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See detailGold nanorods with phase-changing polymer corona for remotely near-infrared-triggered drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2014), 9(1), 275-288

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol ... [more ▼]

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) polymer corona (GNR@PCL-b-PEG). The underlying mechanism of the drugloading and triggered-release behaviors involves the entrapment of drug payloads among the PCL crystallites and a heat-induced phase change, respectively. A low premature release of the pre-loaded doxorubicin was observed in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C (<10% of the entire payload after 48 h). However, release could be activated within 30 min by conventional heating at 50 °C, above the Tm of the crystalline PCL domain (43.5 °C), with about 60% release over the subsequent 42 h at 37 °C. The NIR-induced heating of an aqueous suspension of GNR@PCL-b- PEG under NIR irradiation (802 nm) was investigated in terms of the irradiation period, power, and concentrationdependent heating behavior, as well as the NIR-induced shape-transformation of the GNR cores. Remotely NIR-triggered release was also explored upon NIR irradiation for 30 min and about 70% release was achieved in the following 42 h at 37°C, with a mild warming (<4 °C) of the surroundings. The cytotoxicity of GNR@PCL-b-PEG against the mouse fibroblastic-like L929 cell-line was assessed by MTS assay and good compatibility was confirmed with a cell viability of over 90% after incubation for 72 h. The cellular uptake of GNR@PCL-b-PEG by melanoma MEL-5 cells was also confirmed, with an averaged uptake of 1250 ( ± 110) particles cell-1 after incubation for 12 h (50 mg mL-1). This GNR@PCL-b-PEG DDS is aimed at addressing the different requirements for therapeutic treatments and is envisaged to provide new insights into DDS targeting for remotely triggered release by NIR activation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transposition didactique en français langue étrangère et seconde
Bento, Margaret; Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Français dans le Monde. Revue Internationale et Francophone des Professeurs de Français. Recherches et Applications (2014), 55

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See detailDe l’Européanisation à la régionalisation des politiques d’intégration en Wallonie.
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Migrations Société (2014), 26(151), 2-28

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See detailQuantitative analysis using near infrared spectroscopy, application to tablet content uniformity test, II
Ginot, Y.-M.; Bernard-Moulin, P.; Boiret, M. et al

in STP Pharma Pratiques (2014), 24(1), 3-36

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared ... [more ▼]

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared spectroscopy. It seems appropriate to complete this description by detailing the different steps involved through illustrated examples and by proposing useful guidelines for new users. The quantitative analysis example chosen is that of content uniformity (CU) of tablet type solid forms (cf. Ph. Eur. 2.9.6/2.9.40) [2], a test required in the pharmaceutical industry and for which this alternative quantitative analysis could offer substantial gains. It should be noted that the approach described applies to other types of quantitative analysis (mean assay, water content in raw materials, polymorph assay within a tablet, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailDoes comfort therapy during controlled donation after circulatory death shorten the life of potential donors?
LEDOUX, Didier ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg et al

in Clinical transplantation (2014), 28(1), 47-51

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether this policy shortens the DCD donors' life. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data on patients proposed for DCD at the University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, over a 56-month period. The survival duration of these patients, defined as duration between the time of proposal for DCD and the time of circulatory arrest, was compared between patients who actually donated organs and those who did not. RESULTS: About 128 patients were considered for controlled DCD and 54 (43%) became donors. Among the 74 non-donor patients, 34 (46%) objected to organ donation, 38 patients (51%) were denied by the transplant team for various medical reasons, and two potential DCD donors did not undergo procurement due to logistical and organizational reasons. The survival durations were similar in the DCD donor and non-donor groups. No non-donor patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of DCD donors is not shortened when compared with non-donor patients. These data support the ethical and respectful approach to potential DCD donors in the authors' center, including regular comfort therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailA More Than 20% Increase in Deceased-Donor Organ Procurement and Transplantation Activity After the Use of Donation After Circulatory Death.
Le Dinh, H.; MONARD, Josée ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Transplantation proceedings (2014), 46(1), 9-13

