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See detailApplication of the characteristic function to evaluate and compare analytical variability in an external quality assessment scheme for serum ethanol
Coucke, Wim; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Lambert, Willy et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2015), 61

As a cornerstone of quality management in the laboratory, External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are used to assess laboratory and analytical method performance. The characteristic function is used to ... [more ▼]

As a cornerstone of quality management in the laboratory, External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are used to assess laboratory and analytical method performance. The characteristic function is used to describe the relation between the target concentration and the EQA standard deviation, which is an essential part of the evaluation process. The characteristic function is also used to compare the variability of different analytical methods. We fitted the characteristic function to data from the Belgian External Quality Assessment program for serum ethanol. Data included results from headspace gas chromatography and the enzymatic methods of Abbott, Roche, Siemens, and Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics. We estimated the characteristic function with weighted nonlinear regression. By introducing dummy variables, we rewrote the original formula of the characteristic function to assess statistical inference for comparing the variability of the different analytical methods. The characteristic function fitted the data precisely. Comparison between methods showed that there was little difference between the estimated variability for low concentrations, and that the increase in SD with increasing target concentration was slower for Abbott and Roche than for the other methods. The characteristic function can successfully be introduced in clinical schemes, although its applicability to fit the data should always be assessed. Because of its easy parameterization, it can be used to assess differences in performance between analytical methods and to assess laboratory performance. The characteristic function also offers an alternative framework for coefficients of variation to describe variability of analytical methods. [less ▲]

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See detailBorna disease virus infection in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and mangement
Lutz, H.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailImpacts of climate change on future flood damage on the river Meuse, with a distributed uncertainty analysis
Detrembleur, Sylvain; Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Natural Hazards (2015), 77(3), 1533-1549

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of ... [more ▼]

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of uncertainty arising from underlying assumptions, data availability and the random nature of the phenomenon. These sources of uncertainty are likely to bias conclusions because they are irregularly distributed in space. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of the influence of local features on the expected annual damage in different municipalities. Based on results generated in the frame of a transnational flood-risk-assessment project for the river Meuse (Western Europe) taking climate change into account, the paper presents an analysis of the relative contributions of different sources of uncertainty within one single administrative region (the Walloon region in Belgium, i.e. a river reach of approximately 150 km). The main sources of uncertainty are not only found to vary both from one municipality to the other and in time, but also to induce opposite effects on the computed damage. Nevertheless, practical conclusions for policy-makers can still be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailFlora and fauna from a new Famennian (Upper Devonian) locality at Becco, eastern Belgium
Olive, Sébastien; Clément, Gaël; Denayer, Julien ULg et al

in Geologica Belgica (2015), 18(2-4), 92-101

The Becco locality (Liège province), belongs to the Theux tectonic window and represents a proximal, probably fluvial, environment corresponding to a channel infill. We present here a preliminary report ... [more ▼]

The Becco locality (Liège province), belongs to the Theux tectonic window and represents a proximal, probably fluvial, environment corresponding to a channel infill. We present here a preliminary report of the fossil assemblage discovered at the locality. The Becco site has yielded a diverse flora of early seed plants including Moresnetia zalesskyi, Dorinnotheca streeli and Condrusia sp. This assemblage, characteristic of the Belgian Famennian, highlights the diversity of early spermatophytes in the country. Becco has also delivered a rich vertebrate fauna with antiarch, groenlandaspid and phyllolepid placoderms, diplacanthiform acanthodians, as well as actinopterygians and various sarcopterygians. The fossiliferous assemblage of Becco resembles those of several Devonian tetrapod- bearing localities, including that of Strud in Belgium, and could therefore provide a favorable palaeoecological setting in the search for early tetrapods. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.
Mainjot, Amélie ULg; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D. et al

in Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2015)

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Deltaalpha concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Deltaalpha dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. METHODS: The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Deltaalpha varying from -1.3ppm/ degrees C to +3.2ppm/ degrees C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. RESULTS: Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Deltaalpha>/=+2.3 or </=-0.3ppm/ degrees C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Deltaalpha variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Deltaalpha. SIGNIFICANCE: Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/ degrees C Deltaalpha) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Deltaalpha-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Deltaalpha value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. [less ▲]

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See detailStreptococcal infections in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Frymus, T.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailLe syndrome tarsien antérieur
MILANTS, Christophe ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg; Gomulinski, Léon et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(7-8), 400-404

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and ... [more ▼]

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report the case of a 77 years old patient complaining of anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome’s symptoms with neuropathic pain located at the dorsal part of the foot without any sensorimotor loss. The electroneuromyography was in favour of the motor impairment of the deep peroneal nerve. MRI exploration of the ankle showed a millimetric bony overgrowth of the upper pole of the navicular irritative to the deep peroneal nerve. Infiltration at overgrowth of the navicular provided a partial and temporary decrease in pain symptoms. Surgical nerve decompression was then considered. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical study of the flight of geese
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Gardiner, James; Tickle, Peter et al

in Aeronautical Journal (2015), 119(1217), 1-30

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three ... [more ▼]

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three barnacle geese (Branta Leucopsis) flying at different airspeeds in a wind tunnel. The video footage was analysed in order to extract the wing kinematics. Additional information, such as wing geometry and camber was obtained from a 3D scan of a dried wing. An unsteady vortex lattice method was used to simulate the aerodynamics of the measured flapping motion. The simulations were used in order to successfully reproduce the measured body motion and thus obtain estimates of the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. It was found that the mean of the wing pitch angle variation with time has the most significant effect on lift while the difference in the durations of the upstroke and downstroke has the major effect on thrust. The power consumed by the aerodynamic forces was also estimated; it was found that increases in aerodynamic power correspond very closely to climbing motion and vice versa. Root-mean-square values of the power range from 100 W to 240 W. Finally, it was observed that tandem flying can be very expensive for the trailing bird. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiótica de la acción: textualización y notación
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Tópicos del seminario (2015), 33

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining ... [more ▼]

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis through different levels of pertinence analysis. Secondly, we propose the concept of ‘textualization’ as a mediation between text and action: textualizations (photographs, videos, notes) organize and represent practices which are in themselves ephemeral and elusive. Finally, we will consider the textual diagrammatization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being confined to it and, as a consequence, being unable to analyze practices and respond to topical questions on social issues and on the research in the human sciences? [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Disclosures, Information Asymmetry and Stock-Market Liquidity in France
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Ajina, Aymen; Lakhal, Faten

in Journal of Applied Business Research (2015), Vol 31(4), 1223-1238

This paper aims at studying the effect of corporate disclosures on information asymmetry and stock-market liquidity in France. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at studying the effect of corporate disclosures on information asymmetry and stock-market liquidity in France. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of information included in the annual reports on investor’s behavior. This is proxied by the information asymmetry component of the bid-ask spread and stock market liquidity. Our sample includes 196 French listed firms over a period ranging from 2004 to 2007. We opt for an explanatory study using OLS regressions to examine the nature of the relationship between information disclosed in annual reports and bid-ask spreads a proxy for information asymmetry and stock market liquidity. The results show that the extent of corporate disclosures in annual reports positively influences the liquidity of the French market and negatively affects the adverse selection component of the bid-ask spread. This effect is further confirmed by the commitment to IFRS by French-listed firms from 2005. The decomposition of the total score in the sub-indices shows that non-financial and financial information are important in trading decisions while strategic information may be attractive only for long-term positions [less ▲]

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See detailQuels critères utiliser pour questionner la qualité pédagogique des stages cliniques ?
Vierset, Viviane ULg; Frenay, Mariane; Bédard, Denis

in Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l'Enseignement Supérieur (2015), 31-2

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See detailInfluence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor
Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Ainslie, Mark D; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this ... [more ▼]

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet (SC/FM) hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth screening to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs
Diez, Marianne ULg; Picavet, Philippe; Ricci, Rebecca et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (2015), 56

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An awareness campaign was designed to highlight the role of veterinarians and emphasise the benefits of a veterinary visit. Owners were invited to make an appointment for a free pet health check in a voluntarily participating veterinary clinic. Observations recorded by the veterinarians were entered in a database and subsequently analysed using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 5305 completed health check forms were analysed. The percentages of overweight and obese dogs and cats were 34 and 36%, respectively; this was the most common finding, followed by dental calculus (31% in dogs, 21% in cats). In total 67% of cats did not undergo flea control and 59% were not vaccinated. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Opportunities for increased quality of care are numerous given the high percentage of intact, unvaccinated or non-permanently identified pets and the low level of worm and flea control. Animal health should benefit from preventive measures, and improved management can be undertaken after early detection of diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Belgique ‘officielle’ face à l’OAS (1961-1964). Cas d’une adaptation de Bruxelles à la politique du général De Gaulle
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue du Nord (2015), 406 (octobre-décembre 2014)(96), 917-935

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See detailSelective top-down control of epiphytic biomass by amphipods from Posidonia oceanica meadows: implications for ecosystem functioning
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg; Dupont, Alessandra et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2015), 145(2), 83-93

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional ... [more ▼]

