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See detailCollaborative 3D Modeling: Conceptual and Technical Issues
Hajji, Rafika; Billen, Roland ULg

in International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling (IJ3DIM) (2016), 5(3), 47-67

The need of 3D city models increases day by day. However, 3D modeling still faces some impediments to be generalized. Therefore, new solutions such as collaboration should be investigated. The paper ... [more ▼]

The need of 3D city models increases day by day. However, 3D modeling still faces some impediments to be generalized. Therefore, new solutions such as collaboration should be investigated. The paper presents a new vision of collaboration applied on 3D modeling through the definition of the concept of a 3D collaborative model. The paper highlights basic questions to be considered for the definition and the development of that model then argues the importance of reuse of 2D data as a promising solution to reconstruct 3D data and to upgrade to integrated 3D solutions in the future. This idea is supported by a case study, to demonstrate how 2D/2.5D data collected from different providers in Walloon region in Belgium can be integrated and reengineered to match the specifications of a 3D building model compatible with the CityGML standard. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette diagnostique de l’étudiant Mise au point d’une suspicion de malaise hypoglycémique chez une personne adulte non diabétique
SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; LEFEBVRE, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(09), 407-413

Résumé : La survenue de malaises est souvent attribuée à une hypoglycémie chez des personnes non diabétiques et, a priori, sans autre problème de santé. Ce diagnostic est, cependant, souvent galvaudé, car ... [more ▼]

Résumé : La survenue de malaises est souvent attribuée à une hypoglycémie chez des personnes non diabétiques et, a priori, sans autre problème de santé. Ce diagnostic est, cependant, souvent galvaudé, car habituellement non clairement démontré. Le diagnostic d’hypoglycémie doit se faire de façon structurée en se basant sur la triade de Whipple. Tout d’abord, l’anamnèse doit rechercher les symptômes évocateurs d’hypoglycémie, adrénergiques et neuroglucopéniques. Ensuite, l’hypoglycémie doit être authentifiée par une mesure d’une valeur basse au moment d’un malaise. Enfin, s’il s’agit bien d’une hypoglycémie, le malaise doit disparaître rapidement après resucrage. Une fois le diagnostic posé sur la base de cette triade, l’anamnèse doit faire préciser, outre la sévérité des malaises, leur chronologie, après les repas ou à jeun, ce qui oriente vers une hypoglycémie réactive, fonctionnelle, ou vers une hypoglycémie d’origine organique (insulinome). Des examens complémentaires, faisant d’abord appel à la biologie clinique, ensuite éventuellement à l’imagerie médicale, permettront de, non seulement confirmer le diagnostic d’hypoglycémie, mais aussi d’en préciser l’origine, ce qui orientera la stratégie thérapeutique. [less ▲]

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See detailDésenchanter le cinéma ? Autour de "Blanche-Neige Lucie" de Pierre Huyghe
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

in Mondes du cinéma (2016), 09

Etude des enjeux esthétiques et idéologiques du film "Blanche-Neige Lucie" de Pierre Huyghes.

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See detailHousing Quality as Environmental Inequality: The Case of Wallonia, Belgium
Lejeune, Zoé ULg; Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg; Kryvobokov, Marko et al

in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (2016), 31(3), 495-512

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and ... [more ▼]

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and to challenge public policies and their unjust impacts on those target groups. Housing quality, especially the indoor characteristics of homes, offers an innovative perspective in this field of research. In previous research on environmental inequality in the Walloon context, housing quality has been proven to be a major determinant of quality of life and environmental well-being. This paper analyses housing quality through a twofold approach: through indoor characteristics on the one hand, and outdoor subjective and objective externalities on the other. It reveals the disparities between the most deprived and the wealthiest segments of the population. The evidence for this study is based on a housing quality survey carried out in 2012 and 2013 on 6,018 households in Wallonia (Belgium). The key findings are that poor people are found to live in housing of lower quality, in densely populated neighbourhoods and those with mixed use, with compensating amenities provided at the local level. Moreover, consistent with environmental inequality scholarship, deprived households are found to bear the burden of environmental degradation outside the home. People live in areas with poorer air quality, but are found to benefit from greater access to green spaces. The results of the survey reveal an interesting point concerning the environmental inequality literature; the interior features of housing are found to differ more widely between deprived and wealthier people than the surrounding environment does. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of England on the first English gardens in the Southern Low Countries and the Principality of Liege
De Harlez De Deulin, Nathalie ULg

in Garden History (2016), 44(Automn), 87-100

The English Garden appearead in the Low Countries quite late in the 18th century since the geometric model – mainly influenced by the French style diffused by the treatise of Dezallier d’Argenville – is ... [more ▼]

The English Garden appearead in the Low Countries quite late in the 18th century since the geometric model – mainly influenced by the French style diffused by the treatise of Dezallier d’Argenville – is still in fashion in the years 1760. Amongst the famous realizations of the time figure the Garden of Leeuwergem Castle (1762), the upper Garden of Freÿr Castle (c. 1775) or the Royal Park of Brussels (1786). The two following decades (1760-1780) correspond to the major development of the new irregular style in the Low Countries merely influenced by Picturesque Garden but also by Naturalistic style Garden discovered by members of the aristocracy travelling in Great Britain as well as some gardeners sent to England to be trained and to learn how to grow new exotic plants. This paper deals with the major designers and the most famous sleeping partners engaged in the program of creation of the first English gardens in the country, notably Prince Charles-Joseph de Ligne (Beloeil and Baudour), Duke Emmanuel de Croÿ (Hermitage), Count of Seneffe Joseph Depestre (Seneffe), Duke Emmanuel d’Hane Steenhuyse (Leeuwergem) and, first of all, Duke Albert de Saxe-Teschen and the Archduchess Marie Christine who asked Lancelot Brown a plan for the site near Brussels called the Fine Mountain (Schoonenberg). Brown has sent his project from Britain in July 1782. We have also taken interest in the many unknown owners who gathered important plants collection that are only described in travel diaries or mentioned in archives (inventories and other lists of purchase or supply) that have no longer survived. This article present some facets of the global research accomplished in the thesis (2015) focusing on the direct influence of the English design on the first irregular gardens in the Southern Low Countries. [less ▲]

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See detailBiocompatibility of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials with Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs).
GRENADE, Charlotte ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Gailly, Patrick ULg et al

in Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2016), 32(9), 1152-1164

OBJECTIVES: Polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials constitute an innovative class of CAD-CAM materials offering promising perspectives in prosthodontics, but no data are available in the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials constitute an innovative class of CAD-CAM materials offering promising perspectives in prosthodontics, but no data are available in the literature regarding their biological properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of PICNs with human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in comparison with materials typically used for implant prostheses and abutments. METHODS: HGF attachment, proliferation and spreading on discs made of PICN, grade V titanium (Ti), yttrium zirconia (Zi), lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (eM) and polytetrafluoroethylene (negative control), were evaluated using a specific insert-based culture system (IBS-R). Sample surface properties were characterized by XPS, contact angle measurement, profilometry and SEM. RESULTS: Ti and Zi gave the best results regarding HGF viability, morphology, number and coverage increase with time in comparison with the negative control, while PICN and eM gave intermediate results, cell spreading being comparable for PICN, Ti, Zi and eM. Despite the presence of polymers and their related hydrophobicity, PICN exhibited comparable results to glass-ceramic materials, which could be explained by the mode of polymerization of the monomers. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study confirm that the currently employed materials, i.e. Ti and Zi, can be considered to be the gold standard of materials in terms of HGF behavior, while PICN gave intermediate results comparable to eM. The impact of the present in vitro results needs to be further investigated clinically, particularly in the view of the utilization of PICNs for prostheses on bone-level implants. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodik zur schnellen Bewertung von Syntheserouten auf Basis von Exergiebilanzen
Frenzel, Philipp; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2016), 88(9), 1381

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren ... [more ▼]

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren verstärkt die Nutzung alternativer Kohlenstoffquellen wie Biomasse oder CO2 erforscht. Die alternativen Kohlenstoffquellen unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich ihrer Zusammensetzung und Stoffeigenschaften teilweise deutlich von fossilen Rohstoffen. Aus diesem Grund müssen Syntheserouten und darauf aufbauende Prozesse neu entwickelt werden. Da zum einen sehr viele Syntheserouten prinzipiell denkbar sind und zum anderen die Entwicklung der entsprechenden Prozesse aufwendig ist, wird eine Möglichkeit benötigt, begrenzte Entwicklungsressourcen sinnvoll zu steuern. Dazu sollte bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium ein quantitativer Vergleich der Syntheserouten erfolgen, um diejenigen zu identifizieren, die das größte wirtschaftliche Potential versprechen. In diesem Vortrag wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, um eine schnelle erste, auf Exergie basierte Bewertung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials einer Syntheseroute bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium durchzuführen, in dem nur wenige Informationen vorliegen. Die Idee der Methodik ist, Syntheserouten in standardisierten Prozessen abzubilden, wodurch eine automatisierte Auswertung und somit ein schnelles Screening möglich wird. Die standardisierten Prozesse umfassen sowohl den Einfluss der Reaktion durch Abbildung der Reaktionsbedingungen, Stöchiometrie, Umsatz und Selektivität als auch die Auswirkungen der Trennaufgabe. Ebenso berücksichtigt wird die Rückführung von Lösungsmitteln und ggf. nicht umgesetzten Edukten. Als zentrale Bewertungsgröße zur Abschätzung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials wird eine Kombination aus Exergie- und Rohstoffeinsatz herangezogen. Der Vorteil von Exergiebilanzen gegenüber Energiebilanzen ist, dass die Produktion von Entropie berücksichtigt wird und so die Auswirkungen einzelner Prozessschritte untersucht und zwischen verschiedenen Energieformen unterschieden werden kann. Durch Berechnung der Exergieverluste, also der Verluste von Exergie aufgrund von Entropieerzeugung in den Prozessen, ergibt sich ein quantitativer Vergleich verschiedener Syntheserouten. [less ▲]

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See detailMacro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry
Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (2016), First online

Introduction: Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry and its ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry and its underlying business model. Despite significant articles in the press, there is little medical and economic evidence on the rationale driving the transformation from the traditional Research & Development (R&D) model to new alternative business models, such as Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A). The purpose of this review is to understand the macro-economic factors responsible for the revolution of the pharmaceutical business model, by understanding the needs, desires, new behavioral patterns, but also challenges within the industry. Considering these changes will be the key to possessing a competitive advantage over the market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on new macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature and media sources show that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration in their business model, with more M&A deals and collaborations headlining the papers. Although Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant) pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements such as Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion [1] showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models. [less ▲]

