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See detailEuropean Commission, trade agreements, and diversity of cultural expressions: between autonomy and influence
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in European Journal of Communication (2016), 31(4)

The Convention on diversity of cultural expressions – adopted by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 2005 – is a main international instrument within the global governance ... [more ▼]

The Convention on diversity of cultural expressions – adopted by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 2005 – is a main international instrument within the global governance of cultural and audiovisual industries. For its part, the European Commission played a critical role in the negotiation, leading to the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions’ adoption. In this respect, the article aims to explore why and how the Commission uses the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions throughout the recent European Union trade negotiations, for which purposes and how the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions influences the European Union foreign policy and its objectives. The article is more concerned with analysing the policy process through which the Commission’s strategy is formulated in light of the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions and of the place of cultural and audiovisual industries within the European Union trade agreements and also concerned with understanding whether the Commission’s autonomy is transformed into influence within the policy process. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésentations du français et motivations des allophones à l'apprendre et à l'enseigner
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Geron, Geneviève

in Le Langage et l'Homme (2016)

Dans les circonstances actuelles de la mondialisation et de ses implications en matière de pratique et d’enseignement des langues, comme en matière de relations et d’interactions multiculturelles, le ... [more ▼]

Dans les circonstances actuelles de la mondialisation et de ses implications en matière de pratique et d’enseignement des langues, comme en matière de relations et d’interactions multiculturelles, le français – concurrencé dans sa diffusion et dans ses usages – doit revoir et renforcer sa position sur le marché des langues comme dans les imaginaires des personnes susceptibles de l’apprendre ou de l’enseigner. On peut compter de multiples raisons, des plus passionnelles au plus rationnelles, pour apprendre/ enseigner telle ou telle langue…ou au contraire pour en choisir une autre. Les représentations associées à la langue et à la culture françaises ont été très diverses, voire paradoxales, au cours de l’histoire : certaines les ont beaucoup servies, d’autres les handicapent toujours, de nouvelles émergent. La question de savoir « pourquoi » un étranger décide d’apprendre ou d’enseigner le français renvoie évidemment à celle de savoir « pour quoi », en deux mots : le but qu’il vise et la motivation qui l’anime au début et au cours de son projet. À l’aide de témoignages relatifs à différents contextes et publics d’enseignement, nous souhaiterions dresser un état des lieux des représentations et des motivations que les apprenants, les enseignants, les autorités éducatives étrangers invoquent actuellement en faveur ou défaveur du français. Et de nous demander comment il est possible – au sein de ces différents contextes – de les analyser, de les améliorer, de les didactiser dans le cadre d’un enseignement plurilingue et interculturel, et quels rôles les enseignants peuvent jouer, quels outils ils ont à leur disposition, quelle préparation ils devraient recevoir à ce propos. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors in breast cancer treatment
FRERES, Pierre ULg; LOUSBERG, Laurence ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg

in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology [=BJMO] (2016), 10(4), 132-138

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See detailA simple calibration approach based on film-casting for confocal Raman microscopy to support the development of a Hot-Melt Extrusion process
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Thiry, Justine ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in Talanta (2016), 154

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must ... [more ▼]

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must be produced and a “reference method” must be used in order to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content of each sample. To circumvent this issue, the paper presents a simple approach based on the film-casting technique used as a calibration tool in the framework of hot-melt extrusion process. Confocal Raman microscopic method was successfully validated for the determination of itraconazole content in film-casting samples. Then, hot-melt extrusion was carried out to produce real samples in order to confront the results obtained with confocal Raman microscopy and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The agreement between both methods was demonstrated using a comparison study based on the Bland and Altman’s plot. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand Caïn scrute Abel. Reflets mutuels des neutralités belge et suisse autour de la Première Guerre mondiale
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Générale (2016), 2016/4(juillet-août),

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See detailMulti-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition reveal the spatial constraints and biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system
Wells, Naomi S.; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

in Water Research (2016), 98

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological ... [more ▼]

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg Nl-1 ammonium (NH4 +) and 300 mg N l-1 nitrate (NO3-), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ~1 mg l-1 DIN ([DIN] = [NH4+-N] + [NO3--N] + [NO2--N]). Mean δ1534 N-DIN increased from ~2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4+ sources (δ15N-NH4+ from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ15 N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ18O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ15N-NO2- values were 50‰ to 20‰ less than δ15N-NH4+ values in 40 the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ15N-NO2- was greater than δ15N-NH4+ in wells with the highest [NH4+] shows that an autotrophic NO2- reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4+ oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders.
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Sequeira, J. M.; Quadros, E. V.

in Biochimie (2016), 126

Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate ... [more ▼]

Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults. Folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) autoimmunity with low CSF N(5)-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) underlies most CFD syndromes, whereas FRalpha gene abnormalities and mitochondrial gene defects are rarely found. The age at which FRalpha antibodies of the blocking type emerge, determines the clinical phenotype. Infantile CFD syndrome and autism with neurological deficits tend to be characterized by elevated FRalpha antibody titers and low CSF MTHF. In contrast, in infantile autism and intractable schizophrenia, abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms may wax and wane with fluctuating FRalpha antibody titers over time accompanied by cycling changes in CSF folate, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and neurotransmitter metabolites ranging between low and normal levels. We propose a hypothetical model explaining the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on findings from clinical, genetic, spinal fluid and MRI spectroscopic studies, we discuss the neurochemical changes associated with these disorders, metabolic and regulatory pathways, synthesis and catabolism of neurotransmitters, and the impact of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of these conditions. A diagnostic algorithm and therapeutic regimens using high dose folinic acid, corticosteroids and milk-free diet is presented which has proven to be beneficial in providing adequate folate to the brain and decreasing the FRalpha autoantibody titer in those positive for the antibody. [less ▲]

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See detailLes puissances émergentes dans la bataille mondiale de l'attraction: Bollywood, vecteur du soft power de l'Inde?
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2016), 55(July),

This article deals with the importance of the Indian film industry for the strengthening of India’s soft power and with the capability of the country to build an international status of active cultural ... [more ▼]

This article deals with the importance of the Indian film industry for the strengthening of India’s soft power and with the capability of the country to build an international status of active cultural power. As such, on the one hand, I seek to analyze the institutional features of the Indian movie system and to focus on the role of India within the international regime for audiovisual sector, and on the other hand, I aim to emphasize the worldwide cultural competition that India faces. The findings will show that the domestic structures are a major factor in order to understand the influence of India and its status within the world audiovisual economy, within which Hollywood has highly financing abilities and global distribution strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a two-slope pyramid made by SPIF using an adaptive remeshing method with solid-shell finite element
Velosa De Sena, José ULg; Guzmán Inostroza, Carlos Felipe ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2016), 9(3), 259-434

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has grown in the last years, both experimentally and numerically. However, numerical investigations into SPIF process need further improvement to predict the formed shape correctly and faster than current approaches. The current work aims the use of an adaptive remeshing technique, originally developed for shell and later extended to 3D “brick” elements, leading to a Reduced Enhanced Solid-Shell formulation. The CPU time reduction is a demanded request to perform the numerical simulations. A two-slope pyramid shape is used to carry out the numerical simulation and modelling. Its geometric difficulty on the numerical shape prediction and the through thickness stress behaviour are the main analysis targets in the present work. This work confirmed a significant CPU time reduction and an acceptable shape prediction accuracy using an adaptive remeshing method combined with the selected solid-shell element. The stress distribution in thickness direction revealed the occurrence of bending/unbending plus stretching and plastic deformation in regions far from the local deformation in the tool vicinity. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical modelling of the degradation behaviour of biodegradable metals
Bajger, P; Ashbourn, JMA; Manhas, Varun ULg et al

in Biomechanics & Modeling in Mechanobiology (2016)

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See detailReduced sputum expression of interferon-stimulated genes in severe COPD.
Hilzendeger, Clarissa ULg; da Silva, Jane; HENKET, Monique ULg et al

in International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2016), 11

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of COPD are frequent and commonly triggered by respiratory tract infections. The purpose of our study was to investigate innate immunity in stable COPD patients. METHODS: Induced ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of COPD are frequent and commonly triggered by respiratory tract infections. The purpose of our study was to investigate innate immunity in stable COPD patients. METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from 51 stable consecutive COPD patients recruited from the COPD Clinic of CHU Liege and 35 healthy subjects. Expression of interferons beta (IFN-beta) and lambda1 (IL-29), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) MxA, OAS, and viperin were measured in total sputum cells by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The presence of Picornaviruses was assessed by RT-PCR, while potential pathogenic microorganisms (PPM) were identified by sputum bacteriology. RESULTS: Expression of IL-29 was found in 16 of 51 COPD patients (31%) and in nine of 35 healthy subjects (26%), while IFN-beta was detected in six of 51 COPD patients (12%) and in two of 35 healthy subjects (6%). ISGs were easily detectable in both groups. In the whole group of COPD patients, OAS expression was decreased (P<0.05), while that of viperin was increased (P<0.01) compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found with respect to MxA. COPD patients from group D of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) had reduced expression of all three ISGs (P<0.01 for MxA, P<0.05 for OAS, and P<0.01 for viperin) as compared to those of group B patients. Picornaviruses were detected in eight of 51 (16%) COPD patients vs four of 33 (12%) healthy subjects, while PPM were detected in seven of 39 (18%) COPD patients and associated with raised sputum neutrophil counts. IFN-beta expression was raised when either picornavirus or PPM were detected (P=0.06), but no difference was seen regarding IL-29 or ISGs. CONCLUSION: ISGs expression was reduced in severe COPD that may favor exacerbation and contribute to disease progress by altering response to infection. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety of Everolimus Plus Exemestane In Patients With Hormone-Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Progressing on Prior Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors: Primary Results of a Phase 3b, Open-Label, Single-Arm, Expanded-Access Multicenter Trial (BALLET).
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Mariani, G.; Ciruelos, E. M. et al

in Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO (2016)

