References of "Scientific journals"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBroadening, Deepening, and Governing Innovation: Flemish Technology Assessment in Historical and Socio-Political Perspective
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg et al

in Research Policy (2015), 44(10), 1877-1886

This article examines how science, technology, and innovation (STI) policies in Flanders (Belgium) are affected by, and potentially transformed through, technology assessments (TAs). Broadly defined, TAs ... [more ▼]

This article examines how science, technology, and innovation (STI) policies in Flanders (Belgium) are affected by, and potentially transformed through, technology assessments (TAs). Broadly defined, TAs encompass activities and programs that expand and deepen the knowledge base of contemporary knowledge-based economies (KBEs), typically by including new actors (e.g. trade unions), ideas (e.g. science in society), and rationales (e.g. participatory techniques) in STI processes. Starting from the regionalization of STI policy in Belgium and the convergence of Flemish STI around global KBE principles, the article exemplifies how since the 1980s successive Flemish TA waves (early- warning, bottom-up, and interactive TA) have co-evolved with successive generations of Flemish innovation policy. Building on these findings, it argues that Flemish TA has assumed the role of mediator between science and society, both by counteracting and accommodating dominant STI paradigms. By providing a historical and socio-political perspective on TA and innovation policy, the article draws critical attention to the institutional settings and societal contexts in which TA is embedded, and questions TA's strategic utility within contemporary KBEs. This perspective sheds light on the Flemish government's recent decision to close its parliamentary TA institute and the institutional expansion of TA elsewhere in Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (15 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe mystère des loutres d'Arcy-sur-Cure
Rosoux, René; de Bellefroid, Marie des Neiges; Libois, Roland ULg

in Revue scientifique Bourgogne-Nature (2015), 21/22

The discovery of ancient footprints and spraints (faeces) of European Otter in the caves of Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne), renowned for their great archaeological interest, has led the scientific team of the ... [more ▼]

The discovery of ancient footprints and spraints (faeces) of European Otter in the caves of Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne), renowned for their great archaeological interest, has led the scientific team of the Museum of Natural Sciences of Orleans to launch an original archaeozoological study. The analyzes allowed, on the one hand, to date the deposits of spraints and, on the other hand, to know the main preys of these “cave otters” after the remains of prey contained in the spraints... This extensive study is among the first of its kind in France, regarding otters who frequently used an underground river a thousand years ago ! [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailQu’attendent les orthophonistes des applications numériques à destination des personnes avec trouble du spectre autistique ?
Maillart, Christelle ULg; dor, Orianne ULg; Grevesse, Pascale ULg et al

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264

Numerous technogical applications dedicated to patients affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have recently emerged. Research has begun to prove the efficiency of technologies as support tools ... [more ▼]

Numerous technogical applications dedicated to patients affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have recently emerged. Research has begun to prove the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy for ASD sufferers. However, as far as we know, none study was focused on Speech-Language Therapist’s (SLT) needs. In order to fill this gap, three nominal groups were realized with 19 SLT working with patients with TSA. Identified needs have been ranked in importance. Results stress the importance of open-systems with fully customizable applications allowing the elaboration of individual progress based on specific therapeutic outcomes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn overview of the plastic‑hinge analysis of 3D steel frames
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Nguyen, Dang-Hung; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering (2015), 2:4

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail“Public-based-Learning”: The Place of Publics in Exploring Environmental Controversies for Pedagogical Purposes
Melard, François ULg; Denayer, Dorothée ULg; Semal, Nathalie ULg

in International Journal of Environmental and Science Education (2015), 10(6), 905-920

This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic ... [more ▼]

This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic learning approach, we focus our discussion on a triadic relationship between supervisors, students and various concerned publics. A local flood management controversy in Belgium will help to illustrate our approach and point to some learning outcomes. On the basis of this pedagogical experience, we propose to shift from Problem-based-learning towards Public-based-learning that rests on the comparison of the various ways a problem is defined by publics. This comparative approach allows us to deduce a plurality of modes of involvement mobilized in the management of the environmental problems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIs the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission controlled by solar activity ?
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

in Icarus (2015), 262

Several past studies showed that the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend ... [more ▼]

Several past studies showed that the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend linked to solar activity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContraception et risque carcinologique
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Réalités en Gynécologie-Obstétrique (2015), 179

Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a ... [more ▼]

Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a result of advances in cancer therapy, women within the reproductive-aged group are more likely to survive cancer and be interested to procreate or to delay pregnancy. Which method of contraception can be proposed to this special population of cancer patients? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn overview of potamodromous fish upstream movements in medium-sized rivers, by means of fish passes monitoring
Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULg; Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Dierckx, Arnaud ULg et al

in Aquatic Ecology (2015), 49(4), 481-497

This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the Berwinne and the Amble`ve. During a 6-year monitoring period including a frequency of 1–5 times per week, the captured individuals were identified, measured and weighed to determine species abundance, and the periodicity of their seasonal movement patterns was investigated in relation to environmental factors. In the Amble`ve, 22 different fish species were monitored (n = 1513 individuals; biomass of 154 kg) and 14 species in the Berwinne (n = 3720; 408 kg). In both fish passes, inter-annual differences were observed, but the first year of monitoring was the best in terms of biomass, indicating the existence of an opening effect just after the fish passes opening, which allowed new migration routes. Salmonids and rheophilic cyprinids were predominant in terms of biomass, while minnow and spirlin were predominant in terms of number of fishes. The diversity in sizeranged from 46 to 760 mm demonstrating the importance of movements in various life stages. The capture periodicity showed different mobility patterns between the adult and juvenile stages in most species. Movements occurred frequently during the circus reproduction period for some species, but many species moved also apart from spawning period. This study highlights the omnipresence of patrimonial holobiotic potamodromous fish at different life stages that reflect their biological needs to move throughout the annual cycle. They must be considered as target species in river continuity restoration programmes and fish-pass design. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRevue épidémiologique des tendinopathies les plus fréquentes
Sancerne, Audrey; Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2015), 32(4), 223-228

Tendinopathies are overused pathologies essentially present among sportsmen as well as workers. They represent 19 % of musculo-skeletaldisorders, more than 30 % the consultations of general and sports ... [more ▼]

Tendinopathies are overused pathologies essentially present among sportsmen as well as workers. They represent 19 % of musculo-skeletaldisorders, more than 30 % the consultations of general and sports medicine on musculoskeletal system. At present, general epidemiology studiesare few. Data will therefore be included for each tendinopathy: rotator cuff tendinopathies, epicondylitis, trochanteric pain syndrome, patellar andcalcaneal tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis. The articles have been searched on the databases PubMed and Pedro. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA metagenomic approach from aphid’s hemolymph sheds light on the potential roles of co-existing endosymbionts
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Fujiwara, Akiko; Joncour, Pauline et al

in Microbiome (2015), 3(63),

Background: Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory ... [more ▼]