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See detailL'âge de début de l'obligation scolaire
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Revue Belge de Droit Constitutionnel (2016), 2016

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See detailL’administration Obama, a t-elle (vraiment) navigué à vue sur la scène mondiale ?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Recherches internationales (2016), 106

Dès son arrivée au pouvoir, Obama a pris le soin de tenir un discours de rupture avec son prédécesseur dont l’action interventionniste et belliqueuse avait terni l’image des ÉU dans le monde. Il a sous ... [more ▼]

Dès son arrivée au pouvoir, Obama a pris le soin de tenir un discours de rupture avec son prédécesseur dont l’action interventionniste et belliqueuse avait terni l’image des ÉU dans le monde. Il a sous-entendu qu’il ne se laisserait pas enfermer dans des cadres idéologiques et qu’il privilégierait une approche « pragmatique » et « souple », et fait savoir qu’il n’engagerait plus les ÉU dans des opérations militaires de grande envergure. Ce discours d’une approche au cas par cas combiné à la politique du retrait militaire d’Irak et d’Afghanistan, et au fait que Obama a parfois été amené à adopter une attitude réactive pour répondre aux soubresauts de l’actualité internationale ont alimenté la perception dominante selon laquelle cette administration se désintéressait et se désengageait du monde, et déployait une politique étrangère marquée par l’indécision, l’improvisation et l’absence de vision à long terme. On ne peut omettre que cette administration a parfois du adapter et ajuster sa politique en fonction des événements internationaux. Faut-il pour autant conclure que sous Obama la première puissance mondiale a navigué à vue sur la scène internationale ? [less ▲]

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See detailThe Case : Acute renal failure and refractory hyponatremia
denis, Chloé; JADOT, Virginie ULg; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg et al

in Kidney International (2016), 90

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See detailCutaneous involvement in multiple myeloma: a multi-institutional retrospective study of 53 patients
Jurczyszyn, A.; Olszewska-Szopa, M.; Hungria, V. et al

in Leukemia & Lymphoma (2016), 57(9 2071-6), 2071-6

Skin infiltration in multiple myeloma (skin MM) is a rare clinical problem. Only a few cases of skin involvement have been reported, primarily in single case reports. We analyzed and present the clinical ... [more ▼]

Skin infiltration in multiple myeloma (skin MM) is a rare clinical problem. Only a few cases of skin involvement have been reported, primarily in single case reports. We analyzed and present the clinical outcomes, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic features, and relevant laboratory data on 53 biopsy-proven skin MM cases. The median time from MM diagnosis to skin involvement was 2 years. There appears to be an overrepresentation of immunoglobulin class A (IgA) and light chain disease in skin MM. We found no correlation between CD56 negative MM and skin infiltration. We found that skin MM patients presented in all MM stages (i.e. ISS stages I to III), and there was no preferential cytogenetic abnormality. Patients with skin MM carry a very poor prognosis with a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months as time from skin involvement. Moreover, patients with IgA disease and plasmablastic morphology appear to have a worse OS. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Nouveaux Liégeois. Migrations et Transformations Urbaines
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Stangherlin, Gregor

in Dérivations (2016), (3), 194-203

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques disponibles et une revue de la littérature scientifique produite sur les migrations à Liège ces dernières années. Nous commençons donc par une description des grandes évolutions démographiques sur le territoire de la ville depuis 1991 pour insister ensuite sur les effets de la migration dans cinq quartiers de la ville. Cette première partie souligne le rôle essentiel que joue la migration dans la croissance démographique observée ces dix dernières années à Liège. Ensuite, nous examinons la présence étrangère sur le territoire de la ville selon les 5 dimensions fréquemment citées dans les débats sur l’intégration des populations étrangères : emploi, logement, éducation, socio-culturelle et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailWork–Home Interface and Well-Being: A Cross-Lagged Analysis
Babic, Audrey ULg; Stinglhamber, Florence; Bertrand, Françoise ULg et al

in Journal of Personnel Psychology (2016)

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See detailValidation of Prediction Models for Near Adult Height in Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency Treated with Growth Hormone A Belgian Registry Study
Straetemans, Saartje; De Schepper, Jean; THOMAS, Muriel et al

in Hormone Research in Paediatrics (2016), 86

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See detailLa responsabilité du supérieur hiérarchique devant la Cour pénale internationale : une première synthèse à la lumière du jugement prononcé dans l’affaire Bemba
Wery, Marine ULg; Deprez, Christophe ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), 2

Le 21 mars 2016, au terme d’une procédure longue de huit années, la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) prononça un verdict de culpabilité à l’encontre de Jean-Pierre Bemba. L’une des innovations majeures ... [more ▼]

Le 21 mars 2016, au terme d’une procédure longue de huit années, la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) prononça un verdict de culpabilité à l’encontre de Jean-Pierre Bemba. L’une des innovations majeures liées à cette affaire concerne le vecteur d’imputabilité mobilisé par les juges. Pour la première fois dans l’histoire de la CPI, une chambre de première instance s’est dégagée des modes traditionnels de responsabilité prévus à l’article 25 du Statut de Rome pour sceller le sort d’un accusé sur la base de l’article 28 du même instrument, en application duquel la responsabilité pénale d’un supérieur hiérarchique peut être mise en cause en lien avec les actes commis par ses subordonnés. Par cette contribution, nous proposons d’examiner le verdict du 21 mars 2016, mais aussi les quelques pistes jurisprudentielles préexistantes, afin d’ébaucher une première synthèse du mécanisme de responsabilité du supérieur hiérarchique devant la CPI. [less ▲]

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See detailA combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c
de Wit, Julien; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Gillon, Michaël ULg et al

in Nature (2016), 537

Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their ... [more ▼]

Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Here we report observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016. The lack of features in the combined spectrum rules out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Many denser atmospheres remain consistent with the featureless transmission spectrum—from a cloud-free water-vapour atmosphere to a Venus-like one. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Integration by Pattern Priming: Experiment and Cortical Network Model
Lavigne, Frédéric; Longrée, Dominique ULg; Mellet, Sylvie et al

in Cognitive Neurodynamics (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11571-016-9410-4

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See detailFire Performance of Columns made of Normal and High Strength Concrete: A Comparative Analysis
Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Key Engineering Materials (2016), 711

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns ... [more ▼]

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns sections. However, this reduction has consequences on the structural performance in case of fire, as smaller cross sections lead to faster temperature increase in the section core. Besides, HSC experiences higher rates of strength loss with temperature and a higher susceptibility to spalling than NSC. The fire performance of a column can thus be affected by selecting HSC over NSC. This research performs a comparison of the fire performance of HSC and NSC columns, based on numerical simulations by finite element method. The thermal and structural analyses of the columns are conducted with the software SAFIR®. The variation of concrete strength with temperature for the different concrete classes is adopted from Eurocode. Different configurations are compared, including columns with the same load bearing capacity and columns with the same cross section. The relative loss of load bearing capacity during the fire is found to be more pronounced for HSC columns than for NSC columns. The impact on fire resistance rating is discussed. These results suggest that consideration of fire loading limits the opportunities for use of HSC, especially when the objective is to reduce the dimensions of the columns sections. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal variations of hormonal secretion, alertness and cognition in extreme chronotypes under different lighting conditions.
Maierova, L.; Borisuit, A.; Scartezzini, L et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

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See detailEffect of citrate anticoagulation on CO2 extraction during low flow extracorporeal veno-venous CO2 removal therapy
MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; Habran, Simon ULg; Hubert, Romain et al

in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2016), 4

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See detailEtat de la contraception en 2016
Manigart, Yannick; BELIARD, Aude ULg; Rozenberg, Serge et al

in Revue Médicale de Bruxelles (2016), 37

Introduction: The Pill and and other forms of hormonal contraception, if taken correctly, are very effective and safe for millions of women, but since a few years, due to debates and controversies about ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Pill and and other forms of hormonal contraception, if taken correctly, are very effective and safe for millions of women, but since a few years, due to debates and controversies about third- and fourth-generation pills, other options have gained in popularity. Objectives: to provide a review of oestroprogestative contraception (OP), progestative contraception, IUDs with a focus on their advantages and side-effects according to the specific needs of women.Methods: Literature review and lessons learned from clinical practice.Results: the importance of family and individual history, the life-style and socio-economic conditions are critical factors for advising women of the 15 contraceptive choices available to them. The risk/benefit ratio of OP contraception needs a yearly follow-up. The progestative contraception is the preferred option for women who have contraindication for estrogen, are older than forty, and/or have risk factors such as a history of venous thromboembolism, overweight and smoking. The IUD is well tolerated and causes few side effects. Among the other contraceptive methods, sterilization and diaphragms are briefly discussed. Conclusions: Among the many safe and effective contraceptive methods, it is important for general practitioners to know the advantages and the side effects of each method, as well as the specific conditions of the woman, to propose the best options available. In case of difficulties of follow up or adherence to daily uptake, in particular among adolescents, long-acting methods such as IUD or implants are preferable. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing a structural root system model for an in-depth assessment of root image analysis pipeline
Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Koevoets, Iko; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

in bioRxiv (2016)

Root system analysis is a complex task, often performed using fully automated image analysis pipelines. However, these pipelines are usually evaluated with a limited number of ground-truth root images ... [more ▼]

Root system analysis is a complex task, often performed using fully automated image analysis pipelines. However, these pipelines are usually evaluated with a limited number of ground-truth root images, most likely of limited size and complexity. We have used a root model, ArchiSimple to create a large and diverse library of ground-truth root system images (10.000). This library was used to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of several image descriptors classicaly used in root image analysis pipelines. Our analysis highlighted that the accuracy of the different metrics is strongly linked to the type of root system analyzed (e.g. dicot or monocot) as well as their size and complexity. Metrics that have been shown to be accurate for small dicot root systems might fail for large dicots root systems or small monocot root systems. Our study also demonstrated that the usefulness of the different metrics when trying to discriminate genotypes or experimental conditions may vary. Overall, our analysis is a call to caution when automatically analyzing root images. If a thorough calibration is not performed on the dataset of interest, unexpected errors might arise, especially for large and complex root images. To facilitate such calibration, both the image library and the different codes used in the study have been made available to the community. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual Species of Dermatophytes: Rarely Identified or New?
HAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg

in Mycopathologia (2016)

Dermatophytes are causing superficial mycosis in animals and humans. Depending on the geophilic, zoophilic or anthropophilic origin of the fungus but also on the immunological status of the patient ... [more ▼]