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3)18 years with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor-receptor-2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) recurring/progressing during/after prior non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) were enrolled. Primary objective was safety of EVE plus EXE based on frequency of adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary objective was to evaluate AEs of grade 3/4 severity. RESULTS: Median treatment duration was 5.1 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EVE and 5.3 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EXE. Overall, 2131 patients were included in the analysis; 81.8% of patients experienced EVE- or EXE-related or EVE/EXE-related AEs (investigator assessed); 27.2% were of grade 3/4 severity. The most frequently reported non-hematologic AEs were (overall %, % EVE-related) stomatitis (52.8%; 50.8%) and asthenia (22.8%; 14.6%). The most frequently reported hematologic AE were (overall %, % EVE-related) anemia (14.4%; 8.1%) and thrombocytopenia (5.9%; 4.6%). AE-related treatment discontinuations were higher in elderly ((3)70 years) versus non-elderly patients (23.8% vs. 13.0%). The incidence of EVE-related AEs in both elderly and non-elderly patients appeared to be lower in first-line ABC versus later lines. The incidence of AEs (including stomatitis/pneumonitis) was independent of BMI status (post-hoc analysis). Overall, 8.5% of patients experienced at least one EVE-related SAE. Of the 121 on-treatment deaths (5.7%), 66 (3.1%) deaths were due to disease progression and 46 (2.2%) due to AEs; 4 deaths were suspected to be EVE-related. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest ever reported safety dataset on a general patient population presenting ABC treated with EVE plus EXE and included a sizeable elderly subset. Although the patients were more heavily pretreated, the safety profile of EVE plus EXE in BALLET was consistent with BOLERO-2. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2012-000073-23. [less ▲]

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See detailMaîtrise de la fermentation alcoolique sous stress éthanolique, thermique et osmotique de la souche Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSDN1 en vue de la préparation du vinaigre de fruits
Mounir, Majid ULg; Belgrire, Malika; Lahnaoui, Safaa et al

in Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Veterinaires (2016), 4(2), 86-95

La présente étude a pour but d’isoler, d’identifier et de caractériser de nouvelles souches de levures d’intérêt industriel. Un total de 54 levures ont été isolées et identifiées à partir de produits ... [more ▼]

La présente étude a pour but d’isoler, d’identifier et de caractériser de nouvelles souches de levures d’intérêt industriel. Un total de 54 levures ont été isolées et identifiées à partir de produits agricoles brutes et de sous-produits de l’industrie agro-alimentaire. Parmi ces isolats, quatre souches ont été retenues, purifiées et testées pour leur performance de fermentation sur un jus de dattes de variété Bouslikhène. D’après le séquençage du gène 18S de l’ADN ribosomal, les deux souches YS-DN1 et YS-M isolées respectivement à partir des dattes et de la mélasse ont été identifiées appartenant à l’espèce Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Par ailleurs, les deux autres souches YS-OPM et YS-G isolées des olives et des raisins appartiennent respectivement aux espèces Kluyveromyces marxianus, avec 78% d’homologie et Candida utilis à 89% d’homologie. D’autre part, la souche YS-DN1, s’est identifiée comme la plus performante dans la production d’éthanol en comparaison à deux autres souches industrielles de référence. La levure YS-DN1 était l’unique souche capable de croitre à une température entre 35 et 40°C en présence d’un taux alcoolique élevé et une pression osmotique agressive. Finalement, la production de la biomasse cellulaire de la souche YS -DN1 a été améliorée par optimisation des facteurs température, Brix et pH fixés respectivement à 29.75°C, 15.7% et 4.15. Ces valeurs ont permis d’obtenir un maximum de cellules de l’ordre de 8.4x108 UFC/ml. Il a été conclu que cette souche pourrait bien s’adapter à des usages industriels pour la production du vinaigre de fruits à grande échelle. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des pays émergents dans la gouvernance économique mondiale
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Zacharie, Arnaud ULg

in Annuaire français de Relations internationales (2016), XVII(2016),

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an ... [more ▼]

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an increasingly multipolar world, external policies of the main emerging countries are aimed more at legitimizing their status of regional powers rather than at promoting a truly democratic multilateralism. By doing so, the global shift in wealth puts the multilateralism to the test. Although emerging countries have claimed more room in the international economic organizations, many of their demands have not been heard by the Western traditional powers, which prompted them to launch their own initiatives. This creates an increasing fragmentation of international financial and trade rules, which makes more complex the political conditions for effectively regulate the international system. Although emerging countries have contributed to challenge the legitimacy of the global economic governance architecture, they have so far failed to change its nature or to make it more consistent. [less ▲]

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See detailEulerian Formulation of Elastic Rods
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2016), 472(2190),

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations ... [more ▼]

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff canal surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parameterizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this approach not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the self-feeding feature of these elementary problems and the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segments. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating roots into a whole plant network of flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; D'Aloia, Maria; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in ... [more ▼]

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in order to identify flowering time genes that are expressed in the roots and genes that are differentially expressed in the roots during the induction of flowering. Data mining of public microarray experiments uncovered that about 200 genes whose mutations are reported to alter flowering time are expressed in the roots (i.e. were detected in more than 50% of the microarrays). However, only a few flowering integrator genes passed the analysis cutoff. Comparison of root transcriptome in short days and during synchronized induction of flowering by a single 22-h long day revealed that 595 genes were differentially expressed. Enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes in root tissues, gene ontology categories, and cis-regulatory elements converged towards sugar signaling. We concluded that roots are integrated in systemic signaling, whereby carbon supply coordinates growth at the whole plant level during the induction of flowering. This coordination could involve the root circadian clock and cytokinin biosynthesis as a feed forward loop towards the shoot. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(13), 4817-4827

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers ... [more ▼]

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers remains challenging despite their extensive use in various fields of applications and the clear benefits to finely tune their properties. Here, we report on a two-step strategy for the synthesis of tailor-made poly(vinylamine) derivatives through the organometallic- mediated radical (co)polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl- acetamide and/or N-methylvinylacetamide followed by acid hydrolysis of the acetamide groups. A series of well-defined homopolymers as well as statistical and block copolymers with pendant primary and/or secondary amines having controlled molar masses, compositions, and low dispersities were produced accordingly. The reactivity ratios of the comonomers as well as the composition drift along the chain were determined in order to have a precise idea of the polymer structures. These advances represent a significant step toward an efficient platform for synthesis of this important class of amino group-containing (co)polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailTransparent superhydrophobic coatings from amphiphilic-fluorinated block copolymers synthesized by aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Dirani, Ali; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(24), 3998-4003

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of ... [more ▼]

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of this aqueous solution onto glass followed by an appropriate thermal treatment promotes the self-assembly of the hybrid material with the formation of superhydrophobic, robust and transparent coatings. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between calcium channels and SK channels in midbrain dopamine neurons and their impact on pacemaker regularity: Contrasting roles of N- and L-type channels.
de Vrind, V.; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Drion, Guillaume ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2016)

Although small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels and various types of voltage-gated Ca2+ (Cav) channels have been described in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, the nature of their interactions is ... [more ▼]

Although small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels and various types of voltage-gated Ca2+ (Cav) channels have been described in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, the nature of their interactions is unclear. More particularly, the role of various Cav channel types in either promoting irregularity of firing (by generating an inward current during SK channel blockade) or promoting regularity of firing (by providing the source of Ca2+ for the activation of SK channels) has not been systematically explored. We addressed this question using intracellular and extracellular recordings from substantia nigra, pars compacta (SNc), dopaminergic neurons in rat midbrain slices. Neurons were pharmacologically isolated from their differences. When examining the ability of various Cav channel blockers to inhibit the SK-mediated afterhyperpolarization (AHP), we found that only the N-type Cav channel blocker ω-conotoxin-GVIA was able to reduce the apamin-sensitive AHP, but only partially (~40%). Specific blockers of L, P/Q, T or R channels had no effect on this AHP. Combining ω-conotoxin-GVIA and other specific blockers did not yield greater block and even the broad Cav blocker Cd2+ induced a submaximal (~75%) effect. Extracellular recordings examining firing regularity yielded congruent results: none of the specific blockers was able to increase firing irregularity to the extent that the specific SK blocker apamin did. The irregularity of firing observed with apamin could only be reversed by blocking L-type Ca2+ channels. Thus various sources of Ca2+ appear to be required for SK channel activation in SNc neurons (some of them still unidentified), ensuring robustness of pacemaking regularity. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field
Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2016), 64

To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed ... [more ▼]

To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. [less ▲]

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See detailLa joie qui vient après l'attente. Retour sur la parution de J.-M. Mouillie et J.-P. Narboux, Sartre. L'Être et le néant. Nouvelles lectures, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2015, 212 p.
Recchia, Fabio ULg

in Année Sartrienne (L') (2016), 30

Cette publication consiste en une recension des "Nouvelles lectures" de "L'Être et le Néant", publiées à l'occasion de la sélection de ce texte à l'agrégation externe de philosophie 2015. Il s'agit de ... [more ▼]

Cette publication consiste en une recension des "Nouvelles lectures" de "L'Être et le Néant", publiées à l'occasion de la sélection de ce texte à l'agrégation externe de philosophie 2015. Il s'agit de faire retour sur cet événement que constitue la parution d'un tel recueil proposant, selon nous, une "relecture franche" de l'Essai de 1943 - un texte longtemps tenu pour le parent pauvre de la philosophie de Sartre, dans la mesure où cet ouvrage compte peu de monographies spécialisées à son sujet. Identifiant par ailleurs que ces "Nouvelles lectures" renvoient à nouvelle génération de chercheurs, cette recension souligne de quelle manière ce recueil apporte un commentaire lumineux de l'appareillage ontologique de l'Essai de 1943, témoigne en outre d'une attention particulièrement vive à l'égard des thématiques de l'individuation ainsi que de l'intersubjectivité chez Sartre, et articule enfin un dialogue entre les champs des "Études sartriennes" et celui de la philosophie de l'esprit contemporaine. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the coarsening dynamics of a granular lattice gas
Opsomer, Eric ULg; Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Ludewig, François et al

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2016)

We investigated experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a driven granular gas on a square lattice and discovered two characteristic regimes: Initially, given the dissipative nature of the ... [more ▼]

We investigated experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a driven granular gas on a square lattice and discovered two characteristic regimes: Initially, given the dissipative nature of the collisions, particles move erratically through the system and start to gather on selected sites called traps. Later on, the formation of those traps leads to a strong decrease of the grain mobility and slows down dramatically the dynamics of the entire system. We realize detailed measurements linking a trap’s stability to the global evolution of the system and propose a model reproducing the entire dynamics of the system. Our work emphasizes the complexity of coarsening dynamics of dilute granular systems. [less ▲]

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See detailVolumetric capnography: lessons from the past and current clinical applications
VERSCHEURE, Sara ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg; VERSCHUREN, F et al

in Critical Care (2016), 20(1),

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See detailDiaspore heteromorphism in the invasive Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae): sterile fl orets increase dispersal propensity and distance
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Maebe, Laura ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Flora (2016)