Background: Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory symbiont present in aphids, supplying essential nutrients that are missing in the plants phloem to its host. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the main vector of the banana bunchy top virus, one of the most damageable viruses in banana. This aphid is carrying two symbionts: B. aphidicola (BPn) and Wolbachia sp. (wPn). The high occurrence of Wolbachia in the banana aphid raises questions about the role it plays in this insect. The goal of this study was to go further in the understanding of the role played by the two symbionts in P. nigronervosa. To do so, microinjection tests were made to see the effect of wPn elimination on the host, and then, high-throughput sequencing of the haemolymph was used to analyze the gene content of the symbionts. Results: We observed that the elimination of wPn systematically led to the death of aphids, suggesting that the bacterium could play a mutualistic role. In addition, we identify and annotate 587 and 250 genes for wPn and BPn, respectively, through high-throughput sequencing. Analysis of these genes suggests that the two bacteria are working together for the production of several essential nutrients. The most striking cases are for lysin and riboflavin which are usually provided by B. aphidicola alone to the host. In the banana aphid, the genes involved in the production pathways of these metabolites are shared between the two bacteria making them both essential for the survival of the aphid host. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a co-obligatory symbiosis between B. aphidicola and Wolbachia occurs in the banana aphid, the two bacteria acting together to supply essential nutrients to the host. This is, to our knowledge, the first time Wolbachia is reported to play an essential role in aphids. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTransformed mineral phases during clay ceramic firing
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Daoudi, Lachen; Hatert, Frédéric ULg et al

in Clays and Clay Minerals (2015), 62(6), 470478

Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating ... [more ▼]

Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating. A major challenge is to predict the phase transformations in clay ceramics. The aims are to establish reference data of ceramics products that can be formed based on the mineralogical composition of the local raw materials. These data, in turn, can be compared with the archaeological ceramics in order to study their origins. The mineralogical compositions and transformations during the firing (550 to 1100ºC under oxidizing conditions) of seven clayey materials sampled from the main clay deposits of Northern Morocco were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction. Two groups of clays were evidenced according to the type of neoformed high-temperature minerals: non-calcareous clays and calcareous clays. For the non-calcareous raw materials, spinel is produced at 950°C. Cristobalite and mullite were formed above 1000ºC from clays that contain illite, kaolinite and chlorite. In clays containing vermiculite and high amount of chlorite, hematite was formed from 950°C. Firing of calcareous clays at temperatures > 950ºC yielded Ca-silicates (diopside, gehlenite and wollastonite), spinel, cristobalite, hematite and feldspars. Mullite may also form in the calcareous clay products, when the carbonates content exceeds 10%. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 210 (59 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment and validation of a short Italian UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale
D'Orta, Isabella; Burnay, Jonathan ULg; Aiello, Daniela et al

in Addictive Behaviors Reports (2015), 2

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between five impulsivity components (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation seeking), has been increasingly investigated during the last decade in relation to addictive and risky behaviors. Unfortunately, it currently lacks a validated scale that allows Italian researchers and clinicians to measure impulsivity based on the UPPS-P model. The current study fills this gap by testing the psychometric properties of a short 20-item Italian scale used to assess the five dimensions of the UPPS-P model in 188 volunteer participants from the community. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of five distinct, but interrelated, impulsivity components. The results indicated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranges from .73 to .84). Construct validity was evidenced by specific relations with measures of addictive behaviors and depressive symptoms. On the whole, this study demonstrated that the Italian short UPPS-P has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVers une démarche entrepreneuriale de l’aide canadienne au développement
WCusson, Gabrielle ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), 3

Depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir du gouvernement conservateur de Stephen Harper en 2007, l’aide canadienne au développement a subi plusieurs changements, tant aux niveaux de la nature des interventions, du ... [more ▼]

Depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir du gouvernement conservateur de Stephen Harper en 2007, l’aide canadienne au développement a subi plusieurs changements, tant aux niveaux de la nature des interventions, du financement des projets, des relations avec les différents partenaires du développement, de l’orientation ainsi que des modes de gestion de l’aide. En 2013, Ottawa a annoncé la fusion de l’Agence canadienne au développement international (ACDI) au ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Commerce international (MAECI) au nom d’une plus grande cohérence des politiques et d’une plus grande efficacité des résultats. Alors que certains y perçoivent une réelle opportunité de réformer l’ensemble de la politique canadienne pour le développement, plusieurs reconnaissent une stratégie pour aligner l’aide sur les intérêts commerciaux et diplomatiques du Canada. L’aide canadienne au développement subit indéniablement une réorientation et une remise en question profonde de ses buts, de ses objectifs et de ses principes fondamentaux. Dans cette optique, cet article présente une analyse susceptible de vérifier si la réorientation de l’aide canadienne au développement depuis l’arrivée du gouvernement Harper [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEntre soins aux patients psychiatriques délinquants et protection sociale à l’égard des délinquants psychiatriques : enjeux et perspectives criminologiques du plan pour patients psychiatriques médico-légaux
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2015)

En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle propose une approche globale et intégrée de tous les acteurs, services et secteurs pertinents. Tout en développant les principaux axes de la réforme, l’article questionne la mise en œuvre de ce modèle dans le contexte hybride de l’internement entre mesure de protection et nécessité de soins. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMethodology manual for European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines.
Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Head, Stuart J.; Thielmann, Matthias et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2015), 48(6), 809-16

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and ... [more ▼]

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and independence. Based on the revision of manuals by other scientific cardiothoracic organizations, this document provides instructions for the development of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines and other types of evidence-based documents. Four key areas have been addressed: (i) selection of taskforce members and transparency of relations with the industry, (ii) methods for critical appraisal of medical evidence, (iii) rules for writing recommendations and (iv) review process. It is hoped that, by adopting this methodology, clinical guidelines produced by the EACTS will be well balanced, objective and, importantly, trusted by physicians and patients who benefit from their implementation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renée ULg et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6(december),

Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor ... [more ▼]

Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (∼25%) were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate). The isolates “active” on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41) and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37). A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria) frequently encountered on brown algae weren’t identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia), were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The cultivable fraction of the bacterial community associated with A. nodosum is, thus, significantly enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria and these bacteria seem important for the seaweed holobiont even though they are under-represented in alga-associated microbiome studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomics
Baiwir, Dominique ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in EuPA Open Proteomics (2015), 9

Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial ... [more ▼]

Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (9 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAccompagner l'implantation de l'approche par compétences en histoire : avec quels moyens d'enseignement ?
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Didactica historica. Revue suisse pour l'enseignement de l'histoire (2015), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComment je traite ... A propos du positionnement des inhibiteurs de la DPP-4 (gliptines) dans le traitement du diabète de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose ... [more ▼]

Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose combinations with metformin. After failure of metformin monotherapy, gliptins compete with old medications such as sulphonylureas, on the one hand, or with new oral antidiabetic agents such as inhibitors of renal sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) (gliflozines), on the other hand. Another alternative is the use of an incretin mimetic (agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, to be injected subcutaneously) rather than an incretin enhancer such as a gliptin, before considering insulin therapy. This article analyses the arguments in favour of DPP-4 inhibitors. We will mainly consider the use of gliptins in patients with recently diagnosed T2D, in elderly and frail patients and in those with chronic kidney disease. To illustrate the discussion, we will analyze the results of both interventional and observational studies with vildagliptin. Obviously, these various groups of patients represent a large proportion of T2D population. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailValeurs ajoutées des archives ouvertes : ORBi de l'Université de Liège
Thirion, Paul ULg

in i2D : Information, Données et Documents (2015), 2015(4), 61-62

En 2008, l’Université de Liège appuie son répertoire institutionnel Open Repository and Bibliography (ORBi) sur le « mandat à la liégeoise » rendant obligatoire le dépôt des publications qu’elle assortit ... [more ▼]

En 2008, l’Université de Liège appuie son répertoire institutionnel Open Repository and Bibliography (ORBi) sur le « mandat à la liégeoise » rendant obligatoire le dépôt des publications qu’elle assortit d’un incitant puissant puisque seules les publications déposées sur ORBi sont prises en compte dans l’évaluation au sein de cette université (nominations, promotions, attributions de crédits, etc.). <br>Pour atteindre le succès observé, un effort particulier a été apporté à l'implémentation se "services à valeur ajoutée" pour l'auteur, l'institution et plus globalement le citoyen et la communauté scientifique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 166 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTribulations d’une vieille dame : De la « loi relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude » à la « loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental »
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70e année

Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la ... [more ▼]

Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la protection de la société par une neutralisation du risque et, d’autre part, la nécessité de soins à prodiguer à la personne internée. L’évolution du cadre juridique de la loi de 1930 relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude à la loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental de 2014 rend compte des vicissitudes nées du tiraillement entre ces deux piliers sécuritaire et thérapeutique. Dans ce difficile rapport de forces, bien que publiée mais pas encore d’application, la version de 2014 de la loi constitue à bien des égards une évolution positive dans la prise en compte des personnes internées et de leurs besoins. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMath & Manips pour construire la notion de volume
Guissard, Marie-France; Henry, Valérie ULg; Lambrecht, Pauline et al

in Grand N (2015), 96

Nous proposons ici une séquence d'apprentissage qui vise à poser des bases solides pour la compréhension du concept de volume chez les enfants de 10 à 12 ans, en intégrant des manipulations. L’étude du ... [more ▼]

Nous proposons ici une séquence d'apprentissage qui vise à poser des bases solides pour la compréhension du concept de volume chez les enfants de 10 à 12 ans, en intégrant des manipulations. L’étude du volume en amont des formules est en effet un parent pauvre de l’enseignement, sans doute parce qu’il passe par la réalisation et l’analyse d’expériences physiques. Pourtant c’est un enjeu fondamental de concevoir le volume comme une grandeur et non seulement comme un nombre. Dans la séquence proposée, de nombreuses expériences, comme le remplissage de boîtes de formes variées et l’immersion de solides de masses et formes diverses, visent l'appropriation de la notion de volume, tant pour les objets creux que pour les pleins. Ces manipulations conduisent à la création de diverses images mentales dont la cohérence est progressivement installée. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecent decline of roach Rutilus rutilus stock in a large river ecosystem in relation with its population dynamics
Otjacques, William; Latli, Adrien; Bernard, Benoît et al

in Fundamental and Applied Limnology (2015), 187(2), 151-163

Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over ... [more ▼]

Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over two decades investigations on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) stock, one of the dominant cyprinid fish species in the River Meuse (Belgium). This study aimed to quantify changes in the stock of roach after recent indicators (captures from sport fishermen) suggested a sharp decline. Three methods were used: capture-mark-recapture (CMR) estimation, catch per unit of effort by gillnetting (CPUE) and long-term monitoring of fish-passes. Population dynamics of roach was also investigated. CMR method demonstrated a decrease of 91% of the roach stock compared to earlier data (1993–2003), with current densities close to 300 roach ha–1. This was also confirmed by a decrease of 95 % in CPUEs and a decrease between 93 and 98 % in two fish-passes during the same period. On the other hand, growth and mortality did not indicate radical changes before and after the decline was found. As roach stock decline is generalizable to the whole Belgian’s Meuse following estimations in two other sites, further investigations are needed to explain the reasons underlying this decline in order to take conservation measures. First, the uptake of primary production (i.e. phytoplankton) by invasive clams is supposed. And secondly, an increase in predation pressure by the Great Cormorant is effective as this avian predator was found in high densities from 2000 until 2006. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes territoires français à l'épreuve des mutations industrielles: Synthèse, Conclusions et Perspectives
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Géographies. Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français (2015), Décembre 2015

Cet article tente de dresser un bilan des travaux présentés dans le cadre de ce numéro thématique en s'appuyant sur quelques grands concepts : système productif, délocalisations/relocalisations ... [more ▼]

Cet article tente de dresser un bilan des travaux présentés dans le cadre de ce numéro thématique en s'appuyant sur quelques grands concepts : système productif, délocalisations/relocalisations, dynamiques territoriales (désindustrialisation, métropolisation et mondialisation/globalisation), innovation, gouvernance et capital humain et en s'interrogeant sur le rôle des territoires dans tous ces processus [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGender differences in responses in Gammarus pulex exposed to BDE-47: a gel-free proteomic approach
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2015), 122

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and ... [more ▼]

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and females under control conditions (unexposed) and after 96 h exposure to BDE-47. Using gel-free proteomic analysis, we have identified 45 proteins, of which 25 were significantly differently expressed according to sex and/or BDE-47 exposure. These proteins were involved in several biological processes such as energy metabolism, chaperone proteins, or transcription/translation. In unexposed amphipods, 11 proteins were significantly over-expressed in females, and 6 proteins were over-expressed in males. Under BDE-47 stress, 7 proteins were differently impacted according to sex. For example, catalase was over-expressed in exposed females and under-expressed in exposed males, as compared to respective controls. Conversely, proteins involved in energy metabolism were up-regulated in males and down-regulated in females. Our proteomic study showed differences in responses of males and females to BDE-47 exposure, emphasizing that sex is a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment. However, due to the limited information existing in databases on Gammarids, it was difficult to define a BDE-47 mechanism of action. The gel-free proteomic seems to be a promising method to develop in future ecotoxicological studies and thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of xenobiotics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagritte et la censure
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Lexia (2015), 21-22

In1948, the Belgian painter René Magritte exhibited in an art gallery in Paris paintings and gouaches that were met with acrimony. Leaders of surreal- ism, usually fond of provocations, did not accepted ... [more ▼]

In1948, the Belgian painter René Magritte exhibited in an art gallery in Paris paintings and gouaches that were met with acrimony. Leaders of surreal- ism, usually fond of provocations, did not accepted this one. Many readings of this event have been proposed, starting from Magritte himself. The variety or even the divergence of such readings, however, suggests the need to interpret these works from a broader perspective. Starting from the aesthetic principles established by Hegel, the present essay seeks to show how Magritte endeav- oured to “release painting” from both personal and social censorship, which is constitutive of the very art of painting. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLatex, un peu, beaucoup (10. Miscellanées (1))
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015), 31

