The compounds were tested against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 2 showed weak activity (IC50 = 10.1 g/mL) whilst compounds 1 and 3 were inactive. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by using detailed spectral analyses, especially 1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMBC and HR-ESI-MS. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite... une onychomycose par voie topique.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2015), 70(1), 5-11

Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies appear globally less active. Studies in this field are rare, although the promotional advertisements to the general public abound nowadays. Various microscopic fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts, molds) should be targeted by the treatment, In addition, the distinct activity conditions of both growth and quiescence of the pathogen fungi should be influenced by the treatments. This is not frequently considered by drug companies and encountered in practice. The antifungal drug penetration inside all the nail layers is important to be performed. [less ▲]

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See detailExpulsion of a uterine myoma in a patient treated with ulipristal acetate
CHANTRAINE, Frédéric ULg; POISMANS, Gaëlle ULg; Nwachuku, Julia et al

in Clinical Case Reports (2015)

Description of a spontaneous expulsion of a submucosal myoma in a patient treated with ulipristal acetate.

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See detailOleuropein or rutin consumption decreases the spontaneous development of osteoarthritis in the Hartley guinea pig.
Horcajada, M.-N.; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Membrez Scalfo et al

in Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society (2015), 23(1), 94-102

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential protective effects of three polyphenols oleuropein, rutin and curcumin, on joint ageing and osteoarthritis (OA) development. DESIGN: Sixty 4-week-old Dunkin-Hartley ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential protective effects of three polyphenols oleuropein, rutin and curcumin, on joint ageing and osteoarthritis (OA) development. DESIGN: Sixty 4-week-old Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups and received daily during 31 weeks either standard guinea pig diet (control group) or a standard guinea pig diet enriched with oleuropein (0.025%), rutin (0.5%) or rutin/curcumin (0.5%/0.25%) association. Biomarkers of OA (Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, Fib3-1, Fib3-2, ARGS), as well as inflammation (PGE2) were quantified in the serum. Histological assessments of knee cartilage and synovial membrane were performed at week 4 (five young reference guinea pigs) and week 35. RESULTS: At week 35, guinea pigs in the control group spontaneously developed significant cartilage lesions with mild synovial inflammation. The histological scores of cartilage lesions and synovitis were well correlated with the increased level of serum biomarkers. Histologically, all treatments significantly reduced the cartilage degradation score (P < 0.01), but only oleuropein significantly decreased the synovial histological score (P < 0.05) and serum PGE2 levels (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. Coll2-1 was decreased by rutin and the combination of rutin/curcumin, Fib3-1 and Fib3-2 were only decreased by the rutin/curcumin mixture, while Coll2-1NO2 was significantly decreased by all treatments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oleuropein and rutin +/- curcumin significantly slowed down the progression of spontaneous OA lesions in guinea pigs. While no additive effect was seen in the curcumin + rutin group, the differential effects of oleuropein and rutin on inflammatory and cartilage catabolic markers suggest an interesting combination for future studies in OA protection. [less ▲]

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See detailError analysis of generalized-alpha Lie group time integration methods for constrained mechanical systems
Arnold, Martin; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Cardona, Alberto

in Numerische Mathematik (2015), 129(1), 149-179

Generalized-alpha methods are very popular in structural dynamics. They are methods of Newmark type and combine favourable stability properties with second order convergence for unconstrained second order ... [more ▼]

Generalized-alpha methods are very popular in structural dynamics. They are methods of Newmark type and combine favourable stability properties with second order convergence for unconstrained second order systems in linear spaces. Recently, they were extended to constrained systems in flexible multibody dynamics that have a configuration space with Lie group structure. In the present paper, the convergence of these Lie group methods is analysed by a coupled one-step error recursion for differential and algebraic solution components. It is shown that spurious oscillations in the transient phase result from order reduction that may be avoided by a perturbation of starting values or by index reduction. Numerical tests for a benchmark problem from the literature illustrate the results of the theoretical investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailRuthenium–arene catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for olefin cyclopropanation and metathesis
Méret, M.; Maj, A. M.; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in Monatshefte für Chemie = Chemical Monthly (2015), 146(7), 1099-1105

Abstract: Ruthenium–arene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with the generic formula [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC)] are efficient catalyst precursors for the cyclopropanation of activated ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Ruthenium–arene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with the generic formula [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC)] are efficient catalyst precursors for the cyclopropanation of activated olefins with ethyl diazoacetate, and the cis/trans diastereoselectivity of the reaction markedly depends on the steric bulk of the NHC. The procedure was successfully applied to styrene, α-methylstyrene, and various other styrenic derivatives bearing electron-withdrawing or donating substituents on their aromatic rings. The reaction of unactivated internal or terminal alkenes was more sluggish, and the use of norbornene as a substrate afforded only olefin metathesis. Further investigation of the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of this strained cycloolefin in the presence of trimethylsilyldiazomethane led to high molecular weight polynorbornene whose microstructure was not significantly affected by the choice of the NHC ancillary ligand. [less ▲]

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See detailClosure to “Parapet Wall Effect on Piano Key Weir Efficiency”
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Machiels, Olivier; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Engineering (2015), 141(1), 07014033

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See detailOn the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Molecular Biosystems (2015), 11

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between ... [more ▼]

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailWestern lowland gorilla seed dispersal: Are seeds adapted to long gut retention times?
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2015)

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See detailLe secret des plus grands "géants" en partie percé
Beckers, Albert ULg

in Vaisseaux, Coeur, Poumons (2015), 20(4),

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See detailTime’s Up! Involvement of Metamemory Knowledge, Executive Functions, and Time Monitoring in Children’s Prospective Memory Performance
Geurten, Marie ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (2015)

This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time monitoring ... [more ▼]

This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time monitoring strategy depending on the ongoing task’s difficulty. Specifically, a sample of 72 typically developing children aged 4, 6, and 9 years old were given an original PM paradigm composed of both an ongoing procedural activity and a PM task. Half of the participants (expert group) were trained in the ongoing activity before the prospective test. As expected, results show that time monitoring had a positive effect on children’s PM performance. Furthermore, mediation analyses reveal that strategic time monitoring was predicted by metamemory knowledge in the expert group but only by executive functions in the novice group. Overall, these findings provide interesting avenues to explain how metamemory knowledge, strategy use, and executive functions interact to improve PM performance during childhood. [less ▲]

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See detailBilberry extract (Antho 50) selectively induces redox-sensitive caspase 3-related apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by targeting the Bcl-2/Bad pathway
Alhosin, Mahmoud; León-González1, Antonio J.; Dandache et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

Defect in apoptosis has been implicated as a major cause of resistance to chemotherapy observed in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B CLL). This study evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of an ... [more ▼]