BACKGROUND: Organ procurement and transplant activity from controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) was evaluated over an 11-year period to determine whether this program influenced the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Organ procurement and transplant activity from controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) was evaluated over an 11-year period to determine whether this program influenced the transplant and donation after brain death (DBD) activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Deceased donor (DD) procurement and transplant data were prospectively collected in a local database for retrospective review. RESULTS: There was an increasing trend in the potential and actual DCD numbers over time. DCD accounted for 21.9% of the DD pool over 11 years, representing 23.7% and 24.2% of the DD kidney and liver pool, respectively. The DBD retrieval and transplant activity increased during the same time period. Mean conversion rate turning potential into effective DCD donors was 47.3%. Mean DCD donor age was 54.6 years (range, 3-83). Donors >/=60 years old made up 44.1% of the DCD pool. Among referred donors, reasons for nondonation were medical contraindications (33.7%) and family refusals (19%). Mean organ yield per DCD donor was 2.3 organs. Mean total procurement warm ischemia time was 19.5 minutes (range, 6-39). In 2012, 17 DCD and 37 DBD procurements were performed in the Liege region, which has slightly >1 million inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: This DCD program implementation enlarged the DD pool and did not compromise the development of DBD programs. The potential DCD pool might be underused and seems to be a valuable organ donor source. [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualité d'accueil fait débat
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Revue [Petite] Enfance (2014), 113

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche ... [more ▼]

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée dans une démarche de théorisation ancrée, cet article donne de manière synthétique une grille de lecture de différentes manières de considérer la qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants dans un cadre professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailPas de culture de sécurité sans un leadership totalement convaincu, impliqué et moteur dans la démarche
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2014)

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un ... [more ▼]

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un secteur hospitalier. Ces nombres éloquents ne sont pas l’apanage d’un système de santé publique particulier, par ailleurs fortement décrié et propre aux Etats Unis d’Amérique. Les statistiques dans d’autres systèmes de santé sont identiques et l’OMS clame aujourd’hui que, lorsque vous êtes admis dans un hôpital, vous avez 10% de risque d’en sortir moins bien qu’à l’entrée (European Union Network for Patient Safety). Et pourtant, tous les acteurs du terrain se gargarisent avec le slogan «priorité à la sécurité». Malheureusement, il s’agit là souvent simplement d’un slogan qui ne se reflète pas dans nos pratiques journalières. Et c’est là que le secteur de la santé se différencie singulièrement des autres domaines d’activités industrielles dits à haut risque (aviation civile, centrales atomiques, industrie alimentaire), qui ont depuis longue date un «management du risque opérationnel» organisé, structuré et prospectif. Un des principes de base du management du risque est la mesure: dans les écoles managériales on apprend que l’on ne peut manager ce que l’on ne mesure pas. Mesurons-nous les risques en santé publique? Avons-nous des indicateurs fiables, reproductibles, transparents qui nous donnent une idée de la sécurité et de la qualité de nos pratiques? L’incidence des risques systémiques – et je préfère utiliser ce terme plutôt que celui d’«erreur médicale» – est certainement sous-estimée, car il n’y pas en santé publique une culture de sécurité qui prône la déclaration spontanée et transparente de tous les événements, qu’ils soient indésirables (sans effet délétère pour le patient) ou greffés d’effet mineur (incident) ou majeur (accident). [less ▲]

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See detailAutograph/Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in Arabic Script [Conference Review]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter (2014), 7

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See detailLa voix n'est pas infatigable
Tréger, Isabelle; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in L'Orthophoniste (2014), 335

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See detailQu'apportent les nouvelles recommandations américaines à propos de la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ? Comparaison avec les recommandations européennes et belges
Descamps, O; Rietzschel, E; Langlois, M et al

in Louvain Medical (2014), 133(1), 26-35

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches ... [more ▼]