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional processes is hard to estimate, due to the lack of adequate data. Here, a field microcosm-based inclusion experiment was used to test if three of the dominant taxa of the amphipod community (Apherusa chiereghinii, Dexamine spiniventris and Gammarus spp.) could exert top-down control on seagrass leaf epiphytes. Influence of amphipod activity on nutrient availability for the host species was also investigated. All grazer taxa significantly reduced biomasses of erect macroalgae and erect sessile animals present on leaves. None of them consumed encrusting epiflora or epifauna. This selective top-down control could have important implications for the structure of the epiphytic community of P. oceanica leaves, which is one of the most diverse and abundant of all seagrass species. Grazing activity of all taxa caused higher N content of seagrass leaves, likely through amphipod excretion and/or sloppy feeding. Since P. oceanica meadows often grow in oligotrophic zones where plant growth can be nutrient-limited, this N enrichment could enhance seagrass production. Overall, the ecological interaction between P. oceanica and amphipods could be seen as a facultative mutualistic relationship. Our results suggest that amphipod mesograzers are key-elements in some of the functional processes regulating these complex and yet endangered ecosystems, which are essential components of Mediterranean coastal zones. [less ▲]

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See detailLungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Pennisi, M.G.; Hartmann, K.; Addie, D.D. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailBlood transfusion in cats : ABCD guidelines for minimising risks of infectious iatrogenic complications
Pennisi, M.G.; Hartmann, K.; Addie, D.D. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailCerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints
Liegeois, Raphaël ULg; Ziegler, Erik; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in Brain Structure and Function (2015)

This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of the fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of the fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and the FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 sec). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting state FC patterns. Finally, we show that networks implied in consciousness-related processes, such as the default mode network (DMN), contribute more to these brain-level fluctuations compared to other networks, such as the motor or somatosensory networks. This suggests that the fluctuations between FC and SC are capturing mind-wandering effects. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic survey of Kepler stars. I. HERMES/Mercator observations of A- and F-type stars
Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally ... [more ▼]

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally important to have accurate stellar physical parameters. Therefore, supplementary ground-based data are needed. We report the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data of A- and F-type stars from the Kepler field, which were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the Mercator telescope. We determined spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 117 stars. Hydrogen Balmer, Fe I, and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. The atmospheric parameters obtained were compared with those from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC), confirming that the KIC effective temperatures are underestimated for A stars. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The analysed sample comprises stars with approximately solar chemical abundances, as well as chemically peculiar stars of the Am, Ap, and Lambda Boo types. The distribution of the projected rotational velocity, Vsini, is typical for A and F stars and ranges from 8 to about 280 km/s, with a mean of 134 km/s. [less ▲]

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See detailConnections between the design tool, design attributes, and user preferences in early stage design
Häggman, Anders; Tsai, Geoff; Elsen, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Mechanical Design (2015), 137(7), 13

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user ... [more ▼]

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user response to a product, this paper investigates how design experts use sketches, physical prototypes, and computer-aided design (CAD) to generate and represent ideas, as well as how these tools are linked to design attributes and multiple measures of design quality. Eighteen expert designers individually addressed a 2 hr design task using only sketches, foam prototypes, or CAD. It was found that prototyped designs were generated more quickly than those created using sketches or CAD. Analysis of 406 crowdsourced responses to the resulting designs showed that those created as prototypes were perceived as more novel, more aesthetically pleasing, and more comfortable to use. It was also found that designs perceived as more novel tended to fare poorly on all other measured qualities. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term XMM-Newton investigation of two particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in NGC6604: HD168112 and HD167971
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451(1), 5589-5599

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking ... [more ▼]

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking into account recent information about their multiplicity and orbital parameters. The two targets, HD168112 and HD167971 appear to be overluminous in X-rays, lending additional support to the idea that a significant contribution of the X-ray emission comes from colliding-wind regions. The variability of the X-ray flux from HD168112 is interpreted in terms of varying separation expected to follow the 1/D rule for adiabatic shocked winds. For HD167971, marginal decrease of the X-ray flux in September 2002 could tentatively be explained by a partial wind eclipse in the close pair. No long-term variability could be demonstrated despite the significant difference of separation between 2002 and 2014. This suggests the colliding-wind region in the wide orbit does not contribute a lot to the total X-ray emission, with a main contribution coming from the radiative shocked winds in the eclipsing pair. The later result provides evidence that shocks in a colliding-wind region may be efficient particle accelerators even in the absence of bright X-ray emission, suggesting particle acceleration may operate in a wide range of conditions. Finally, in hierarchical triple O-type systems, thermal X-rays do not necessarily constitute an efficient tracer to detect the wind-wind interaction in the long period orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid inventory, gravimetry and altimetry (HIGA) mass balance product for Greenland and the Canadian Arctic
Colgan, W.; Abdalati, W.; Citterio, M. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2015), 168

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere ... [more ▼]

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere-attributed mass trends derived from satellite gravimetry, and ice surface elevation trends derived from airborne and satellite altimetry. We use this algorithm to assess mass balance across Greenland and the Canadian Arctic over the Sep-2003 to Oct- 2009 period at 26 km resolution. We evaluate local algorithm-inferred mass balance against forty in situ point observations. This evaluation yields an RMSE of 0.15 mWE/a, and highlights a paucity of in situ observations from regions of high dynamic mass loss and peripheral glaciers. We assess mass losses of 212 ± 67 Gt/a to the Greenland ice sheet proper, 38 ± 11 Gt/a to peripheral glaciers in Greenland, and 42 ± 11 Gt/a to glaciers in the Canadian Arctic. These magnitudes of mass loss are dependent on the gravimetry-derived spherical harmonic mass trend we invert. We spatially partition the transient glacier continuity equation by differencing algorithm-inferred mass balance from modeled surface mass balance, in order to solve the horizontal divergence of ice flux as a residual. This residual ice dynamic field infers flux divergence (or submergent flow) in the ice sheet accumu- lation area and at tidewater margins, and flux convergence (or emergent flow) in land-terminating ablation areas, which is consistent with continuum mechanics theory. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro approach to study the synergistic effects of tobramycin and clarithromycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using prokaryotic or eukaryotic culture media
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg; Jolois, Olivier et al

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Corresponding (2015), 46

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See detailMatrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries
Hosie, M.J.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailThe Geoarchaeology of Utica, Tunisia: The Paleogeography of the Mejerda Delta and Hypotheses Concerning the Location of the Ancient Harbor
Delile, Hugo; Abichou; Gadhoum, Ahmed et al

in Geoarchaeology (2015), 30(4), 291-306

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See detailTravelling-wave ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry as an alternative strategy for screening of multi-class pesticides in fruits and vegetables
Goscinny, Séverine ULg; Joly, Laure; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2015), 1405

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the different ion mobility parameters, determination of matrix effect on the drift times was conducted using different matrix extracts. The results showed that drift time values are not influenced by the matrix and also are independent of the concentration within the working range for 100 pesticides tested, making drift time a powerful additional identification tool. Based on statistics, 2% variation criteria provides a good fit for all the pesticides targeted, and could be considered as a maximum acceptable criteria associated with the drift time parameter for identification purpose. This 2% value is in agreement with already reported criteria, for instance, for GC or LC retention time in European documents. Finally, the well-known feature of mobility to separate complex mixtures was also tested to obtain purified extracted mass spectra of pesticides in fruit extract. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éveil de la matrix-gla-protéine sonnera le glas des calcifications vasculaires
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Liabeuf, Sophie; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(4), 191-200

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des ... [more ▼]

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des calcifications vasculaires. MGP doit bénéficier de deux processus post-transcriptionnels avant d’être pleinement active : une phosphorylation de résidus sérine et une carboxylation de résidus glutamate. Cette carboxylation ne peut se faire qu’en présence de quantité suffisante de vitamine K. Plusieurs formes de MGP circulent donc dans le plasma, certaines étant totalement inactives (la MGP déphosphorylée et décarboxylée), d’autres possédant une activité biologique variable en fonction du nombre de sites carboxylés ou phosphorylés. Il existe un lien théorique étroit entre MGP, vitamine K, calcifications vasculaires et maladies cardiovasculaires et ce, particulièrement chez les patients souffrant d’insuffisance rénale chronique, a fortiori s’ils sont dialysés. Si l’existence de ce lien a été démontrée via de nombreuses et solides données fondamentales, les données cliniques restent, à ce jour, observationnelles et doivent donc être interprétées avec prudence. Mesurer une fraction de MGP dans le plasma pour estimer le degré de calcification d’un patient donné n’est pas encore d’actualité . La forme inactive pourrait être utile pour juger des réserves en vitamine K au niveau vasculaire. Dans cet article de revue, nous reviendrons sur les bases théoriques du rôle de MGP dans le processus de calcification vasculaire, sur le défi analytique que représente sa détermination dans le plasma, ainsi que sur les liens entre MGP, vitamine K et calcifications vasculaires en population géne´ rale et chez les patients insuffisants rénaux. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based computation of total stressed blood volume from a preload reduction manoeuvre
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Mathematical Biosciences (2015), 265(0), 28-39

Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid therapy, a primary treatment ... [more ▼]

Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid therapy, a primary treatment to manage acute circulatory failure. From an engineering point of view, it dictates the cardiovascular system’s behavior in changing physiological situations. Current methods to determine this parameter involve repeated phases of circulatory arrests followed by fluid administration. In this work, a more straightforward method is developed using data from a preload reduction manoeuvre. A simple six-chamber cardiovascular system model is used and its parameters are adjusted to pig experimental data. The parameter adjustment process has three steps: (1) compute nominal values for all model parameters; (2) determine the five most sensitive parameters; and (3) adjust only these five parameters. Stressed blood volume was selected by the algorithm, which emphasizes the importance of this parameter. The model was able to track experimental trends with a maximal root mean squared error of 29.2%. Computed stressed blood volume equals 486 ± 117 ml or 15.7 ± 3.6 ml/kg, which matches previous independent experiments on pigs, dogs and humans. The method proposed in this work thus provides a simple way to compute total stressed blood volume from usual hemodynamic data. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of the algebras $\mathbb{O}_{p,q}$
Kreusch, Marie ULg; Morier-Genoud, Sophie

in Communications in Algebra (2015), 43(9), 3799-3815

We study a series of real nonassociative algebras $O_{p,q}$ introduced in [5]. These algebras have a natural $Z^n_2$-grading, where $n = p + q$, and they are characterized by a cubic form over the field $Z ... [more ▼]

We study a series of real nonassociative algebras $O_{p,q}$ introduced in [5]. These algebras have a natural $Z^n_2$-grading, where $n = p + q$, and they are characterized by a cubic form over the field $Z_2$. We establish all the possible isomorphisms between the algebras $O_{p,q}$ preserving the structure of $Z^n_2$-graded algebra. The classification table of $O_{p,q}$ is quite similar to that of the real Clifford algebras $Cl_{p,q}$, the main difference is that the algebras $O_{n,0}$ and $O_{0,n}$ are exceptional. [less ▲]

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See detailCould alternative solanaceous hosts act as refuges for the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta?
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2015), 9(4), 425-435

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous plants. The characterization of its effective ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous plants. The characterization of its effective host range could help to understand and prevent the dispersion behavior of the insect in the environment. In this study, the ability of T. absoluta to locate and develop on wild (Solanum nigrum, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium) and cultivated (Solanum tuberosum) solanaceous plant species under laboratory conditions was assessed. Dual-choice behavioral assays performed in flying tunnels (S. tuberosum versus another plant) revealed that adult distribution and female oviposition did not differ between Solanum species, which were preferred to the other tested plants. The volatile molecules released by each tested plant species provide some explanations in the observed behavioral discrimination: S. nigrum and S. tuberosum volatile profiles were similar, and were presenting quantitative and qualitative differences with the other tested Solanaceous plants. To determine whether the host plant choice was adaptive or not, we have finally conducted fitness assays, by rearing T. absoluta larvae on each plant species and have shown that Solanum species allowed higher larval survivability and lower development time (from egg to adult emergency) compared to the other plants. We conclude that Solanum species are suitable host plants for T. absoluta, but other Solanaceous plant species could be opportunistically colonized with fewer incidences. [less ▲]

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See detailMetal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars): the effects of site-specific sediment characteristics
Pini, Jennifer; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Watson, Gordon

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015), 95(2), 565575

The present study investigates the relationships between copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediment, pore water and their bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis (Alitta) virens, as well as the ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates the relationships between copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediment, pore water and their bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis (Alitta) virens, as well as the importance of site-specific sediment characteristics in that process. Sediment, pore water and N. virens were sampled from seven sites with different pollution histories along the English Channel coast. Results showed that site-specific metal levels and sediment characteristics were important in determining the bioavailability of metals to worms. Significant correlations were found between Cu in the sediment and in the pore water and between Zn in the pore water and in N. virens. Zn from the pore water was thus more readily available from a dissolved source to N. virens than Cu. Data also showed that metal concentrations in N. virens were lower than those found in other closely related polychaetes, indicating that it may regulate tissue concentrations of Cu and Zn. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergetics and Structural Characterization of Isomers Using Ion Mobility and Gas-phase H/D Exchange: Learning from Lasso Peptides
Hanozin, Emeline ULg; Morsa, Denis ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Proteomics (2015), early view

State-of-the-art characterization of proteins using mass spectrometry namely relies on fragmentation methods which allows exploring featured dissociative reaction pathways. These pathways are often ... [more ▼]

State-of-the-art characterization of proteins using mass spectrometry namely relies on fragmentation methods which allows exploring featured dissociative reaction pathways. These pathways are often initiated by a series of potentially informative mass-constant conformational changes that are nonetheless frequently overlooked by lack of adequate investigation techniques. In the present study, we propose a methodology to readily address both structural and energetic aspects of stereoisomerization reactions using ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry. To this end, a commercial spectrometer was used as a reactor comprising an energy resolved collisional activation step intended at promoting controlled conformational changes and a structural assignment step dedicated to the identification of the generated isomers. This identification relies on ion mobility and other on-line coupled techniques, namely an originally designed gas-phase H/D exchange experiment. We here apply this methodology to characterize the isomerization kinetics of capistruin, a 19-residue long lasso-folded peptide. We expect this approach to bring insights into the physical origin of global dissociation thresholds monitored in tandem mass spectrometry experiments and to set a promising basis for quantitative investigations of the stability of different molecular folds. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale structure characterization of sawdust-waste water sludge extrudates dried in a pilot-scale fixed bed
Li, Jie ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Biomass and Bioenergy (2015), 81(0), 98-107

Abstract Convective drying of waste water sludge and sawdust-sludge mixtures in a pilot-scale fixed bed was studied. Drying was performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet material ... [more ▼]

Abstract Convective drying of waste water sludge and sawdust-sludge mixtures in a pilot-scale fixed bed was studied. Drying was performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet material extruded through a disk with circular dies 12 mm in diameter. The structure of the bed mainly shows volume shrinkage and crack formation during drying. Several characterization techniques were used over a wide range of scales from nm up to mm. The overall bed structure was imaged with X-ray macrotomography, at a resolution of 0.36 mm per pixel. Single extrudates were scanned with X-ray microtomography, at a resolution of 41 μm per pixel. Pore structure of the dried samples were characterized by mercury porosimetry (7.5 nm < dp < 150 μm). Results show significant structural changes on all scales with increasing amounts of sawdust: shrinkage decreases, crack formation increases, and the pores become larger. This confirms the benefits of sawdust addition for sludge drying applications. [less ▲]

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See detailCompound droplet manipulations on fiber arrays
Weyer, Floriane ULg; Lismont, Marjorie ULg; Dreesen, Laurent ULg et al

in Soft Matter (2015), 11

Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitute new means of designing open digital microfluidic systems. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and ... [more ▼]

Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitute new means of designing open digital microfluidic systems. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and encapsulation, may be achieved on fiber arrays. However, handling a large number of tiny droplets resulting from the mixing of several liquid components is required for developing microreactors, smart sensors or microemulsifying drugs. Here, we show that the manipulation of tiny droplets onto fiber networks allows for creating compound droplets with a high complexity level. Moreover, this cost-effective and adjustable method may also be implemented with optical fibers in order to develop fluorescence-based biosensor. [less ▲]

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See detailSuperstudio’s Dystopian Tales: Textual and Graphic Practice as Operational Method
Prina, Daniela ULg

in Writing Visual Culture (2015), 6

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See detailGalectin-3 and suppression of tumorignenicity 2 measurment in participat at the "Tor des Géants"
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg

in Final programme European College of sport Science (2015)

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See detailAging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Zhang, wei; Luckas, Jennifer et al

in Nature Communications (2015), 6(7467), 1-8

Aging is a ubiquitous phenomenon in glasses. In the case of phase-change materials, it leads to a drift in the electrical resistance, which hinders the development of ultrahigh density storage devices ... [more ▼]

Aging is a ubiquitous phenomenon in glasses. In the case of phase-change materials, it leads to a drift in the electrical resistance, which hinders the development of ultrahigh density storage devices. Here we elucidate the aging process in amorphous GeTe, a prototypical phase-change material, by advanced numerical simulations, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy experiments. We show that aging is accompanied by a progressive change of the local chemical order towards the crystalline one. Yet, the glass evolves towards a covalent amorphous network with increasing Peierls distortion, whose structural and electronic properties drift away from those of the resonantly bonded crystal. This behaviour sets phase-change materials apart from conventional glass-forming systems, which display the same local structure and bonding in both phases [less ▲]

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See detailPhysicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed fat
Yamoneka, J.; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology (2015), 64

African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is now recognized for its numerous food and medicinal uses. This plant produces seeds rich in fat, which is traditionally used as a soup thickener. In the present ... [more ▼]

African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is now recognized for its numerous food and medicinal uses. This plant produces seeds rich in fat, which is traditionally used as a soup thickener. In the present study, the fat from Irvingia gabonensis seeds was solvent extracted and characterized. Besides a chemical characterization (fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TG) profiles), the melting and crystallization behaviour of the extracted fat was studied by complementary techniques: pNMR, DSC and X-ray diffraction in order to get basic information regarding its physical properties and more particularly, about its polymorphism. The seeds from Irvingia gabonensis (IG) represent an important source of lipids (69e75 g/100 g), rich in myristic (49.8%) and lauric acid (37%). Due to its FA composition, this fat can be classified among “lauric fats”. The melting profiles of IG fat indicates that a high amount of fat remains solid at temperatures up to 30 °C; the complete melting was detected at around 40 °C. The most stable polymorph of this fat is the ℬ' 1-form. Moreover, IG fat presents a good oxidative stability due to its low content in unsaturated fatty acid. [less ▲]

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See detailDes bandes fleuries pour la lutte biologique : état des lieux, limites et perspectives en Wallonie – Une synthèse bibliographique.
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Managing field margins takes part of the Agri-Environmental Measures supported by the European Union in Wallonia. Among possible infrastructures, wildflower strips are known to conserve a wide diversity ... [more ▼]