Dermatophytes are causing superficial mycosis in animals and humans. Depending on the geophilic, zoophilic or anthropophilic origin of the fungus but also on the immunological status of the patient, symptomatology can widely differ. Nevertheless, each species is currently associated with typical clinical manifestations, even if atypical localizations and/or clinical pictures are sometimes also reported. Diagnostic tools applied to species identification have been changing since the last two decades with the more frequent use of molecular methods currently considered nowadays as reference methods for species identification. It becomes obvious that the algorithm used for the distinction of closely related species needs to combine phenotypic and genomic methods. All these different points are discussed, and the most recent novel species causing or involved in human dermatophytosis are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cardiovascular impact of intense eccentric isokinetic exercise versus aerobic treadmill running
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LAURENT, Terry ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2016), 24(3), 201-208

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is an important health factor, but intense physical stress can increase the risk of heart disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the potential cardiac ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is an important health factor, but intense physical stress can increase the risk of heart disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the potential cardiac repercussions of, and the oxidative stress resulting from a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise and a 1-hour treadmill run at 75% ˙V O2 max (maximal exercise done 6 weeks before). METHODS: Twelve young sedentary healthy subjects randomly performed two tests separated by 6 weeks: 1) 3 sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic contractions of the quadriceps; 2) a 1-hour running on treadmill at 75% ˙V O2 max. We drew blood samples just before each exercise (T1), and just after (T2), 3 hours after (T3), and 24 hours after (T4) the end of each exercise to measure cardiac and oxidative stress biomarkers. RESULTS: In the running group, we observed significant differences for myoglobin (T3: 145 ± 80 μg/L), creatinine kinase (T4: 593 ± 350 mg/L), oxidized glutathione (T2: 22 ± 15.6 μmol/L), and highly sensitive cardiac troponin T, (T3: 0.051 ± 0.038 ng/mL). In the isokinetic group, we observed significant differences for myoglobin (T3:1419 ± 2533 mg/L), creatine kinase (3303 ± 7159 mg/L), and oxidized glutathione (T4:24 ± 14 μmol/L). Between isokinetic exercise and running, we observed significant differences for uric acid (p < 0.05, running > eccentric), myoglobin (p < 0.05, ditto), NT-proBNP (p < 0.05, ditto), hsTnT (p < 0.01, ditto), and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As cardiac biomarkers appear practically unmodified after the isokinetic exercise, despite the considerable oxidative stress, we suggest that the application of intense maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise, when indicated, should be safe for most patients including those whose cardiac status is unknown. On the other hand, the increase in cardiac biomarkers observed after running, could reflect leakage of these biomarkers from the cytosolic pool of cardiac cells, linked to membrane damage, rather than the result of a major injury and hence running is supposed to be a safe practice. However, since sudden death during running has been previously described, assesment of the cardiac biomarkers and a follow-up by a sport doctor is important especially if there is a cardiac family history. [less ▲]

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See detailGalileo Cycle-Slip Detection. How Four Frequencies Help When the Ionosphere Is Disturbed.
Van de Vyvere, Laura; Warnant, René ULg

in GPS World (2016), 27(9), 50-56

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See detailComment j'explore... une dysmorphose dento-maxillo-faciale.
Urbain, Valérie; GILON, Yves ULg; BRUWIER, Annick ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(9), 394-399

Dento-maxillofacial dysmorphoses represent a considerable area of maxillofacial surgery. Their incidence has constantly been on the rise since the beginning of the century. This can be explained by ... [more ▼]

Dento-maxillofacial dysmorphoses represent a considerable area of maxillofacial surgery. Their incidence has constantly been on the rise since the beginning of the century. This can be explained by variations in the food and society habits.We will first discuss the various causes (congenital and environnemental) and the pathophysiology of these disorders. Then, we will separate them according to the skeletal and Angle’s classifications. We will examine the predictive criteria of these dysmorphoses from the youngest age and consider their clinical and cephalometrical diagnosis We will envisage their functional and aesthetic consequences and expose the preventive options. Finally, we will describe the orthodontic and surgical treatment available today and conclude that surgery remains the gold standard by restoring the conventional axis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'EBM peut-elle encore enthousiasmer ?
Henrard, Gilles ULg

in Minerva: Tijdschrift Voor Evidence Based Medicine (2016)

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See detailProtection cardiovasculaire et rénale du patient diabétique de type 2 : le point après EMPA-REG OUTCOME et LEADER
SCHEEN, André ULg; PIERARD, Luc ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(09), 376-381

Summary : Type 2 diabetes (T2D), often associated with arterial hypertension, represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease and nephropathy. Two clinical trials demonstrate the superiority versus a ... [more ▼]

Summary : Type 2 diabetes (T2D), often associated with arterial hypertension, represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease and nephropathy. Two clinical trials demonstrate the superiority versus a placebo of two antidiabetic drugs in patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk : empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose type 2 (SGLT2) cotransporters, in EMPA-REG OUTCOME and liraglutide, an agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, in LEADER. Both medications showed a significant reduction in major cardiovascular events (-14 and -13 %, respectively), cardiovascular mortality (-38 and -22%), all-cause mortality (-32 and -15 %) and renal events (-39 et -22 %). The underlying protective mechanisms remain controverted. Ongoing studies should allow to decide whether the benefits are specific to each molecule or may be attributed to a class effect. [less ▲]

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See detailLes usages des manuels dans les préparations des enseignants stagiaires
Scheepers, Caroline ULg

in Français Aujourd'Hui (Le) (2016), 194

La présente contribution se propose d’analyser la façon dont les manuels sont convoqués par les stagiaires dans leurs préparations de cours de français. Dès lors, la focalisation se place non sur les ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution se propose d’analyser la façon dont les manuels sont convoqués par les stagiaires dans leurs préparations de cours de français. Dès lors, la focalisation se place non sur les manuels en tant quel tels, mais sur leur réception et leur réinvestissement dans les pratiques des étudiants. Ont été analysées une centaine de fiches de préparation élaborées par de futurs enseignants belges, qu’ils se destinent à enseigner au primaire, au secondaire inférieur (collège) ou supérieur (lycée). Les usages du manuel révèlent et construisent des différences notables en terme de compétences enseignées, de gestes pédagogiques mobilisés, de rapport au savoir, de culture professionnelle, de formation… Étudier la réception et l’utilisation du manuel revient à problématiser des pratiques et des représentations fondamentales qui touchent à ce que veulent dire enseigner, (faire) apprendre ou construire une leçon. Cette recherche éclaire une facette du processus de planification des apprentissages. [less ▲]

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See detailDetailed characterization of the Late Pleistocene loess sequence stratigraphy of Remicourt (Hesbaye region, Belgium) with cone penetration tests
Delvoie, Simon ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in Geologica Belgica (2016), 19(3-4), 281-289

Cone penetration tests (CPT) and drilling results are used to characterize the Middle Belgium loess sequence. A two scale study has been realized in the Hesbaye region (Belgium). The study on a regional ... [more ▼]

Cone penetration tests (CPT) and drilling results are used to characterize the Middle Belgium loess sequence. A two scale study has been realized in the Hesbaye region (Belgium). The study on a regional scale was performed along a 18 km long section of the high-speed railway Liège-Brussels. About 230 tests were compiled. Results show the loess thickness is very variable and can locally reach 20 m. Tertiary deposits become continuous and they rapidly thicken from Waremme to the West. The lower surface of the Tertiary deposits is characterized by a 0.3% apparent dipping to the NW. The dipping likely results from the Ardenne Massif uplift. The local scale study focuses on the site of Remicourt located along the high-speed railway. 24 CPT tests have been carried out very close to a series of archaeological trenches. The analysis shows penetrometers are able to define some stratigraphic markers within the loess layer. The most identifiable marker is stratigraphically located around the transition between the Humiferous Complex of Remicourt and the Rocourt Pedocomplex. The lens-shape of the loess ridge is also confirmed by the penetrometers’ interpretation. Furthermore, the 3D morphology of each stratigraphic marker can be estimated. These results offer interesting perspectives for the investigation of the loess sequence related to archaeological applications. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Paméla de Voltaire des Lumières au XXIe siècle - changements de statut et réception générique du texte
Daubercies, Laurence ULg

in Loxias : Littératures Française et Comparées (2016)

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See detail« Oiseaux blessés. Avec les stagiaires d’Article 23 »
Melice, Anne ULg

in Centre Franco Basaglia – Liège, Mouvement pour une psychiatrie démocratique dans le milieu de vie. (2016)

Après une synthèse de récits de vie recueillis auprès de stagiaires rencontrés au sein des ateliers de l’Asbl Article 23 (Horeca et Bâtiment), ce texte décrit l’accueil qu’ils m’y ont réservé. Ce récit se ... [more ▼]

Après une synthèse de récits de vie recueillis auprès de stagiaires rencontrés au sein des ateliers de l’Asbl Article 23 (Horeca et Bâtiment), ce texte décrit l’accueil qu’ils m’y ont réservé. Ce récit se prolongera dans le texte suivant intitulé « ‘’Je te porte dans moi comme un oiseau blessé’’ (Aragon) », qui se fera l’écho de mon observation de l’hospitalité propre aux ateliers d’Article 23. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasive and Non-invasive Electrical Pericranial Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Primary Headaches
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; MAGIS, Delphine ULg

in Current Pain and Headache Reports (2016), 20

Chronic primary headaches are widespread disorders which cause significant quality of life and socioprofessional impairment. Available pharmacological treatments have often a limited efficacy and/or can ... [more ▼]

Chronic primary headaches are widespread disorders which cause significant quality of life and socioprofessional impairment. Available pharmacological treatments have often a limited efficacy and/or can generate unbearable side effects. Electrical nerve stimulation is a well known non-destructive method of pain modulation which has been recently applied to headache management. In this review, we summarise recent advances in invasive and non-invasive neurostimulation techniques targeting pericranial structures for the treatment of chronic primary headaches, chiefly migraine and cluster headache: occipital nerve, supraorbital nerve, vagus nerve, and sphenopalatineganglion stimulations. Invasive neurostimulation therapies have offered a new hope to drug-refractory headache sufferers but are not riskless and should be proposed only to chronic patients who failed to respond to most existing preventives. Non-invasive neurostimulation devices are user-friendly, safe and well tolerated and are thus taking an increasing place in the multidisciplinary therapeutical armamentarium of primary headaches. [less ▲]

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See detailAlligator Records- 45è anniversaire-Interview Bruce Iglauer
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2016), (51), 8-17

Alligator Records (Chicago,IL.) 45 ans au service du Blues

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See detail"Je te porte dans moi comme un oiseau blessé" (Louis Aragon)
Melice, Anne ULg

in Centre Franco Basaglia, Mouvement pour une psychiatrie démocratique dans le milieu de vie (2016)

Dans le sillage du texte précédent « Oiseaux blessés. Avec les stagiaires d’Article 23 », ce texte-ci rend compte des spécificités de l’hospitalité que j’ai observées. Ces spécificités s’éclairent à mes ... [more ▼]