Defect in apoptosis has been implicated as a major cause of resistance to chemotherapy observed in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B CLL). This study evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of an anthocyanin-rich dietary bilberry extract (Antho 50) on B CLL cells from 30 patients and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy subjects, and determined the underlying mechanism. Antho 50 induced concentration- and time-dependent pro-apoptotic effects in B CLL cells isolated from patients but little or no effect in PBMCs. Among the main phenolic compounds present in this bilberry extract, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside showed the highest apoptotic effect on B CLL cells, suggesting that anthocyanins play a main role in the cytotoxic activity. Antho 50-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of caspase 3 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein UHRF1. Antho 50 induced also rapid dephosphorylation of Akt and Bad, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 resulting in reduced cell viability. Antho 50 significantly induced PEG-catalase-sensitive formation of reactive oxygen species in B CLL cells. PEG-catalase prevented the Antho 50-induced reduced cell viability, induction of apoptosis, up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of UHRF1 and Bcl-2, and dephosphorylation of Bad. The present findings indicate that Antho 50 exhibits strong pro-apoptotic activity through redox-sensitive caspase 3 activation-related mechanism in B CLL cells involving dysregulation of Bad/Bcl-2 pathway. This activity is due, at least in part, to a composition rich on glucoside and rutinoside derivatives of delphinidin. They further suggest that Antho 50 has chemotherapeutic potential by targeting selectively B CLL cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Approach to the 2-Regularity of the ℓ-Abelian Complexity of 2-Automatic Sequences
Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg; Rowland, Eric ULg et al

in The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(1), 127

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem ... [more ▼]

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem to develop a general approach for studying the l-abelian complexity of 2-automatic sequences. In particular, we prove that the period-doubling word and the Thue--Morse word have 2-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. Along the way, we also prove that the 2-block codings of these two words have 1-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly seed plants from Western Gondwana: Paleobiogeographical and ecological implications based on Tournaisian (Lower Carboniferous) records from Argentina
Prestianni, C.; Rustan, J.J.; Balseiro, D. et al

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2015), 417

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See detailMedical education and training in geriatrics in the 21st centrury. Where do we come from - where do we go ?
Roller, Regina Elisabeth; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in European Geriatric Medicine (2015)

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See detailRespiratory Motion, Anterior Heart Displacement and Heart Dosimetry: Comparison Between Prone (Pr) and Supine (Su) Whole Breast Irradiation
Lakosi, Ferenc; GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Janvary, Levente et al

in Pathology Oncology Research (2015)

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See detailMaximal bifix decoding
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Discrete Mathematics (2015), 338(5), 725742

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See detailÉvaluation technico-économique de la production de plants de teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) dans les pépinières villageoises au Sud-Bénin
Séhouéto, Caroline K. P.; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Avocèvou-Ayisso, Carolle et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 32-41

The present study deals with the production of the seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), a species used in forest plantations in southern Benin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the techniques and ... [more ▼]

The present study deals with the production of the seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), a species used in forest plantations in southern Benin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the techniques and the profitability of teak seedling production in the community nurseries of southern Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailFe–Ti–V–P ore deposits associated with Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and related rocks
Charlier, Bernard ULg; Namur, Olivier; Bolle, Olivier ULg et al

in Earth-Science Reviews (2015), 141(0), 56-81

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the ... [more ▼]

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–(rapakivi-)granite suites that are restricted to the Proterozoic. Understanding the geochemistry and emplacement mechanisms of ilmenite, magnetite and apatite ore deposits is crucial for exploration, efficient mining operations and ore processing. This review discusses the controlling factors on the grade of an ore, its mineralogy, and its major and trace element distribution. We present petrogenetic models of currently mined deposits (Lac Tio, Tellnes, Damiao) and discuss the characteristics of minor ore bodies from anorthosite provinces worldwide (Grenville, North China Craton, East European Craton, Rogaland, Laramie). Models of formation of anorthosite and related rocks are presented, as well as the nature of the possible parental magmas of the suite. A mineralogical classification of Fe–Ti ores is proposed: (1) Gabbro-noritic ilmenite ore ± apatite ± magnetite; (2) Ti-magnetite-dominated ore; (3) Nelsonite (Fe–Ti oxides + apatite); and (4) Rutile-ilmenite ore. The stability of ilmenite and magnetite is then critically reviewed and the influence of various factors, particularly oxygen fugacity and crystallization pressure, is examined. We discuss liquidus compositions of Fe–Ti oxides and the behavior of important trace elements such as Cr and V, both of which are sensitive to fO2 variations. Post-cumulus evolution of both oxides can occur due to re-equilibration with trapped liquid, re-equilibration with ferromagnesian silicates, exsolution, oxidation, reaction between ilmenite and magnetite, and metamorphic overprinting. These various processes are described and their effects on the oxide geochemistry are emphasized. Several potential ore-forming processes have been invoked and can explain the formation of huge concentration of ilmenite, ± magnetite, ± apatite. Fractional crystallization can be combined with crystal sorting and plagioclase buoyancy to produce relative enrichment of dense ore minerals. Silicate liquid immiscibility can segregate conjugate Si-rich and Fe-rich melts, the latter being enriched in Fe–Ti–P. Magma mixing can produce hybrid magmas located in a single-phase field of the phase diagram and precipitate a pure ilmenite cumulate. Alternative processes are also described, such as ejection of Fe–Ti-enriched residual melts by filter-pressing and compaction, solid-state remobilization of ilmenite in veins, and hydrothermal transport of Fe and Ti from the host anorthosite followed by concentration in veins and lenticular ore bodies. The magnetic properties of Fe–Ti ore deposits present contrasting signatures, depending on whether the natural remanent magnetization is dominated by hemo-ilmenite or multi-domain magnetite. Micro- and macro-scale deformation features of ore rocks are intimately correlated with magma emplacement, and with ballooning of the anorthosite diapir associated with gravitational sagging of dense ore bodies. Exploration perspectives show that oxide-apatite gabbronorites are interesting targets because ilmenite in these rocks is poorer in Cr and Mg, and because the Ti-resource may be combined with apatite and vanadiferous magnetite. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of xylo-oligosaccharides on performance and microbiota in broiler chickens.
De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L. et al

in Applied and environmental microbiology (2015)

In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of ... [more ▼]

In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study it was aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, on top of a wheat/rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the caeca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, was significantly increased in the caeca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and caecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une généralisation des quartiers durables ? Présentation du référentiel d’aide à la conception et à l’évaluation développé en Wallonie et analyse prospective de douze quartiers.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Delbar, Caroline; Loiseau, Véronique ULg et al

in Urbia (2015)

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en ... [more ▼]

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en objectivant les critères minimum à respecter pour inscrire un quartier dans une vision transversale de développement durable. Ce référentiel constitue un cadre général qui régira les projets de quartiers durables menés en Wallonie (Belgique). Les 5 thématiques et les 25 critères qui constituent ce référentiel sont présentés. La grille de critères est ensuite appliquée à douze quartiers de façon à identifier les invariants communs aux processus de conception de ces quartiers et les freins à l’intégration des principes transversaux du développement durable dans les opérations de ce type. Si les critères relatifs aux performances énergétiques des bâtiments ont percolé dans un grand nombre de cas, la mixité des logements et leur accessibilité, la mixité sociale et la participation restent peu abordés. Le référentiel est disponible depuis début 2014 pour tous les acteurs de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting biomass and grain protein content using Bayesian methods
Mansouri, Majdi ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Stochastic Environmental Research & Risk Assessment (2015)