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailÉditorial=Woord vooraf
Decoster, Sara ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2015), 69(4),

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes Mots des Maths : Osculateur
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015), 31

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe importance of phenotypic diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Biological Conservation (2015), 192

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders ... [more ▼]

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders such as fish. Previous research has shown that they could recover after fish extirpation due to metamorphosed colonizers. However, not all amphibian phenotypes are able to persist to fish introduction and disperse. In many species of newts and salamanders, paedomorphs retain gills in the adult stage, which makes them fully aquatic. A proposed way to conserve this phenotype would be to remove introduced fish from their habitats. However, because paedomorphosis is usually not expressed in the presence of fish, it is unknown whether fish removal could allow the resilience of paedomorphs. This would be possible only if progenies of metamorphosed individuals could become paedomorphic in restored habitats. Through a quantitative survey in three types of ponds, including control ponds without fish, ponds in which fish were extirpated, and fish ponds, we determined abundances of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). The results show that paedomorphosis resilience is possible and even highly frequent, as paedomorphs were found in 80% of ponds where fish disappeared. Abundances were similar between these ponds and control ponds whereas fish ponds had almost no newts, indicating a very low resistance to invaders. This shows that conserving common phenotypes can help to preserve endangered phenotypes, as paedomorphs were produced through the reproduction of metamorphs. There is thus hope of maintaining intraspecific biodiversity though conservation action involving threat removal. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (21 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPressure-impulse diagram of a beam developing non-linear membrane action under blast loading
Hamra, Lotfi ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in International Journal of Impact Engineering (2015), 86

The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane ... [more ▼]

The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane action and also, the bending-tension (M−N) interaction that develops in the plastic hinges. The analytical procedures to compute the asymptotes in the p–I diagram as well as a parametric study on the p–I diagram are provided. A dimensional analysis of the problem reveals that, under the considered assumptions, four dimensionless parameters mainly influence the required ductility of the beam. Two of them are related to the behavior of the indirectly affected part (the lateral restraint and mass). Another one is related to the mechanical properties of the investigated beam (i.e. the ratio of the bending to axial resistance). The last parameter incorporates scales of the geometry and of the deformed configuration at the onset of the plastic mechanism. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (38 ULg)
Full Text
See detailДЕЦЕНТРАЛИЗАЦИЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ В СФЕРЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В СОВРЕМЕННОЙ РОССИИ
Duran, Tatyana ULg

in Recueil d’articles « Les ressources vitales de la région : les problèmes sociales et démographiques de la société moderne » (2015)

L'article démontre la nécessité de la décentralisation de la politique publique russe dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur ; il décrit le concept de l'autonomie des universités comme une forme de ... [more ▼]

L'article démontre la nécessité de la décentralisation de la politique publique russe dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur ; il décrit le concept de l'autonomie des universités comme une forme de la liberté, ainsi que les caractéristiques du modèle de l'autonomie russe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAgriculture et environnement : genèse des relations
Habran, Maxime ULg

in Revue de l'Union européenne (2015), (593), 604-617

Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu ... [more ▼]

Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu doter d’un nouveau mécanisme appelé verdissement ou paiement vert destiné à verdir le pilier des soutiens de marché. Ce mécanisme rend opaque la prise en compte de l’environnement et affaiblit la conditionnalité. D’un greening, les négociateurs se sont mis d’accord sur un greenwashing. L’objectif de cette contribution est de montrer la manière dont est intégrée la politique de protection de l’environnement au sein de la politique agricole commune. La notion de conditionnalité environnementale permet de comprendre l’articulation et l’interaction entre ces deux politiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUne cause invisible des migrations. La tragédie de l’accaparement des terres
Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara ULg

in Cités : Philosophie, Politique, Histoire (2015), 64

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNouvelles données sur un pigment noir d’origine cambrienne, utilisé au Paléolithique moyen et découvert dans la grotte Scladina (Andenne, Belgique)
Bonjean, D; Vanbrabant, Y; Abrams, G et al

in Notae Praehistoricae (2015), 35

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUsing natriuretic peptides to detect cardiac diseases in horses
Leroux, Aurélia ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2015), 177

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEntraîner la communication professionnelle par des dispositifs en e-learning au cours du Master en orthophonie
Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264

La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement ... [more ▼]

La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement travaillées et évaluées au contraire d’autres compétences cliniques telles que l’évaluation et la rééducation. Beaucoup considèrent en effet que ces compétences relationnelles s’entraîneront naturellement sur le terrain. Or, la communication professionnelle possède des caractéristiques qui lui sont propres et qui doivent être entraînées. Dans le Master en orthophonie à l’Université de Liège, deux dispositifs ont été développés et ciblent la communication au cours de l’entretien anamnestique et de la remise de conclusion. Ces dispositifs reposent essentiellement sur des modules en e-learning et permettent de garantir aux étudiants en orthophonie les bases nécessaires en communication professionnelle avec peu de ressources académiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew York e l'edicola e' Mostino o' barbiere
De Biase, Marco ULg

in Cartografie sociali. Rivista di sociologia e scienze umane (2015), 1(1),

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA probabilistic model for predicting the uncertainties of the humid stiction phenomenon on hard materials
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2015), 289

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the ... [more ▼]

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the surfaces roughness and the adhesive force range, the real contact areas are usually smaller than the apparent one, resulting in a scatter in the adhesive forces. Consequently, the stiction is an uncertain phenomenon. In this work, we develop a probabilistic model to predict the uncertainties of stiction due to the capillary forces acting on stiff materials. This model contains two levels: at the deterministic level, the model can predict the pull-out adhesive contact forces for a given surface topology; at the probabilistic level, the model generates independent identically distributed surfaces on which the deterministic solution can be applied to evaluate the uncertainties related to the stiction phenomenon. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 208 (84 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques dans les universités de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles. Quelles solutions?
Alexandre, Aude ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2015), (4), 5-16

L’accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques pose des problématiques concrètes spécifiques, qui dépassent celles de la conservation des données numériques. Après une synthèse des ... [more ▼]

L’accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques pose des problématiques concrètes spécifiques, qui dépassent celles de la conservation des données numériques. Après une synthèse des différents risques et concepts liés à l’accès pérenne, cet article examine en particulier les questions juridiques et contractuelles ainsi que les différentes solutions d’archivage externes dédiées à la préservation des e-journaux (LOCKSS, CLOCKSS, Portico). Le constat posé est qu’il n’existe à l’heure actuelle pas de solution miracle, mais bien un ensemble d’actions possibles et de solutions matures et complémentaires. Une échelle de stratégies concrètes a été recommandée aux universités de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles en 2014, qui ont commencé à les mettre en place. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructure-Activity Relationships of Novel Tryptamine-Based Inhibitors of Bacterial Transglycosylase.
Sosic, Izidor; Anderluh, Marko; Sova, Matej et al

in Journal of medicinal chemistry (2015)

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin ... [more ▼]