Dans le sillage du texte précédent « Oiseaux blessés. Avec les stagiaires d’Article 23 », ce texte-ci rend compte des spécificités de l’hospitalité que j’ai observées. Ces spécificités s’éclairent à mes yeux des problématiques du don et du contre-don, du « care », des relations à plaisanterie. Enfin, le respect des singularités et des limites individuelles, ainsi que la mise en suspens des rapports concurrentiels constitutifs du monde de travail, dessinent un espace alternatif à l’égard de ce dernier. [less ▲]

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See detailCooperative spontaneous emission from indistinguishable atoms in arbitrary motional quantum states
Damanet, François ULg; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John ULg

in Physical Review A (2016), 94

We investigate superradiance and subradiance of indistinguishable atoms with quantized motional states, starting with an initial total state that factorizes over the internal and external degrees of ... [more ▼]

We investigate superradiance and subradiance of indistinguishable atoms with quantized motional states, starting with an initial total state that factorizes over the internal and external degrees of freedom of the atoms. Due to the permutational symmetry of the motional state, the cooperative spontaneous emission, governed by a recently derived master equation [F. Damanet et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 022124 (2016)], depends only on two decay rates γ and γ0 and a single parameter dd describing the dipole-dipole shifts. We solve the dynamics exactly for N = 2 atoms, numerically for up to 30 atoms, and obtain the large-N limit by a mean-field approach. We find that there is a critical difference γ0 − γ that depends on N beyond which superradiance is lost. We show that exact nontrivial dark states (i.e., states other than the ground state with vanishing spontaneous emission) only exist for γ = γ0 and that those states (dark when γ = γ0) are subradiant when γ < γ0. [less ▲]

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See detailDu stilus à la plume ... du chapeau. Quelques réflexions sur la notion de style
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Bruxelles Patrimoines (2016), (18),

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See detailRelation entre hygiène bucco-dentaire et tendinopathies chez les sportifs
Kipgen, Laurence; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Rompen, Eric ULg et al

in Science & Sports (2016), 31(4), 227-229

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See detailAlterations of circulating lymphoid committed progenitor cellular metabolism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in humans
GLAUZY; PEFFAULT DE LATOUR; ANDRE-SCHMUTZ et al

in Experimental Hematology (2016), 44(9), 811-816

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See detailCoopération au service de la construction d'une qualité d'accueil
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Revue [Petite] Enfance (2016), 121

Les débats sur la qualité des lieux d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) font l’objet de nombreuses publications. S’il n’y a pas de consensus sur ce que recouvre précisément cette notion ... [more ▼]

Les débats sur la qualité des lieux d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) font l’objet de nombreuses publications. S’il n’y a pas de consensus sur ce que recouvre précisément cette notion polysémique, certaines orientations sont mises en avant par différentes instances internationales, comme l’Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économique (OCDE, 2001, 2006, 2012, 2015) et l’Union Européenne (2015). Ces publications, à partir d’une consultation d’experts de différents pays et d’une revue de la littérature scientifique (essentiellement anglo-saxonne), soulignent notamment l’importance d’une meilleure accessibilité des services, d’une formation initiale et du développement professionnel continu, des conditions de travail adéquates, de lignes directrices claires inscrites dans un curriculum, d’un système d’évaluation et de monitoring de la qualité et, bien sûr, du soutien indispensable d’une gouvernance qui considère l’enfance comme un investissement plutôt que comme un coût. L’enjeu fondamental serait d’offrir aux enfants et à leurs familles des services de qualité dont les effets bénéfiques ne sont plus à démontrer, particulièrement pour celles en situation de précarité. La réalisation contextualisée de ces orientations générales dans un pays ou une région suppose la mise en place de démarches concertées à chaque niveau de responsabilité d’un système dit compétent (Urban et al., 2011) : individuel, institutionnel, interinstitutionnel et de gouvernance. Elle repose sur des formes de coopération et de participation inscrites dans un fonctionnement démocratique qui ne va pas nécessairement de soi. Notre article propose d’interroger ces formes de coopération et de participation attendues, de pointer une série d’obstacles à leur réalisation qu’il s’agit de parvenir à dépasser, mais aussi de relater des expériences qui témoignent d’un autre possible. Il s’appuie sur une revue de la littérature, mais se nourrit aussi des multiples rencontres que notre expérience professionnelle nous a permis de vivre dans différents contextes. [less ▲]

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See detailDu processus aux soins intégrés: Expérience de gestion de projet bottom-up
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; BASSLEER, Bernard ULg; DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg et al

in Gestions Hospitalieres (2016), 558(Août/septembre 2016),

Le service de chirurgie cardiaque du CHU de Liège a soutenu des recherches visant à développer un programme d’épargne sanguine, enjeu actuel de taille dans ce secteur des soins de santé. Ce projet a ... [more ▼]

Le service de chirurgie cardiaque du CHU de Liège a soutenu des recherches visant à développer un programme d’épargne sanguine, enjeu actuel de taille dans ce secteur des soins de santé. Ce projet a évolué vers la création d’un itinéraire clinique chirurgical cardiaque et d’un modèle institutionnel pour le développement d’autres itinéraires cliniques. Une évolution qui permet de déterminer les missions spécifiques de l’institution et ses objectifs stratégiques, et de s’associer aux projets nationaux. L’adhésion multidisciplinaire, soutenue par un leadership médical et infirmier, ainsi que la reconnaissance institutionnelle sont les déterminants de la pérennité de cette démarche bottom-up. [less ▲]

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See detailCircadian dynamics in measures of cortical excitation and inhibition balance
Chellappa, Sarah; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; LY, Julien ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6:33661

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See detailInteraction of Avibactam with Class B Metallo-β-Lactamases.
Abboud, MI; Damblon, Christian ULg; Brem, J et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2016), 60

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See detailVisual and auditory cortical evoked potentials in interictal episodic migraine: An audit on 624 patients from three centres.
Ambrosini, Anna; Kisialou, A; Coppola, Gianluca et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016)

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See detailLe décret décumul et le Parlement wallon
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg; Janssens, Frédéric

in Administration Publique: Revue du Droit Public et des Sciences Administratives (2016), 2

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See detailWill climate change affect insect pheromonal communication?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Detrain, Claire; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Current Opinion in Insect Science (2016)

Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 ... [more ▼]

Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels. We argue that insect species relying on long-range chemical signals will be most impacted, because these signals will likely suffer from longer exposure to oxidative gases during dispersal. We provide future directions for research programmes investigating the consequences of climate change on insect pheromonal communication. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological transition and adjustment processes related to retirement: Influence on cognitive functioning
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Matharan, Fanny; Pérès, Karine et al

in Aging & Mental Health (2016)

Objective: To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. Methods: The study’s sample was taken from the Approche ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. Methods: The study’s sample was taken from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Int egr ee cohort, a French prospective study of retirees from agriculture, aged 65 and over, living in rural settings in southwestern France. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 590 elderly people without dementia at baseline and for whom information on perception of the work setting, experience of the retirement transition and adaptation to retirement life (nine variables) as well as neuropsychological measures (global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, attention and psychomotor speed) were available at first visit. Results: Multivariable linear regression analyses, including nine variables related to retirement and adjusted for potential confounding factors, indicated that three of them positive consideration of former work situation, development of new activities during retirement and good adaptation to free time were associated with better cognitive performances. Conclusions: We found that several factors proved to be determinants of good cognitive functioning at retirement and could serve as a basis for the development of more efficient intervention programs aimed at helping retirees to maintain good cognitive functioning after retirement. [less ▲]

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See detailFertility progression in Germany: an analysis using flexible nonparametric cure survival models
Bremhorst, Vincent; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Demographic Research (2016)

OBJECTIVE This paper uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) to study the transition to second and third births. In particular, we seek to distinguish the factors that determine the timing ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE This paper uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) to study the transition to second and third births. In particular, we seek to distinguish the factors that determine the timing of fertility from the factors that influence ultimate parity progression. METHODS We employ cure survival models, a technique commonly used in epidemiological studies and in the statistical literature but only rarely applied to fertility research. RESULTS We find that education has a different impact on the timing and the ultimate probability of having a second and a third birth. Furthermore, we show that the shape of the fertility schedule for the total population differs from that of ‘susceptible women’ (i.e., those who have a second or a third child). CONCLUSION Standard event history models conflate timing and quantum effects. Our approach overcomes this shortcoming. It estimates separate parameters for the hazard rate of having a next child for the ‘susceptible population’ and the ultimate probability of having another child for the entire population at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining new threshold temperatures for cooling and heating degree day index of different climatic zones of Iran
Roshan, Gh.R.; Ghanghermeh, A.A.; Attia, Shady ULg

in Renewable Energy : An International Journal (2016), 101(2017), 156-167

Iran is a country with a variety of different climates. Determining the threshold temperatures suitable for providing thermal and climatic comfort is necessary and vital to its population well-being. This ... [more ▼]

Iran is a country with a variety of different climates. Determining the threshold temperatures suitable for providing thermal and climatic comfort is necessary and vital to its population well-being. This research presents new threshold temperatures in order to calculate the degree day index required for heating and cooling by taking advantage of the 12 stations that are representative of the diversity of Iran's climate. Using Olgyay diagram, different bioclimatic ranges of 12 weather stations and their frequencies were compiled, processes and analysed. Mean daily data of temperature and relative humidity were used for the period of 1950e2010. Based on the frequencies of temperature readings falling in Olgyay's diagram comfort zone, representive temperature thresholds were selected based on 40 to 60 percentiles or (P20), 25e75% percentile (P50) and the threshold of 10e90% percentile. The findings of this study shows that Mashhad with 29.6% and Anzali with 2.33% of frequencies, have experienced the maximum and minimum days of comfort. After analyzing various percentiles to determine the threshold temperatures, it was observed that there is a little difference among the stations for determining the minimum threshold for the comfort. Differences are more obvious in the maximum thresholds. In total, minimum base temperatures (HDD) belonged to Ardabil stations that were 20.50, 20.90 and 20 deg C for P20, P50 and P80 respectively. The maximum temperature for calculating CDD with values of (P20 ¼ 25 C; P50 ¼ 26.25 C; P80 ¼ 27.50 C) is dedicated to Zabol station. The findings present more reasonable thermal comfort thresholds that can be used by architects, engineers and policy makers to achieve, in turn, more energy efficient homes and high quality indoor and outdoor living environments. [less ▲]

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See detailAgeism in Belgium and Burundi: A comparative analysis
Marquet, Manon ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Schroyen, Sarah ULg et al

in Clinical Interventions in Aging (2016), 11

Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than ... [more ▼]

Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least-developed country compared with a developed country. Methods: Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results: Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion: Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and healthcare systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. [less ▲]

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See detailGraphene-multiferroic interfaces for spintronics applications
Zanolli, Zeila ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016)

Graphene and magnetoelectric multiferroics are promising materials for spintronic devices with high performance and low energy consumption. A very long spin di usion length and high carrier mobility make ... [more ▼]

Graphene and magnetoelectric multiferroics are promising materials for spintronic devices with high performance and low energy consumption. A very long spin di usion length and high carrier mobility make graphene attractive for spintronics. The coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism, which characterises magnetoelectrics, opens the way towards unique device architectures. In this work, we combine the features of both materials by investigating the interface between graphene and BaMnO3, a magnetoelectric multiferroic. We show that electron charge is transferred across the interface and magnetization is induced in the graphene sheet due to the strong interaction between C and Mn. Depending on the relative orientation of graphene and BaMnO3, a quasi-half-metal or a magnetic semiconductor can be obtained. A remarkably large proximity induced spin splitting of the Dirac cones (~300 meV) is achieved. We also show how doping with acceptors can make the high-mobility region of the electronic bands experimentally accessible. This suggests a series of possible applications in spintronics (e.g. spin filters, spin injectors) for hybrid organic-multiferroic materials and reveals hybrid organic-multiferroics as a new class of materials that may exhibit exotic phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect and a Rashba spin-orbit induced topological gap. [less ▲]

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See detailSO(10) models with flavour symmetries: Classification and examples
Ivanov, Igor ULg; Lavoura, Luis

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2016), 43(10), 105005

Renormalizable SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) models equipped with flavour symmetries are a popular framework for addressing the flavour puzzle. Usually, the flavour symmetry group has been an ad hoc ... [more ▼]

Renormalizable SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) models equipped with flavour symmetries are a popular framework for addressing the flavour puzzle. Usually, the flavour symmetry group has been an ad hoc choice, and no general arguments limiting this choice were known. In this paper, we establish the full list of flavour symmetry groups which may be enforced, without producing any further accidental symmetry, on the Yukawa-coupling matrices of an SO(10) GUT with arbitrary numbers of scalar multiplets in the ${\bf{10}}$, $\bar{{\bf{126}}}$, and ${\bf{120}}$ representations of SO(10). For each of the possible discrete non-Abelian symmetry groups, we present examples of minimal models which do not run into obvious contradiction with the phenomenological fermion masses and mixings. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion de la matière organique du sol, un enjeu important pour limiter la lixiviation du nitrate vers les eaux souterraines
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 21

Description of the subject. The nitrate concentration in half of the groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium) has justified their classification as vulnerable zones under the Nitrates Directive ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. The nitrate concentration in half of the groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium) has justified their classification as vulnerable zones under the Nitrates Directive (ND). This vulnerable area has a relatively high diversity of agro-soil environments. Thus, the nitrogen content of agricultural soils can vary locally by a factor 4. Objectives. This study aimed to establish whether the carbon content of a soil is a significant risk factor in nitrate leaching to groundwater. Method. The article is based on measurements of nitrate nitrogen residue (APL) and soil total organic carbon (TOC) at the beginning of the leaching period. The measurements were made in 2012 in 1,500 plots, during inspections organized by the Wallonia Public Service. This was as part of the application of the Program for the Sustainable Management of Nitrogen in Agriculture, the scheme for implementing the ND within the Walloon region. Results. Examination of the results showed both that the APL was positively correlated to the TOC and that plots with “noncompliant” APL results had a significantly higher average TOC than the other plots. Conclusions. Since APL is an environmental indicator of the risk of nitrate leaching, it appears that the TOC may constitute a risk of groundwater contamination by nitrate. It is therefore advisable to improve the inclusion of this parameter in advice regarding nitrogen fertilization and secondly, in the case of summer harvest, to better manage the sowing of catch crops. [less ▲]

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See detailX(5568) as a $su \bar d \bar b$ tetraquark in a simple quark model
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2016), 43

The $S$-wave eigenstates of tetraquarks of type $s u \bar d \bar b$ with J$^{P}$ = 0$^{+}$, 1$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ are studied within a simple quark model with chromomagnetic interaction and effective quark ... [more ▼]

The $S$-wave eigenstates of tetraquarks of type $s u \bar d \bar b$ with J$^{P}$ = 0$^{+}$, 1$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ are studied within a simple quark model with chromomagnetic interaction and effective quark masses extracted from meson and baryon spectra. It is tempting to see if this spectrum can accommodate the new narrow structure X(5568), observed by the D\O~~Collaboration, but not confirmed by the LHCb Collaboration. If it exists, such a tetraquark is a system with four different flavors and its study can improve our understanding of multiquark systems. The presently calculated mass of X(5568) agrees quite well with the experimental value of he D\O~~Collaboration. Predictions are also made for the spectrum of the charmed partner $s u \bar d \bar c$. However we are aware of the difficulty of extracting effective quark masses, from mesons and baryons, to be used in multiquark systems. [less ▲]

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See detailNew role of osteopontin in DNA repair and impact on human glioblastoma radiosensitivity
Henry, Aurélie ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie ULg; Leroi, Natacha ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2016)

Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most aggressive and common solid human brain tumor. We have recently demonstrated the importance of osteopontin (OPN) in the acquisition/maintenance of stemness ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most aggressive and common solid human brain tumor. We have recently demonstrated the importance of osteopontin (OPN) in the acquisition/maintenance of stemness characters and tumorigenicity of glioma initiating cells. Consultation of publicly available TCGA database indicated that high OPN expression correlated with poor survival in GBM patients. In this study, we explored the role of OPN in GBM radioresistance using an OPN-depletion strategy in U87-MG, U87-MG vIII and U251-MG human GBM cell lines. Clonogenic experiments showed that OPN-depleted GBM cells were sensitized to irradiation. In comet assays, these cells displayed higher amounts of unrepaired DNA fragments post-irradiation when compared to control. We next evaluated the phosphorylation of key markers of DNA double-strand break repair pathway. Activating phosphorylation of H2AX, ATM and 53BP1 was signi cantly decreased in OPN-de cient cells. The addition of recombinant OPN prior to irradiation rescued phospho-H2AX foci formation thus establishing a new link between DNA repair and OPN expression in GBM cells. Finally, OPN knockdown improved mice survival and induced a signi cant reduction of heterotopic human GBM xenograft when combined with radiotherapy. This study reveals a new function of OPN in DNA damage repair process post-irradiation thus further con rming its major role in GBM aggressive disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAIRE polymorphism, melanoma antigen-specific T cell immunity, and susceptibility to melanoma
Conteduca, Giuseppina ULg

in Oncotarget (2016)

AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in ... [more ▼]

AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) from two strains of C57BL/6 mice bearing either T or C allelic variant of the rs1800522 AIRE SNP. Moreover, the extent of apoptosis induced by mTECs in MAGEB2-specific T cells and the susceptibility to in vivo melanoma B16F10 cell challenge were compared in the two mouse strains. The C allelic variant, protective in humans against melanoma, induced lower AIRE and MAGEB2 expression in C57BL/6 mouse mTECs than the T allele. Moreover, mTECs expressing the C allelic variant induced lower extent of apoptosis in MAGEB2-specific syngeneic T cells than mTECs bearing the T allelic variant (p < 0.05). Vaccination against MAGEB2 induced higher frequency of MAGEB2-specific CTL and exerted higher protective effect against melanoma development in mice bearing the CC AIRE genotype than in those bearing the TT one (p < 0.05). These findings show that allelic variants of one AIRE SNP may differentially shape the MA-specific T cell repertoire potentially influencing susceptibility to melanoma. [less ▲]

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See detailAbility of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to develop on alternative host plant species
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Canadian Entomologist (2016), 148(4), 434-442

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous crops. The characterization of its host ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous crops. The characterization of its host range could help to understand and prevent the dispersion behavior of the insect in the environment. In this study, the ability of T. absoluta to develop on 12 cultivated or non-cultivated plants including Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae and Malvaceae species under laboratory conditions was assessed. For each plant species, we monitored the development times of immature stages, survival, sex ratios and adult fecundity rates. All the 6 tested non-solanaceous plants, including Chenopodium, Convolvulus and Malva species, were not able to sustain (i.e. allow growth and development) T. absoluta larvae. Among Solanaceae, Solanum species were the most suitable host plants for the pest, but others could be opportunistically colonized with fewer incidences. T. absoluta appears to be strongly related to solanaceous plants which would predominantly support self-sustaining field populations. Preventing crop infestation by removing potential host plants in the immediate field vicinity and culture rotations with non-solanaceous crops is of primary importance. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-Parameter Kinematic Approach for Shear Strength of Deep Concrete Beams with Internal FRP Reinforcement
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Journal of Composites for Construction (2016), DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614 .0000747

Tests of deep concrete beams with internal fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement have shown that such members can exhibit lower shear strength than members with conventional steel reinforcement. To ... [more ▼]

Tests of deep concrete beams with internal fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement have shown that such members can exhibit lower shear strength than members with conventional steel reinforcement. To model this effect, the current paper proposes an approach based on a two-parameter kinematic theory (2PKT) for conventional deep beams. The 2PKT is built on a kinematic model with two degrees of freedom that describes the deformation patterns of cracked beams. Using this theory shows that large strains in FRP longitudinal reinforcement result in reduced shear resistance of the critical loading zones (CLZ) of deep beams. The original 2PKT is therefore modified by introducing a reduction factor for the shear carried by the CLZ. The extended 2PKT approach is then applied to a database of 39 tests of FRP-reinforced deep beams from the literature, resulting in an average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio of 1.06 and a coefficient of variation of 18.3%. The results show that the 2PKT adequately captures the effects of the stiffness of the reinforcement, section depth, concrete strength, and shear-span-to-depth ratio on the shear strength of FRP-reinforced deep beams. [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporation of iron and organic matter into young Antarctic sea ice during its initial growth stages
Janssens, Julie; Meiners, Klaus M.; Tison, Jean-Louis et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016), 4(1), 000123

This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe) and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for ... [more ▼]