This paper deals with the problem of predicting biomass and grain protein content using improved particle filtering (IPF) based on minimizing the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performances of IPF are ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the problem of predicting biomass and grain protein content using improved particle filtering (IPF) based on minimizing the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performances of IPF are compared with those of the conventional particle filtering (PF) in two comparative studies. In the first one, we apply IPF and PF at a simple dynamic crop model with the aim to predict a single state variable, namely the winter wheat biomass, and to estimate several model parameters. In the second study, the proposed IPF and the PF are applied to a complex crop model (AZODYN) to predict a winter-wheat quality criterion, namely the grain protein content. The results of both comparative studies reveal that the IPF method provides a better estimation accuracy than the PF method. The benefit of the IPF method lies in its ability to provide accuracy related advantages over the PF method since, unlike the PF which depends on the choice of the sampling distribution used to estimate the posterior distribution, the IPF yields an optimum choice of this sampling distribution, which also utilizes the observed data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of estimation accuracy, root mean square error, mean absolute error and execution times. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic pitfall in antenatal manifestations of CPT II deficiency.
BOEMER, François ULg; DEBERG, Michelle ULg; SCHOOS, Roland ULg et al

in Clinical genetics (2015)

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency is a rare inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism associated with various phenotypes. Whereas most patients present with postnatal signs of ... [more ▼]

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency is a rare inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism associated with various phenotypes. Whereas most patients present with postnatal signs of energetic failure affecting muscle and liver, a small subset of patients presents antenatal malformations including brain dysgenesis and neuronal migration defects. Here, we report recurrence of severe cerebral dysgenesis with Dandy-Walker malformation in three successive pregnancies and review previously reported antenatal cases. Interestingly, we also report that acylcarnitines profile, tested retrospectively on the amniotic fluid of last pregnancy, was not sensitive enough to allow reliable prenatal diagnosis of CPT2 deficiency. Finally, because fetuses affected by severe cerebral malformations are frequently aborted, CPT2 deficiency may be underestimated and fatty acid oxidation disorders should be considered when faced with a fetus with Dandy-Walker anomaly or another brain dysgenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Wang, Y. et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2015), 99(S1), 36-47

Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with ... [more ▼]

Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life. � 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel magneto-electric multiferroics from first-principles calculations
Varignon, Julien ULg; Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Physique (2015), 16

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed ... [more ▼]

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed behaviours, the trend has evolved and, nowadays, density functional theory calculations have become also an essential predicting tool for identifying original rules to achieve multiferroism and design new magneto-electric compounds. This chapter aims at highlighting the key advances in the field of multiferroics, to which first-principles methods have contributed significantly. The essential theoretical developments that made this research possible are also briefly presented. [less ▲]

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See detailNew data on the recent history of the littoral forests of southern Cameroon: an insight into the role of historical human disturbances on the current forest composition
Biwolé, Achille ULg; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2015), 148(1), 19-28

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they ... [more ▼]

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central Africa, forest canopy is dominated by long-lived lightdemanding tree species, suggesting a possible role of human disturbance. The aim of this study was to bring new insights into the possible effect of historical human disturbances in terms of timing and spatial extent on the current forest composition. Location – Wet evergreen littoral forest in south-western Cameroon. Methods and key results – A combined vegetation sampling and archaeobotanical survey were conducted. Potsherds, oil-palm endocarps, and charcoal were found throughout the study area, suggesting generalised human occupation and anthropogenic fire. Human occupancy occurred in two periods: between 2200 and 1500 BP, and, more recently, beginning three centuries ago. High frequency of fire and the presence of Elaeis guineensis both dated recently (between 260 and 145 BP) suggest slash-and-burn shifting cultivation practices. These human-induced disturbances may coincide with the age of the current emergent lightdemanding species, the age of which can be estimated around 200 years, or with the phases of drying climate recorded in the Central African forest in the early 18th century. Conclusions – These results support the idea that historical human disturbances are one of the major factors that shaped the current forest composition in Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (2015), 178(1), 271-296

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailA Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Of Shear Stress Distribution During Neotissue Growth In A Perfusion Bioreactor.
Guyot, Yann ULg; Luyten, F. P.; Schrooten, J. et al

in Biotechnology and bioengineering (2015)

Bone tissue engineering strategies use flow through perfusion bioreactors to apply mechanical stimuli to cells seeded on porous scaffolds. Cells grow on the scaffold surface but also by bridging the ... [more ▼]

Bone tissue engineering strategies use flow through perfusion bioreactors to apply mechanical stimuli to cells seeded on porous scaffolds. Cells grow on the scaffold surface but also by bridging the scaffold pores leading a fully filled scaffold following the scaffold's geometric characteristics. Current computational fluid dynamic approaches for tissue engineering bioreactor systems have been mostly carried out for empty scaffolds. The effect of 3D cell growth and extracellular matrix formation (termed in this study as neotissue growth), on its surrounding fluid flow field is a challenge yet to be tackled. In this work a combined approach was followed linking curvature driven cell growth to fluid dynamics modeling. The level-set method (LSM) was employed to capture neotissue growth driven by curvature, while the Stokes and Darcy equations, combined in the Brinkman equation, provided information regarding the distribution of the shear stress profile at the neotissue/medium interface and within the neotissue itself during growth. The neotissue was assumed to be micro-porous allowing flow through its structure while at the same time allowing the simulation of complete scaffold filling without numerical convergence issues. The results show a significant difference in the amplitude of shear stress for cells located within the micro-porous neo-tissue or at the neotissue/medium interface, demonstrating the importance of taking along the neotissue in the calculation of the mechanical stimulation of cells during culture.The presented computational framework is used on different scaffold pore geometries demonstrating its potential to be used a design as tool for scaffold architecture taking into account the growing neotissue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAccounting for evolving pore size distribution in water retention models for compacted clays
Della Vecchia, Gabriele; Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Jommi, Cristina et al

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (2015), 39

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See detailMediterranean agri-food processing wastes pyrolysis after pre-treatment and recovery of precursor materials: A TGA-based kinetic modeling study
Manara, Panagiota; Vamvuka, V; Sfakiotakis, S et al

in Food Research International (2015), 73

Valorization strategies of wastes from agri-food processes are intertwined with clean technological approaches and eco-industrial management. By-products from Mediterranean agri-food processes such as ... [more ▼]

Valorization strategies of wastes from agri-food processes are intertwined with clean technological approaches and eco-industrial management. By-products from Mediterranean agri-food processes such as olive oil, wine and fruit create a considerable disposal problem for the agro-industry. Their characteristics in combination with Mediterranean climate enhance microbial development and can be source of health and safety concerns. After pre-treatment and recovery of valuable precursor materials (lignin, pulp), pyrolysis can be used for fuels, chemicals and carbon bio-based materials production. Since thermal degradation kinetic studies are a key step for the efficient design of thermo-chemical processes, in this study pyrolysis experiments were performed, using TGA for the estimation of the process kinetic parameters. The independent parallel reaction model validat- ed against experimental results, showing a good agreement with experimental data, with deviation values rang- ing from 1.07 to 3.54%. [less ▲]