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin-binding proteins is especially important, as it catalyzes polymerization of glycan chains, using the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II as a substrate. On the basis of the previous discovery of a noncovalent small-molecule inhibitor of transglycosylase activity, we systematically explored the structure-activity relationships of these tryptamine-based inhibitors. The main aim was to reduce the nonspecific cytotoxic properties of the initial hit compound and concurrently to retain the mode of its inhibition. A focused library of tryptamine-based compounds was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated biochemically. The results presented here show the successful reduction of the nonspecific cytotoxicity, and the retention of the inhibition of transglycosylase enzymatic activity, as well as the ability of these compounds to bind to lipid II and to have antibacterial actions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detail" D'ombre et de lumière " : Récit d'une régénération réussie en chênaie ardennaise
Layon, José; Dubois, Héloïse ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2015), (137), 38-47

Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne ... [more ▼]

Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne sessile a été mise en place dès 1989 dans un compartiment de 16 ha situé sur le cantonnement DNF de La Roche-en-Ardenne (Belgique). Le peuplement initial était un médiocre taillis sous futaie de chêne et de hêtre à sous-étage de charme. Par ses observations et ses actions précises, le gestionnaire a réussi à installer les semis de chêne, à en soustraire suffisamment de la dent du gibier, bien présent, pour constituer un peuplement de qualité. Les enseignements de l'expérience sont multiples. Quelques points essentiels sont exposés : dosage fin de la lumière pour favoriser le développement des semis de chêne en maîtrisant le hêtre et la végétation adventice, observation de la réaction des semis comme indicateur du moment de l'intervention, exploitation adaptée, dégagement et/ou dépressage dans le semis, pression du gibier, etc. Actuellement, le chêne est régénéré sur plus de 12 ha. Le coût total est estimé entre 800 et 1000 €/ha. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEarthworms Eisenia fetida affect the uptake of heavy metals by plants Vicia faba and Zea mays in metal-contaminated soils
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Liénard, Amandine ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg et al

in Applied Soil Ecology (2015)

Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been ... [more ▼]

Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been suggested as an aid for phytoremediation processes. In Wallonia, Belgium, a century of industrial metallurgic activities has led to the substantial pollution of soils by heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), due to atmospheric dusts. Two plant species, Vicia faba and Zea mays, and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) (Savigny, 1826) were exposed to different concentrations of long-term-contaminated soils for 42 days. The soil samples, which were collected from the land surrounding a former Zn-Pb ore-treatment plant, exhibited different levels of heavy metals. Our aim was to evaluate the role of earthworms E. fetida on the availability of metals in soils and their effects on metal uptake by V. faba and Z. mays plants at different soil concentrations. The results suggest that earthworms and plants modified the availability of metals in contaminated soils after 42 days of exposure. Earthworm life-cycle parameters were affected by metal contamination and/or the addition of plants; cocoon production and weight were more responsive to adverse conditions than earthworm survival or weight change. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in earthworm tissues decreased in the presence of plants. Results showed that metal accumulation in plants depended on the metal element considered and the presence of earthworms. However, the presence of earthworms did not change the concentrations of metals in plants, except for Cd. In the presence or absence of earthworms, V. faba accumulated higher concentrations of Cu and Zn compared with Z. mays, which accumulated higher concentrations of Cd. These findings have revealed that earthworm activities can modify the availability of heavy metals for uptake by plants in contaminated soils. Moreover, the study results show that the ecological context of phytoremediation should be broadened by considering earthworm-plant-soil interaction, which influence both the health of the plant and the uptake of heavy metals by plants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQualité de vie du patient sarcopénique : apport de l’étude liégeoise SarcoPhAge
Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; PETERMANS, Jean ULg et al

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015), 13(4), 391-5

The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic ... [more ▼]

The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic quality of life questionnaires such as SF36 and EQ5D. The SarcoPhAge study, conducted on a cohort developed in Liège including 534 subjects of 65 years or older, suggested that sarcopenic subjects present a significant worse quality of life in the domains of physical function compared to nonsarcopenic subjects. Generic tools do not cover exhaustively all the areas of potential dysfunction concerned in this geriatric syndrome. Yet, there is no specific and validated quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia. It would be useful to have at our disposal a sarcopenia specific quality of life questionnaire to assess not only the prospective quality of life of sarcopenic subjects but also to assess the efficacy and the rele [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnvironmental impacts of phosphoric acid production using di-hemihydrate process: a Belgian case study
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Szöcs, Carl; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), 108

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also ... [more ▼]

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also called Central Prayon process. Both grades of phosphoric acid are evaluated: fertilizer and purified grades. Specificities of this plant are highlighted and improvements of the process in terms of energy and facilities integration through years are quantified as environmental benefits. The implementation on site of two sulphuric acid production facilities and their energetic integration allow a reduction of climate change impact of 80%. Results also show the importance of phosphogypsum valorisation which is sold for the main part in this case study. Concerning the purified grade, this specific process has been compared to the thermal process, using Best Available Techniques (BAT) values for the modelling. It shows a reduced environmental impact for the wet process in the majority of categories studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J mice
Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Neuroscience (2015), 310

Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug ... [more ▼]

Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but also was unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExperimental and computational micro–mechanical investigations of compressive properties of polypropylene/multi–walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite foams
Wan, Fangyi; Tran, Minh Phuong; Leblanc, Christophe ULg et al

in Mechanics of Materials (2015), 91(Part 1), 95-118

The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of ... [more ▼]

The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of material. The nanocomposites based on polypropylene (PP) and different contents of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are prepared by melt mixing method. The nanocomposite samples are foamed using super-critical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) as blowing agent at different soaking temperatures. The influence of this foaming parameter on the morphological characteristics of the foam micro-structure is discussed. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to quantify the crystallinity degree of both nanocomposites and foams showing that the crystallinity degree is reduced after the foaming process. This modification leads to mechanical properties of the foam cell walls that are different from the raw nanocomposite PP/CNTs material. Three--point bending tests are performed on the latter to measure the flexural modulus in terms of the crystallinity degree. Uniaxial compression tests are then performed on the foamed samples under quasi-static conditions in order to extract the macro-scale compressive response. Next, a two-level multi-scale approach is developed to model the behavior of the foamed nanocomposite material. On the one hand, the micro-mechanical properties of nanocomposite PP/CNTs cell walls are evaluated from a theoretical homogenization model accounting for the micro-structure of the semi-crystalline PP, for the degree of crystallinity, and for the CNT volume fraction. The applicability of this theoretical model is demonstrated via the comparison with experimental data from the described experimental measurements and from literature. On the other hand, the macroscopic behavior of the foamed material is evaluated using a computational micro-mechanics model using tetrakaidecahedron unit cells and periodic boundary conditions to estimate the homogenized properties. The unit cell is combined with several geometrical imperfections in order to capture the elastic collapse of the foamed material. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and it is shown that the proposed unit cell computational micro-mechanics model can be used to estimate the homogenized behavior, including the linear and plateau regimes, of nanocomposite foams. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 182 (61 ULg)
Full Text
See detailÉvaluation des compétences informationnelles des étudiants. Brève comparaison des enquêtes EduDOC et FADBEN
Pochet, Bernard ULg; Thirion, Paul ULg

in Mediadoc (2015), (15), 2-8

This article follows the report of a survey assessing information skills of secondary school students in France. It compares the results of this survey with those obtained in Belgium in 2007, with a ... [more ▼]