This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe) and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean has been clearly established, the processes leading to the enrichment of Fe in sea ice have yet to be investigated and quantified. We conducted two in situ sea-ice growth experiments during a winter cruise in the Weddell Sea. Our aim was to improve the understanding of the processes responsible for the accumulation of dissolved Fe (DFe) and particulate Fe (PFe) in sea ice, and of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, extracellular polymeric substances, inorganic macro-nutrients (silicic acid, nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and ammonium), chlorophyll a and bacteria. Enrichment indices, calculated for natural young ice and ice newly formed in situ, indicate that during Antarctic winter all of the measured forms of particulate matter were enriched in sea ice compared to underlying seawater, and that enrichment started from the initial stages of sea-ice formation. Some dissolved material (DFe and ammonium) was also enriched in the ice but at lower enrichment indices than the particulate phase, suggesting that size is a key factor for the incorporation of impurities in sea ice. Low chlorophyll a concentrations and the fit of the macro-nutrients (with the exception of ammonium) with their theoretical dilution lines indicated low biological activity in the ice. From these and additional results we conclude that physical processes are the dominant mechanisms leading to the enrichment of DFe, PFe, organic matter and bacteria in young sea ice, and that PFe and DFe are decoupled during sea-ice formation. Our study thus provides unique quantitative insight into the initial incorporation of impurities, in particular DFe and PFe, into Antarctic sea ice. [less ▲]

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See detailMME mutation in dominant spinocerebellar ataxia with neuropathy (SCA43)
Depondt; Donatello, Simona; Rai, Myriam et al

in Neurology genetics (2016)

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See detailÉmotion, ipséité, liberté. Réflexions à propos des fondements de la théorie sartrienne des émotions
Recchia, Fabio ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12(5), 1-23

Entretenue durant la drôle de guerre, la correspondance épistolaire entre De Beauvoir et Sartre révèle une insatisfaction de ce dernier à l'égard de sa théorie des émotions. Celle-ci manquerait en effet ... [more ▼]

Entretenue durant la drôle de guerre, la correspondance épistolaire entre De Beauvoir et Sartre révèle une insatisfaction de ce dernier à l'égard de sa théorie des émotions. Celle-ci manquerait en effet de fondements solides. Répondant à ce constat, nous tenterons de dégager les fondations de cette théorie de manière à expliciter ses enjeux. Nous replacerons, pour ce faire, l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions dans la perspective plus générale de la théorie de l'intentionnalité du premier Sartre. De la sorte nous montrerons, d'une part, comment ce texte renouvelle significativement la catégorie de l'action en concevant l'émotion comme une activité ; et nous examinerons, d'autre part, l'interaction existant entre l¿émotion et l'ipséité de la conscience. Cette discussion dévoilera ainsi l'intentionnalité émotive comme une passion active reconduisant au fondement de la conscience qui est sa liberté personnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of slow-release plant infochemicals to control aphids: a first investigation in a Belgian wheat field
Zhou, Haibo; Chen, Longsheng; Liu, Yong et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

Using infochemicals to develop a push–pull strategy in pest control is a potential way to promote sustainable crop production. Infochemicals from plant essential oils were mixed with paraffin oil for slow ... [more ▼]

Using infochemicals to develop a push–pull strategy in pest control is a potential way to promote sustainable crop production. Infochemicals from plant essential oils were mixed with paraffin oil for slow release in field experiments on wheat to control the population density of cereal aphids and to enhance their natural enemies. (Z)-3-Hexenol (Z3H) attracted Metopolophum dirhodum and Sitobion avenae, the predominant species on wheat in Belgium, and may be a useful infochemical for aphid control by attracting aphids away from field plots. Release of (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) or a garlic extract (GE) led to a significant decrease in the abundance of wheat aphids. The main natural enemies of cereal aphids found were lacewings (47.8%), hoverflies (39.4%), and ladybirds (12.8%). Ladybird abundance varied little before the end of the wheat-growing season. Our results suggest that these chemicals can form the basis of a “push–pull” strategy for aphid biological control, with GE and EBF acting as a pestand beneficial-pulling stimulus and Z3H for aphid pulling. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vCCL2/vMIP-II is an agonist of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7
Szpakowska, Martyna; Dupuis, Nadine ULg; Baragli, Alessandra et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2016), 114

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See detailA new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the 1° × 1° GLODAP version 2
Lauvset, Siv K.; Key, Robert M.; Olsen, Are et al

in Earth System Science Data (2016)

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See detailDo Agrometeorological Data Improve Optical Satellite-based Estimations of Herbaceous Yield in Sahelian Semi-Arid Ecosystems?
Diouf, Abdoul Aziz ULg; Hiernaux, Pierre; Brandt, Martin et al

in Remote Sensing (2016), 8

Quantitative estimates of forage availability at the end of the growing season in rangelands are helpful for pastoral livestock managers and for local, national and regional stakeholders in natural ... [more ▼]

Quantitative estimates of forage availability at the end of the growing season in rangelands are helpful for pastoral livestock managers and for local, national and regional stakeholders in natural resource management. For this reason, remote sensing data such as the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) have been widely used to assess Sahelian plant productivity for about 40 years. This study combines traditional FAPAR-based assessments with agrometeorological variables computed by the geospatial water balance program, GeoWRSI, using rainfall and potential evapotranspiration satellite gridded data to estimate the annual herbaceous yield in the semi-arid areas of Senegal. It showed that a machine-learning model combining FAPAR seasonal metrics with various agrometeorological data provided better estimations of the in situ annual herbaceous yield (R² = 0.69; RMSE = 483kg•DM/ha) than models based exclusively on FAPAR metrics (R² = 0.63; RMSE = 550kg•DM/ha) or agrometeorological variables (R² = 0.55; RMSE = 585kg•DM/ha). All the models provided reasonable outputs and showed a decrease in the mean annual yield with increasing latitude, together with an increase in relative inter-annual variation. In particular, the additional use of agrometeorological information mitigated the saturation effects that characterize the plant indices of areas with high plant productivity. In addition, the date of the onset of the growing season derived from smoothed FAPAR seasonal dynamics showed no significant relationship (0.05 p-level) with the annual herbaceous yield across the whole studied area. The date of the onset of rainfall however, was significantly related to the herbaceous yield and its inclusion in fodder biomass models could constitute a significant improvement in forecasting risks of a mass herbaceous deficit at an early stage of the year. [less ▲]

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See detailUlcerative pododermatitis and disseminated erosive lesions associated with cowpox virus infection in a domestic cat
Ludwig, Louisa ULg; Bohn, Jéromine ULg; Remy, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2016)

The authors report on a case of feline cowpox virus infection associated with severe ulcerative dermatitis of a paw and disseminated erosive lesions. While the anamnesis of the cat being a known rodent ... [more ▼]

The authors report on a case of feline cowpox virus infection associated with severe ulcerative dermatitis of a paw and disseminated erosive lesions. While the anamnesis of the cat being a known rodent-hunter, a typical seasonality of infection and the progression of clinical signs from a primary anterior lesion (forelimb) indicated a possible cowpox virus infection, the differential diagnosis was complicated by the resemblance of clinical signs to those induced by feline herpesvirus-dermatitis or feline calicivirus infection. These differential diagnoses were excluded by means of immunostaining and PCR, respectively. Detection of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells from biopsy material and positive PCR and sequencing results confirmed the diagnosis of cowpox virus infection. Genetic characterisation of the isolate, based on the highly diverse haemagglutinin gene, showed that the strain (Liege 2015; GenBank accession number: KU726584) clustered with other European isolates, mostly from exotic zoo animals. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Pichault, Mathieu; Pansak, Wanwisa et al

in SOIL (2016), 2

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Although stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils, so that the literature ... [more ▼]

Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Although stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils, so that the literature describing the impact of stones on the hydraulic conductivity of a soil is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow, and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned predictive models. Our study suggests that it might be ill-founded to consider that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow. We pointed out several factors of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils that are not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, laboratory experiments show that an increasing stone content can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases: we observed an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity with volume of inclusions. These differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, comparison of results from predictive models and our experiments in unsaturated conditions shows that models and data agree on a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with stone content, even though the experimental conditions did not allow testing for stone contents higher than 20 %. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual Greenland accumulation rates (2009–2012) from airborne snow radar
Koenig, L.; Ivanoff, A.; Alexander, P. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor its surface mass balance in ... [more ▼]

Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor its surface mass balance in order to improve sea-level rise predictions. Snow accumulation is the largest component of the ice sheet's surface mass balance, but in situ observations thereof are inherently sparse and models are difficult to evaluate at large scales. Here, we quantify recent Greenland accumulation rates using ultra-wideband (2–6.5 GHz) airborne snow radar data collected as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge between 2009 and 2012. We use a semiautomated method to trace the observed radiostratigraphy and then derive annual net accumulation rates for 2009–2012. The uncertainty in these radar-derived accumulation rates is on average 14 %. A comparison of the radar-derived accumulation rates and contemporaneous ice cores shows that snow radar captures both the annual and long-term mean accumulation rate accurately. A comparison with outputs from a regional climate model (MAR) shows that this model matches radar-derived accumulation rates in the ice sheet interior but produces higher values over southeastern Greenland. Our results demonstrate that snow radar can efficiently and accurately map patterns of snow accumulation across an ice sheet and that it is valuable for evaluating the accuracy of surface mass balance models. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodistribution of Novel 68Ga-Radiolabelled HER2 Aptamers in Mice
Gijs, Marlies; Becker, Guillaume ULg; Plenevaux, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (2016), 7(5),

Background: Two novel HER2 aptamers were recently selected with great potential for the in vitro diagnosis of HER2-positive cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the in vivo diagnostic potential ... [more ▼]

Background: Two novel HER2 aptamers were recently selected with great potential for the in vitro diagnosis of HER2-positive cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the in vivo diagnostic potential of these HER2 aptamers. Methods: Both HER2 aptamers were radiolabelled with 68Ga, injected in mice bearing a HER2-positive and HER2-negative tumour and evaluated by PET/MRI. Results: Ex vivo bio distribution analysis revealed high uptake in the blood, tissues and organs, except the brain. Interestingly, this high uptake was explained by the slow blood clearance due to non-specific aptamer binding to blood proteins. We observed accumulation of radioactivity in both tumours in time. Although higher uptake in the HER2-positive tumour compared to the HER2-negative tumour was observed, this was accompanied with more necrosis in the HER2-negative tumour, which was observed by 18FDG PET/CT. Conclusion: This work presents a first step towards the development of 68Ga-labelled aptamers for molecular cancer imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of temporary implants in teenage patients: a prospective clinical trial
LAMBERT, France ULg; BOTILDE, Gaëlle ULg; LECLOUX, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Clinical Oral Implants Research (2016)

Abstract Aims: The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the outcomes of extra-narrow diameter implants (XNDI) placed in teenage patients as a temporary restorative option. Material and ... [more ▼]