Managing field margins takes part of the Agri-Environmental Measures supported by the European Union in Wallonia. Among possible infrastructures, wildflower strips are known to conserve a wide diversity of insects, including natural enemies that can be mobilized to biologically control pests. However, the efficiency of pest control is not guaranteed. It depends mainly on the ability of flowers to attract natural enemies at the right time and to keep them in this environment while favoring their migration into adjacent crops. A reflection on the composition of the floral mixtures may optimize their capacity in biological control. In this context, this review paper put forward the interest of considering functional traits of flowers and presents the concept of functional diversity. Furthermore, the sown perennial wildflower strips should be maintained by regular mowing. However, mowing affects both insect and plant populations due to momentary destruction of the habitat. An appropriate management of field margins is therefore needed to optimize the pest control service provided. [less ▲]

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See detailLe règlement de la procédure en cas de dessaisissement du juge d’instruction incompétent ratione loci ?
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (127), 1174-1178

Lorsque la chambre du conseil ordonne le dessaisissement du juge d’instruction pour incompétence territoriale, le procureur du Roi, auquel le dossier est renvoyé ne peut se dispenser de saisir le juge ... [more ▼]

Lorsque la chambre du conseil ordonne le dessaisissement du juge d’instruction pour incompétence territoriale, le procureur du Roi, auquel le dossier est renvoyé ne peut se dispenser de saisir le juge d’instruction territorialement compétent et faire l’économie du règlement de la procédure devant les juridictions d’instruction [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-dose oral intake of serotonin induces valvular heart disease in rabbits.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg et al

in International Journal of Cardiology (2015), 197

Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine malignancies, often originating from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. They can secrete serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), which is largely ... [more ▼]

Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine malignancies, often originating from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. They can secrete serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), which is largely inactivated by the liver. Carcinoid heart disease occurs when tumor cells metastasize to the liver, as the vasoactive substances produced are able to reach the systemic circulation via the hepatic vein, causing deposition of fibrous tissue on the endocardial surfaces of the heart. It is predominantly manifested by right-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). Scavenging enzymes in the pulmonary endothelium may explain why left-sided cardiac involvement is unusual. The severity of cardiac damage is correlated with the plasmatic levels of serotonin, but the lowspecificity of serotonin for cardiac damage suggests that serotonin may be necessary but not sufficient to induce cardiac lesions. Therefore, other factors combined with serotonin might be required to induce VHD. However, recent animal studies confirmed the development of carcinoid-like valvular deposits in rats after 3 months of daily subcutaneous/intraperitoneal serotonin injections to avoid the liver first-pass clearance.Whether oral administration of serotonin can also induce VHD is unknown. We hypothesized that long-term oral serotonin overload in rabbits can lead to VHD, mimicking serotonin-induced lesions of carcinoid heart disease. We demonstrate, for the first time that high dose long-term oral administration of serotonin can lead to VHD in rabbits. [less ▲]

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See detailDelphinidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside mediate the redoxsensitive caspase 3-related pro-apoptotic effect of blackcurrant juice on leukaemia Jurkat cells
Leon-gonzalez, Antonio; Sharif, Tanveer; Kayali, Asaad et al

in Journal of Functional Foods (2015), 17

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See detailCompound Droplets on Fibers
Weyer, Floriane ULg; Ben Said, Marouen; Hötzer, Johannes et al

in Langmuir (2015), 31(28), 77997805

Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound ... [more ▼]

Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape Control on the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Large African Rivers
Lambert, Thibault ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg; Bouillon, Steven et al

in Ecosystems (2015)

The characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as well as the concentrations and stable isotope composition (d 13 C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were characterized in several large ... [more ▼]

The characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as well as the concentrations and stable isotope composition (d 13 C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were characterized in several large rivers of Africa including the Congo, Niger, Zambezi, and Ogooué basins. We compared the spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality along with various environmental gradients, including hydrology, river size, catchment vegetation, and connectivity to land. The optical proxies used include the absorption coefficient at 350 nm, the specific ultraviolet absorbance, and the spectral slope ratio (S R = 275–295-nm slope divided by 350–400-nm slope). Our results show that land cover plays a primary role in controlling both DOC concentration and optical properties of DOM in tropical freshwaters. A higher cover of dense forest in the catchment leads to a higher quantity of highly aromatic DOM in the river network, whereas an increasing savannah cover results in lower DOC concentrations and less absorptive DOM. In addition to land cover, the watershed morphology (expressed by the average slope) exerts a strong control on DOC and CDOM in tropical rivers. Our results also show that the percentage of C3 and C4 vegetation cover is not an accurate predictor for DOM and CDOM quality in rivers due to the importance of the spatial distribution of land cover within the drainage network. The comparison of our results with previously published CDOM data in temperate and high-latitude rivers highlights that DOM in tropical freshwa-ters is generally more aromatic, and shows a higher capacity for absorbing sunlight irradiance. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty of climate change impact on groundwater reserves - Application to a chalk aquifer
Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2015), 528

Recent studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on groundwater resources for different geographical and climatic contexts. However, most studies have either not estimated the uncertainty around ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on groundwater resources for different geographical and climatic contexts. However, most studies have either not estimated the uncertainty around projected impacts or have limited the analysis to the uncertainty related to climate models. In this study, the uncertainties around impact projections from several sources (climate models, natural variability of the weather, hydrological model calibration) are calculated and compared for the Geer catchment (465 km2) in Belgium. We use a surface–subsurface integrated model implemented using the finite element code HydroGeoSphere, coupled with climate change scenarios (2010–2085) and the UCODE_2005 inverse model, to assess the uncertainty related to the calibration of the hydrological model. This integrated model provides a more realistic representation of the water exchanges between surface and subsurface domains and constrains more the calibration with the use of both surface and subsurface observed data. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed on predictions. The linear uncertainty analysis is approximate for this nonlinear system, but it provides some measure of uncertainty for computationally demanding models. Results show that, for the Geer catchment, the most important uncertainty is related to calibration of the hydrological model. The total uncertainty associated with the prediction of groundwater levels remains large. By the end of the century, however, the uncertainty becomes smaller than the predicted decline in groundwater levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLa limitation du cumul de mandats par les députés wallons
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2255-2256

En moyenne, les représentants politiques belges cumulent entre cinq et huit mandats (dont la moitié sont rémunérés). Cette pratique contribue au développement des sentiments de méfiance que nourrit une ... [more ▼]

En moyenne, les représentants politiques belges cumulent entre cinq et huit mandats (dont la moitié sont rémunérés). Cette pratique contribue au développement des sentiments de méfiance que nourrit une partie de la population à l’égard des élus et des institutions. Dans un souci de bonne gouvernance, de nombreux citoyens et acteurs politiques appellent dès lors à une limitation des possibilités légales de cumul de mandats. La traduction récente la plus emblématique de cette préoccupation éthique est le décret décumul adopté en Région wallonne en 2010. Désormais, un député wallon n’a plus le droit de cumuler son mandat avec une fonction de bourgmestre, d’échevin ou de président d’un conseil de l’action sociale. Un quart des membres de chaque groupe politique représenté au Parlement wallon est cependant autorisé à cumuler. Les députés qui bénéficient de cette exception sont désignés sur la base de leur taux de pénétration électorale. Ce mécanisme est le fruit d’un accord politique conclu entre les partenaires du gouvernement régional (PS, Écolo, CDH). Son adoption a fait l’objet de débats nombreux et souvent tendus entre les partis politiques, en ce compris au sein de la majorité. Ce Courrier hebdomadaire retrace l’ensemble du processus législatif à la base du décret décumul. Il replace l’initiative dans son contexte et analyse le jeu des différents acteurs, en réservant une attention particulière aux divers arguments politiques, techniques et surtout juridiques qui ont été mobilisés. G. Grandjean se penche également sur les effets que le décret a eus pour les députés élus lors du scrutin régional wallon du 25 mai 2014. Enfin, il s’interroge sur l’avenir du décret décumul, que certains voudraient réformer, voire supprimer. [less ▲]

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See detailAn estimate of the number of tropical tree species
Slik, J.W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015), 112(24), 7472-7477

The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory ... [more ▼]

The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of γ-radiation on free radicals formation, structural changesand functional properties of wheat starch
Atrous, Hager; Benbettaieb, Nasreddine; Hosni, Faouzi et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 80

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat ... [more ▼]

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat starch were studied. The presence of free radicals after γ-radiation treatment, which number decreased with time was confirmed. Structural analysis revealed decreases in the intensities of the O–H and C–H stretches and glycosidic linkages indicating the depolymerization of amylose and probably amy-lopectin into shorter chain molecules, but showed that γ-radiation treatment did not affect the crystalline structure. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermograms showed the absence of significant differences in the gelatinization temperatures, as well as the corresponding transition enthalpies since the DSC parameters are related to the crystalline ordering within the granules. Apparent amylose content decreased linearly with increasing irradiation dose leading to an increase in water solubility index. Anincrease in the swelling power was observed after irradiation treatment until 20 kGy, followed by a rapiddecrease at higher doses. Microscopic observations showed that the effect of γ-radiation was more visible on starch pastes than on starch granules. Rheological properties of the starch pastes decreased within creasing irradiation dose as a result of glycosidic bond cleavage. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro model to study the biological properties of humic fractions from landfill leachate and leonardite during root elongation of Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn and Betula pendula Roth.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2015), 122(3), 739-749