This article follows the report of a survey assessing information skills of secondary school students in France. It compares the results of this survey with those obtained in Belgium in 2007, with a survey of students in higher education. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrincipes pratiques de l'animatique des groupes. Stratégies d'animation en vue d'un apprentissage expérientiel
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Danse, Cédric ULg

in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (2015), 4

he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this ... [more ▼]

he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this paradigm are here listed, to help the trainers, from the angle to apply it in their practical experience in leading groups. They make a consistent whole and guide the trainer in its using of the methodology of structured experiences. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFerroelectric instability in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells
Qiu, Ruihao ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg; Cano, Andres

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2015), 112

The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well ... [more ▼]

The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well as its dependence on the properties of the surrounding media and the corresponding interfaces. By properly tuning these factors, we demonstrate possible routes for enhancing the ferroelectric transition temperature and promoting the competition between irrotational and vortex-like states in the ultra-thin limit due to the specific topology of these nanoparticles. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPost-coronagraphic tip-tilt sensing for vortex phase masks: the QACITS technique
Huby, Elsa ULg; Baudoz, Pierre; Mawet, Dimitri et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584

Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization ... [more ▼]

Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization. However, the drawback of this attractive feature is a high sensitivity to pointing errors, which degrades the performance of the coronagraph. We propose a tip-tilt retrieval technique based on the analysis of the final coronagraphic image, hereafter called Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing (QACITS). Under the assumption of small phase aberrations, we show that the behaviour of the vortex phase mask can be simply described from the entrance pupil to the Lyot stop plane by Zernike polynomials. This convenient formalism is used to establish the theoretical basis of the QACITS technique. Simulations have been performed to demonstrate the validity and limits of the technique, including the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The QACITS technique principle is further validated by experimental results in the case of an unobstructed circular aperture. The typical configuration of the Keck telescope (24% central obstruction) has been simulated with additional high order aberrations. In these conditions, our simulations show that the QACITS technique is still adapted to centrally obstructed pupils and performs tip-tilt retrieval with a precision of $5 \times 10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D when wavefront errors amount to {\lambda}/14 rms and $10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D for {\lambda}/70 rms errors (with {\lambda} the wavelength and D the pupil diameter). The implementation of the QACITS technique is based on the analysis of the scientific image and does not require any modification of the original setup. Current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask can thus directly benefit from this technique to improve the contrast performance close to the axis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecent advances in BLV research
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg et al

in Viruses (2015), 7(11), 6080-6088

Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques ... [more ▼]

Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease relevance, species specificity or inadequate immune response. Another strategy based on a comparative virology approach is to characterize a related pathogen and to speculate on possible shared mechanisms. In this perspective, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the deltaretrovirus genus, is evolutionary related to HTLV-1. BLV induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants providing useful information on the mechanisms of viral persistence, genetic determinants of pathogenesis and potential novel therapies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiscrimination of deciduous tree species from time series of unmanned aerial system imagery
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Michez, Adrien ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(11),

Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial ... [more ▼]

Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (51 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrimary osteosarcoma of the breast : a case report
Crevecoeur, Julie; Jossa, Véronique; GENNIGENS, Christine ULg et al

in Clinical Case Reports (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailgammaMAXT: a fast multiple-testing correction algorithm
Van Lishout, François ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco; Moore, Jason H. et al

in BioData Mining (2015), 8(36),

Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements ... [more ▼]

Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and memory of this procedure are proportional to the number of investigated hypotheses. The memory issue has been solved in 2013 by Van Lishout’s implementation of MaxT, which makes the memory usage independent from the size of the dataset. This algorithm is implemented in MBMDR-3.0.3, a software that is able to identify genetic interactions, for a variety of SNP-SNP based epistasis models effectively. On the other hand, that implementation turned out to be less suitable for genome-wide interaction analysis studies, due to the prohibitive computational burden. Results: In this work we introduce gammaMAXT, a novel implementation of the maxT algorithm for multiple testing correction. The algorithm was implemented in software MBMDR-4.2.2, as part of the MB-MDR framework to screen for SNP-SNP, SNP-environment or SNP-SNP-environment interactions at a genome-wide level. We show that, in the absence of interaction effects, test-statistics produced by the MB-MDR methodology follow a mixture distribution with a point mass at zero and a shifted gamma distribution for the top 10 % of the strictly positive values. We show that the gammaMAXT algorithm has a power comparable to MaxT and maintains FWER, but requires less computational resources and time. We analyze a dataset composed of 106 SNPs and 1000 individuals within one day on a 256-core computer cluster. The same analysis would take about 104 times longer with MBMDR-3.0.3. Conclusions: These results are promising for future GWAIs.However, the proposed gammaMAXT algorithm offers a general significance assessment and multiple testing approach, applicable to any context that requires performing hundreds of thousands of tests. It offers new perspectives for fast and efficient permutation-based significance assessment in large-scale (integrated) omics studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail“Shakespeare was wrong”: counter-discursive intertextuality in Gail Jones’s Sorry
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(6), 661671

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and ... [more ▼]

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and epistemological supremacy. Starting from this unsettling premise, this article seeks to define Jones’s counter-discursive use of Shakespearean intertextuality. While it has, for decades, proved a risky task for both historians and novelists to write about the delicate issue of silence in Australia without risking the appropriation of an Aboriginal voice, the article examines how Jones exploits defamiliarizing techniques in order to undermine the dominant European discourse (as encoded in the Shakespearean text) without assuming an Aboriginal perspective. Her aim is to facilitate the emergence of an incipient, tentatively-defined counter-discourse sufficiently attuned to the specific realities of Australia. The article argues that by adopting an Australian cultural perspective designed to decentre Shakespeare Jones hopes to reconcile history and writing, but also the divided aspects of White Australia’s twofold identity at a time of profound national changes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICA
Mahyou, Hamid; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Balaghi, Riad et al

in Land Degradation & Development (2015)

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical utility gene card for: Biotinidase deficiency-update 2015.
Kury, Sebastien; RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Bezieau, Stephane et al

in European journal of human genetics : EJHG (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRetrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectra
Dammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailField data on the little known and endangered Lepilemur mittermeieri
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C. et al

in Journal of Primatology (2015), 4(2),

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three ... [more ▼]