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches habituelles. Entre autres, elles ont éradiqué la nécessité de « cible » de LDL-C à atteindre en fonction du niveau de risque cardiovasculaire et ont proposé plutôt une stratégie basée sur l’intensité de la réduction relative du LDL-C. L’examen critique et la comparaison des recommandations font apparaitre, toutefois, plus de similitudes que de différences, tout en encourageant à repenser certains aspects de notre pratique et à raviver notre motivation pour le plus grand bien des patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDe quoi sont faits les systèmes sémiotiques
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

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See detailWhere are the politics in responsible innovation? European governance, technology assessments, and beyond
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

in Journal of Responsible Innovation (2014), 1(1), 67-86

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence ... [more ▼]

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence, proponents of RI solicit society's opinions in an attempt to render science and technology developments, institutions, and policies more socially responsive. This article asks how the RI concept is taken up and elaborated, based on accounts developed on the EU policy level and on a Flemish, technology assessment level. It finds that, notwithstanding important differences between these two deliberative frameworks, neither one leaves much room for politics, understood as the constitution and contestation of power. Rather, these frameworks largely ignore questions about the politics in and of deliberation, the authoritative allocation of values, and the institutional uptake of deliberative engagements. The article's aim is to provide constructive criticism of the RI paradigm by rendering these political issues explicit and proposing ways of taking them into account. [less ▲]

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See detailHollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone
François, B; Labiouse, V; Dizier, A et al

in Rock Mechanic and Rock Engineering (2014), 47(1), 71-86

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See detailDIRECTED INFORMATION TRANSFER IN SCALP ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RECORDINGS: INSIGHTS ON DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Marinazzo, Daniele; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the differences in spontaneous electroencephalography between patients in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state, emergence of the minimally conscious state and age-matched healthy control subjects. <br />Methods: Forty recording of spontaneous scalp electroencephalography were performed in 27 patients who were comatose on admission, and on healthy controls. Multivariate Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy were applied on the data. <br />Results: Distinctive patterns of putative bottlenecks of information were associated to each conscious state. Healthy controls are characterized by a greater amount of synergetic contributions from duplets of variables. <br />Conclusion: A novel set of measures was tested to get a novel insight on the pattern of information transfer in a network of scalp electrodes in patients with disorders of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian children faeces for their probiotic properties
Bahri, F.; Lejeune, Annick ULg; Dubois-Dauphin, R. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2014), 8(3), 297-303

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli ... [more ▼]

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli strains having probiotic traits, isolated from Algerian healthy children faeces on the purpose of using them further in children diarrheal illnesses. One hundred and twenty (120) lactic acid bacteria isolates were selected from faecal samples of healthy Algerian children aged between five and ten years. Gram positive rods and catalase negative bacteria (52 isolates) were screened, in vitro, for their probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, adherence to Caco-2 cells and their antimicrobial activity. The results show that only five strains resisted in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 and pepsin. Four of them were resistant to simulated intestinal conditions at pH 8 and pancreatin and have a good adherence. In the end, three of them were retained as they display interesting probiotic profiles characterized by a strong antimicrobial effect against some intestinal pathogenic bacteria. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum F12, Lactobacillus brevis G6 and Lactobacillus paracasei B13. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual occurrence of cocoons in population of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Belgium
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; Skuhravá, Marcela et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum ... [more ▼]

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls, drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations europeennes concernant la therapie de resynchronisation cardiaque.
ROBINET, Sébastien ULg; DELCOUR, Alexandre ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69(4), 180-7

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is one of the most successful heart failure therapies to emerge in the last 25 years; it is applicable to > 25-30% of patients with symptomatic heart failure. In ... [more ▼]

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is one of the most successful heart failure therapies to emerge in the last 25 years; it is applicable to > 25-30% of patients with symptomatic heart failure. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2013 on cardiac resynchronization therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive and neuroimaging evidence of impaired interaction between Self and memory in Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 51

In human cognition, self and memory processes strongly interact, as evidenced by the memory advantage for self-referential materials (Self Reference Effect (SRE) and Self Reference Recollection Effect ... [more ▼]