Abstract Aims: The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the outcomes of extra-narrow diameter implants (XNDI) placed in teenage patients as a temporary restorative option. Material and Methods: Twenty consecutive young patients presenting one or several missing teeth received XNDI that were immediately restored with composite, Polymethylmethacrylate (Acrylic) or ceramic crown. Clinical and radiographical outcomes were assessed for a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Additionally, each patient completed retrospectively a satisfaction questionnaire using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: A total of 30 implants were placed and followed for a period of 1–7.4 years (mean: 3.59 years). One implant failed after 3 weeks and was replaced successfully. No further biological complications occurred during the follow-up period, leading to an implant survival rate of 96.6%. The patient satisfaction evaluations displayed high levels of comfort and function. Conclusion: Immediately restored XNDI to replace missing teeth on teenager patients seems to be an effective temporary restorative option to replace missing teeth in young patients. Composite or ceramic crowns should be preferred. Clinical trials with long-term follow-ups and the assessment of passive egression are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailHoney polyphenols extraction: method development and evidence of cis isomerization
Istasse, Thibaut ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Berchem, Thomas ULg et al

in Analytical Chemistry Insights (2016), 11

Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant’s nectar, where they are ... [more ▼]

Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant’s nectar, where they are collected by bees which convert the nectar into honey. Consequently, polyphenols constitute minor honey components. The development of a solid phase extraction method for honey polyphenols is presented herein. The technique employs Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent and was tested on monofloral honeys from six different plants: acacia, chestnut, eucalyptus, thyme, sunflower and wild carrot. Analyses were performed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry. Several phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified: caffeic and p-coumaric acids, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, chrysin and pinocembrin. Generally, the quantity of a given polyphenol in the honey was around 0.2 mg/100g of honey, except for chestnut honey which contained around 3.0 mg of p-coumaric acid/100g of honey. Analyses highlighted significant formation of cis isomers for phenolic acids during the extraction despite protection from light. [less ▲]

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See detailThe addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads
Bouaziz, M. A.; Abbes, F.; Mokni, A. et al

in Journal of Texture Studies (2016)

Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour ... [more ▼]

Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds (DNDS), date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80 – 90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest OBC (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (P<0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that all prepared chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. [less ▲]

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See detailIntercomparison of in-situ NDIR and column FTIR measurements of CO2 at Jungfraujoch
Schibig, M. F.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Henne, S. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16(15), 9935--9949

We compare two CO2 time series measured at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.), in the period from 2005 to 2013 with an in situ surface measurement system using a ... [more ▼]

We compare two CO2 time series measured at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.), in the period from 2005 to 2013 with an in situ surface measurement system using a nondispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) and a ground-based remote sensing system using solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Although the two data sets show an absolute shift of about 13 ppm, the slopes of the annual CO2 increase are in good agreement within their uncertainties. They are 2.04±0.07 and 1.97±0.05 ppm yr-1 for the FTIR and the NDIR systems, respectively. The seasonality of the FTIR and the NDIR systems is 4.46±1.11 and 10.10±0.73 ppm, respectively. The difference is caused by a dampening of the CO2 signal with increasing altitude due to mixing processes. Whereas the minima of both data series occur in the middle of August, the maxima of the two data sets differ by about 10 weeks; the maximum of the FTIR measurements is in the middle of January, and the maximum of the NDIR measurements is found at the end of March. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the air masses measured by the NDIR system at the surface of Jungfraujoch are mainly influenced by central Europe, whereas the air masses measured by the FTIR system in the column above Jungfraujoch are influenced by regions as far west as the Caribbean and the USA. The correlation between the hourly averaged CO2 values of the NDIR system and the individual FTIR CO2 measurements is 0.820, which is very encouraging given the largely different sampling volumes. Further correlation analyses showed, that the correlation is mainly driven by the annual CO2 increase and to a lesser degree by the seasonality. Both systems are suitable to monitor the long-term CO2 increase, because this signal is represented in the whole atmosphere due to mixing. [less ▲]

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See detailMajor Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Kint, Vincent et al

in Forests (2016), 7(174),

Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth ... [more ▼]

Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate), mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity), mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1) before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition); and (2) since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands. [less ▲]

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See detailGreenland Ice sheet [in "State of the Climate in 2015"]
Tedesco, M.; Box, J.; Cappelen, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (2016), 97(8),

The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012.

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See detailEnvironmental factors in autoimmune diseases and their role in multiple sclerosis
Jörg, Stefanie; Grohme, Diana; Erzler, Melanie et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2016), 73(24), 4611-4622

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See detailEstimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg et al

in Eurosurveillance (2016), 21(31),

This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vaccination and replacement value of dead or euthanised horses. The choice of the vaccination strategy would have important consequences in terms of cost. Vaccination of the country’s whole population of horses, based on a worst-case scenario, would cost more than EUR 30 million; for areas at risk, the cost would be around EUR 16–17 million. Regarding the impact on human health, short-term costs and socio-economic losses were estimated for patients who developed the neuroinvasive form of the disease, as no vaccine is available yet for humans. Hospital charges of around EUR 3,600 for a case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and EUR 4,500 for a case of acute flaccid paralysis would be the major financial consequence of an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mangrove Sediments Under Different Strategies: Natural Attenuation, Biostimulation, and Bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1
Semboung Lang, Firmin ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Water, Air & Soil Pollution (2016)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that occur in mangrove sediments. Their removal by bacteria often depends on specific characteristics as the number of benzene rings they possess and ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that occur in mangrove sediments. Their removal by bacteria often depends on specific characteristics as the number of benzene rings they possess and their solubility. Their removal also depends on environmental factors, such as pH, temperature, oxygen, and the ability of the endogenous or exogenous microflora to metabolize hydrocarbons.With the aim of treating mangrove sediments polluted by hydrocarbons in a biological way, a biodegradation experiment was conducted using mangrove sediments artificially contaminated with a mixture of four PAHs. The study used Rhodococcus erythropolis as an exogenous bacterial strain in order to assess the biodegradation of the PAH mixture by natural attenuation, biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The results showed that the last three treatments were more efficient than natural attenuation. The biostimulation/bioaugmentation combination proved to be the most effective PAH degradation treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the sea-ice carbon pump: Insights from a three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice biogeochemical model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES)
Moreau, Sébastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Bopp, Laurent et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016), 4(1), 000122

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM ... [more ▼]

The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs). Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM design, is the link between sea-ice growth and melt and oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). Here we investigate whether this link is indeed an important feature of the marine carbon cycle misrepresented in ESMs. We use an ocean general circulation model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES) with sea-ice and marine carbon cycle components, forced by atmospheric reanalyses, adding a first-order representation of DIC and TA storage and release in/from sea ice. Our results suggest that DIC rejection during sea-ice growth releases several hundred Tg C yr−1 to the surface ocean, of which < 2% is exported to depth, leading to a notable but weak redistribution of DIC towards deep polar basins. Active carbon processes (mainly CaCO3 precipitation but also ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and net community production) increasing the TA/DIC ratio in sea-ice modified ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes by a few Tg C yr−1 in the sea-ice zone, with specific hemispheric effects: DIC content of the Arctic basin decreased but DIC content of the Southern Ocean increased. For the global ocean, DIC content increased by 4 Tg C yr−1 or 2 Pg C after 500 years of model run. The simulated numbers are generally small compared to the present-day global ocean annual CO2 sink (2.6 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1 ). However, sea-ice carbon processes seem important at regional scales as they act significantly on DIC redistribution within and outside polar basins. The efficiency of carbon export to depth depends on the representation of surface-subsurface exchanges and their relationship with sea ice, and could differ substantially if a higher resolution or different ocean model were used. [less ▲]

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See detailReplacement of Glycoprotein B in Alcelaphine Herpesvirus 1 by Its Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Homolog : Implications in Vaccine Development for Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever.
Cunha, Cristina W.; Taus, Naomi S.; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg et al

in mSphere (2016), 1(4), 00108-16

Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has ... [more ▼]

Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress toward this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be propagated in vitro. As an alternative for vaccine development, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the SA-MCF vaccine candidate targets, OvHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB), could be expressed by a nonpathogenic alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and then evaluated the potential of the AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimera to be used as a vaccine and a diagnostic tool. The construction and characterization of an AlHV-1/OvHV-2 chimeric virus that is nonpathogenic and expresses an OvHV-2 vaccine target are significant steps toward the development of an SA-MCF vaccine and also provide a valuable means to study OvHV-2 biology. [less ▲]

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See detailMemory consolidation in children with Specific Language Impairment: Delayed gains and susceptibility to interference in implicit sequence learning
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2016)

Introduction: In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Two aspects of memory consolidation in implicit sequence learning were examined: the evolution of post-training gains in sequence knowledge (Experiment 1) and the susceptibility to interference (Experiment 2). Method and Results: In the first experiment, 18 children with SLI and 17 control children matched for sex, age, and nonverbal intelligence completed a serial reaction-time (SRT) task and were tested 24 hours and 1 week after practicing. The two groups of children attained an equal level of sequence knowledge in the training session, but the children with SLI lacked the consolidation gains displayed by the control children in the two post-training sessions. Working with a new group of children, 17 with SLI and 17 control peers, Experiment 2 examined resistance to interference by introducing a second sequence 15 minutes after the first training session. Similar results were obtained for the performance of both groups in the training session. However, although the performance of the control group improved in the post-training sessions, the performance of the SLI group deteriorated significantly during the consolidation phase due to the interfering sequence. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the consolidation phase of sequence learning is impaired in children with SLI. [less ▲]

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See detailParentification and related processes: distinction and implications for clinical practice
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

in Journal of Family Psychotherapy (2016), 27(3), 185-199

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child” ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of what we call « new families », the place and the role of the child are increasingly questioned. If a child helps a parent or takes care of them, the terms “parentified child”, “parental child” or “adult child” are used equally. However, these concepts hide different processes that have different impacts on the child’s development. In the present article, based on our doctoral research and clinical practice experience, we will try to make the distinction between these concepts and to illustrate them. We are convinced that by a better identification of each process, we can help therapists and social workers in their interventions with children and their families. [less ▲]

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See detail2D-photochemical model for forbidden oxygen line emission for comet 1P/Halley
Cessateur, G.; De Keyser, J.; Maggiolo, R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm ... [more ▼]

We present here a 2D-model of photochemistry for computing the production and loss mechanisms of the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) states, which are responsible for the emission lines at 577.7 nm, 630 nm, and 636.4 nm, in case of the comet 1P/Halley. The presence of O[SUB]2[/SUB] within cometary atmospheres, measured by the in-situ ROSETTA and GIOTTO missions, necessitates a revision of the usual photochemical models. Indeed, the photodissociation of molecular oxygen also leads to a significant production of oxygen in excited electronic states. In order to correctly model the solar UV flux absorption, we consider here a 2D configuration. While the green to red-doublet ratio is not affected by the solar UV flux absorption, estimates of the red-doublet and green lines emissions are, however, overestimated by a factor of two in the 1D model compared to the 2D model. Considering a spherical symmetry, emission maps can be deduced from the 2D model in order to be directly compared to ground and/or in-situ observations. [less ▲]