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three individuals collected at the same locality. No observation confidently allocated to the species has been reported since. The objectives of our research were to verify that the sportive lemurs found in forests of the Ampasindava peninsula beyond the type-locality of Lepilemur mittermeieri belonged to the same species as the type, to provide morphological and behavioural data for populations confidently attributed to L. mittermeieri and to obtain for these populations preliminary evaluations of density variations within the peninsula. Our surveys were undertaken in March and April 2014 in remnant forest patches of the western part of the Ampasindava peninsula. Linear transects by night and punctual observations by day were conducted. A total of 54 animals were seen along nine transects situated in four forest patches, two at low altitude and two at high altitude. All animals examined and photographed appeared similar, and the impression was gained that a single taxon was involved. Genetic material collected from one dead specimen proved identical to the type of L. mittermeieri which confirmed the identity of the populations we observed. It thus appears that L. mittermeieri is indeed the only sportive lemur present on the peninsula and that it occurs in several forest remnants. We endeavoured to get evaluations of the density and abundance of the species in the four forest patches we studied. We used KAIs (Kilometric Abundance Indices) to evaluate and compare relative densities, and Buckland’s distance sampling method to evaluate absolute densities. The latter suggested a density of 1.9 animals/ha, a result that must, however, be taken with caution. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailElp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine
LADANG, Aurélie ULg; Rapino, Francesca ULg; Heukamp, Lukas et al

in Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (19 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?
Desseilles, François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probes
Lemal, Sébastien ULg; Ngoc, Nguyen; de Boor, Johannes et al

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid ... [more ▼]

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange-correlation. The ground state is determined to be anti-ferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 μB/Fe. The Néel temperature Tn is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV, also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 μV/K, slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLaser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness
Paydas, Hakan ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Carrus, Raoul et al

in Materials & Design (2015), 85

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groups
Clément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (21 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Tarelkin, Yegor et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood ... [more ▼]

Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods: Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results: Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was explained by species only (45%) followed by a redundant part between species and regeneration guilds (36%). Despite substantial variation in wood specific gravity profiles among species and regeneration guilds, we found that values from the outer wood were strongly correlated to values from the whole profile, without any significant bias. In addition, we found that wood specific gravity from the DRYAD global repository may strongly differ depending on the species (up to 40% for Dialium pachyphyllum). Main conclusion: Therefore, when estimating forest biomass in specific sites, we recommend the systematic collection of outer wood samples on dominant species. This should prevent the main errors in biomass estimations resulting from wood specific gravity and allow for the collection of new information to explore the intraspecific variation of mechanical properties of trees. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFirst New Solar Models With Opas Opacity Tables
Le Pennec, Maëlle; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Salmon, Sébastien ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2015), 813(2), 42

Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For ... [more ▼]

Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For about a decade now, the helioseismic sound-speed determination has continued to disagree with the standard solar model (SSM) prediction, questioning the reliability of this model. One of the sources of uncertainty could be in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. In this Letter, we use the new OPAS opacity tables, recently available for solar modeling, to address this issue. We discuss first the peculiarities of these tables, then we quantify their impact on the solar sound-speed and density profiles using the reduced OPAS tables taken on the grids of the OPAL ones. We use the two evolution codes, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and Code Liégeois d'Evolution Stellaire, that led to similar conclusions in the solar radiative zone. In comparison to commonly used OPAL opacity tables, the new solar models are computed for the most recent photospheric composition with OPAS tables and present improvements to the location of the base of the convective zone and to the description of the solar radiative zone in comparison to the helioseismic observations, even if the differences in the Rosseland mean opacity do not exceed 6%. We finally carry out a comparison to a solar model computed with the OP opacity tables. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switching
Atxitia, U.; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, R. W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2015), 107(19), 192402

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in ... [more ▼]

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated elec- trons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComposite dark matter and direct-search experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in International Journal of Modern Physics D : Gravitation, Astrophysics & Cosmology (2015), 24

The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms” ... [more ▼]

The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms”. Two different scenarios are presented: milli-interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In both of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detec- tors, which are typically located at a depth of 1 km. As they drift towards the center of the earth because of gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interac- tions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The two models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in con- sistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRemote control of self-assembled microswimmers
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume ULg; Darras, Alexis ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number ... [more ▼]

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number locomotion. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChange in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Delporte, Fabienne ULg; Muhovski, Yordan et al

in Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (2015), 98

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPostures et figures « néo-réactionnaires ». Autour d'un personnage collectif
Durand, Pascal ULg; Sindaco, Sarah ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2015)

Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à ... [more ▼]

Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à la faveur d’une double distance créée avec l’objet : distance historique pour commencer, même si celle-ci tendra à se resserrer progressivement autour dudit objet ; distance assurée d’un autre côté par un effort d’abstraction des régularités en fait de rhétorique et de posture caractéristiques du phénomène examiné dans son ensemble. Un phénomène à la fois social et discursif dont les conditions de possibilité et d’efficacité intéresse davantage le propos du présent article que les contenus polémiques dont il se nourrit et les fortes individualités dont il se soutient [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266),

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailX-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2
Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453

We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray ... [more ▼]

We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Hα emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star θ[SUP]1[/SUP] Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the Hα minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailObservations of radio-quiet quasars at 10-mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing
Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal S.; Roberts, Carl et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 454

We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi ... [more ▼]

We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi-Element Remote Linked Interferometer (e-MERLIN) observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS 0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio-quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5 μJy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS 0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini active galactic nucleus, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE 0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the requirement for smaller scale substructure in the model, although some interesting anomalies are seen between optical and radio flux densities. These are probably due to microlensing effects in the optical. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star
Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David et al

in Nature (2015), 527

M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent ... [more ▼]

M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailX-Ray Emission from Massive Stars in Cyg OB2
Rauw, Gregor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Wright, N. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 221

We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources ... [more ▼]

We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: log(Lx/Lbol)=-7.2+/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between Lx and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR 144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low log(Lx/Lbol)=-8.8+/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR 145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind–wind interaction zone. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCOMMENT EXPLORER LES SYMPTOMES NEGATIFS DE LA PSYCHOSE CHEZ L'ENFANT: UNE SEMIOLOGIE DIMENSIONNELLE
SCHOLL, Jean-Marc ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2015), 116(3), 15-21

Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future ... [more ▼]

Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at stake. Negative symptoms are systematically present at the prodromal phase and are the most stable thereafter. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers to recognize it. This paper presents a dimensional semiology of the negative symptoms for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. Is also gives a guide to the interviewing process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdult bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells are chemoattractive and accelerate motor recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injury
Neirinckx, Virginie ULg; Agirman, Gulistan ULg; Coste, Cécile ULg et al

in Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2015), 6(211),

Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) together constitute the bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) that were used as therapeutic options in various models of experimental SCI. However, as clinical approaches remained disappointing, we thought that reducing BMSC heterogeneity should be a potential way to improve treatment efficiency and reproducibility. Methods: We investigated the impact of pure populations of MSCs and NCSCs isolated from adult bone marrow in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. We then analyzed the secretome of both MSCs and NCSCs, and its effect on macrophage migration in vitro. Results: We first observed that both cell types induced motor recovery in mice, and modified the inflammatory reaction in the lesion site. We also demonstrated that NCSCs but especially MSCs were able to secrete chemokines and attract macrophages in vitro. Finally, it appears that MSC injection in the spinal cord enhance early inflammatory events in the blood and spinal cord of SCI mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our results suggest that both cell types have beneficial effects in experimental SCI, and that further investigation should be dedicated to the regulation of the inflammatory reaction following SCI, in the context of stem cell-based therapy but also in the early-phase clinical management of SCI patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Expropriation of YPF from Repsol in the Argentine Press: Analyzing Framing in Opinion Pieces through Rhetorical Criticism
Azpíroz Manero, María Luisa ULg

in Doxa Comunicación : Revista Interdisciplinar de Estudios de Comunicación y Ciencias Sociales (2015), (21), 33-53