In human cognition, self and memory processes strongly interact, as evidenced by the memory advantage for self-referential materials (Self Reference Effect (SRE) and Self Reference Recollection Effect (SRRE)). The current study examined this interaction at the behavioural level and its neural correlates in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Healthy older controls (HC) and AD patients performed trait-adjectives judgements either for self-relevance or for other-relevance (encoding phase). In a first experiment, the encoding and subsequent yes-no recognition phases were administrated in an MRI scanner. Brain activation as measured by fMRI was examined during self-relevance judgements and anatomical images were used to search for correlation between the memory advantage for self-related items and grey matter density (GMD). In a second experiment, participants described the retrieval experience that had driven their recognition decisions (familiarity vs. recollective experience). The behavioural results revealed that the SRE and SRRE were impaired in AD patients compared to HC participants. Furthermore, verbal reports revealed that the retrieval of self-related information was preferentially associated with the retrieval of contextual details, such as source memory in the HC participants, but less so in the AD patients. Our imaging findings revealed that both groups activated the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) at encoding during self-relevance judgments. However, the variable and limited memory advantage for self-related information was associated with GMD in the lateral prefrontal cortex in the AD patients, a region supporting high-order processes linking self and memory. These findings suggest that even if AD patients engage MPFC during self-referential judgments, the retrieval of self-related memories is qualitatively and quantitatively impaired in relation with altered high-order processes in the lateral PFC. [less ▲]

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See detailLeptogenesis with a dynamical seesaw scale
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Tortola, Maria; Valle, Jose et al

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2014), 2014

In the simplest type-I seesaw leptogenesis scenario right-handed neutrino annihilation processes are absent. However, in the presence of new interactions these processes are possible and can affect the ... [more ▼]

In the simplest type-I seesaw leptogenesis scenario right-handed neutrino annihilation processes are absent. However, in the presence of new interactions these processes are possible and can affect the resulting B-L asymmetry in an important way. A prominent example is provided by models with spontaneous lepton number violation, where the existence of new dynamical degrees of freedom can play a crucial role. In this context, we provide a model-independent discussion of the effects of right-handed neutrino annihilations. We show that in the weak washout regime, as long as the scattering processes remain slow compared with the Hubble expansion rate throughout the relevant temperature range, the efficiency can be largely enhanced, reaching in some cases maximal values. Moreover, the B-L asymmetry yield turns out to be independent upon initial conditions, in contrast to the ''standard'' case. On the other hand, when the annihilation processes are fast, the right-handed neutrino distribution tends to a thermal one down to low temperatures, implying a drastic suppression of the efficiency which in some cases can render the B-L generation mechanism inoperative. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom reporting incidents in a radiation therapy department to enterprise risk management (ERM) based on the European Foundation for Quality Management philosophy (EFQM)
COUCKE, Philippe ULg; BOGA, Deniz ULg; LENAERTS, Eric ULg et al

in International Journal of Healthcare Technology & Management (2014), 7(2), 127-131

The radiation therapy department (RTD) initiated in 2009 a policy of open and transparent reporting of events not harming (near incidents) and potentially harming patients (incidents and accidents). This ... [more ▼]

The radiation therapy department (RTD) initiated in 2009 a policy of open and transparent reporting of events not harming (near incidents) and potentially harming patients (incidents and accidents). This approach was immediately followed by the leader’s decision to engage towards the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model. The EFQM approach structured the journey of the RTD to enterprise risk management. We intend to demonstrate in the five main fields of the EFQM approach (leadership, policy and strategy, people/personnel, partnership and resources, processes), how the journey to continuous improvement in quality and safety did evolve and was accelerated in RTD. The assessment made by external evaluators evolved from a minimum of 90 points (basic requirement for level 1 in 2009) to a at least 180 points (basic requirement for level 2 in 2011), to reach 400 points in 2013 (270 required for level 3 and 450 required for level 4). [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for ReCQL4 mutations in 39 patients genotyped for suspected Rothmund-Thomson/Baller-Gerold syndromes.
Piard, J.; Aral, B.; Vabres, P. et al

in Clinical genetics (2014)