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See detailIn ovo L-arginine supplementation stimulates myoblast differentiation but negatively affects muscle development of broiler chicken after hatching
Li, Yue; Wang, Y.; Willems, E. et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2015)

Summary: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (L-Arg) enhances nitric oxide (NO) production, stimulates the process of myogenesis, and regulates post-hatching ... [more ▼]

Summary: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (L-Arg) enhances nitric oxide (NO) production, stimulates the process of myogenesis, and regulates post-hatching muscle growth. Different doses of L-Arg were injected into the amnion of chicken embryos at embryonic day (ED) 16. After hatching, the body weight of individual male chickens was recorded weekly for 3 weeks. During in vitro experiments, myoblasts of the pectoralis major (PM) were extracted at ED16 and were incubated in medium containing 0.01 mm L-Arg, 0.05 mm L-Arg, and (or) 0.05 mm L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). When 25 mg/kg L-Arg/initial egg weight was injected, no difference was observed in body weight at hatch, but a significant decrease was found during the following 3 weeks compared to that of the non-injected and saline-injected control, and this also affected the growth of muscle mass. L-NAME inhibited gene expression of myogenic differentiation antigen (MyoD), myogenin, NOS, and follistatin, decreased the cell viability, and increased myostatin (MSTN) gene expression. 0.05 mm L-Arg stimulated myogenin gene expression but also depressed muscle cell viability. L-NAME blocked the effect of 0.05 mm L-Arg on myogenin mRNA levels when co-incubated with 0.05 mm L-Arg. L-Arg treatments had no significant influence on NOS mRNA gene expression, but had inhibiting effect on follistatin gene expression, while L-NAME treatments had effects on both. These results suggested that L-Arg stimulated myoblast differentiation, but the limited number of myoblasts would form less myotubes and then less myofibers, while the latter limited the growth of muscle mass. � 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. [less ▲]

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See detailSpore assemblages from Upper Ordovician and Lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia
Wellman, Charles H.; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Miller, M.A.

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

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See detailThe Koundoum sheep breed in Niger: morpho-biometric study and description of the production system
Hamadou, Issa; Moula, Nassim ULg; Siddo, Seyni et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2015), 116(1), 49-58

The diffusion of highly productive breeds across developing countries goes along with a neglect of indigenous breeds, which are well suited to their environment but often show low yields. Thus, in Niger ... [more ▼]

The diffusion of highly productive breeds across developing countries goes along with a neglect of indigenous breeds, which are well suited to their environment but often show low yields. Thus, in Niger, the flock of Koundoum sheep are rapidly decreasing. The Koundoum is one of the few wool sheep breeds of Africa and shows important adaptive feature to its native environment, i.e. the humid pastures on the banks of the Niger River. To characterise the breed and to understand its production context, a survey has been conducted in 104 herds in four communes along the Niger River (Kollo, Tillabery, Say and Tera). Nine body measurements, including live weight, were taken on 180 adult sheep (101 females and 79 males). The herds varied from 2 to 60 heads, with a median size of eight animals and two thirds of the herds having less than 10 animals. Mainly fed on natural pastures, 85.6% of the herds received crop residues. Only natural mating was practiced. Veterinary care was restricted to anti-helminthic and some indigenous treatments. The frequent affiliation of breeders to professional unions appeared as favourable to the implementation of a collective conservation program. The Koundoum sheep were white or black coated, with the black colour being most frequent (75.6%). Wattles were present in both sexes at similar frequencies of around 14%. All biometric variables were significantly and positively correlated between them. The thoracic perimeter showed the best correlation with live weight in both males and females. Three variables were selected for live weight prediction: thoracic perimeter, height at withers and rump length. From the present study, it is expected that the in situ conservation of the Koundoum sheep will be highly problematic, due to lack of market opportunities for wool and the willingness of smallholders to get involved in pure Koundoum rearing. [less ▲]

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See detailInscriptiones Lesbi, Tenedi, Nesi. Concordance des éditions
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Horos (2015), 26-29

Concordance of the whole corpus of inscriptions of Lesbus, in relation with the inventory of the collection stored in the Archaeological Museum (Lesbus)

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See detailApplication of Steam Explosion as Pretreatment on Lignocellulosic Material: A Review
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Maniet, Guillaume ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2015), 54(10), 2593-2598

Steam explosion is a thermo-mechanicochemical pretreatment which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by the action of heating, formation of organic acids during the process, and ... [more ▼]

Steam explosion is a thermo-mechanicochemical pretreatment which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by the action of heating, formation of organic acids during the process, and shearing forces resulting in the expansion of the moisture. Two distinct stages compose the steam-explosion process: vapocracking and explosive decompression which include modification of the material components: hydrolysis of hemicellulosic components (mono- and oligosaccharides released), modification of the chemical structure of lignin, and modification of the cellulose crystallinity index, etc. These effects allow the opening of lignocellulosic structures and influence the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of the material. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnological uses of RNAi in plants: Risk assessment considerations
Casacuberta, J. M.; Devos, Y.; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Trends in Biotechnology (2015), 33(3), 145-147

RNAi offers opportunities to generate new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Instead of expressing novel proteins, RNAi-based GM plants reduce target gene expression. Silencing of off-target ... [more ▼]

RNAi offers opportunities to generate new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Instead of expressing novel proteins, RNAi-based GM plants reduce target gene expression. Silencing of off-target genes may trigger unintended effects, and identifying these genes would facilitate risk assessment. However, using bioinformatics alone is not reliable, due to the lack of genomic data and insufficient knowledge of mechanisms governing mRNA-small (s)RNA interactions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailThe alpha2,3-Sialyltransferase Encoded by Myxoma Virus Is a Virulence Factor that Contributes to Immunosuppression.
Boutard, Berengere; Vankerckhove, Sophie; Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(2), 0118806

Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any in vitro deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated in vivo. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses. [less ▲]

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See detailACE inhibitors in aortic stenosis: no fear just hope.
DAVIN, Laurent ULg; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

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See detailComparative study of the methane production based on the chemical composition of Mangifera Indica and Manihot Utilissima leaves
Mambanzulua Ngoma, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Sumbu Zola, Eric et al

in SpringerPlus (2015), 4(75), 1-8

Leaves of Mangifera Indica (MI, mango leaves) and Manihot Utilissima (MU, cassava leaves) are available in tropical regions and are the most accessible vegetal wastes of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic ... [more ▼]