Within a species, the distance travelled by a particular diaspore depends on its morphology. In Poaceae, the presence of terminal sterile florets can lead to diaspore heteromorphism, which may influence ... [more ▼]

Within a species, the distance travelled by a particular diaspore depends on its morphology. In Poaceae, the presence of terminal sterile florets can lead to diaspore heteromorphism, which may influence dispersal. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of sterile florets favored dispersal in Bromus tectorum L., an invasive grass in the Western US. We used field and controlled experiments to study the dispersal of caryopses with and without sterile florets attached (respectively complex and simple diaspores), as well as pieces of inflorescence that detached from the mother plants. We considered both primary and secondary dispersal, as well as abiotic and biotic dispersal agents. The distance travelled by the diaspores and their attachment to animal fur were related to the presence and number of sterile florets. Abiotic agents moved diaspores over relatively short distances, both in terms of primary and secondary dispersal. A significant proportion of diaspores attached to fur, suggesting a potential for dispersal over longdistances. Complex diaspores were better dispersers than simple ones (and pieces of inflorescence), and this pattern was consistent across the study. However, among complex diaspores, the number of sterile florets had little or no influence. Considering primary and secondary dispersal by abiotic and biotic agents provided a general picture of the dispersal ecology of B. tectorum. For all the dispersal steps and dispersal agents we studied, the presence of sterile florets favored dispersal. These results highlight the functional significance of diaspore heteromorphism induced by floret sterility in the dispersal of Poaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailForest Inventory with Terrestrial LiDAR: A Comparison of Static and Hand-Held Mobile Laser Scanning
Bauwens, Sébastien ULg; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim et al

in Forests (2016), 7(6), 127

The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract ... [more ▼]

The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this study, we assessed and compared a hand-held mobile laser scanner (HMLS) with two TLS approaches (single scan: SS, and multi scan: MS) for the estimation of several forest parameters in a wide range of forest types and structures. We found that SS is competitive to extract the ground surface of forest plots, while MS gives the best result to describe the upper part of the canopy. The whole cross-section at 1.3 m height is scanned for 91% of the trees (DBH > 10 cm) with the HMLS leading to the best results for DBH estimates (bias of 0.08 cm and RMSE of 1.11 cm), compared to no fully-scanned trees for SS and 42% fully-scanned trees for MS. Irregularities, such as bark roughness and non-circular cross-section may explain the negative bias encountered for all of the scanning approaches. The success of using MLS in forests will allow for 3D structure acquisition on a larger scale and in a time-efficient manner. [less ▲]

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See detailGreenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003–2012)
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Schlegel, N-J et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future ... [more ▼]

Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. At these scales, processes responsible for mass change are less well understood and modeled, and could potentially play an important role in future GrIS mass change. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the January 2003–December 2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of −178.9 ± 4.4 and −239.4 ± 7.7 Gt yr−1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet-wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, some areas exhibit significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or processes not accounted for by models related to ice dynamics or hydrology, may lead to the observed differences. This highlights the need for further evaluation of modeled processes at regional and seasonal scales, and further study of ice sheet processes not accounted for, such as the role of subglacial hydrology in variations in glacial flow. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Alterations and Everolimus Efficacy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancers: Combined Exploratory Biomarker Analysis From BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3.
Andre, Fabrice; Hurvitz, Sara; Fasolo, Angelica et al

in Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2016), 34(18), 2115-24

PURPOSE: Two recent phase III trials, BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus), evaluated the addition of everolimus to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Two recent phase III trials, BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus), evaluated the addition of everolimus to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer. The current analysis aimed to identify biomarkers to predict the clinical efficacy of everolimus treatment. METHODS: Archival tumor samples from patients in BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 were analyzed using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Biomarker data were available for 549 patients. PIK3CA activating mutations and PTEN loss were reported in 30% and 16% of BOLERO-1 samples and in 32% and 12% of BOLERO-3 samples, respectively. PI3K pathway was hyperactive (PIK3CA mutations and/or PTEN loss and/or AKT1 mutation) in 47% of BOLERO-1 and 41% of BOLERO-3 samples. In both studies, differential progression-free survival (PFS) benefits of everolimus were consistently observed in patient subgroups defined by their PI3K pathway status. When analyzing combined data sets of both studies, everolimus was associated with a decreased hazard of progression in patients with PIK3CA mutations (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.00), PTEN loss (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.96), or hyperactive PI3K pathway (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.93). Patients with wild-type PIK3CA (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.46), normal PTEN (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26), or normal PI3K pathway activity (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.62) did not derive PFS benefit from everolimus. CONCLUSION: This analysis, although exploratory, suggests that patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer having tumors with PIK3CA mutations, PTEN loss, or hyperactive PI3K pathway could derive PFS benefit from everolimus. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence, fate and risk assessment of personal care products in river-groundwater interface
Serra-Roig, Mª Pau; Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2016), 568

This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban groundwater and river samples were collected in Sant Adrià ... [more ▼]

This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban groundwater and river samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of River Besòs that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results shown that most of compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 30 ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, named as benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000 ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the temporal variability of the River Besòs. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles MeBZT and BZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-Fs (e.g. benzophenone derivatives) in the river-groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for diferent aquatic species were calculated in order to characterise the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values will be presented and discussed in the presentation. [less ▲]

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See detailRemotely-sensed detection of effects of extreme droughts on gross primary production.
Vicca, Sara; Balzarolo, Manuela; Filella, Iolanda et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Severe droughts strongly impact photosynthesis (GPP), and satellite imagery has yet to demonstrate its ability to detect drought effects. Especially changes in vegetation functioning when vegetation state ... [more ▼]

Severe droughts strongly impact photosynthesis (GPP), and satellite imagery has yet to demonstrate its ability to detect drought effects. Especially changes in vegetation functioning when vegetation state remains unaltered (no browning or defoliation) pose a challenge to satellite-derived indicators. We evaluated the performance of different satellite indicators to detect strong drought effects on GPP in a beech forest in France (Hesse), where vegetation state remained largely unaffected while GPP decreased substantially. We compared the results with three additional sites: a Mediterranean holm oak forest (Puéchabon), a temperate beech forest (Hainich), and a semi-arid grassland (Bugacpuszta). In Hesse, a three-year reduction in GPP following drought was detected only by the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) also detected this drought effect, but only after normalization for absorbed light. In Puéchabon normalized PRI outperformed the other indicators, while the short-term drought effect in Hainich was not detected by any tested indicator. In contrast, most indicators, but not PRI, captured the drought effects in Bugacpuszta. Hence, PRI improved detection of drought effects on GPP in forests and we propose that PRI normalized for absorbed light is considered in future algorithms to estimate GPP from space. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial function and aerobic capacity assessed by high resolution respirometry in Thoroughbred horses
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Ceusters, Justine ULg; Nonnenmacher et al

in Comparative Exercise Physiology (2016), 12(2), 67-73

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic ... [more ▼]

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic capacities in small samples of permeabilised muscle fibres. The aim of the study was to measure the mitochondrial function by HRR in Thoroughbred horses, to compare these values to Warmblood horses and to evaluate the effect of a 10-weeks training period. The mitochondrial function was measured by HRR using different substrate-uncoupler protocols (SUIT 1 and 2) in muscle microbiopsies from two groups of untrained horses: 17 Warmblood and 8 Thoroughbred and in the group of 8 Thoroughbred horses before and after a 10-week training period. The SUIT1 protocol employed to compare the two groups of horses showed that in Thoroughbred horses, the mean values for oxygen flux expressed as tissue mass-specific respiration were significantly higher for complex I (CI)Glutamate+Malate, CI + complex II, and maximum electron transport capacities (ETSmax) than the mean values measured in Warmblood horses. The SUIT 1 and SUIT 2 protocols revealed large differences among Thoroughbred horses before and after training. The SUIT 2 protocols showed a significant difference for the complex I activity before and after training but only when the oxygen flux was expressed as percentage of ETSmax. This study shows the interest of HRR in equine sport medicine and exercise physiology, but shows that the technique requires further refinement. Indeed significant differences have been shown between the Thoroughbred and the Warmblood horses highlighting the need to have baseline data for each breed. The Thoroughbred horses had globally a high oxidative phosphorylation capacity with an increase of CI activity induced by an aerobic training program. [less ▲]

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See detailNulling Data Reduction and On-sky Performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer
Defrere, Denis ULg; Hinz, P. M.; Mennesson, B. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 824

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5-13 μm). In this paper, we focus on the mid ... [more ▼]

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5-13 μm). In this paper, we focus on the mid-infrared (8-13 μm) nulling mode and present its theory of operation, data reduction, and on-sky performance as of the end of the commissioning phase in 2015 March. With an interferometric baseline of 14.4 m, the LBTI nuller is specifically tuned to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main-sequence stars, where warm exozodiacal dust emission peaks. Measuring the exozodi luminosity function of nearby main-sequence stars is a key milestone to prepare for future exo-Earth direct imaging instruments. Thanks to recent progress in wavefront control and phase stabilization, as well as in data reduction techniques, the LBTI demonstrated in 2015 February a calibrated null accuracy of 0.05% over a 3 hr long observing sequence on the bright nearby A3V star β Leo. This is equivalent to an exozodiacal disk density of 15-30 zodi for a Sun-like star located at 10 pc, depending on the adopted disk model. This result sets a new record for high-contrast mid-infrared interferometric imaging and opens a new window on the study of planetary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalous diffusion and non-monotonic relaxation processes in Ge-Se liquids
Yildirim, Can ULg; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Micoulaut, Matthieu

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2016), 144

We investigate the dynamical properties of liquid GexSe100−x as a function of Ge content by first-principles molecular dynamic simulations for a certain number of temperatures in the liquid state. The ... [more ▼]

We investigate the dynamical properties of liquid GexSe100−x as a function of Ge content by first-principles molecular dynamic simulations for a certain number of temperatures in the liquid state. The focus is set on ten compositions (where x ≤ 33%) encompassing the reported flexible to rigid and rigid to stressed-rigid transitions. We examine diffusion coefficients, diffusion activation energies, glassy relaxation behavior, and viscosity of these liquids from Van Hove correlation and intermediate scattering functions. At fixed temperature, all properties/functions exhibit an anomalous behavior with Ge content in the region 18%-22%, and provide a direct and quantitative link to the network rigidity. [less ▲]

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See detailReversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production
Helmig, Detlev; Rossabi, Samuel; Hueber, Jacques et al

in Nature Geoscience (2016)

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady ... [more ▼]