Three overlapping conditions, namely Rothmund-Thomson (RTS), Baller-Gerold (BGS) and RAPADILINO syndromes, have been attributed to RECQL4 mutations. Differential diagnoses depend on the clinical ... [more ▼]

Three overlapping conditions, namely Rothmund-Thomson (RTS), Baller-Gerold (BGS) and RAPADILINO syndromes, have been attributed to RECQL4 mutations. Differential diagnoses depend on the clinical presentation, but the numbers of known genes remain low, leading to the widespread prescription of RECQL4 sequencing. The aim of our study was therefore to determine the best clinical indicators for the presence of RECQL4 mutations in a series of 39 patients referred for RECQL4 molecular analysis and belonging to the RTS (27 cases) and BGS (12 cases) spectrum. One or two deleterious RECQL4 mutations were found in 10/27 patients referred for RTS diagnosis. Clinical and molecular reevaluation led to a different diagnosis in 7/17 negative cases, including Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia, hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma, and craniosynostosis/anal anomalies/porokeratosis. No RECQL4 mutations were found in the BGS group without poikiloderma, confirming that RECQL4 sequencing was not indicated in this phenotype. One chromosomal abnormality and one TWIST mutation was found in this cohort. This study highlights the search for differential diagnoses before the prescription of RECQL4 sequencing in this clinically heterogeneous group. The combination of clinically defined subgroups and next-generation sequencing will hopefully bring to light new molecular bases of syndromes with poikiloderma, as well as BGS without poikiloderma. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: Results from two randomized trials.
Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe et al

in Vaccine (2014)

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. METHODS: In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). RESULTS: One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10mug VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20mug VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4+ T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system. [less ▲]

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See detailMises en scène de soi dans les médias sociaux - autour des "selfies"
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

En accord avec ce qui est désormais un lieu commun, on pourrait définir le selfie comme un « autoportrait photographique visant la promotion de soi - éventuellement narcissique - sur les médias sociaux » ... [more ▼]

En accord avec ce qui est désormais un lieu commun, on pourrait définir le selfie comme un « autoportrait photographique visant la promotion de soi - éventuellement narcissique - sur les médias sociaux ». Définition relativement fragile puisqu'il n'est pas évident en réalité que le selfie puisse se voir attribuer le statut d'autoportrait. On pourra interroger en tout cas la continuité présumée qui rattacherait le selfie à la tradition de l'autoportrait artistique pictural ou photographique. Le phénomène relève de ce qu'on appellera ici la photographie commune, à entendre au sens de « ce qui ne fait pas exception » (en tout cas pas de manière évidente) mais aussi au sens de « ce dont nous partageons tous l'usage », c'est-à-dire : ce à quoi nous avons aujourd'hui accès (sans trop de difficulté et de manière presque naturelle) en termes de pratiques visuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthese bibliographique de l'influence du procédé d'extraction et de purification sur les caractéristiques et les propriétés d'une gomme de caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Simon, mathilde; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After ... [more ▼]

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After harvesting, the seeds pass through a decutilation and a degermination. Cleaned endosperms are then milled to give crude locust bean gum. The purification step consists in a flour solubilization and then a precipitation of the galactomannans. Purification influences the characteristics of the resulting gum. The solubilization temperature is the parameter that affects the most on the final characteristics of the product. If it is hot or cold, galactomannans with different structural characteristics (and thus very different physical properties in aqueous solutions) will be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) heartwood extractives: identification of resveratrol and piceatannol
Sergent, Thérèse; Kohnen, Stéphane; Jourez, Benoît ULg et al

in Wood Science and technology (2014)

Robinia pseudoacacia L. heartwood is characterized by a very high natural durability. However, a significant difference was observed between the mature and juvenile heartwood, the latter presenting less ... [more ▼]