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS comparing landfill leachate (LHS) source to a stable formulation extracted from leonardite (HHS), and using an in vitro system of root development from shoot and leaf explants of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn). Results showed that both explants of both species rooted closely to 100% when cultivated in absence of HS. The incorporation of HS or their fractions into the culture medium affect root growth, mainly lateral roots formation and primary root length. Applied at low concentration (10 ppm) HS stimulated especially primary root growth. But at high concentration (100 ppm), LHS inhibited root formation of alder, while birch was more tolerant. The application of 100 ppm of HHS, did not affect alder root growth but increased root growth in birch. Humic acids fractions (HA) were favorable and improved root growth while, fulvic acids (FA) and other molecules (OM) decreased significantly root growth, especially those extracted LHS. The root inhibition expressed at high LHS concentration may be due to the presence of different toxic molecules and root growth inhibitors in OM and FA fractions and that some of them remained in the OM fraction from leonardite. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVEN IUVS observations of the aftermath of the Comet Siding Spring meteor shower on Mars
Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015)

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft orbiting Mars. Ionized magnesium caused the brightest emission from the planet's atmosphere for many hours, resulting from resonant scattering of solar ultraviolet light. Modeling suggests a substantial fluence of low-density dust particles 1–100 µm in size, with the large amount and small size contrary to predictions. The event created a temporary planet-wide ionospheric layer below Mars' main dayside ionosphere. The dramatic meteor shower response at Mars is starkly different from the case at Earth, where a steady state metal layer is always observable but perturbations caused by even the strongest meteor showers are challenging to detect. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspective: Tyrosine Phosphatases As Novel Targets For Antiplatelet Therapy
Tautz, Lutz; Senis, Yotis; Oury, Cécile ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 23(12), 2786-97

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory ... [more ▼]

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory system, are key contributors to thrombotic events. Antiplatelet drugs, which prevent platelets from aggregating, have been very effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity of these conditions. However, approved antiplatelet therapies have adverse side effects, most notably the increased risk of bleeding. Moreover, there remains a considerable incidence of arterial thrombosis in a subset of patients receiving currently available drugs. Thus, there is a pressing medical need for novel antiplatelet agents with a more favorable safety profile and less patient resistance. The discovery of novel antiplatelet targets is the matter of intense ongoing research. Recent findings demonstrate the potential of targeting key signaling molecules, including kinases and phosphatases, to prevent platelet activation and aggregation. Here, we offer perspectives to targeting members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily, a major class of enzymes in signal transduction. We give an overview of previously identified PTPs in platelet signaling, and discuss their potential as antiplatelet drug targets. We also introduce VHR (DUSP3), a PTP that we recently identified as a major player in platelet biology and thrombosis. We review our data on genetic deletion as well as pharmacological inhibition of VHR, providing proof-of-principle for a novel and potentially safer VHR-based antiplatelet therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailCommercial farming of Leiolepis guttata in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam: implications for conservation and management
Rochette, Anne-Julie; Tran, Tinh ULg; De Martynoff, Abigail et al

in Herpetological Conservation and Biology (2015), 10(1),

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy ... [more ▼]

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy. Commercial farms have become established since 2004 because of wild population declines and increasing demand for meat. We interviewed farmers and restaurateurs about the breeding and trade of the species to better understand the impact on wild populations. The results highlight the recent flourishing expansion of farming with rapidly increasing product prices and number of farms, as well as the ease and profitability of this activity. Wild population declines are widely acknowledged by authorities and local communities. Farms are being regarded as conservation pools to offset wild stock depletion, in addition to an important source of income. We discuss the risks associated with this trade development and we emphasize the conservation implications. Demand for lizards as founders for farms and for meat are likely to increase further, but risks exist that the development of new farms would saturate the market causing prices to ultimately fall. Habitat destruction and over-collecting severely reduce wild populations, but the high densities of farmed lizards raise serious genetic and sanitary issues. We suggest that further information should be collected to assess the sustainability of this trade. Priority should be given to the assessment of natural population densities and hunting effort. Biological patterns of this species are poorly documented and sound knowledge would enable better management of farms, and if this species is recognized as endangered could lead restrictions on harvesting of wild populations. [less ▲]

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See detailN-Hydroxy-6-(5-Nitro- Naphtalimide)-Hexanamide Inhibits Lysine Deacetylation, Mitigates Angiogenesis and Reduces Tumor Growth
Shankar, T.V. Shiva; Sulka, B.; Hubert, P. et al

in Journal of Cancer Sciences (2015), 2(1),

In this report, we present a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) (N-Hydroxy-6-(5-nitro-naphtalimide)-hexanamide: ES8) that efficiently inhibits angiogenesis in relevant ex vivo models (Human ... [more ▼]

In this report, we present a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) (N-Hydroxy-6-(5-nitro-naphtalimide)-hexanamide: ES8) that efficiently inhibits angiogenesis in relevant ex vivo models (Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 3D aortic ring assay) and in vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), Zebrafish). Transcriptomic profiling reveals a set of ES8 specific genes that are not affected by the prototypical HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Finally, ES8 also reduced tumor growth in mouse models of small cell lung cancer. Availability of a novel compound not centered exclusively on inhibition of angiogenic factors and inducing a characteristic transcription profile may be of interest to overcome resistance to currently used chemotherapies. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Thermoelectric Properties of MgAgSb-Based Materials: A First-Principles Investigation
Miao, Naihua ULg; Ghosez, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015)

Recently, MgAgSb-based materials (MAS) have been proposed as promising candidates for room-temperature thermoelectric applications with a ZT larger than unity. In this work, we present a comprehensive ... [more ▼]

Recently, MgAgSb-based materials (MAS) have been proposed as promising candidates for room-temperature thermoelectric applications with a ZT larger than unity. In this work, we present a comprehensive theoretical study of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of MAS by combining first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The predicted Seebeck coefficients are compared with available experimental data. The effects of crystal structure and volume on the electronic and thermoelectric properties of MAS are discussed. The thermoelectric quantities are optimized with respect to the chemical potential tuned by doping carriers. It is suggested that the thermoelectric performance of the α phase of MAS can be enhanced by hole doping and strain engineering. Our work intends to provide a theoretical support for future improvement on the thermoelectric performance of MAS and related materials. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge de l'IM dystrophique: nouveaux indices pronostiques
henri, Christine; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Réalités Cardiologiques (2015)

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See detailA semiquantitative framework for gene regulatory networks: increasing the time and quantitative resolution of Boolean networks
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(6), 0130033

Boolean models have been instrumental in predicting general features of gene networks and more recently also as explorative tools in specific biological applications. In this study we introduce a basic ... [more ▼]

Boolean models have been instrumental in predicting general features of gene networks and more recently also as explorative tools in specific biological applications. In this study we introduce a basic quantitative and a limited time resolution to a discrete (Boolean) framework. Quantitative resolution is improved through the employ of normalized variables in unison with an additive approach. Increased time resolution stems from the introduction of two distinct priority classes. Through the implementation of a previously published chondrocyte network and T helper cell network, we show that this addition of quantitative and time resolution broadens the scope of biological behaviour that can be captured by the models. Specifically, the quantitative resolution readily allows models to discern qualitative differences in dosage response to growth factors. The limited time resolution, in turn, can influence the reachability of attractors, delineating the likely long term system behaviour. Importantly, the information required for implementation of these features, such as the nature of an interaction, is typically obtainable from the literature. Nonetheless, a trade-off is always present between additional computational cost of this approach and the likelihood of extending the model’s scope. Indeed, in some cases the inclusion of these features does not yield additional insight. This framework, incorporating increased and readily available time and semi-quantitative resolution, can help in substantiating the litmus test of dynamics for gene networks, firstly by excluding unlikely dynamics and secondly by refining falsifiable predictions on qualitative behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of drying methods on physico-chemical and functional properties of chickpea protein concentrates
Ghribi, Abir Mokni; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Food Engineering (2015), 165

Chickpea protein concentrates (CPCs) were prepared from seed flour by alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying and convective ... [more ▼]

Chickpea protein concentrates (CPCs) were prepared from seed flour by alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying and convective drying at 40 °C and 50 °C) on physico-chemical and functional properties of CPCs were investigated. CPCs were found to have high contents of protein (61.20–63.12% dry weight basis). Freeze dried concentrate had the highest values of water and oil holding capacities. This drying method gave the lightest CPCs color. The amino acid of CPCs could reach the FAO/WHO requirement (1990) for the essential amino acids for preschool children and the sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acids for all three protein concentrates. The solubility-pH profile of different CPCs showed minimum solubility when the pH was between 4.0 and 5.0. All concentrates were able to decrease the interfacial tension. The thermal properties of CPCs were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. CPCs differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in peak denaturation temperature and enthalpy of transition. Hence, drying methods used for the preparation of CPCs powders can affect the physico-chemical and functional properties. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Different Thermal Comfort Models on Zero Energy Residential Buildings in Hot Climate
Attia, Shady ULg; Carlucci, Salvatore

in Energy & Buildings (2015)

The selection of a thermal comfort model for establishing indoor optimal hygrothermal conditions during the hot period has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings in hot climates ... [more ▼]