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady decline in ethane concentrations that began in the 1970s halted between 2005 and 2010 in most of the Northern Hemisphere, and has since reversed. We calculate a yearly increase in ethane emissions in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.42 (+/-0.19) Tg/yr between mid-2009 and mid-2014. The largest increases in ethane and for the shorter-lived propane are seen over the central and eastern USA, with a spatial distribution that suggests North American oil and natural gas development as the primary source of increasing emissions. By including other co-emitted oil and natural gas non-methane hydrocarbons, we estimate a Northern Hemisphere total non-methane hydrocarbon yearly emission increase of 1.2 (+/-0.8) Tg/yr. Atmospheric chemical transport modelling suggests that these emissions could augment summertime mean surface ozone by several nanomoles per mole near oil and natural gas production regions. Methane/ethane oil and natural gas emission ratios suggest a significant increase in associated methane emissions; however, this increase is inconsistent with observed leak rates in production regions and changes in methane’s global isotopic ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas
Borges, Alberto ULg; Champenois, Willy ULg; Gypens, N et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore ... [more ▼]

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m−2 d−1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m−2 d−1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m−2 d−1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L−1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. [less ▲]

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See detailLa consecratio du terrain de la domus palatine de Cicéron
Berthelet, Yann ULg

in Mélanges de l'École Française de Rome. Antiquité (2016), 128(2),

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See detailFingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines
Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal ULg; Mutwale Kapepula, Paulin ULg; Kabongo Kapinga, Marie Josée et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2016), 128(2016), 382-390

African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ... [more ▼]

African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC–MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14–0.45 mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04–2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kolabased raw material and finished products, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete coding sequence of one H9 and three H7 low pathogenic influenza viruses circulating in wild birds in Belgium, 2009-2012
Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Marché, Sylvie et al

in Genome Announcements (2016), 4(3),

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See detailCharacterization of GPR101 transcripts structure and expression patterns
Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ivana, Bjelobaba; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2016)

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See detailArctic cut-off high drives the poleward shift of a new Greenland melting record
Tedesco, M.; Mote, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7(11723),

Large-scale atmospheric circulation controls the mass and energy balance of the Greenland ice sheet through its impact on radiative budget, runoff and accumulation. Here, using reanalysis data and the ... [more ▼]

Large-scale atmospheric circulation controls the mass and energy balance of the Greenland ice sheet through its impact on radiative budget, runoff and accumulation. Here, using reanalysis data and the outputs of a regional climate model, we show that the persistence of an exceptional atmospheric ridge, centred over the Arctic Ocean, was responsible for a poleward shift of runoff, albedo and surface temperature records over the Greenland during the summer of 2015. New records of monthly mean zonal winds at 500 hPa and of the maximum latitude of ridge peaks of the 5,700±50 m isohypse over the Arctic were associated with the formation and persistency of a cutoff high. The unprecedented (1948–2015) and sustained atmospheric conditions promoted enhanced runoff, increased the surface temperatures and decreased the albedo in northern Greenland, while inhibiting melting in the south, where new melting records were set over the past decade. [less ▲]

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See detailBrexit et défense européenne. Décryptage
Dumoulin, André ULg

in e-Note (2016), 20

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See detailImpurity scattering effects on the superconducting properties and the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in FeSe
Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud; Pu, Y. J.; Brisbois, Jérémy ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A comprehensive study of the doping dependence of the phase diagram of FeSe-based superconductors is still required due to the lack of a clean and systematic means of doping control. Here, we report on ... [more ▼]

A comprehensive study of the doping dependence of the phase diagram of FeSe-based superconductors is still required due to the lack of a clean and systematic means of doping control. Here, we report on the magneto-optical imaging, thermodynamic and transport properties, as well as in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies, on the impurity scattering in stoichiometric FeSe single crystals. Co doping at the Fe site is found to decrease the superconducting transition temperature. The upper critical field and specific heat all indicate a possible multiband superconductivity with strong coupling in the Co-doped system. A remarkable feature in FeSe is that its temperature dependent resistivity exhibits a wide hump at high temperatures, a signature of a crossover from a semiconductinglike behavior to metallic behavior. A structural tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition Ts (a consequence of the electronic nematicity) is suppressed by either physical or chemical pressures. Due to the reconstruction of the Fermi surface at Ts, specific heat anomalies at Ts present ΔCp/Ts≈γn, the Sommerfield coefficient at low temperature. This reflects additional electronic instability in the FeSe(1−x)Sx system. ARPES data between 180 and 282 K indicates the existence of a chemical potential shift with increasing thermal excitations, resulting in a change of the Fermi-surface topology and exhibiting a semimetal behavior. We found that the temperature-induced Lifshitz transition is much higher than the temperature for the nematic order. [less ▲]

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See detailEnthalpy-Entropy Compensation in the Binding of Modulators at Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor GluA2
Krintel, Christian; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Pickering, Darryl S. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2016), 110

The 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide type of positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor A2 (GluA2) are promising lead compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g ... [more ▼]

The 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide type of positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor A2 (GluA2) are promising lead compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind in a cleft formed by the interface of two neighboring ligand binding domains and act by stabilizing the agonist-bound open- channel conformation. The driving forces behind the binding of these modulators can be significantly altered with only minor substitutions to the parent molecules. In this study, we show that changing the 7-fluorine substituent of modulators BPAM97 (2) and BPAM344 (3) into a hydroxyl group (BPAM557 (4) and BPAM521 (5), respectively), leads to a more favorable binding enthalpy (DH, kcal/mol) from 4.9 (2) and 7.5 (3) to 6.2 (4) and 14.5 (5), but also a less favorable binding entropy ( TDS, kcal/mol) from 2.3 (2) and 1.3 (3) to 0.5 (4) and 4.8 (5). Thus, the dissociation constants (Kd, mM) of 4 (11.2) and 5 (0.16) are similar to those of 2 (5.6) and 3 (0.35). Functionally, 4 and 5 potentiated responses of 10 mM L-glutamate at homomeric rat GluA2(Q)i receptors with EC50 values of 67.3 and 2.45 mM, respectively. The binding mode of 5 was examined with x-ray crystallography, showing that the only change compared to that of earlier compounds was the orientation of Ser-497 pointing toward the hydroxyl group of 5. The favorable enthalpy can be explained by the formation of a hydrogen bond from the side-chain hydroxyl group of Ser-497 to the hydroxyl group of 5, whereas the unfavorable entropy might be due to desolva- tion effects combined with a conformational restriction of Ser-497 and 5. In summary, this study shows a remarkable example of enthalpy-entropy compensation in drug development accompanied with a likely explanation of the underlying structural mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated and systemic management of storm damage by the forest-based sector and public authorities
Riguelle, Simon ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Annals of Forest Science : a Multidisciplinary and International Journal (2016), 73

The paper’s goals are to identify key challenges in the currentwindthrow management framework and present a blueprint for howto progress in the settlement of regional strategies.SWOT analyses are used to ... [more ▼]

The paper’s goals are to identify key challenges in the currentwindthrow management framework and present a blueprint for howto progress in the settlement of regional strategies.SWOT analyses are used to highlight relevant issues and opportunities in classical approaches from both the forest-based sector and public authorities’ perspectives. Despite the large body of knowledge that allows decision-makers to react promptly after huge storms, strategic responses still suffer from too individual and fragmented decisions and a lack of holistic economic assessments. To tackle these issues, the paper suggests using systemic and integrated risk management approaches. It also presents the ways to enhance the forest-based sector’s resistance and resilience towards economic shock and supports decision-making with the help of systemic analysis. This shift of paradigm is one of the key requirements in optimizing the way of dealing with storm damage, but public authorities should concur with it more actively by improving decisional and administrative frameworks. Contribution of the co-authors Co-authors are PhD thesis’ supervisors and have thoroughly reviewed the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal amorphous-amorphous transition in GexSe100−x glasses under pressure
Yildirim, Can ULg; Micoulaut, Matthieu; Boolchand, Punit et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Pressure induced structural modifications in vitreous GexSe100−x (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 25) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) along with supplementary X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments ... [more ▼]

Pressure induced structural modifications in vitreous GexSe100−x (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 25) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) along with supplementary X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Universal changes in distances and angle distributions are observed when scaled to reduced densities. All compositions are observed to remain amorphous under pressure values up to 42 GPa. The Ge-Se interatomic distances extracted from XAS data show a two-step response to the applied pressure; a gradual decrease followed by an increase at around 15–20 GPa, depending on the composition. This increase is attributed to the metallization event that can be traced with the red shift in Ge K edge energy which is also identified by the principal peak position of the structure factor. The densification mechanisms are studied in details by means of AIMD simulations and compared to the experimental results. The evolution of bond angle distributions, interatomic distances and coordination numbers are examined and lead to similar pressure-induced structural changes for any composition. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of biomass production of Acetobacter pasteurianus KU710511 as a potential starter for fruit vinegar production
Mounir, Majid ULg; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh ULg et al

in African Journal of Biotechnology (2016), 15(27), 1429-1441

The objective of the present work was first the isolation of novel acetic acid bacteria strains from natural Moroccan habitats, and then, the evaluation of their ability to produce microbial starters for ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present work was first the isolation of novel acetic acid bacteria strains from natural Moroccan habitats, and then, the evaluation of their ability to produce microbial starters for vinegar production on a large scale. The strains were isolated from figs, dates, cactus, and traditional fruit vinegars. Four strains, selected from a total of 63 isolates, were confirmed as belonging to Acetobacter species according to biochemical and molecular studies based on 16s rRNA sequence analysis. Acetous fermentation tests, performed on date and apple fermented juices using selected Acetobacter strains, showed a high capacity of acidification. The most efficient strain KU710511, isolated from Morrocan cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), was identified as Acetobacter strain closely related to A. pasteurianus and yielded 42.5 g/L acidity in apple juice. Cell growth optimization was carried out for KU710511 using response surface methodology (RSM). The linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of four factors—ethanol, acetic acid, glucose concentrations and pH—were studied by the application of a central composite design. Thirty experiments were designed to predict the maximum concentration of cell biomass. The optimal calculated values of ethanol, acetic acid, glucose and pH allowing the prediction of the maximum biomass production (2.21 g/L) were 28.18 g/L, 10.12 g/L, 15.15 g/L and 5.33, respectively. Subsequently, further batch fermentations were carried out in a 6-L lab-bioreactor at optimal and thermal stress conditions. The results were in line with the predicted values. It can be concluded that the studied strain is well suited to be used as a parental strain to prepare a starter for fruit vinegar production. [less ▲]

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See detailImprinting superconducting vortex footsteps in a magnetic layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Motta, Maycon; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit ... [more ▼]