Robinia pseudoacacia L. heartwood is characterized by a very high natural durability. However, a significant difference was observed between the mature and juvenile heartwood, the latter presenting less durability against fungi decay, which could be attributed to lower extractive content. In order to elucidate this idea, extractives from mature and juvenile heartwoods of black locust trees were investigated. Results showed that extractive and phenolic contents were higher in mature than in juvenile heartwoods. The identification of phenolic compounds by UPLC–DAD–MS/MS revealed, for the first time, the presence of resveratrol and piceatannol. These two stilbenes as well as the flavonoid dihydrorobinetin were present at the highest level in mature heartwood, and as they are known antifungals, they could account for the great durability of mature heartwood. The stilbenes were detected in significant amounts particularly in mature heartwood where piceatannol reached a level tenfold higher than that reported for Japanese knotweed roots, the primary natural source of these stilbenes, whereas resveratrol level was comparable with reported values. As resveratrol and piceatannol receive increasing demand for nutraceutical, cosmetic and, possibly, pharmaceutical purposes, due to their beneficial health effects, this study underlines the use of R. pseudoacacia as a promising sustainable and economical source of resveratrol and piceatannol. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2014), 85(2), 193-212

This article examines the relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy (RE). RE sources have been developed since the end of the 1970s and their growth has been expansive since then ... [more ▼]

This article examines the relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy (RE). RE sources have been developed since the end of the 1970s and their growth has been expansive since then. While social-ecological movements have been instrumental in shifting the public attention towards the need for alternative energies (Sine and Lee, 2009), in most countries the sector has rapidly become dominated by corporate actors experienced in building large-scale RE projects. In an attempt to counter the corporate hegemony and to protect available lands, a range of citizen initiatives have emerged under different forms and names such as community energy groups or renewable energy (source) cooperatives (van der Horst, 2008; Willis and Willis, 2012; Lipp et al., 2012; Schreuer and Weismeier-Sammer, 2010; Weismeier-Sammer and Reiner, 2011). Pioneering examples include EWS in Germany, Enercoop in France, Energy4All in the UK, or Ecopower in Belgium. As these citizen groups tend to adopt the cooperative model, or a related form depending on the local legislation and context, it seems important to understand what are the specific features, assets and limitations of this model in the field of RE. Indeed, while ‘traditional’ cooperatives operating for a long time in fields such as banking, agriculture, or retail, have received an important attention in the cooperative literature, much work still needs to be done to understand why and how cooperatives emerge either in fields in which they have not traditionally been widespread (such as health and care, services, etc.), or in ‘new’ fields or sub-fields (such as fair trade, microfinance or renewable energy). Research is even more needed insofar as ‘new’ cooperatives tend to differ from traditional ones in several ways, for instance through the involvement of multiple stakeholders (rather than a dominant one such as producers, consumers or workers) or through a stronger orientation towards general interest goals (beyond traditional mutual interest at the basis of most cooperatives). While RE cooperatives have strongly developed in countries such as Denmark (Lipp et al., 2012), Germany (Schreuer, 2012; Weismeier-Sammer and Reiner, 2011) and to a lesser extent the UK (Aitken, 2010; Kellett, 2007; Seyfang et al., 2012; van der Horst, 2008; Willis and Willis, 2012; Walker et al., 2007), their development has been much slower in other countries, particularly Southern Europe (Lipp et al., 2012). This seems to echo, to a certain extent, the general development of RE in these countries (Haas et al., 2011). Before mapping these differences against the background of RE development in these countries, it is necessary to understand how the assets and limits of the cooperative model apply to the particular case of RE. This is precisely the aim of this article. On the one hand, the assets of the cooperative model enable to understand why this form has been adopted by citizen groups and has developed in certain countries. On the other hand, the limits or weaknesses of the model enable to explain why cooperatives are still a minority in the field of RE and why their development is constrained by obstacles in certain countries. [less ▲]

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See detailSurprising causes of C5-carnitine false positive results in newborn screening.
BOEMER, François ULg; SCHOOS, Roland ULg; de HALLEUX, Virginie ULg et al

in Molecular genetics and metabolism (2014), 111(1), 52-4

During an 18-month period, we noticed an alarming increase of newborn screening false positivity rate in identifying isovaleric acidemia. In 50 of 50 newborns presenting elevated C5-carnitine, we ... [more ▼]