The selection of a thermal comfort model for establishing indoor optimal hygrothermal conditions during the hot period has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact of applying Fanger’s model, Givoni’s model, the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort model and the EN 15251 adaptive comfort model on energy consumption and comfort performance. Using both the building performance simulation tools ZEBO and EnergyPlus for energy simulation, an existing prototype of a residential apartment module is used to evaluate energy performance and thermal comfort in two parametric series. The first one is the result of coupling natural ventilation and mechanical cooling and the second one is guided coupling natural ventilation, mechanical cooling and ceiling fans. This study shows that the percentage of energy consumption difference meeting the comfort criteria according to ISO 7730 in comparison to EN 15251, ASHRAE 55 or Givoni’s model varied up to 16%, 21% and 24.7% respectively for the presented case study. More energy savings can be expected for buildings in hot climates with greater cooling demands. [less ▲]

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See detailAPOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes
Willems, Luc ULg; Gillet, Nicolas ULg

in Viruses (2015)

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See detailKin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a butterfly
Fischer; Karl, Isabell; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Ethology (2015), 121

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See detailFluorinated alcohols as activators for the solvent-free chemical fixation of carbon dioxide onto epoxides
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël et al

in ChemSusChem (2015), 8(11), 1845-1849

The addition of fluorinated alcohols to onium salts provides highly efficient organocatalysts for the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides under mild experimental conditions. The combination of online ... [more ▼]

The addition of fluorinated alcohols to onium salts provides highly efficient organocatalysts for the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides under mild experimental conditions. The combination of online kinetic studies, NMR titrations and DFT calculations allows understanding this synergistic effect that provides an active organocatalyst for CO2/epoxides coupling. [less ▲]

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See detailA new design of organic radical batteries (ORBs): carbon nanotube buckypaper electrode functionalized by electrografting
Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Vlad, Alexandru; Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Communications (2015), 51(45), 9301-9304

A novel hybridmaterial displaying a fast and reversible charge storage capability is prepared by electrografting of an alkoxyamine-bearing acrylate onto a carbon nanotube buckypaper, followed by the quan ... [more ▼]

A novel hybridmaterial displaying a fast and reversible charge storage capability is prepared by electrografting of an alkoxyamine-bearing acrylate onto a carbon nanotube buckypaper, followed by the quan- titative generation of an electroactive polynitroxide. [less ▲]

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See detailOnco-Nephrology: Core Curriculum 2015
Cohen, Eric; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Launay-Vacher, Vincent et al

in American Journal of Kidney Diseases (2015), 66(5), 869-883

The overlap between oncology and nephrology is an area of growing importance. A major reason for this is that less than half the patients with cancer were long-term survivors years ago, whereas now more ... [more ▼]

The overlap between oncology and nephrology is an area of growing importance. A major reason for this is that less than half the patients with cancer were long-term survivors years ago, whereas now more than two-thirds will live 5 years or longer. Late effects of cancer treatment include nephrotoxicity and are part of current clinical practice. In addition, cancer is now a known feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with increased risk in patients receiving dialysis or with a functioning kidney transplant, as well as those with earlier stages of the disease. Therefore, oncologists will refer patients to nephrologists, and nephrologists will need to consult oncologists. This Core Curriculum addresses the key issues at this challenging clinical interface. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group)
Kamdem, Irenée ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Tiappi Deumaga, Mathias Florian ULg et al

in Waste Management & Research : The Journal of the International Solid Wastes & Public Cleansing Association (2015)

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the ... [more ▼]

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82±3.51 and 49.78±1.39 %w/w WCLB’s dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56±1.33 %w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47±0.00 %w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70±0.71 %w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2 %w/w of the LF’s DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210°C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerisation, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210 were the highest (41 and 21 µg mL-1, respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal parasite and Rattus rodent invasions: The consequences for rodent-borne diseases
Morand, Serge; Bordes, Frédéric; Chen, Hsuan-Wien et al

in Integrative Zoology (2015)

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of ... [more ▼]

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of rodent-borne diseases. Parasites play an important role in the invasion processes and successes of their hosts through multiple biological mechanisms such as "parasite release", "immunocompetence advantage", “biotic resistance” and "novel weapon". Parasites may also greatly increase the impact of invasions by spillover of parasites and other pathogens, introduced with invasive hosts, into new hosts potentially leading to novel emerging diseases. Another potential impact is the ability of the invader to amplify local parasites by spill-back. In both cases, local fauna and humans may be exposed to new health risks, which may decrease biodiversity and may potentially cause increases in human morbidity and mortality. Here we review the current knowledge on these processes and propose some research priorities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physics of badminton
Cohen, Caroline; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Quéré, David et al

in New Journal of Physics (2015), 17

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and ... [more ▼]

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and then discuss the implications on the game. Lastly, a possible classification of different shots is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailPluto's atmosphere from stellar occultations in 2012 and 2013
Dias-Oliveira, A.; Sicardy, B.; Lellouch, E. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 1506

We analyze two multi-chord stellar occultations by Pluto observed on July 18th, 2012 and May 4th, 2013, and monitored respectively from five and six sites. They provide a total of fifteen light-curves ... [more ▼]

We analyze two multi-chord stellar occultations by Pluto observed on July 18th, 2012 and May 4th, 2013, and monitored respectively from five and six sites. They provide a total of fifteen light-curves, twelve of them being used for a simultaneous fit that uses a unique temperature profile, assuming a clear (no-haze) and pure N_2 atmosphere, but allowing for a possible pressure variation between the two dates. We find a solution that fits satisfactorily (i.e. within the noise level) all the twelve light-curves, providing atmospheric constraints between ~1,190 km (pressure ~ 11 \mubar) and ~ 1,450 km (pressure ~0.1 \mubar) from Pluto's center. Our main results are: (1) the best-fitting temperature profile shows a stratosphere with strong positive gradient between 1,190 km (at 36 K, 11 \mubar) and r = 1,215 km (6.0 \mubar), where a temperature maximum of 110 K is reached; above it is a mesosphere with negative thermal gradient of -0.2 K/km up to ~ 1,390 km (0.25 \mubar), where, the mesosphere connects itself to a more isothermal upper branch around 81 K; (2) the pressure shows a small (6 [less ▲]

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See detailThe nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber
Soltani, Payam ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Smart Materials and Structures (2015), 24(07), 075015

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new feature of the NPTVA is that its nonlinear restoring force is designed according to a principle of similarity, i.e., the NPTVA should be an electrical analog of the nonlinear host system. Analytical formulas for the NPTVA parameters are derived using the homotopy perturbation method. Doing so, a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog’s equal-peak tuning rule is developed for piezoelectric vibration absorbers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Holothuroid Ichtyotoxic Saponins on the Gills of Free-Living Fishes and Symbiotic Pearlfishes
Eeckhaut, Igor; Caulier, Guillaume; Brasseur, Lola et al

in The Biological Bulletin (2015), 228(3), 253-265

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to ... [more ▼]

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to predators. We compared the effects of exposure to saponins from the sea cucumber body wall and from the Cuvierian tubules on the behavior and gill ultrastructure of pearlfishes and free-living fishes. Saponins were extracted from the body wall of two holothuroids, the Mediterranean Holothuria forskali and the tropical Bohadschia atra, and from the water surrounding the Cuvierian tubules of B. atra. Five species of carapids that live in symbiosis with holothuroids and seven species of free-living fishes were exposed to these extracts. The free-living fishes exhibited a stress response and died about 45 times faster than pearlfishes when exposed to the same quantity of saponins. Cuvierian tubules and saponins extracted from the body wall were lethal to the free-living fishes, whereas the carapids were much less sensitive. The carapids did not exhibit a stress response. The high toxicity shown by Cuvierian tubules was not explained by the nature of the saponins that were identified by mass spectrometry, but it is likely due to the higher concentration of saponins in the tubules. Histology and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the gills of the free-living fishes and pearlfishes showed that saponins act at the level of the secondary lamellae where they induce the detachment of the epithelia, create edema at the level of the epithelia, and induce pores in the epithelial cells that lead to their destruction and the invasion of inner cells (pillar cells and red blood cells). This sequence of events happens 5 min after saponin exposure in free-living fishes and after 1 h in carapids. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): FORS 2 spectropolarimetric follow-up of the two rare rigidly rotating magnetosphere stars HD 23478 and HD 345439
Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Fossati, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 578

<BR /> Aims: Massive B-type stars with strong magnetic fields and fast rotation are very rare and pose a mystery for theories of star formation and magnetic field evolution. Only two such stars, called σ ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Massive B-type stars with strong magnetic fields and fast rotation are very rare and pose a mystery for theories of star formation and magnetic field evolution. Only two such stars, called σ Ori E analogues, were known until recently. A team involved in APOGEE, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III programs, announced the discovery of two additional rigidly rotating magnetosphere stars, HD 23478 and HD 345439. The magnetic fields in these newly discovered σ Ori E analogues have not been investigated so far. <BR /> Methods: In the framework of our ESO Large Programme and one normal ESO programme, we carried out low-resolution FORS 2 spectropolarimetric observations of HD 23478 and HD 345439. <BR /> Results: In the measurements of hydrogen lines, we discover a rather strong longitudinal magnetic field of up to 1.5 kG in HD 23478 and up to 1.3 kG using the entire spectrum. The analysis of HD 345439 using four subsequent spectropolarimetric subexposures does not reveal a magnetic field at a significance level of 3σ. On the other hand, individual subexposures indicate that HD 345439 may host a strong magnetic field that rapidly varies over 88 min. The fast rotation of HD 345439 is also indicated by the behaviour of several metallic and He i lines in the low-resolution FORS 2 spectra that show profile variations already on this short time-scale. Based on observations obtained in the framework of the ESO Prgs. 191.D-0255(E) and 094.D-0355(B).Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526262/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailL'imaginaire pictural de la matière photographique : la cuisine de l'art du peintre au photographe
Wicky, Erika ULg

in RACAR : Revue d'Art Canadienne =Canadian Art Review (2015), 40(1), 85-94

The writings on photography published in the 1850s reveal the emergence of a pictorial imaginary of photographic matter that grew in the margins of the amazement at a medium completely dominated by nature ... [more ▼]