Leaves of Mangifera Indica (MI, mango leaves) and Manihot Utilissima (MU, cassava leaves) are available in tropical regions and are the most accessible vegetal wastes of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo. These wastes are not suitably managed and are not rationally valorized. They are abandoned in full air, on the soil and in the rivers. They thus pollute environment. By contrast, they can be recuperated and treated in order to produce methane (energy source), organic fertilizer and clean up the environment simultaneously. The main objective of this study was to investigate methane production from MI and MU leaves by BMP tests at 30°C. The yields achieved from the anaerobic digestion of up to 61.3 g raw matter in 1 l medium were 0.001 l/g and 0.100 l CH4/g volatile solids of MI and MU leaves, respectively. The yield of MU leaves was in the range mentioned in the literature for other leaves because of a poor presence of bioactive substrates, and low C/N ratio. This methane yield corresponded to 7% of calorific power of wood. By contrast, the methane yield from MI leaves was almost nil suggesting some metabolism inhibition because of their rich composition in carbon and bioactive substrates. Whereas classical acidogenesis and acetogenesis were recorded. Therefore, methane production from the sole MI leaves seems unfavorable by comparison to MU leaves at the ambient temperature in tropical regions. Their solid and liquid residues obtained after anaerobic digestion would be efficient fertilizers. However, the methane productivity of both leaves could be improved by anaerobic co-digestion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of intraoperative 6% balanced hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) during cardiac surgery on transfusion requirements.
HANS, Grégory ULg; Ledoux, Didiier; Roediger, Laurence et al

in Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia (2015), 29(2), 328-32

OBJECTIVES: To compare transfusion requirements in adult cardiac surgery patients when balanced hydroxyethyl starches (HES) (130/0.4) or balanced crystalloids is used for pump prime and intraoperative ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To compare transfusion requirements in adult cardiac surgery patients when balanced hydroxyethyl starches (HES) (130/0.4) or balanced crystalloids is used for pump prime and intraoperative fluid therapy. DESIGN: Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records and perfusion charts. Matching based on propensity scores was used to adjust for potential confounders. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: Allocation to one of the study groups according to whether balanced HES or balanced crystalloids was used for pump prime and intraoperative fluid therapy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 240 propensity-matched patients were retained for final analyses. Forty-eight patients (40%) of the colloid group and 28 patients (23.3%) of the crystalloid group received blood products, with an odd ratio (95% CI) of 2.1(1.2-3.8 (P=0.009). After bypass HES patients had lower hemoglobin levels (8.4 [1.3] gr/dL vs 9.6 [2] gr/dL; P<0.001) and a higher cumulative chest drain output after 3 hours (180 [210] mL vs 140 [100] mL, P<0.001]. Heparinase thromboelastogram (TEG(R)) showed longer K times (2.5[1.1] vs 1.6[0.8], P<0.001) and lower maximal amplitudes (55.1[12.5] vs 63.4[9.8], P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: HES patients required more transfusions, owing to greater hemodilution, HES-induced clotting disturbances, and bleeding. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Buyse, J. et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2015)

Summary: This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their ... [more ▼]

Summary: This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation. � 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. [less ▲]

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See detailAn immunological method to combine the measurement of active and total myeloperoxidase on the same biological fluid, and its application in finding inhibitors which interact directly with the enzyme.
Franck, Thierry ULg; Minguet, G.; Delporte, C. et al

in Free radical research (2015)

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme involved in inflammation, and the measurement of its activity in biological samples has emerged essential for laboratory and clinical investigations. We will ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme involved in inflammation, and the measurement of its activity in biological samples has emerged essential for laboratory and clinical investigations. We will describe a new method which combines the SIEFED (specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection) and ELISA (ELISAcb) techniques to measure the active and total amounts of MPO on the same human sample and with the same calibration curve, as well as to define an accurate ratio between both the active and total forms of the enzyme. The SIEFED/ELISAcb method consists of the MPO extraction from aqueous or biological samples by immobilized anti-MPO antibodies coated onto microplate wells. After a washing step to eliminate unbound material, the activity of MPO is measured in situ by adding a reaction solution (SIEFED). Following aspiration of the reaction solution, a secondary anti-MPO antibody is added into the wells and the ELISAcb test is carried out in order to measure the total MPO content. To validate the combined method, a comparison was made with SIEFED and ELISA experiments performed separately on plasma samples isolated from human whole blood, after a neutrophil stimulation. The SIEFED/ELISAcb provides a suitable tool for the measurement of specific MPO activity in biological fluids and for the estimation of the inhibitory potential of a fluid. The method can also be used as a pharmacological tool to make the distinction between a catalytic inhibitor, which binds to MPO and inhibits its activity, and a steric inhibitor, which hinders the enzyme and prevents its immunodetection. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction - Postcolonial Thresholds: Gateways and Borders
Wilson, Janet; Tunca, Daria ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(1), 1-6

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See detailManuels de langues et risques d'inégalités
Simons, Germain ULg; Delbrassine, Daniel ULg; Van Hoof, Florence ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2015), (1), 44-46

Dans cet article synthétique, les auteurs relèvent quelques caractéristiques de certains manuels de langues contemporains et démontrent en quoi celles-ci présentent des risques d'inégalités pour les ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article synthétique, les auteurs relèvent quelques caractéristiques de certains manuels de langues contemporains et démontrent en quoi celles-ci présentent des risques d'inégalités pour les apprenants. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and tensioactive properties of PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg; Clément, Benoit; Riva, Raphaël ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2015), 5(35), 27330-37337

Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-b-polyphosphate copolymers made of hydrophilic PEO and hydrophobic polyphosphates are amphiphilic copolymers prone to self-assemble in water into nanoparticles. In this work ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-b-polyphosphate copolymers made of hydrophilic PEO and hydrophobic polyphosphates are amphiphilic copolymers prone to self-assemble in water into nanoparticles. In this work, nanoparticles are obtained by the self-assembly of PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers in water in the absence of any organic co-solvent whatever the length of the pendant alkyl chain (between 4 and 7 carbon atoms) of the polyphosphate block. Remarkably, this solvent-free process remains efficient even for the most hydrophobic polyphosphate blocks. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the block copolymers was determined by pyrene probe fluorescence. Finally, the efficiency of these copolymer surfactants to decrease the air–water interface was measured by air-bubble tensiometry. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays
Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015)

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study ... [more ▼]

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques et al

in Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation (2015), 00

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. OBJECTIVE: Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. METHODS: Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the preand post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. RESULTS: The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (P <0.05) decrease in MVC force normalized by body mass (−13%) in the EG, whereas a small increase occurred in the CG (+2.7%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the Sørensen test performed until failure in a young healthy population results in a reduced ability of the trunk extensor muscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating word recognition in intercomprehension: methods and findings
Möller, Robert ULg; Zeevaert, Ludger ULg

in Linguistics (2015), 53(2), 313352

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See detail¿Quién mató a Rosario Tijeras? Narco y culpa.
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Bulletin of Spanish Studies (2015), 92(2), 2-19

The novel Rosario Tijeras (Jorge Franco Ramos, 1999) is interpreted here from the perspective of the literary genre of the whodunnit. More particularly, the analysis investigates who is responsible for ... [more ▼]