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit cards and computer hard drives. Here we experimentally show that a similar principle can be applied for imprinting the trajectory of quantum units of flux (vortices), travelling in a superconducting film (Nb), into a soft magnetic layer of permalloy (Py). In full analogy with the magnetic drawing board, vortices act as tiny magnetic scribers leaving a wake of polarized magnetic media in the Py board. The mutual interaction between superconducting vortices and ferromagnetic domains has been investigated by the magneto-optical imaging technique. For thick Py layers, the stripe magnetic domain pattern guides both the smooth magnetic flux penetration as well as the abrupt vortex avalanches in the Nb film. It is however in thin Py layers without stripe domains where superconducting vortices leave the clearest imprints of locally polarized magnetic moment along their paths. In all cases, we observe that the flux is delayed at the border of the magnetic layer. Our findings open the quest for optimizing magnetic recording of superconducting vortex trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailFunction–structure connectivity in patients with severe brain injury as measured by MRI-DWI and FDG-PET
Annen, Jitka ULg; Heine, Lizette ULg; Ziegler, Erik et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2016), 37(11), 3707-3720

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See detailScreening study of SFC critical method parameters for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2016), 125

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and sample preparation of pharmaceutical compounds remain a challenge and peak distortion was previously highlighted. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of different critical method parameters (CMPs), i.e. stationary phase, mobile phase composition and injection solvent nature. The experiments were performed considering two groups of antimalarial molecules: one group with neutral/apolar compounds and the other one with salt form of polar compounds. In this context, another objective was to propose a suitable sample solvent for quantitative analysis. The interest of new generation stationary phase to obtain good peak shape and the interest to tune the mobile phase composition were demonstrated. During this study, design of experiments and desirability function approach enabled to highlight optimal chromatographic conditions in order to maximise peak capacity and to get acceptable value of symmetry factor. Regarding sample injection solvent composition, some counterintuitive results were observed: solvents closer to the mobile phase polarity (i.e heptane or 2-propanol/heptane mixture) did not provide best results in terms of peak symmetry. In addition, acetonitrile and short aliphatic alcohols offered an interesting alternative as injection solvent: toxicity of solvents used is clearly reduced and better quantitative performances could be expected while keeping high peak capacity and symmetric sharp peaks. Finally, the quantitative performances were evaluated by the method validation for the quantitative determination of quinine sulfate in a pharmaceutical formulation. These better understandings on critical method parameters led SFC to be an even more promising technique in the field of the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh spatial resolution of late-Holocene human activities in the moist forests of central Africa using soil charcoal and charred botanical remains
Morin, Julie ULg; Biwolé, Achille; Gorel, Anaïs ULg et al

in Holocene (2016), 26(12), 1954-1967

Palaeoecological and archaeological studies have demonstrated that human populations have long inhabited the moist forests of central Africa. However, spatial and temporal patterns of human activities ... [more ▼]

Palaeoecological and archaeological studies have demonstrated that human populations have long inhabited the moist forests of central Africa. However, spatial and temporal patterns of human activities have hardly been investigated with satisfactory accuracy. In this study, we propose to characterize past human activities at local scale by using a systematic quantitative and qualitative methodology based on soil charcoal and charred botanical remains. A total of 88 equidistant test-pits were excavated along six transects in two contrasting forest types in southern Cameroon. Charred botanical remains were collected by water-sieving and sorted by type (wood charcoals, oil palm endocarps, and unidentified seeds). A total of 50 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 14C dates were also obtained. Results showed that charred macroremains were found at multiple places in the forest, suggesting scattered human activities, which were distributed into two main periods (Phase A: 2300-1300 BP – Phase B: 580 BP to the present). Charred botanical remains indicated two types of land use: (i) domestic, with oil palm endocarps most often associated with potsherds (villages) and (ii) agricultural, with charcoal as probable remnant of slash-and-burn cultivation (fields). Oil palm endocarp abundance decreased with distance from the identified human settlements. Our methodology allowed documenting, at high resolution, the spatial and temporal patterns of human activities in central African moist forests and could be applied to other tropical contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure Characterization and Properties of K‑Containing Copper Hexacyanoferrate
Ojwang, Dickson O.; Grins, Jekabs; Wardecki, Dariusz et al

in Inorganic Chemistry (2016), 55

Copper hexacyanoferrate, CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of K+ ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2 ... [more ▼]

Copper hexacyanoferrate, CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of K+ ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O + 2x/3K+ + 2x/3e− ↔ K2x/3CuII[FeIIxFeIII1−x(CN)6]2/3·nH2O. Infrared, Raman, and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies show that FeIII is continuously reduced to FeII with increasing x, accompanied by a decrease of the a-axis of the cubic Fm3̅m unit cell. Elemental analysis of K by inductively coupled plasma shows that the insertion only begins when a significant fraction, ∼20% of the FeIII, has already been reduced. Thermogravimetric analysis shows a fast exchange of water with ambient atmosphere and a total weight loss of ∼26wt % upon heating to 180 °C, above which the structure starts to decompose. The crystal structures of CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O and K2/3Cu[Fe(CN)6]2/3·nH2O were refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. In both, one-third of the Fe(CN)6 groups are vacant, and the octahedron around CuII is completed by water molecules. In the two structures, difference Fourier maps reveal three additional zeolitic water sites (8c, 32f, and 48g) in the center of the cavities formed by the −Cu−N−C−Fe− framework. The K-containing compound shows an increased electron density at two of these sites (32f and 48g), indicating them to be the preferred positions for the K+ ions. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogeological assessment of non-linear underground enclosures
Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Carrera, Jesus et al

in Engineering Geology (2016), 207

Excavations below the water table are usually undertaken by combining the protection of retaining walls with dewatering by pumping wells. Severe difficulties may arise if the retaining walls have defects ... [more ▼]

Excavations below the water table are usually undertaken by combining the protection of retaining walls with dewatering by pumping wells. Severe difficulties may arise if the retaining walls have defects. Therefore, their state must be determined and, if needed, the defects repaired or the dewatering system redesigned. The state of underground retaining walls can be evaluated using hydrogeological methods, but these methods are well-established only for linear excavations. The objective of this work is to propose a procedure to evaluate the state of non-linear underground enclosures by analyzing the groundwater response to pumping inside the enclosure. The proposed method, which is based on diagnostic plots (derivative of drawdown with respect to the logarithm of time), allows (1) determining if an underground non-linear enclosure has isolated openings or numerous defects and (2) computing its effective conductance or effective hydraulic conductivity. The methodology is tested with data collected during the excavation of a shaft required for the construction of the high speed train (HST) tunnel in Barcelona, Spain. The procedure can be applied using the wells drilled for dewatering. Although a test before the excavation is recommended to evaluate the underground retaining walls (Watertightness Assessment Test), the method can be applied using data collected at the beginning of the dewatering stage. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur les processus visuo-perceptifs chez les enfants atteints de paralysie cérébrale
Schmetz, Emilie ULg; Rousselle, Laurence ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2016), 8(2), 137-149

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See detailUnveiling the Room-Temperature Magnetoelectricity of Troilite FeS
Ricci, Fabio ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg

in Physical Review Letters (2016), 116

We report on a first-principles study of the troilite phase of iron sulfide (FeS). We show that even if, a few decades ago, this material was thought to be ferroelectric, the structural transition from ... [more ▼]

We report on a first-principles study of the troilite phase of iron sulfide (FeS). We show that even if, a few decades ago, this material was thought to be ferroelectric, the structural transition from the high P63/mmc to the low P6¯2c symmetry phase does not involve polar instabilities, though the space inversion center symmetry is broken. Our calculations and symmetry analysis nevertheless reveal that FeS is magnetoelectric at room temperature with a response larger than the prototypical room-temperature magnetoelectric crystal Cr2O3. We also show that the spin channel decomposition of the polarization exhibits nonzero values in the opposite direction in FeS, which is actually a general hint of the presence of a magnetoelectric monopole in diagonal magnetoelectrics. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and physicochemical characterization of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms tuber starch
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Bungu Mulombo, Denis; Katanga Kabalevi, Joseph et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), (212), 305-312

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See detailSepramesh and postoperative peritoneal adhesions in a rat model
Arung, Willy; Drion, Pierre ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2016), Online

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the safety and the anti-postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) characteristics of SeprameshVR (Davol), a composite mesh made of polypropylene covered with ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the safety and the anti-postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) characteristics of SeprameshVR (Davol), a composite mesh made of polypropylene covered with Seprafilm, when intraperitoneally placed in a rat model. Methods: Twenty male rats were randomized into a control group and a Sepramesh group. They underwent a primary surgical procedure aiming to induce a peritoneal injury in order to induce PPAs. In the Sepramesh group, the burnt peritoneum was covered with a 2-cm diameter disc of Sepramesh prosthesis. The mesh was fixed to the parietal peritoneum with four 3-0 absorbable stitches. PPAs were assessed during a second laparotomy 10 days later using quantitative and qualitative scoring systems. Results: There was no difference in terms of mean number of PPAs between both groups. All the rats from the control group developed PPAs. In the Sepramesh group, no adhesions were observed at the site of the injured peritoneum that had been covered with the Sepramesh prosthesis, but PPAs occurred at the extremities of the mesh, where there was close contact between polypropylene and viscera, or where the fixation sutures were placed. The severity and the type of adhesions were significantly higher in the control group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that for the Sepramesh prostheses, the Seprafilm layer might be effective in PPA prevention, but damage caused by the section and fixation of Sepramesh should be limited in order to limit PPAs. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal evoked potentials for functional quantification and prognosis in multiple sclerosis
GIFFROY, Xavier ULg; MAES, Nathalie ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in BMC Neurology (2016)

Functional biomarkers able to identify multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at high risk of fast disability progression are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multimodal (upper and ... [more ▼]

Functional biomarkers able to identify multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at high risk of fast disability progression are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multimodal (upper and lower limbs motor, visual, lower limbs somatosensory) evoked potentials (EP) to monitor disease course and identify patients exposed to unfavourable evolution. One hundred MS patients were assessed with visual, somatosensory and motor EP and rated on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at baseline (T0) and about 6 years later (T1). The Spearman correlation (rS) was used to evaluate the relationship between conventional EP scores and clinical findings. Multiple (logistic) regression analysis estimated the predictive value of baseline electrophysiological data for three clinical outcomes: EDSS, annual EDSS progression, and the risk of EDSS worsening. In contrast to longitudinal correlations, cross-sectional correlations between the different EP scores and EDSS were all significant (0.33 ≤ rS < 0.67, p < 0.001). Baseline global EP score and EDSS were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of EDSS progression 6 years later. The aseline global EP score was found to be an independent predictor of the EDSS annual progression rate (p < 0.001), and of the risk of disability progression over time (p < 0.005). Based on a ROC curve determination, we defined a Global EP Score cut off point (17/30) to identify patients at high risk of disability progression illustrated by a positive predictive value of 70 %. This study provides a proof of the concept that electrophysiology could be added to MRI and used as another complementary prognostic tool in MS patients. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-120b, WASP-122b and WASP-123b: Three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey
Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2016), 128