The writings on photography published in the 1850s reveal the emergence of a pictorial imaginary of photographic matter that grew in the margins of the amazement at a medium completely dominated by nature and the precise developments of the photographic technique. In some of these texts, photographers were likened to painters because of the application, in both techniques, of multiple layers of varied and more or less opaque substances. Inasmuch as it concerned the process of fabrication more than the image itself, the understanding of the work performed by photographers, of their action on matter, directly affected their social status. To reflect on the material imaginary of photography is then to interrogate the modalities of the joint emergence of the profession and of the figure of the photographer-artist at the very moment of the industrialization of photography. [less ▲]

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See detailHubble Space Telescope search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet α Centauri B b
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Ehrenreich, David; Queloz, Didier et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

Results from exoplanet surveys indicate that small planets (super-Earth size and below) are abundant in our Galaxy. However, little is known about their interiors and atmospheres. There is therefore a ... [more ▼]

Results from exoplanet surveys indicate that small planets (super-Earth size and below) are abundant in our Galaxy. However, little is known about their interiors and atmospheres. There is therefore a need to find small planets transiting bright stars, which would enable a detailed characterization of this population of objects. We present the results of a search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet α Centauri B b with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We observed α Centauri B twice in 2013 and 2014 for a total of 40 h. We achieve a precision of 115 ppm per 6-s exposure time in a highly saturated regime, which is found to be consistent across HST orbits. We rule out the transiting nature of α Centauri B b with the orbital parameters published in the literature at 96.6 per cent confidence. We find in our data a single transit-like event that could be associated with another Earth-sized planet in the system, on a longer period orbit. Our programme demonstrates the ability of HST to obtain consistent, high-precision photometry of saturated stars over 26 h of continuous observations. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: Cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity
Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I.; Dimov, Stefan M. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : C (2015), 51

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly ... [more ▼]

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hy- drophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEManalysis. The cytotoxic- ity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. Itwas shown that they could successfully enter in living cellswithout destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embed- ded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of arsenuranospathite from Rabejac, Lodève, France
Dal Bo, Fabrice ULg; Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Baijot, Maxime ULg et al

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2015), 27

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See detailThe Authority of Strasbourg Jurisprudence from the Perspective of the International Criminal Court
Deprez, Christophe ULg

in Journal Européen des Droits de l'Homme = European Journal of Human Rights (2015), 3

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (Eur. Ct. H.R.) exerts a critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court (ICC), it remains unclear ... [more ▼]

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (Eur. Ct. H.R.) exerts a critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court (ICC), it remains unclear what the exact authority of such external jurisprudence is vis-à-vis the international criminal judge. This article addresses the question whether ICC judges have used Strasbourg jurisprudence in a consistent manner, in particular as regards the authority which they decided to vest the latter with. It demonstrates that the Court’s chambers have relied on European human rights practice, alternatively, as a mere source of inspiration, as binding interpretation, as a corpus having ambivalent authority, or as a source whose value it simply left unspecified. It therefore concludes that the ICC has been mostly inconsistent regarding the authority of the case law of the Eur. Ct. H.R. in the context of international criminal proceedings. Such inconsistency, it is argued, amounts to a discretionary use of Strasbourg jurisprudence that further reinforces the ICC’s paradoxical position as the ultimate authority for defining the boundaries of its own human rights constraint. [less ▲]

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See detailExtended end-plate to concrete- filled rectangular column joint using long bolts
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2015), 113

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See detailEvaluation of the Economic Statistical Design of the Multivariate T2 Control Chart with Multiple Variable Sampling Intervals Scheme: NSGA-II Approach
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Seif, Asghar; Sadeghifar

in Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2015), 85(12), 2442-2455

The economic and statistical merits of a multiple variable sampling intervals (MVSI) scheme are studied. The problem is formulated as a double-objective optimization problem with the adjusted average time ... [more ▼]

The economic and statistical merits of a multiple variable sampling intervals (MVSI) scheme are studied. The problem is formulated as a double-objective optimization problem with the adjusted average time to signal as the statistical objective and the expected cost per hour as the economic objective. Bai and Lee’s ‎[2] economic model is considered. Then we find the Pareto-optimal designs in which the two objectives are minimized simultaneously by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Through an illustrative example, the advantages of the proposed approach is shown by providing a list of viable optimal solutions and graphical representations, which indicate the advantage of flexibility and adaptability of our approach. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition en acides aminés et en acides gras d'un aliment de complément à base des ressources alimentaires locales : cas de la Vamine en RD Congo
Makengo Kafuti, Gisele; Mbemba Fundu, Theophile; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2015), 9(3), 1624-1629

L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les teneurs en acides aminés et acides gras d’un aliment decomplément, dénommé Vamine, fabriqué à base des produits locaux disponibles et accessibles suivants ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les teneurs en acides aminés et acides gras d’un aliment decomplément, dénommé Vamine, fabriqué à base des produits locaux disponibles et accessibles suivants:voandzou et arachides comme source protéiques; maïs et manioc. La détermination des teneurs en acides aminés essentiels donne, des taux de 115 mg de thréonine; 163,5 mg de valine; 39,25 mg de méthionine; 109,5 g de isoleucine; 232,25 mg de leucine; 84,75 mg de Tyrosine; 171 mg de phénylalanine; 149,5 mg de Histidine; 235,25 mg de lysine. Les teneurs en acides gras essentiels sont de 265 mg pour l’acide alpha linolénique et absent pour l’acide linoléique. La comparaison des concentrations des acides aminés et acides gras trouvés avec les normes FAO/OMS montre que les teneurs trouvées sont satisfaisantes et même souvent supérieures aux normes. La Vamine peut devenir un aliment de complément approprié pour la croissance des enfants en République Démocratique du Congo [less ▲]

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See detailThe words of prevention, part I: changing the model
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-9

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information process in GP/FM by keeping in line with the main terms used in health care organization. Methods: Important keywords for GP/FM in the prevention domain were selected. Then, a search was carried out on the main sources in GP/FM databases, as well as in Medical Subject Heading and major terminological databases available online. Results and Discussion: There is discrepancy between the conceptual contents of major prevention models amongst the usual bibliographic sources of knowledge in GP/FM in particular and medicine in general. Conclusion: For GP/FM, distribution of preventive activities is now firmly established on a new constructivist model, privileging the doctor-patient relationships and introducing a cybernetic thinking on the health care activities with a special commitment to ethics and the positive duty of beneficence. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la périménopause à la ménopause, quel intérêt d'un examen biologique
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Revue de la Médecine Générale (2015), 324

Do hormonal blood tests provide support to the management of perimenopause? Should there be a systematic biological assessment before initiating hormonal therapy and to help monitoring it?

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See detailThe words of prevention, part II: ten terms in the realm of quaternary prevention
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-9

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to quaternary prevention: (1) overinformation, (2) overdiagnosis, (3) medically unexplained symptoms, (4) overmedicalisation, (5) incidentaloma, (6) overscreening, (7) overtreatment, (8) shared decision making, (9) deprescribing, and (10) disease mongering. Methods: with the support of the laboratory team of the University of Rouen, France, which is dedicated to medical terminology and semantic relationships, it was possible to utilize a graphic user interface (called DBGUI) allowing the construction of links for each of chosen terms, and making automatic links to MeSH, if any. Those concepts are analyzed in their environment in current literature, as well as in their MeSH counterparts, if any, and related semantic online terminologies. Results and Discussion: The rules in terminological development aspire to cover the whole field of a concept and in the meantime, it helps to avoid the noise due to proxy and not exactly related issues. This refers to exhaustivity and specificity in information retrieval. Our finds show that referring to MeSH only in information retrieval in General Practice/Family medicine can induce much noise and poor adequacy to the subject investigated. Conclusion: Gathering concepts in specially prepared terminologies for further development of ontologies is a necessity to enter in the semantic web area and the era of distributed data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe site of administration influences both the type and the magnitude of the immune response induced by DNA vaccine electroporation
Vandermeulen, G; Vanvarenberg, K; De Beuckelaer, A et al

in Vaccine (2015), 33

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See detailLa remise en question du droit international public. La charge critique du juriste Albéric Rolin (1918-1920)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information du Centre Liégeois d'Histoire et d'Archéologie Militaires (2015), 138

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See detailExploring the Parsing of Dynamic Action in Checking Proneness
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Behaviour Change (2015), 32(2), 93-103

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See detailL’indication comme concept. La logique des « groupes althussériens » (1965-1968)
Mancuso, Eva ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2015), VII

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See detailLa Belgique, un pays ‘neutre’ ou un ‘petit pays’ ? La controverse autour du maintien de la neutralité imposée de la Belgique (1914-1919)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information du Centre Liégeois d'Histoire et d'Archéologie Militaires (2015), 138