The novel Rosario Tijeras (Jorge Franco Ramos, 1999) is interpreted here from the perspective of the literary genre of the whodunnit. More particularly, the analysis investigates who is responsible for the murder of the female assassin. Taking into account the serious psychological instability of the narrator and the violations of the maxims of communicative cooperation, it is argued that he is an unreliable narrator. Such a reading of the novel as a detective story told by an unreliable narrator reveals a number of clues as to who murdered Rosario Tijeras. It also paves the way towards a new interpretation of the novel: this article argues that there is a parallelism between Franco Ramos’ novel and La virgen de los Sicarios (1994) by Fernando Vallejo: in both novels the issues of violence and guilt in societies dominated by drug trafficking are treated in a similar way. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Vermeulen, Simon et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2015), 95

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and ... [more ▼]

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 metres) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes of the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity and the density of some species, exhibited high variation across years. Most species showed the highest spatial variation in density and biomass at small scales (~1 and 10 m). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been only weakly related to habitat features. Instead, we postulated that behavioural processes of amphipods were likely good explanatory factors. Although, the small scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, many patterns probably remained undetected as they may occur at scales smaller than those investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFluid fragmentation shapes rain-induced foliar disease transmission
Gilet, Tristan ULg; Bourouiba, Lydia

in Journal of the Royal Society, Interface (2015), 12

Plant diseases represent a growing threat to the global food supply. The factors contributing to pathogen transmission from plant to plant remain poorly understood. Statistical correlations between ... [more ▼]

Plant diseases represent a growing threat to the global food supply. The factors contributing to pathogen transmission from plant to plant remain poorly understood. Statistical correlations between rainfalls and plant disease out- breaks were reported; however, the detailed mechanisms linking the two were relegated to a black box. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we focus on the impact dynamics of raindrops on infected leaves, one drop at a time. We find that the deposition range of most of the pathogen-bear- ing droplets is constrained by a hydrodynamical condition and we quantify the effect of leaf size and compliance on such constraint. Moreover, we identify and characterize two dominant fluid fragmentation scenarios as responsible for the dispersal of most pathogen-bearing droplets emitted from infected leaves: (i) the crescent-moon ejection is driven by the direct interaction between the impacting raindrop and the contaminated sessile drop and (ii) the inertial detachment is driven by the motion imparted to the leaf by the raindrop, lead- ing to catapult-like droplet ejections. We find that at first, decreasing leaf size or increasing compliance reduces the range of pathogen-bearing droplets and the subsequent epidemic onset efficiency. However, this conclusion only applies for the crescent moon ejection. Above a certain compliance threshold a more effective mechanism of contaminated fluid ejection, the inertial detachment, emerges. This compliance threshold is determined by the ratio between the leaf velocity and the characteristic velocity of fluid fragmentation. The inertial detachment mechanism enhances the range of deposition of the larger con- taminated droplets and suggests a change in epidemic onset pattern and a more efficient potential of infection of neighbouring plants. Dimensionless parameters and scaling laws are provided to rationalize our observations. Our results link for the first time the mechanical properties of foliage with the onset dynamics of foliar epidemics through the lens of fluid fragmentation. We discuss how the reported findings can inform the design of mitigation strategies acting at the early stage of a foliar disease outbreak. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic anisotropic continuum damage model integration scheme adaptable to both ductile damage and biological damage-like situations
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 66

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations. For this purpose a staggered time integration scheme in a finite strain framework is presented, together with an analytical consistent tangent operator. The only restrictive hypothesis is to work with an undamaged isotropic material, assumed here to follow a J2 plasticity model. The only anisotropy considered is thus a damage-induced anisotropy. The possibility to couple any damage rate law with the present algorithm is illustrated with a classical ductile damage model for aluminium, and a biological damage-like application. The later proposes an original bone remodelling law coupled to trabecular bone plasticity for the simulation of orthodontic tooth movements. All the developments have been considered in the framework of the implicit non-linear finite element code Metafor (developed at the LTAS/MN2L, University of Liège, Belgium - www.metafor.ltas.ulg.ac.be). [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) along the Zambezi River and major tributaries, and their importance in the riverine carbon budget
Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(8), 2431-2453

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See detailIncidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery using either criteria of the RIFLE classification.
Lagny, Marc-Gilbert; Jouret, François ULg; Koch, Jean-Noel et al

in BMC nephrology (2015), 16(1), 76

BACKGROUND: Adult cardiac surgery is significantly associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Still, the incidence and outcomes of AKI vary according to its definition. Our ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Adult cardiac surgery is significantly associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Still, the incidence and outcomes of AKI vary according to its definition. Our retrospective monocentric study comparatively investigates the yield of RIFLE definition, which is based on the elevation of serum creatinine levels (SCr) or the reduction of urine output (UO), taking into account only one or both criteria. Pre- and per-operative risk factors for post-operative AKI were evaluated. METHODS: All adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, from April 2008 to March 2009 were included. Clinical, biological and surgical features were recorded. Baseline serum creatinine was determined as its value on day 7 before surgery. Post-operative AKI was diagnosed and scored based upon the highest serum creatinine and/or the lowest urine output. RESULTS: 443 patients (Male/Female ratio, 2.3; median age, 69y) were included, with 221 (49.9 %) developing postoperative AKI. Elevated serum creatinine (AKISCr) and oliguria (AKIUO) was observed in 9.7 % and 40.2 %, respectively. AKI patients had a significantly higher BMI and baseline SCr. In comparison to AKIUO, AKISCr mostly occurred in patients with co-morbidities, and was associated with an increased mortality at 1-year post surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The use of standard RIFLE definition of AKI in a cohort of 443 patients undergoing cardiac surgery resulted in an incidence reaching 50 %. Still, significant discrepancies were found between AKISCr and AKIUO regarding the incidence and outcomes. In line with previous reports, our data questions the utility of urine output as a criterion for AKI diagnosis and management after cardiac surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ciliogenic transcription factor Rfx3 is required for the formation of the thalamocortical tract by regulating patterning of prethalamus and ventral telencephalon.
Magnani, D; Morlé, L; Hasenpusch-Theil, K et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015)

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of ... [more ▼]

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of primary cilia underlie a large number of human syndromes collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Often, ciliopathies are associated with mental retardation (MR) and malformation of the corpus callosum. However, the possibility of defects in other forebrain axon tracts, which could contribute to the cognitive disorders of these patients, has not been explored. Here, we investigate the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts in mice mutant for Rfx3, which regulates the expression of many genes involved in ciliogenesis and cilia function. Using DiI axon tracing and immunohistochemistry experiments, we show that some Rfx3-/- corticothalamic axons abnormally migrate toward the pial surface of the ventral telencephalon (VT). Some thalamocortical axons (TCAs) also fail to leave the diencephalon or abnormally project toward the amygdala. Moreover, the Rfx3-/- VT displays heterotopias containing attractive guidance cues and expressing the guidance molecules Slit1 and Netrin1. Finally, the abnormal projection of TCAs toward the amygdala is also present in mice carrying a mutation in the Inpp5e gene, which is mutated in Joubert Syndrome and which controls cilia signaling and stability. The presence of identical thalamocortical malformations in two independent ciliary mutants indicates a novel role for primary cilia in the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts by establishing the correct cellular environment necessary for its development. [less ▲]