We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ~ 11). WASP-120b is a massive (5.0MJup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ~ 11). WASP-120b is a massive (5.0MJup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e = 0.059+0.025-0.018) around an F5 star. WASP-122b is a hot-Jupiter (1.37MJup, 1.79RJup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation cause by the atmosphere of WASP-122b suggests it is well suited to characterisation. WASP-123b is a hot-Jupiter (0.92MJup, 1.33RJup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (~ 7 Gyr) G5 star. [less ▲]

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See detailPulsating Hot Subdwarfs in Omega Centauri
Randall, S. K.; Calamida, A.; Fontaine, G. et al

in The Messenger (2016), 164

We recently discovered the first globular cluster hot subdwarf pulsators in Omega Centauri (ω Cen). These stars were initially thought to belong to the class of rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars, which ... [more ▼]

We recently discovered the first globular cluster hot subdwarf pulsators in Omega Centauri (ω Cen). These stars were initially thought to belong to the class of rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars, which are well established among the field star population and have become showcases for asteroseismology. However, our spectroscopic analysis revealed the ω Cen variables to be significantly hotter than expected, indicating that they form a new class of subdwarf O pulsators clustered around 50 000 K, not known among the field star population. Non-adiabatic pulsation modelling suggests that the driver for the pulsations occurs via the same iron opacity mechanism that is at work in the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars. [less ▲]

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See detailFive transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b
Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 591

We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed ... [more ▼]

We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] to 1.2 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and with radii from 1 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] to 1.5 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB],0.95 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55</A> [less ▲]

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See detailVibration mode shapes visualization in industrial environment by real-time time-averaged phase-stepped electronic speckle pattern interferometry at 10.6  μm and shearography at 532 nm
Languy, Fabian ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2016), 55(12), 121704

We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave ... [more ▼]

We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave infrared (LWIR) electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The use of long wavelength allows measuring larger amplitudes of vibrations compared with what can be achieved with visible light. Also longer wavelengths allow lower sensitivity to external perturbations. Second, shearography at 532 nm is used as an alternative to LWIR ESPI. Both methods are used in time-averaged mode with the use of phase-stepping. This allows transforming Bessel fringes, typical to time averaging, into phase values that provide higher contrast and improve the visualization of vibration mode shapes. Laboratory experimental results with both techniques allowed comparison of techniques, leading to selection of shearography. Finally a vibration test on electrodynamic shaker is performed in an industrial environment and mode shapes are obtained with good quality by shearography. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring spore settling velocity for an improved assessment of dispersal rates in mosses
Zanatta, Florian ULg; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Patiño, Jairo et al

in Annals of Botany (2016)

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains ... [more ▼]

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains largely undocumented in bryophytes. The settling velocities of moss spores were measured and it was determined whether settling velocities can be derived from spore diameter using Stokes’ Law or if specific traits of spore ornamentation cause departures from theoretical expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling
Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2016), 540

Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow ... [more ▼]

Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth screening to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs
Diez, Marianne ULg; Picavet, Philippe; Ricci, Rebecca et al

in European Journal of Companion Animals Practice online (2016), 2(Summer), 54-62

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An awareness campaign was designed to highlight the role of veterinarians and emphasise the benefits of a veterinary visit. Owners were invited to make an appointment for a free pet health check in a voluntarily participating veterinary clinic. Observations recorded by the veterinarians were entered in a database and subsequently analysed using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 5305 completed health check forms were analysed. The percentages of overweight and obese dogs and cats were 34 and 36%, respectively; this was the most common finding, followed by dental calculus (31% in dogs, 21% in cats). In total 67% of cats did not undergo flea control and 59% were not vaccinated. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Opportunities for increased quality of care are numerous given the high percentage of intact, unvaccinated or non-permanently identified pets and the low level of worm and flea control. Animal health should benefit from preventive measures, and improved management can be undertaken after early detection of diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de cas, cathédrale de Beauvais (Oise), histoire de la construction et datations grâce à l'archéologie du bois
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Monumental : Revue Scientifique et Technique des Monuments Historiques (2016), 2016 1

L'archéologie des charpentes de la cathédrale de Beauvais combinée à la dendrochronologie et aux analyses de la couverture en plomb a largement contribué à l'enrichissement des connaissances à propos de l ... [more ▼]

L'archéologie des charpentes de la cathédrale de Beauvais combinée à la dendrochronologie et aux analyses de la couverture en plomb a largement contribué à l'enrichissement des connaissances à propos de l'histoire mouvementée du plus haut chœur gothique. [less ▲]

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See detailAtlas Numérique de Belgique :Mise en œuvre d’une séquence pédagogique
Close-Lecocq, Jean-François; Poncelet, Nadia ULg; Binard, Marc ULg

in GEO (2016), 79

Dans sa communication, Jean François CLOSE, enseignant à Liège, s’interroge sur les cartes à disposition de l’enseignant en classe de Géographie. L’Atlas numérique de Belgique se révèle un outil très ... [more ▼]

Dans sa communication, Jean François CLOSE, enseignant à Liège, s’interroge sur les cartes à disposition de l’enseignant en classe de Géographie. L’Atlas numérique de Belgique se révèle un outil très complet basé sur l’analyse de cartes existantes. Il offre aussi la possibilité d’utiliser les cartes proposées pour construire de nouvelles cartes multicritères. La mise en œuvre d’une séquence pédagogique nous livre quelques exercices prêts à l’emploi pour exploiter en classe la richesse de cet atlas en ligne. Deux fiches techniques en fin de dossier précisent la démarche à suivre pour la réalisation de nouvelles cartes. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain lateralization involved in visual recognition of conspecifics in coral reef fish at recruitment
Roux, Natacha; Duran, Emilio; Lanyon, Rynae G. et al

in Animal Behaviour (2016), 117

In vertebrates, brain functional asymmetries are widespread and increase brain performance. Some species of fishes are known to have brain asymmetries; however, little information is available on brain ... [more ▼]

In vertebrates, brain functional asymmetries are widespread and increase brain performance. Some species of fishes are known to have brain asymmetries; however, little information is available on brain lateralization in coral reef fishes and the impact this could have during the recruitment phase. In this study, soldierfish, Myripristis pralinia, at the larval and juvenile stage recognized conspecifics through visual cues. Larvae with the ablation of either the right or left telencephalic hemisphere lost the attraction towards conspecific cues. In contrast, juveniles with the ablation of the right (but not left) telencephalic hemisphere still displayed a preference towards conspecific visual cues. These results suggest the left telencephalic hemisphere is responsible for the lateralization process used in the visual recognition of coral reef fish juveniles. The determinism of lateralized perception of conspecifics during fish ontogeny may be a consequence of genetic factors, linked with the metamorphosis processes and/or environmental factors such as predation at recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft nach der sechsten Staatsreform : Bestandsaufnahme, Debatten und Perspektiven
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Niessen, Christoph; Reuchamps, Min

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 2266-2267

Genau wie bei allen anderen Bestandteilen Belgiens ist auch das Erscheinungsbild der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft durch die sechste Staatsreform grundlegend verändert worden. Sie verfügt fortan über die ... [more ▼]

Genau wie bei allen anderen Bestandteilen Belgiens ist auch das Erscheinungsbild der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft durch die sechste Staatsreform grundlegend verändert worden. Sie verfügt fortan über die konstitutive Autonomie – das bedeutet, die Funktionsweise ihrer Regierung und ihres Parlamentes zu regeln. Vor allem hat sich ihr Handlungsspielraum im Bereich der kulturellen und personenbezogenen Angelegenheiten ebenso wie bei der Französischen und Flämischen Gemeinschaft erweitert: Familienleistungen, Gesundheitsversorgung, Personenbeistand, Justizhaus, elektronische Überwachung, Industrielehre, … Zudem hat die Wallonische Region ihr die Ausübung neuer Zuständigkeiten im Bereich des Tourismus, der Beschäftigung und der Gemeinden übertragen. Der vorliegende Courrier hebdomadaire macht eine Bestandsaufnahme der Zuständigkeiten sowie der Finanzierung der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft und identifiziert dabei die Veränderungen, die die sechste Staatsreform in dieser Hinsicht gebracht hat. Er geht auf die politischen Debatten ein, die diese Reformen begleitet haben und auf die Art und Weise, wie diese bereites teilweise umgesetzt worden sind. Er rekapituliert auch wie die Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft innerhalb der Europäischen Union, auf föderaler Ebene, innerhalb der Wallonischen Region und in der Provinz Lüttich vertreten wird . Die Studie zeigt die Perspektiven auf, die sich der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft in Zukunft eröffnen. Diese fordert dabei zum einen, die Gesamtheit der regionalen und provinzialen Zuständigkeiten auf ihrem Gebiet ausüben zu können und zum anderen, einen sichtbareren Platz in der institutionellen Architektur des Landes einzunehmen. Da diesen Ansprüchen bislang nicht nachgekommen wurde, möchten die deutschsprachigen politischen Verantwortlichen die Diskussion im Laufe der kommenden Jahre wieder aufgreifen. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel application assigned to toluquinol: inhibition of lymphangiogenesis by interfering with VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway.
Garcia-Caballero, Melissa; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Paupert, J. et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2016), 173(12), 1966-87