This article examines how opinion articles in the Argentine press framed the government's expropriation of Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) from Repsol in 2012. By understanding frames as ... [more ▼]

This article examines how opinion articles in the Argentine press framed the government's expropriation of Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) from Repsol in 2012. By understanding frames as narratives composed by the interrelation of the functions of frame, and adopting Kuper's proposal to analyze framing from the perspective of rhetorical criticism, this study focuses on two newspapers with opposing editorial lines (La Nación and Página 12) and identifies two different narratives shaping the reporting of this story. The results also reveal two different views of the role of the market and the state in the economy and in the management of energy resources. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHypervulnerability to Sound Exposure through Impaired Adaptive Proliferation of Peroxisomes.
Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Defourny, Jean; Aghaie, Asadollah et al

in Cell (2015), 163(4), 894-906

A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes ... [more ▼]

A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes. Correlation between their hearing thresholds and the number of pups per cage suggest a possible harmful effect of pup vocalizations. Direct sound or electrical stimulation show that the cochlear sensory hair cells and auditory pathway neurons of Pjvk(-/-) mice and patients are exceptionally vulnerable to sound. Subcellular analysis revealed that pejvakin is associated with peroxisomes and required for their oxidative-stress-induced proliferation. Pjvk(-/-) cochleas display features of marked oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, and peroxisomes in Pjvk(-/-) hair cells show structural abnormalities after the onset of hearing. Noise exposure rapidly upregulates Pjvk cochlear transcription in wild-type mice and triggers peroxisome proliferation in hair cells and primary auditory neurons. Our results reveal that the antioxidant activity of peroxisomes protects the auditory system against noise-induced damage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe crime de masse en criminologie
Pierre, Alexia ULg

in Revue de Science Criminelle et de Droit Pénal Comparé (2015), 3(juillet/septembre), 627-637

Despite the increasing number of mass crimes and mass victimisations, these topics remain marginal in criminology when they are not linked to terrorism. While the characteristics of mass crimes seem to ... [more ▼]

Despite the increasing number of mass crimes and mass victimisations, these topics remain marginal in criminology when they are not linked to terrorism. While the characteristics of mass crimes seem to meet the characteristics of a criminological object of research, they remain mostly studied through history, sociology, psychology or policy studies. The following analysis is an exploration of three issues that can explain the weakness of interest in mass crimes by the criminologists. These aspects, encompassing psychological, epistemological or practical issues, may lead to a disciplinary approach that is far from mass crimes specificities, or may not allow to explore the complex wholeness of such topics. A criminology of mass crimes, conducive to an exploration of the current criminal realities, is needed to understand the current global phenomena. Indeed, the numerous and worldwide massive abuses against civilians must lead the criminologists to take them into concern and to develop principles of prevention. Analysis, aware of the specificities of mass crimes, and leading to an in depth understanding of mass crimes issues, must be the foundation of these principles. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (5 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMétroplasties (utérus en T après l'ère DES, septum): quel bénéfice?
BRICHANT, Géraldine ULg; CLOSON, François ULg; MASEREEL, Marie-Caroline ULg et al

in Louvain Medical (2015), 134

Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude ... [more ▼]

Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude septate uterus, uterus bicornuate, and uterus didelphys (Class II and III according to ESHRE/ESGE classification). Hypoplastic uteri are rare, being usually caused by in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Hysteroscopic metroplasty has been shown to improve both fertility and obstetrical outcomes in patients with hypoplastic or septate uterus [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAmphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introduction
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Animal Behaviour (2015), 109

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by ... [more ▼]

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by fish introduction; however, mechanisms of the exclusion observed in the field are still not well known. In particular, whether newts skip breeding and leave water for land in response to fish introduction and how aquatic shelter may influence their choice remain open questions. To investigate these questions, we experimentally studied the use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats during the breeding season of palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus, in the presence and absence of goldfish, Carassius auratus. We determined the consequences of habitat choice on newt fitness by assessing sexual activity and number of eggs. There was a strong, significant avoidance of the aquatic environment in the presence of fish, particularly when no aquatic shelter was available. This escape from the water had an impact on reproduction: newts decreased their sexual activity and laid fewer eggs. The availability of shelters favoured coexistence but did not prevent a large proportion of the newts from leaving water and skipping reproduction. This study shows how the presence of fish and the absence of aquatic shelters can lead to newts forgoing aquatic life, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind the coexistence and exclusion patterns found in the wild. More broadly, these data contribute to explaining aquatic versus terrestrial life in favourable and unfavourable environments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 208 (45 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTrunk muscle profile in elite tennis players with and without low back pain
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Souchet, Matthieu et al

in Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness (2015), 55(11), 1354-1362

Detailed reference viewed: 146 (49 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa collection "Poétique" : terre d'accueil
Lorent, Fanny ULg

in A l'épreuve (2015), 2

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa Communauté germanophone après la sixième réforme de l’État : état des lieux et perspectives
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Niessen, Christoph; Reuchamps, Min

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2266-2267

Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait ... [more ▼]

Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait état des débats politiques qui ont accompagné ces réformes et de la manière dont celles-ci ont déjà partiellement été mises en œuvre. Il récapitule aussi la représentation dont la Communauté germanophone bénéficie au sein de l'Union européenne, de l'Autorité fédérale, de la Région wallonne et de la Province de Liège. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe harmonic balance method for bifurcation analysis of large-scale nonlinear mechanical systems
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015), 296

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation ... [more ▼]

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation analysis, i.e., for the detection and tracking of bifurcations of nonlinear systems. To this end, an algorithm that combines the computation of the Floquet exponents with bordering techniques is developed. A new procedure for the tracking of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations that exploits the properties of eigenvalue derivatives is also proposed. The HB method is demonstrated using numerical experiments of a spacecraft structure that possesses a nonlinear vibration isolation device. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates: Project introduction and first results
Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2015), 875

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail3D numerical models using a fluid or a solid formulation of FSW processes with non-cylindrical pin
Bussetta, Philippe; Dialmi, Narges; Chiumenti, Michele et al

in Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences (2015), 2(27),

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is a relatively recent welding process (patented in 1991). FSW is a solid-state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. During the FSW ... [more ▼]

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is a relatively recent welding process (patented in 1991). FSW is a solid-state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. During the FSW process, the behavior of the material is at the interface between solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. In this paper, a 3D numerical model of the FSW process with a non-cylindrical tool based on a solid formulation is compared to another one based on a fluid formulation. Both models use advanced numerical techniques such as the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation, remeshing or the Orthogonal Sub-Grid Scale method (OSS). It is shown that these two formulations essentially deliver the same results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa médecine de demain: science-fiction ou science-réalité ?
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Onco : Revue Multidisciplinaire d'Oncologie (2015), 9(6), 3-4

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)