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See detailChemotherapy options for patients suffering from heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; RORIVE, Andrée ULg; COLLIGNON, Joëlle ULg

in Future oncology (London, England) (2015), 11(12), 1775-89

ABSTRACT The identification of additional chemotherapy agents for anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated advanced breast cancer (ABC) is an urgent medical need. Single agent chemotherapy is most times ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT The identification of additional chemotherapy agents for anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated advanced breast cancer (ABC) is an urgent medical need. Single agent chemotherapy is most times administered because combined therapy is only associated with modest, if any, improvement in median progression-free survival. Randomized trials failed to show overall survival benefit compared with single agent chemotherapy. We hope to modify the natural history of ABC by the consecutive use of treatments with documented activity in heavily pretreated patients. Quality of life remains an important end point as cure is in general not possible. We first review the activity of the approved and the most frequently used agents in heavily pretreated ABC. Thereafter, the potential role and safety profile of etirinotecan pegol is discussed given the results recently released of a Phase III trial comparing this agent to Treatment of Physician's Choice. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved extraction of valence transversity distributions from inclusive dihadron production
Radici, Marco; Courtoy, Aurore ULg; Bacchetta, Alessandro et al

in JHEP (2015), 1505

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See detailAssessment of the health status of wild fish inhabiting a cotton basin heavily impacted by pesticides in Benin (West Africa).
Agbohessi, Prudencio T.; Imorou Toko, Ibrahim; Ouedraogo, Alfred et al

in The Science of the total environment (2015), 506-507

To determine the impact of agricultural pesticides used in cotton cultivation on the health status of fish living in a Beninese cotton basin, we compared the reproductive and hepatic systems of fish ... [more ▼]

To determine the impact of agricultural pesticides used in cotton cultivation on the health status of fish living in a Beninese cotton basin, we compared the reproductive and hepatic systems of fish sampled from rivers located in both contaminated and pristine conditions. Different types of biomarkers, including biometric indices (a condition factor K, a gonadosomatic index GSI, and a hepatosomatic index HSI), plasma levels of sex steroids (11-ketotestosterone 11-KT, testosterone T and estradiol-17beta E2) and the histopathology of the gonads and liver, were investigated for two different trophic levels of the following two fish species: the Guinean tilapia Tilapia guineensis and the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The fish were captured during both the rainy season (when there is heavy use of pesticides on cotton fields) and the dry season from one site, in Pendjari River (reference site), which is located outside the cotton-producing basin, and from three other sites on the Alibori River within the cotton-producing basin. Comparing fish that were sampled from contaminated (high levels of endosulfan, heptachlor and DDT and metabolites) and reference sites, the results clearly indicated that agricultural pesticides significantly decreased K and GSI while they increased HSI, regardless of the season, species and sex of the fish. These pesticides also induced a decrease in the plasma levels of 11-KT and T and increased those of E2. The histopathology of the testes revealed, in both species, a high rate of testicular oocytes, up to 50% in the African catfish, downstream of the Alibori River, which indicated estrogenic effects from the pesticides. The disruption of male spermatogenesis primarily included necrosis, fibrosis and the presence of foam cells in the lobular lumen. The histopathology of the ovaries revealed high levels of pre-ovulatory follicular atresia, impaired oogenesis, a decrease in the oocyte vitellogenic diameter and other lesions, such as fibrosis, vacuolation and melano-macrophagic centers. The histopathology of the liver revealed the presence of necrosis, hypertrophic hepatocytes, foci of vacuolation, glycogen depletion and hemosiderin. An assessment of the general health of the fish indicated that all of the sampled fish from the polluted sites were in poorer health compared with those from the reference site but that the African catfish appeared much more affected than the Guinean tilapia, regardless of the sex and season. In conclusion, the overall results indicated that agricultural pesticides significantly impair the endocrine regulation of fish living in the Beninese cotton basin and that this would most likely be one of the causes of the severe damage observed in the liver and gonads and the reduced health condition. [less ▲]

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See detailA quality by design approach for longitudinal quality attributes
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Giacoletti, Katherine; Scherder, Tara et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior knowledge gathered during pharmaceutical development studies to provide a scientific rationale for the manufacturing process of a product and provide guarantee of future quality. This poses several challenges from a statistical standpoint and requires a shift in paradigm from traditional statistical practices. First, to provide “assurance of quality” of future lots implies the need to make predictions regarding the quality given past evidence and data. Second, the quality attributes described in the Q8 guidelines are not always a set of unique, independent measurements. In many cases, these criteria are com- plicated longitudinal data with successive acceptance criteria over a defined period of time. A common example is a dissolution profile for a modified or extended-release solid dosage form that must fall within acceptance limits at several time points. A Bayesian approach for longitudinal data obtained in various conditions of a design of experiment is provided to elegantly address the ICH-Q8 recommendation to provide assurance of quality and derive a scientifically sound design space. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015), 16(3), 233-70

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the ... [more ▼]

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailLINKPHASE3: an improved pedigree-based phasing algorithm robust to genotyping and map errors.
Druet, Tom ULg; Georges, Michel ULg

in Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) (2015), 31(10), 1677-9

Many applications in genetics require haplotype reconstruction. We present a phasing program designed for large half-sibs families (as observed in plant and animals) that is robust to genotyping and map ... [more ▼]

Many applications in genetics require haplotype reconstruction. We present a phasing program designed for large half-sibs families (as observed in plant and animals) that is robust to genotyping and map errors. We demonstrate that it is more efficient than previous versions and other programs, particularly in the presence of genotyping errors. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The software LINKPHASE3 is included in the PHASEBOOK package and can be freely downloaded from www.giga.ulg.ac.be/jcms/prod_381171/software. The package is written in FORTRAN and contains source codes. A manual is provided with the package. CONTACT: tom.druet@ulg.ac.be SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge de la neutropénie fébrile chez le patient cancéreux
FRERES, Pierre ULg; GONNE, Elodie ULg; COLLIGNON, Joëlle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 195-200

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement ... [more ▼]

Les cancers sont de plus en plus fréquents et leurs traitements de plus en plus agressifs. En conséquence, médecins généralistes, urgentistes, hématologues et oncologues se trouvent régulièrement confrontés à un effet secondaire sévère des traitements cytotoxiques, le neutropénie fébrile (NF). La NF est une complication gravissime de la chimiothérapie, car elle peut être rapidement mortelle et provoque un arrêt temporaire, voire définitif, des traitements. Dans cet article, nous résumons les dernières recommandations quant à la prise en charge thérapeutique des patients présentant une NF sous traitements anti-cancéreux. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins
Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Kay-Christian, Emeis et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2015), 141

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions ... [more ▼]

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of metal ions and metal nanoparticles encapsulated in porous silica on biodegradation kinetics for biphenyl
Wannoussa, Wissal; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Masy, Thibaut ULg et al

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2015), 75

Biodegradation of biphenyl was carried out by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 in presence of nanometer-sized metallic (Co, Pd, Ag and Cu) nanoparticles (NPS) synthesized by the sol-gel process. In order ... [more ▼]