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lymphangiogenesis is an important biological process associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including metastatic dissemination, graft rejection, lymphedema and other ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lymphangiogenesis is an important biological process associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including metastatic dissemination, graft rejection, lymphedema and other inflammatory disorders. The development of new drugs blocking lymphangiogenesis has become a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we aim at investigating the ability of toluquinol, a 2-methyl-hydroquinone isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus Penicillium sp. HL-85-ALS5-R004, to inhibit lymphangiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) to analyze the effect of toluquinol in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and in the ex vivo mouse lymphatic ring assay. For in vivo approaches, the transgenic Fli1:eGFPy1 zebrafish, the mouse ear sponges and cornea models were used. Western-blotting and apoptosis analyses were carried out to search for drug targets. KEY RESULTS: Toluquinol inhibited LEC proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis and sprouting of new lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, toluquinol induced LEC apoptosis after 14 h of treatment in vitro, blocked the thoracic duct development in zebrafish, and reduced the VEGF-C-induced lymphatic vessel formation and corneal neovascularization in mice. Mechanistically, we are providing evidence that this drug abrogates the VEGF-C-induced VEGFR-3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, and represses Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Based on these findings, we propose toluquinol as a new candidate with pharmacological potential for the treatment of lymphangiogenesis-related pathologies. Notably, its ability to suppress corneal neovascularization paves the way for applications in vascular ocular pathologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-model simulation of soil temperature, soil water content and biomass in Euro-Mediterranean grasslands: Uncertainties and ensemble performance
Sándor, R.; Barcza, Z.; Acutis, M. et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2016)

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See detailFully automated radiosynthesis of N1-[18F]fluoroethyl-tryptophan and study of its biological activity as a new potential substrate for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase PET imaging
Henrottin, Jean ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Egrise, Dominique et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2016), 43(6), 379-389

Introduction: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial step in the catabolism of L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway and exerts immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory and tumor ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial step in the catabolism of L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway and exerts immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory and tumor tissues by blocking locally T-lymphocyte proliferation. Recently, 1-(2-[19F]fluoroethyl)-DL-tryptophan (1-[19F]FE-DL-Trp) was reported as a good and specific substrate of this enzyme. Herein, the radiosynthesis of its radioactive isotopomer (1-[18F]FE-DL-Trp, DL-[18F]5) is presented along with in vitro enzymatic and cellular uptake studies. Methods: The one-pot n.c.a. radiosynthesis of this novel potential PET imaging tracer, including HPLC purification and formulation, has been fully automated on a FASTlabTM synthesizer. Chiral separation of both isomers and their formulation were implemented on a second cassette. In vitro enzymatic and cellular uptake studies were then conducted with the D-, L- and DL-radiotracers. Results: The radiolabeling of the tosylate precursor was performed in DMF (in 5 min; RCY: 57% (d.c.), n=3). After hydrolysis, HPLC purification and formulation, DL-[18F]5 was obtained with a global radiochemical yield of 18±3% (not decay corrected, n=7, in 80 min) and a specific activity of 600±180 GBq/µmol (n=5). The subsequent separation of L- and D-enantiomers was performed by chiral HPLC and both were obtained after formulation with a RCY (d.c.) of 6.1% and 5.8%, respectively. In vitro enzymatic assays reveal that L-[18F]5 is a better substrate than D-[18F]5 for human IDO. In vitro cellular assays show an IDO-specific uptake of the racemate varying from 30% to 50% of that of L-[18F]5, and a negligible uptake of D-[18F]5. Conclusion: In vitro studies show that L-[18F]5 is a good and specific substrate of hIDO, while presenting a very low efflux. These results confirm that L-[18F]5 could be a very useful PET radiotracer for IDO expressing cells in cancer imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailFreeze-dried mucoadhesive polymeric system containing pegylated lipoplexes: Towards a vaginal sustained released system for siRNA
Furst, Tania ULg; Dakwar, George R.; Zagato, Elisa et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016)

Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is ... [more ▼]

Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is desirable, as it could allow a prolonged delivery and increase the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this project is to develop a polymeric solid mucoadhesive system, loaded with lipoplexes, able to be progressively rehydrated by the vaginal fluids to form a hydrogel and to deliver siRNA to vaginal tissues. To minimize adhesive interactions with vaginal mucus components, lipoplexes were coated with different derivatives of polyethylene glycol: DPSE-PEG2000, DPSE-PEG750 and ceramide-PEG2000. Based on stability and diffusion properties in simulated vaginal fluids, lipoplexes containing DSPE-PEG2000 were selected and incorporated in hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) hydrogels. Solid systems, called sponges, were then obtained by freeze-drying. Sponges meet acceptable mechanical characteristics and their hardness, eformability and mucoadhesive properties are not influenced by the presence of lipoplexes. Finally, mobility and stability of lipoplexes inside sponges rehydrated with vaginal mucus, mimicking in situ conditions, were evaluated by advanced fluorescence microscopy. The release rate was found to be influenced by the HEC concentration and consequently by the viscosity after rehydration. This study demonstrates the feasibility of entrapping pegylated lipoplexes into a solid matrix system for a prolonged delivery of siRNA into the vagina. [less ▲]

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See detailSeed Dispersal by Western Lowland Gorillas: from Fruits to Seedlings
Haurez, Barbara ULg

in Gorilla Journal Journal of Berggorilla & Regenwald Direkthilfe (2016), 52

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See detailA review on the use of sensors to monitor cattle jaw movements and behavior when grazing
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULg; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20

Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly ... [more ▼]

Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly based on the recording of three parameters: the location, the posture and the movements of the animal. Until now, several techniques have been used to discriminate grazing and ruminating behaviors with accuracies over 90% on average, when compared to observations, providing valuable tools to improve the management of pasture and grazing animals. However, bites and jaw movements are still overlooked, even though they are of utmost importance to assess the animal grazing strategies for various pasture types and develop future techniques allowing better estimation of their intake. The goal of this review is to explore the possibility of monitoring the individual jaw movements and the differentiation of bites in grazing animals. For this purpose, (1) the mechanisms of forage intake in cattle are explained briefly in order to understand the movements performed by the cow, especially during grazing, (2) the various sensors that have been proposed to monitor jaw movements of ruminants such as mechanical sensors (pressure sensors), acoustic sensors (microphone) and electromyography sensors are compared and (3) finally the relationship between jaw movements, biting behavior and forage intake is discussed. The review clearly demonstrated the abilities of mechanical, acoustic and electromyography sensors to classify the difference types of jaw movements. However, it also indicated a wide range of accuracies and different observation windows required to reach these accuracies when compared to the observed movement. This classification purpose could lead to a better detection of more specific behavior, e.g. bite detection, and their exact location on pasture. [less ▲]

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See detailClosing in on minimal dark matter and radiative neutrino masses
Da Silva Simoes, Catarina ULg; Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Wegman Ostrosky, Daniel ULg

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2016)

We study one-loop radiative neutrino mass models in which one of the beyond-the- standard model fi elds is either a hypercharge-zero fermion quintet (minimal dark matter) or a hypercharge-zero scalar ... [more ▼]

We study one-loop radiative neutrino mass models in which one of the beyond-the- standard model fi elds is either a hypercharge-zero fermion quintet (minimal dark matter) or a hypercharge-zero scalar septet. By systematically classifying all possible one-loop such models we identify various processes that render the neutral component of these representations (dark matter) cosmologically unstable. Thus, our fi ndings show that these scenarios are in general not reconcilable with dark matter stability unless tiny couplings or additional ad hoc symmetries are assumed, in contrast to minimal dark matter models where stability is entirely due to the standard model gauge symmetry. For some variants based on higher-order loops we find that alpha_ 2 reaches a Landau pole at rather low scales, a couple orders of magnitude from the characteristic scale of the model itself. Thus, we argue that some of these variations although consistent with dark matter stability and phenomenological constraints are hard to reconcile with perturbativity criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailL’éjaculation précoce : une perspective socio-historique
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; ANDRIANNE, Robert ULg

in Sexualités Humaines : Revue de Sexologie des Professionnels de Santé (2016), 30

Le fait de considérer une éjaculation rapide comme un problème découle notamment des normes sexuelles qui prévalent dans un contexte socio-historique donné. À la fin du XXème siècle, l’éjaculation précoce ... [more ▼]

Le fait de considérer une éjaculation rapide comme un problème découle notamment des normes sexuelles qui prévalent dans un contexte socio-historique donné. À la fin du XXème siècle, l’éjaculation précoce (EP) est devenue, dans les pays occidentaux, un motif extrêmement répandu de consultation en sexopathologie masculine. Cette évolution n’est vraisemblablement pas sans rapport à d’autres phénomènes sociétaux. Citons une survalorisation relative du plaisir obtenu par induction coïtale, le développement des techniques contraceptives qui offrent aux gens les moyens sécurisés d’une politique érotique essentiellement pénétrative, et des aspirations à des durées de pénétration qui tendent à excéder les normes biologiques. C’est à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que s’est développée la clinique de l’EP. D’abord principalement psychosexologique, l’approche est devenue plutôt physiologique et médicamenteuse à partir des années 1990. Un troisième vague tend aujourd’hui à percevoir l’éjaculation rapide moins comme un trouble que comme une donnée constitutionnelle modulable via le développement d’habiletés comportementales et/ou par voie chimique, et à envisager les traitements dans le cadre global d’une finalité hédonique influencée tout à la fois par des facteurs biologiques, psychologiques et sociaux. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium v. NN (L) International: Tax, Yes; Penalty, No
Docclo, Caroline ULg

in Tax Planning International (2016)

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See detailLa démarche communautaire, quel que soit le secteur, fait-elle toujours santé ?
Absil, Gaëtan ULg

in Politiques Sociales (2016), 1 & 2(76e année), 128-145

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See detailDu programme d'origine à la restauration des charpentes et couvertures
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Monumental : Revue Scientifique et Technique des Monuments Historiques (2016), 2016 1(1), 6-11

Les toitures des monuments historiques en France représentent un patrimoine pour l'histoire de l'architecture et l'histoire de la construction. Leur typologie dépend de nombreux facteurs: type de bâtiment ... [more ▼]

Les toitures des monuments historiques en France représentent un patrimoine pour l'histoire de l'architecture et l'histoire de la construction. Leur typologie dépend de nombreux facteurs: type de bâtiment, contexte historique, géographique. Leur conservation exige une analyse profonde de leur état et impose certains choix au moment de la restauration en fonction de leur réaffectation. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of treatment benefit when heroin-assisted treatment is stopped after 12 month
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Litran, Géraldine et al

in Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (2016), 69

Purpose: In 2013, during a recent heroin-assisted treatment trial, participants in heroinassisted treatment (HAT) decreased significantly more their street heroin use than participants in oral methadone ... [more ▼]