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See detailRealization of the Najafi-Golestanian microswimmer
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Hubert, Maxime ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 94(2), 021101

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical ... [more ▼]

A paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. As such, it has been the subject of numerous analytical and numerical studies. In this Rapid Communication, an experimental three-linked-spheres swimmer is created by self-assembling ferromagnetic particles at an air-water interface. It is powered by a uniform oscillating magnetic field. A model, using two harmonic oscillators, reproduces the experimental findings. Because the model remains general, the same approach could be used to design a variety of efficient microswimmers. [less ▲]

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See detailLOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph
Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 460

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all ... [more ▼]

We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia-ESO Survey: pre-main-sequence stars in the young open cluster NGC 3293
Delgado, A. J.; Sampedro, L.; Alfaro, E. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 460

The young open cluster NGC3293 is included in the observing program of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The radial velocity values provided have been used to assign cluster membership probabilities by means of ... [more ▼]

The young open cluster NGC3293 is included in the observing program of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The radial velocity values provided have been used to assign cluster membership probabilities by means of a single-variable parametric analysis. These membership probabilities are compared to the results of the photometric membership assignment of NGC3293, based on UBVRI photometry. The agreement of the photometric and kinematic member samples amounts to 65 per cent, and could increase to 70 per cent as suggested by the analysis of the differences between both samples. A number of photometric PMS candidate members of spectral type F are found, which are confirmed by the results from VPHAS photometry and SED fitting for the stars in common with VPHAS and GES data sets. Excesses at mid- and near-infrared wavelengths, and signs of Hα emission, are investigated for them. Marginal presence of Hα emission or infilling is detected for the candidate members. Several of them exhibit moderate signs of U excess and weak excesses at mid-IR wavelengths. We suggest that these features originate from accretion discs in their last stages of evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of magnetic field decay in massive main-sequence stars
Fossati, L.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Castro, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 592

A significant fraction of massive main-sequence stars show strong, large-scale magnetic fields. The origin of these fields, their lifetimes, and their role in shaping the characteristics and evolution of ... [more ▼]

A significant fraction of massive main-sequence stars show strong, large-scale magnetic fields. The origin of these fields, their lifetimes, and their role in shaping the characteristics and evolution of massive stars are currently not well understood. We compile a catalogue of 389 massive main-sequence stars, 61 of which are magnetic, and derive their fundamental parameters and ages. The two samples contain stars brighter than magnitude 9 in the V-band and range in mass between 5 and 100 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. We find that the fractional main-sequence age distribution of all considered stars follows what is expected for a magnitude limited sample, while that of magnetic stars shows a clear decrease towards the end of the main sequence. This dearth of old magnetic stars is independent of the choice of adopted stellar evolution tracks, and appears to become more prominent when considering only the most massive stars. We show that the decreasing trend in the distribution is significantly stronger than expected from magnetic flux conservation. We also find that binary rejuvenation and magnetic suppression of core convection are unlikely to be responsible for the observed lack of older magnetic massive stars, and conclude that its most probable cause is the decay of the magnetic field, over a time span longer than the stellar lifetime for the lowest considered masses, and shorter for the highest masses. We then investigate the spin-down ages of the slowly rotating magnetic massive stars and find them to exceed the stellar ages by far in many cases. The high fraction of very slowly rotating magnetic stars thus provides an independent argument for a decay of the magnetic fields. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 19 Feb. 2016 Outburst of Comet 67P/CG: An ESA Rosetta Multi-Instrument Study
Grün, E.; Agarwal, J.; Altobelli, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ... [more ▼]

On 19 Feb. 2016 nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in-situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 9:40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50% of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors >100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors >10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from ˜-16 V to -20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta (34 km from the nucleus): within 15 minutes the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (˜25 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) while 100 μm radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument ˜1 hour later at a speed of ~6 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailPostmortem Internal Gas Reservoir Monitoring Using GCxGC-HRTOFMS
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Grabher, Silke et al

in separations (2016), 3(24),

Forensic investigations often require postmortem examination of a body. However, the collection of evidence during autopsy is often destructive, meaning that the body can no longer be examined in its ... [more ▼]

Forensic investigations often require postmortem examination of a body. However, the collection of evidence during autopsy is often destructive, meaning that the body can no longer be examined in its original state. In order to obtain an internal image of the body, whole body postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has proven to be a valuable non-destructive tool and is currently used in medicolegal centers. PMCT can also be used to visually locate gas reservoirs inside a cadaver, which upon analysis can provide useful information regarding very volatile compounds that are produced after death. However, the non-targeted profiling of all potential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in these reservoirs has never been attempted. The aim of this study was to investigate the VOC profile of these reservoirs and to evaluate potential uses of such information to document circumstances surrounding death, cause of death and body taphonomy. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC GC-HRTOF-MS) was used for VOC measurements. This study demonstrated that the chemical composition of VOCs within the gas reservoirs differed between locations within a single body but also between individuals. In the future, this work could be expanded to investigate a novel, non-destructive cadaver screening approach prior to full autopsy procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt
Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Meyer, Christelle et al

in Science (2016), 351(6300),

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See detailCollaborative Care regarding major depressed patients: A review of guidelines and current practices
Van den Broeck, Kris; Remmen, Roy; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2016), 200

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe and common mental disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that stepped and/or collaborative care treatment models have several advantages for severely ... [more ▼]

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe and common mental disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that stepped and/or collaborative care treatment models have several advantages for severely depressed patients and caretakers. However, despite the availability of these treatment strategies and guidance initiatives, many depressive patients are solely treated by the general practitioner (GP), and collaborative care is not common. In this paper, we review a selected set of international guidelines to inventory the best strategies for GPs and secondary mental health care providers to collaborate when treating depressed patients. Additionally, we systematically searched the literature, listing potential ways of cooperation, and potentially supporting tools. We conclude that the prevailing guidelines only include few and rather vague directions regarding the cooperation between GPs and specialised mental health practitioners. Inspiring recent studies, however, suggest that relatively little efforts may result in effective collaborative care and a broader implementation of the guidelines in general. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of aging on task- and stimulus-related cerebral attention networks
Kurth, Sophie ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2016), 44

Interactions between a dorsal attention (DAN) and a ventral attention cerebral network (VAN) have been reported in young participants during attention or short term memory (STM) tasks. Since it remains an ... [more ▼]

Interactions between a dorsal attention (DAN) and a ventral attention cerebral network (VAN) have been reported in young participants during attention or short term memory (STM) tasks. Since it remains an under-investigated question, age effects on DAN and VAN activity and their functional balance were explored during performance of a STM task. Older and young groups showed similar behavioral patterns of results. At the cerebral level, DAN activation increased as a function of increasing STM load in both groups, suggesting preserved activity in DAN during healthy aging. Age-related over-recruitment in regions of the DAN in the higher task load raised the question of compensation attempt versus less efficient use of neural resources in older adults. Lesser decrease of VAN activation with increasing load and decreased stimulus-driven activation in the VAN, especially in the higher load, in older participants suggested age-related reduced response in the VAN. However, functional connectivity measures showed that VAN was still functionally connected to the DAN in older participants. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrocarbon biostimulation and bioaugmentation in organic carbon and clay-rich soils
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Demanèche, Sandrine; Tromme, Olivier et al

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2016), 99

Hydrocarbon-contaminated organic carbon-rich clayey soils are challenging for bioremediation stakeholders since the pollutant is heterogeneously distributed and poorly bioavailable due to its strong ... [more ▼]

Hydrocarbon-contaminated organic carbon-rich clayey soils are challenging for bioremediation stakeholders since the pollutant is heterogeneously distributed and poorly bioavailable due to its strong adsorption on clay and organic particles. In addition, biodegradation rates are restricted by limited diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to hydrocarbon-degrading aerobes. This study assessed the benefits of bioaugmentation with the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 versus those from biostimulation and anaerobic natural attenuation in terms of hydrocarbon (HC) degradation efficiency and changes in the bacterial community structure in a diesel-polluted clay-rich soil. Three soil samples with a similar total organic content but with a different HC concentration (0.2, 1.0 and 6.5 g/kg) were compared in a microcosm experiment. Despite a limitation in oxygen transfer, R. erythropolis T902.1 enhanced a greater HC degradation compared to the biostimulation treatment. However, this advantage decreased with time as the proportion of Rhodococci declined from 25% initially to 1% of the global community after 80 days of treatment. Similarly, the alkB gene proportion in bioaugmented soils decreased to levels close to those of biostimulated soils. Consequently, further engineering was suggested to improve the resilience of the inoculum to ensure its long-term presence and activity in such polluted environments. [less ▲]

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See detailNdBaScO4 : aristotype of a new family of geometric ferroelectrics?
Cochrane, Amber K.; Telfer, Michael; Dixon, Charlotte A. L. et al

in Chemical Communications (2016), 52

NdBaScO4 represents the aristotype structure of a new series of <110>-cut layered perovskites; it is suggested that compositional fine-tuning is likely to produce a family of new geometric ferro ... [more ▼]

NdBaScO4 represents the aristotype structure of a new series of <110>-cut layered perovskites; it is suggested that compositional fine-tuning is likely to produce a family of new geometric ferro- electrics, driven primarily by octahedral tilting. [less ▲]

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See detailForecasting travel behavior using Markov Chains-based approaches
Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg et al

in Transportation Research. Part C : Emerging Technologies (2016), 69

Recent advances in agent-based micro-simulation modeling have further highlighted the importance of a thorough full synthetic population procedure for guaranteeing the correct characterization of real ... [more ▼]

Recent advances in agent-based micro-simulation modeling have further highlighted the importance of a thorough full synthetic population procedure for guaranteeing the correct characterization of real-world populations and underlying travel demands. In this regard, we propose an integrated approach including Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and profiling-based methods to capture the behavioral complexity and the great heterogeneity of agents of the true population through representative micro-samples. The population synthesis method is capable of building the joint distribution of a given population with its corresponding marginal distributions using either full or partial conditional probabilities or both of them simultaneously. In particular, the estimation of socio-demographic or transport-related variables and the characterization of daily activity-travel patterns are included within the framework. The fully probabilistic structure based on Markov Chains characterizing this framework makes it innovative compared to standard activity-based models. Moreover, data stemming from the 2010 Belgian Household Daily Travel Survey (BELDAM) are used to calibrate the modeling framework. We illustrate that this framework effectively captures the behavioral heterogeneity of travelers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed framework is adequately adapted to meeting the demand for large-scale micro-simulation scenarios of transportation and urban systems. [less ▲]

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