Biodegradation of biphenyl was carried out by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 in presence of nanometer-sized metallic (Co, Pd, Ag and Cu) nanoparticles (NPS) synthesized by the sol-gel process. In order to prevent their agglomeration, the metallic NPs (1-2 nm diameter) were anchored inside microporous silica crystallites and named Co/SiO2, Pd/SiO2, Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 samples respectively. They were added at low concentrations of 10-6 M, 10-5 M and 10-4 M of metal in the culture medium and their impact was compared with that of the simple metal ions added as cobalt, palladium, silver or copper salts. The cultures containing Pd/SiO2 or Co/SiO2 samples at 10-4 M of metal achieved a 50% higher biphenyl degradation yield after 18 days of incubation and improved Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 growth compared with those without (positive control) or with silica particles only. The highest biodegradation performance, i.e. 107±3 ppm/day, which was about 85% higher than in control conditions without NPs, was recorded in 250 ml baffled flasks stirred at 150 rpm with Co/SiO2 sample at 10-4 M Co. Furthermore, the stimulating effect of NPs on biphenyl biodegradation seems to also depend on the thermal treatment conditions applied to NPs since the experimental results indicated that, after calcination, the cobalt oxide NPs at a concentration of 10-4 M were more effective than the reduced cobalt NPs with a degradation yield of 81±1% and 77±2% respectively after 18 days. On the other hand, the results showed that the addition of 10-4 M of Cu2+ or Ag+ ions or the addition of Cu/SiO2 or Ag/SiO2 samples at 10-4 M of metal have an inhibitory effect on biphenyl biodegradation. However, Cu+2 and Ag+ ions were more toxic to the Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 bacteria than the respective Cu or Ag NPS anchored inside silica particles. Moreover, this work showed that in these conditions, the activity of catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase (a critical enzyme in aromatic biodegradation pathway) was severely inhibited, whereas the presence of 10-4 M of Co2+ ions or Co/SiO2 sample stimulated the enzyme activity compared to the conditions without NPs. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Children’s Knowledge of Memory Improves Children’s Performance in Memory
Geurten, Marie ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2015), 29

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise ... [more ▼]

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise knowledge of memory, few studies have examined this effect among children. This study was conducted to create and validate an instrument to assess children’s metamemory knowledge and link this knowledge with their memory performance and strategy use. A sample of 166 children was given a new three-factor metamemory interview, and its psychometric properties were investigated. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the link between metamemory and memory performance in a subgroup of 128 children from the validation study. Results confirmed the scale’s good psychometric properties and revealed its ability to predict children’s memory performance. However, none of the scale’s factors could predict children’s use of memory strategies. Implications for the study of children’s metamemory development are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIntel Leveraging Rebates and the Goals of Article 102 TFEU
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in European Competition Journal (2015)

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See detailA review of technical solutions and simulations approaches for ship collisions with lock gates
Ehlers, S; Le Sourne, H; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2015), 62

Development of Analytical method sto assess the ship impact on lock gates

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See detailLimited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ?-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Parmentier, H. K. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2015), 203(2), 244-249

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. � 2014 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of various reef sounds on coral-fish larvae behaviour
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Berten, Laetitia; Rigo, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2015)

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See detailClinical Significance of Exercise Pulmonary Hypertension in Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Magne, Julien; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg et al

in The American journal of cardiology (2015)

In patients with heart failure, exercise echocardiography can help in risk stratification and decision making. The prognostic significance of exercise pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with ... [more ▼]

In patients with heart failure, exercise echocardiography can help in risk stratification and decision making. The prognostic significance of exercise pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of exercise PH in patients with secondary MR and narrow QRS intervals. From 2005 to 2012, 159 consecutive patients with secondary MR, narrow QRS intervals, left ventricular dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 36 +/- 7%), and measurable systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) during exercise echocardiography were included. Resting and exercise PH were defined as SPAP >50 and >60 mm Hg, respectively. Exercise PH was more frequent than resting PH (40% vs 13%, p <0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression, the independent determinants of exercise PH were resting SPAP (p <0.0001), exercise MR severity (p <0.0001), and e'-wave velocity (p = 0.004). The incidence of cardiac events during follow-up was significantly higher in patients with exercise PH compared with those without exercise PH (4 years: 40 +/- 7% vs 20 +/- 5%, p <0.0001). Patients with exercise PH exhibited higher rates of cardiac events and death than those with resting PH. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, exercise PH was independently associated with the occurrence of cardiac events (p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with secondary MR, exercise PH is determined mainly by resting SPAP, left ventricular diastolic burden, and exercise MR severity. Exercise PH is a powerful predictor of poor outcomes, with a 5.3-fold increased risk for cardiac-related death during follow-up. These results highlight the added value of exercise echocardiography in secondary MR. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Cardiology Core Syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).
Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H. et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a ... [more ▼]

The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees. [less ▲]

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See detailUpper Frasnian (Upper Devonian) bryozoans in proximal facies of southern Belgium
Ernst, Andrej; Tolokonnikova, Zoya; Denayer, Julien ULg

in Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (2015), 121(2), 3-20

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See detailThe neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2015), 27

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See detailCost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in European journal of public health (2015), 1-6(1), 20-25

BACKGROUND: The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score </=-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. RESULTS: The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at euro40 578 and euro23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to euro7912 and euro10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological interpretation of the slope during an isokinetic fatigue test
Bosquet, L.; Gouadec, K.; Berryman, N. et al

in International Journal of Sports Medicine (2015)

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See detailDe Jacques Antoine aux Éperonniers : l'édition littéraire en Belgique au passé et au présent. Seconde partie : Création contemporaine et politiques du livre. Lysiane D'Haeyere aux Éperonniers
Durand, Pascal ULg; Habrand, Tanguy ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2015), 47

Le positionnement pionnier des Éditions Jacques Antoine dans la patrimonialisation des lettres belges, à travers la collection « Passé Présent », n’a porté ses fruits que durant une assez brève période ... [more ▼]

Le positionnement pionnier des Éditions Jacques Antoine dans la patrimonialisation des lettres belges, à travers la collection « Passé Présent », n’a porté ses fruits que durant une assez brève période, de la seconde moitié des années 1970 et au début des années 1980. Seconde partie d'un article en deux temps, celle-ci évoque les causes de la faillite du projet initial avant d'examiner les modalités de son évolution ultérieure, sous la conduite de Lysiane D’Haeyere et dans le cadre réaménagé des Éditions Les Éperonniers. L’histoire de cette continuité dans la rupture et de cette transmission de rôle éditorial est restée jusqu’à ce jour très obscure, pour des raisons qui conjoignent affaires privées et contentieux commercial. L'article éclaircit cette histoire et jette, à travers elle, un jour nouveau sur un aspect des Lettres belges de langue française où s’articulent étroitement histoire de l’édition et histoire de la littérature. Les archives confiées par les héritiers de Lysiane D’Haeyere au Centre d’Étude du Livre Contemporain de l’Université de Liège, une journée d’étude organisée le 5 mai 2010 par le CELIC avec l’appoint de témoins directs de son activité d’éditrice, ont représenté à cet égard des ressources de premier plan. [less ▲]

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