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See detailDrug loading of sutures by supercritical CO2 impregnation: effect of polymer/drug interactions and thermal transitions
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2015), 300(6), 596-610

This paper aims at exploring the scCO2 impregnation of three commonly implanted polymer sutures made of poly-l-lactide (PLLA), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) with two anti ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at exploring the scCO2 impregnation of three commonly implanted polymer sutures made of poly-l-lactide (PLLA), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) with two anti-inflammatory drugs namely ketoprofen and aspirin. For all the investigated polymer/drug systems, the drug loading increases with temperature and pressure. It appears that two main criteria must be fulfilled by the polymer to achieve high drug loading: (i) a good affinity between the polymer and the drug and (ii) a high chain mobility to favor the diffusion of the drug into the matrix. As the investigated PLLA fulfills these two requirements, drug loading up to 32.5% with ketoprofen and 8.1% with aspirin has been achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetics and clinical evaluation of the alogliptin plus pioglitazone combination for type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology (2015), 11(6), 1005-20

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to reach glucose control targets. A unique fixed-dose ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to reach glucose control targets. A unique fixed-dose combination combines a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (alogliptin). Area covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone and alogliptin when used separately and in combination as well as to summarize clinical and toxicological considerations about the combined therapy. Expert opinion: Pioglitazone, a potent insulin sensitizer, and alogliptin, an incretin-based agent that potentiates post-meal insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, have complementary mechanisms of action. The clinical efficacy of a combined therapy is superior to any single therapy in patients treated with diet or with metformin (with or without sulphonylurea). These two drugs can be administered once daily, with or without a meal. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions between the two agents have been described and the fixed-dose combination has shown bioequivalence with alogliptin and pioglitazone given separately. Combining alogliptin with pioglitazone does not alter the safety profile of each compound. Weight gain observed with pioglitazone may be limited with the addition of alogliptin. The concern of an increased risk of heart failure remains to be better investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (8. Compteurs)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015)

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See detailTriiodothyronine-predominant Graves’ disease in childhood: detection and therapeutic implications
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; boizeau, priscilla; chevenne, didier et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2015), 172(6), 715-723

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See detailAlthusser : une nouvelle pratique de la philosophie entre politique et idéologie. Conversation avec Étienne Balibar et Yves Duroux (Partie I)
Balibar, Etienne; Duroux, Yves; Bruschi, Fabio et al

in Cahiers du GRM (2015), VII

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See detailLe dosage du cobalt dans le sang par ICP-MS : application aux patients porteurs de prothèses de hanche en métal
MISTRETTA, Virginie ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Toxicologie Analytique & Clinique (2015), 27(2), 91-98

Objectif Les patients porteurs de prothèse de hanche à couple métal-métal (PHM) présentent un taux de cobalt circulant supérieur à celui de la population générale. Chez ces patients, le dosage du cobalt ... [more ▼]

Objectif Les patients porteurs de prothèse de hanche à couple métal-métal (PHM) présentent un taux de cobalt circulant supérieur à celui de la population générale. Chez ces patients, le dosage du cobalt permet d’apprécier le risque toxique éventuel de l’implant et peut servir d’indicateur de révision ou de remplacement de cette prothèse. A cette fin, une méthode de dosage a été validée et appliquée à des patients porteurs de PHM. Méthode Le dosage du cobalt est réalisé sur 500 μL de sang total, après dilution dix fois dans une solution aqueuse acide et après ajout de 100 μL d’une solution de standard interne titrée à 500 μg/L de germanium. L’échantillon est ensuite analysé par un spectromètre de masse avec source d’ionisation par plasma induit haute fréquence (ICP-MS). La méthode décrite a été validée par l’approche de l’erreur totale au moyen du logiciel e•noval (Arlenda®). Résultats La méthode de dosage a été validée avec succès. Elle est linéaire de 0,5 à 50 μg/L. L’inexactitude et l’imprécision intra- et inter-essais sont inférieures à 5 % et 8 %, respectivement. L’incertitude de mesure est inférieure à 17 %. La concentration sanguine moyenne de cobalt estimée sur une période de 1 an à partir de 107 prélèvements de patients porteurs de PHM est de 2,61 μg/L (nombre de patients : 98 ; âge moyen : 60 ans ; ratio hommes/femmes : 38/60). Ce résultat est inférieur au seuil recommandé dans ces populations, fixé à 7 μg/L de cobalt sanguin. Conclusion La méthode analytique présentée permet de doser le cobalt sanguin, notamment chez les patients porteurs de PHM. Ce dosage est recommandé pour le suivi de ces patients, en association avec un examen clinique et radiologique. [less ▲]

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See detailChangement climatique et familles politiques en Europe. Entre soutien et résistance aux politiques climatiques
Moelher, Karin; Piet, Grégory ULg; Zaccai, Edwin

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2257

Le changement climatique constitue une thématique politique relativement récente dans les agendas politiques et électoraux. Souvent, dans le grand public, la question climatique est perçue à travers la ... [more ▼]

Le changement climatique constitue une thématique politique relativement récente dans les agendas politiques et électoraux. Souvent, dans le grand public, la question climatique est perçue à travers la médiatisation des grands sommets des Nations Unies consacrés à cette problématique (Rio de Janeiro en 1992, Kyoto en 1997, Copenhague en 2009, Paris en 2015, etc.). Mais les positions que défendent les différents pays lors de ces réunions ont bien entendu été préalablement construites, entre autres, sur les scènes nationales. Les partis politiques sont à la fois les reflets des opinions publiques et les initiateurs des régulières redéfinitions des orientations politiques qui entourent la thématique du changement climatique. Ils filtrent également les demandes politiques de la société civile qui paraissent compatibles avec leur programme et leur faisabilité, et les transforment. Aux États-Unis, la polarisation politique autour de la question du changement climatique est aisément détectable . Le Republican Party se montre fortement critique, non seulement à l’égard des politiques climatiques discutées dans les cénacles de l’ONU, mais aussi, pour une part de ce courant, quant à l’existence du phénomène du changement climatique d’origine humaine. Ce type de position est particulièrement présent au sein du Tea Party. À l’inverse, le Democratic Party se montre nettement plus favorable à des objectifs climatiques, de même que, à l’instar du président Barack Obama ou du vice-président Al Gore précédemment, il reconnaît sans ambiguïté la réalité de ce phénomène physique, l’estime inquiétant et devant motiver l’action. Qu’en est-il en Europe ? L’opinion publique s’y déclare majoritairement convaincue de la réalité de changements climatiques d’origine anthropique et la trouve préoccupante, même s’il existe une part significative de la population qui en doute. Ce scepticisme se traduit-il toutefois dans les programmes électoraux de certains partis politiques, à l’instar de ce que l’on constate aux États-Unis ? Telle a été la question à la base du présent Courrier hebdomadaire. Annonçons cependant d’emblée que ce que nous désignerons ici par « climato-scepticisme », au sens strict de mise en doute du changement climatique d’origine humaine, n’est qu’un aspect assez partiel de cette étude. Nos résultats révèlent en effet que cette position climato-sceptique est extrêmement minoritaire parmi les formations politiques d’Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to the Nansen Initiative: What the Governance of Environmental Migration Can Learn from the Governance of Internal Displacement
Gemenne, François ULg; Brücker, Pauline

in International Journal of Refugee Law (2015), 27(2), 245-263

Environmental migration is often presented as one of the gravest consequences of environmental disruptions – climate change in particular, and is already a reality in many parts of the world. Yet the ... [more ▼]

Environmental migration is often presented as one of the gravest consequences of environmental disruptions – climate change in particular, and is already a reality in many parts of the world. Yet the protection of these migrants is not adequately addressed in the international normative frameworks on migration. As a result, a growing number of scholars and advocacy groups have sought to create a special convention and/or an ad hoc status for these migrants, while others have contended that such a legal status is not the answer. As a result, the protection of environmental migrants is currently the subject of vigorous debates amongst scholars and policy-makers, and no clear solution is yet in sight. Research however has little considered the debates that surrounded the protection of those displaced within their countries (IDPs) in the 1990s. Both phenomena have sometimes overlapped, especially as environmental displacement is often internal. Yet, the debate on IDPs has had some significant success, in particular, the adoption of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement in 1998, and the signature of the Organization for African Unity’s Kampala Convention in 2009. This article argues that important lessons can be drawn from the protection of IDPs in order to inform the current debates on the protection of environmental migrants, as the political contexts and policy challenges associated with both crises of the migration regime are often similar. The article identifies such lessons and assesses the opportunities and caveats of applying a similar approach of soft law to environmental migration – and what would be needed to achieve it. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal encoding style and schizotypy: towards a conceptually-driven account of positive symptoms
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Personality Disorders (2015), 29(3), 303-315

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven ... [more ▼]

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven and conceptually-driven processing. A chronic imbalance between these two sources of stimulus encoding is likely to be maladaptive and could underlie cognitive and behavioral disturbances similar to that observed in schizotypy, especially if the balance is tipped too far towards conceptually-driven processing (i.e., Internal encoding style). This study aimed to examine the relationships between encoding style and various dimensions of schizotypy, by using a questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which pre-existing schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes. Consistent with previous findings, our results revealed that both Cognitive-Perceptual and Disorganization dimensions were related to an internal mode of encoding, suggesting that individuals with these features may be characterized by a disposition to biases at early stages of encoding. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified analytical method to estimate the resistance of plane lock gates impacted by river barges
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Marine Structures (2015), 43

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