Purpose: In 2013, during a recent heroin-assisted treatment trial, participants in heroinassisted treatment (HAT) decreased significantly more their street heroin use than participants in oral methadone treatment. After the trial, HAT was discontinued. To examine whether the treatment benefits were sustained three months after the trial, the use of street heroin by the participants was analysed in a follow-up study. Results: At the follow-up assessment, street heroin use increased in the experimental group. The two groups no longer showed a significant difference (p=0.55) in the level of street heroin use. Conclusion: A predetermined and forced end of HAT was followed by a significant increase in the level of street level use. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the multifractal nature of Cantor's bijection: Bounds for the Hölder exponent at almost every irrational point
Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Simons, Laurent

in Fractals (2016), 24(2), 1650014-1-1650014-9

In this note, we investigate the regularity of Cantor’s one-to-one mapping between the irrational numbers of the unit interval and the irrational numbers of the unit square. In particular, we explore the ... [more ▼]

In this note, we investigate the regularity of Cantor’s one-to-one mapping between the irrational numbers of the unit interval and the irrational numbers of the unit square. In particular, we explore the fractal nature of this map by showing that its Hölder regularity lies between 0.35 and 0.72 almost everywhere (with respect to the Lebesgue measure). [less ▲]

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See detailThe scent of love: how important are semiochemicals in the sexual behavior of lady beetles?
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Journal of Pest Science (2016), 89(2), 347-358

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the ... [more ▼]

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the role of cuticular chemicals involved in the reproduction of lady beetles, including gender recognition. Recent data have also demonstrated the presence of a volatile female sex pheromone that facilitates male attraction in some species. Here, we present a synthetic overview of the current knowledge about the sexual behavior of lady beetles and associated chemicals for which the function and identification have been provided. Because lady beetles are often reared as biological control agents, the chemical cues involved in their sexual behavior could be used as components in integrated management approaches against soft-bodied hemipterans. In conclusion, this review provides new perspectives and potential developments for sustainable insect management mainly based on the semiochemicals involved in the sexual behavior of lady beetles. A better understanding of these chemical signals would help maximize their presence in areas where their predatory behavior is requested, as a result of the application of formulations inducing behavioral manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailAuditory evoked potential audiograms in post-settlement stage individuals of coral reef fishes
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Kever, Loïc ULg; Lecchini, David et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology (2016), 483

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See detailStrand-specific, high-resolution mapping of modified RNA polymerase II
Milligan, Laura; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg; Delan-Forino, Clémentine et al

in Molecular Systems Biology (2016), 12(6), 874

Reversible modification of the RNAPII C-terminal domain links transcription with RNA processing and surveillance activities. To better understand this, we mapped the location of RNAPII carrying the five ... [more ▼]

Reversible modification of the RNAPII C-terminal domain links transcription with RNA processing and surveillance activities. To better understand this, we mapped the location of RNAPII carrying the five types of CTD phosphorylation on the RNA transcript, providing strand-specific, nucleotide-resolution information, and we used a machine learning-based approach to define RNAPII states. This revealed enrichment of Ser5P, and depletion of Tyr1P, Ser2P, Thr4P, and Ser7P in the transcription start site (TSS) proximal ~150 nt of most genes, with depletion of all modifications close to the poly(A) site. The TSS region also showed elevated RNAPII relative to regions further 3′, with high recruitment of RNA surveillance and termination factors, and correlated with the previously mapped 3′ ends of short, unstable ncRNA transcripts. A hidden Markov model identified distinct modification states associated with initiating, early elongating and later elongating RNAPII. The initiation state was enriched near the TSS of protein-coding genes and persisted throughout exon 1 of intron-containing genes. Notably, unstable ncRNAs apparently failed to transition into the elongation states seen on protein-coding genes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recherche en Belgique. Transitions. Unité de recherches sur le Moyen Âge tardif & la première Modernité (Université de Liège)
Delfosse, Annick ULg; Henrard, Nadine ULg; Morato, Nicola ULg

in Lettre du Réseau (Réseau des Médiévistes belges de Langue française) (2016), 10

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See detailDevelopment of a LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of aldehydes coming from polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation in animal feed
Douny, Caroline ULg; Bayram, Pinar; Brose, François ULg et al

in Drug Testing and Analysis (2016), 8(5-6), 458-464

Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass ... [more ▼]

Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) has been developed to evaluate the concentration of eight aldehydes in animal feed: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), crotonaldehyde (CRT), benzaldehyde (BNZ), hexanal (HXL), 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal. The developed method has been validated according to the criteria and procedure described in international standards. The evaluated parameters were: specificity/selectivity, recovery, precision, accuracy, uncertainty, limits of detection and quantification, using the concept of accuracy profiles. These parameters have been determined during experiments realized on 3 different days with grounded Kellogg’s® Corn Flakes® cereals as model matrix for animal feed and spiked at different levels of concentration. Malondialdehyde, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde and hexanal can be analysed in the same run in animal feed with a very good accuracy, with recovery rates ranging from 86 to 109% for a working range going from 0.16 to 12.50 mg/kg. Concerning 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal, their analysis can be realized as well but in a limited range of concentration and with a limited accuracy. Indeed, recovery rates ranged between 54 and 114% and coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision between 11 and 25% for these two compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of glucosamine for knee osteoarthritis: why patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate should be differentiated from other glucosamines to maximize clinical outcomes
Kucharz, E.J.; Kovalenko, V.; Szanto, S. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2016), 32(6), 997-1004

The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm for knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommends symptomatic slow-acting drugs for ... [more ▼]

The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm for knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommends symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) first line for the medium to long term management of OA, due to their ability to control pain, improve function, and delay joint structural changes. Among SYSADOAs, glucosamine is probably the most widely used intervention. In the present review of glucosamine for knee OA, we have investigated whether the evidence is greater for the patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) preparation (Rottapharm/Meda) than for other glucosamine formulations. Glucosamine is actually widely available in many forms, as the prescription-grade pCGS preparation, generic and over-the-counter formulations of glucosamine sulfate (GS) and food supplements containing glucosamine hydrochloride (GH), which vary substantially in molecular form, pharmaceutical formulation and dose regimens. Only pCGS is given as a highly bioavailable once daily dose (1500mg) with a proven pharmacological effect. pCGS consistently reaches the plasma levels of around 10 lM required to inhibit interleukin-1 induced expression of genes involved in the pathophysiology of joint inflammation and tissue destruction, compared with sub-therapeutic levels achieved with GH. It is evident, from careful consideration of the evidence base, that only the pCGS formulation of glucosamine reliably provides an effect size on pain that is higher than that of paracetamol and equivalent to that provided by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In comparison, the effect size on pain of non-crystalline GS preparations and GH from randomized controlled trials is repeatedly demonstrated to be zero. In addition, there is evidence that chronic administration of pCGS has disease-modifying effects, with a reduction in the need for total joint replacement surgery lasting for at least 5 years after treatment cessation. Consequently, the pCGS preparation (Rottapharm/Meda) is the logical choice, with demonstrated medium-term control of pain and lasting impact on disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailUn neurinome intra-canalaire lombaire
Manto, Florence; HOUET, Elise ULg; LACREMANS, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(6), 269-271

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See detailCover Letter of The journal of Biological Chemistry
Sautrey, Guillaume; El Khoury, M; Dos Giros, A et al

in The journal of Biological Chemistry (2016), 291(26),

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See detailLa loutre, bio-indicatrice de la richesse des milieux aquatiques: étude dans le bassin de l'Arnon (Cher)
Libois, Roland ULg; Renaud, Christophe; Hansen, Eric et al

in Faune sauvage (2016), 311

Depuis le début de la reconquête des milieux aquatiques par la loutre d'Europe, les scientifiques s'intéressent de près à son comportement alimentaire, soucieux de mieux comprendre les relations entre ce ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début de la reconquête des milieux aquatiques par la loutre d'Europe, les scientifiques s'intéressent de près à son comportement alimentaire, soucieux de mieux comprendre les relations entre ce prédateur et ses proies dans les écosystèmes aquatiques. Son régime alimentaire a ainsi fait l'objet de nombreuses recherches dans plusieurs régions de l'ouest de la France et du massif Central, mais n'avait pas encore été étudié en région Centre-Val de Loire. Un nouveau programme de recherches a été lancé en 2011 par le Museum d'Orléans en collaboration avec l'ONCFS, dans le cadre du Plan Loire Grandeur Nature sur les trois types d'habitats aquatiques distincts, dont le bassin de l'Arnon dans le Cher. Cet hydrosystème, largement occupé par la loutre, se montre particulièrement riche en faune aquatique et très propice à l'espèce. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices.
Boeck, Lucas; Soriano, Joan B.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein et al

in The European respiratory journal (2016), 47(6), 1635-44

Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our ... [more ▼]

Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function.The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988).Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05).The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'emploi de la lettre x en mathématiques
Bair, Jacques ULg

in Losanges (2016), 33

La notation x est souvent perçue comme étant emblématique en mathématiques. Nous montrons dans cet article comment elle est apparue historiquement et recensons des situations d'enseignement au cours ... [more ▼]

La notation x est souvent perçue comme étant emblématique en mathématiques. Nous montrons dans cet article comment elle est apparue historiquement et recensons des situations d'enseignement au cours desquelles un étudiant peut la rencontrer. Ensuite, nous évoquons un travail didactique du réputé mathématicien K. Menger (1902-1985) sur cette question, puis nous donnons en annexe une brève biographie de cet auteur autrichien. [less ▲]

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See detailBHS guidelines for the treatment of large granular lymphocyte and cronic prolymphocytic leukaemias
Springael, C.; Delrieu, V.; Wu, K.L. et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2016), 7

Large granular lymphocyte and prolymphocytic leukaemias are rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Large granular lymphocyte leukaemias consist of indolent disorders such as T-cell large granular ... [more ▼]

Large granular lymphocyte and prolymphocytic leukaemias are rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Large granular lymphocyte leukaemias consist of indolent disorders such as T-cell large granular lymphocyte and chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of natural killer cells and the very rare but aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia. Treatment of the indolent large granular lymphocyte leukaemias is necessary in case of symptomatic cytopaenias or non-haematological autoimmune disorders. First line therapy of these two disorders is based on three immunosuppressive drugs: methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A. Aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia needs an L-asparaginase containing regimen as induction followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation to prolong remission. T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia always follows an aggressive course even after an indolent onset. The optimal treatment strategy should exist of remission induction with alemtuzumab intravenously followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Treatment indications for B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia follow the criteria described by the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia guidelines. After induction with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab or bendamustine in patients without a p53 mutation and/or a 17p deletion and alemtuzumab in case of a p53 mutation and/or a 17p deletion, stem cell transplantation must be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailPLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS
Dehant, Véronique ULg; Kabamba Baludikay, Blaise ULg; Beghin, Jérémie ULg et al

in Origins of Life & Evolution of the Biosphere (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11084-016-9488

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