During an 18-month period, we noticed an alarming increase of newborn screening false positivity rate in identifying isovaleric acidemia. In 50 of 50 newborns presenting elevated C5-carnitine, we confirmed the presence of pivaloylcarnitine. Exogenous pivalate administration had been previously identified as the causal agent of this concern. No pivalic-ester prodrug is commercially available in Belgium, but pivalic derivates are also used in the cosmetic industry as emollient under the term "neopentanoate". We have identified neopentanoate-esters in a nipple-fissure unguent that was provided to young mothers. Ceasing distribution of this product hugely reduced the C5-carnitine false positivity rate. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of HTLV-1 Clonality and TCR Diversity.
Laydon, Daniel J.; Melamed, Anat; Sim, Aaron et al

in PLoS computational biology (2014), 10(6), 1003646

Estimation of immunological and microbiological diversity is vital to our understanding of infection and the immune response. For instance, what is the diversity of the T cell repertoire? These questions ... [more ▼]

Estimation of immunological and microbiological diversity is vital to our understanding of infection and the immune response. For instance, what is the diversity of the T cell repertoire? These questions are partially addressed by high-throughput sequencing techniques that enable identification of immunological and microbiological "species" in a sample. Estimators of the number of unseen species are needed to estimate population diversity from sample diversity. Here we test five widely used non-parametric estimators, and develop and validate a novel method, DivE, to estimate species richness and distribution. We used three independent datasets: (i) viral populations from subjects infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1; (ii) T cell antigen receptor clonotype repertoires; and (iii) microbial data from infant faecal samples. When applied to datasets with rarefaction curves that did not plateau, existing estimators systematically increased with sample size. In contrast, DivE consistently and accurately estimated diversity for all datasets. We identify conditions that limit the application of DivE. We also show that DivE can be used to accurately estimate the underlying population frequency distribution. We have developed a novel method that is significantly more accurate than commonly used biodiversity estimators in microbiological and immunological populations. [less ▲]

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See detailExciton dissociation at donor-acceptor heterojunctions: Dynamics using the collective effective mode representation of the spin-boson model
Chenel, Aurélie; Mangaud, Etienne; Burghardt, Irène et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2014), 140

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See detailAn online interactive tool to assess energy consumption in residential buildings and for daily mobility
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; de Meester, Tatiana; De Herde, André et al

in Energy and Buildings (2014), 78C

Improving energy efficiency in the building and transportation sectors is a viable approach to mitigate the effects of climate change and has become an important policy target. As a result, in addition to ... [more ▼]

Improving energy efficiency in the building and transportation sectors is a viable approach to mitigate the effects of climate change and has become an important policy target. As a result, in addition to scientific research and public policies addressing energy efficiency, raising public awareness of the impact of the behaviour of citizens to energy efficiency is crucial and could quickly lead to significant reductions in the total energy consumption of a territory. In this context, this paper presents a new online interactive tool that enables not only citizens but also local authorities and private developers to (1) assess the sources of energy consumption related to housing and to daily mobility at both the individual and neighbourhood scales, (2) compare these sources and (3) determine relevant and personalised suggestions to reduce energy consumption. Numerous methods and tools, including a typological classification of buildings, thermal dynamic simulations, life-cycle assessments and statistical treatments of national censuses, were used to produce the two large databases used in this interactive tool. This report represents the primary results of a three-year long scientific research project dedicated to the study of energy efficiency in buildings and for daily mobility that is accessible to a large non-specialised audience. [less ▲]

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See detailVibronic Valence and Rydberg Transitions in Geminal Chloro-Fluoro-Ethene (1,1-C2H2FCl). A Spectroscopic and Quantum Chemical Investigation.
Locht, Robert ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg; Leyh, Bernard ULg

in Molecular Physics (2014), 112(11), 1520-1539

The vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of 1,1-C2H2FCl has been examined in detail between 5 eV and 15 eV photon energy by using synchrotron radiation dispersed by three different monochromators. Quantum ... [more ▼]

The vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of 1,1-C2H2FCl has been examined in detail between 5 eV and 15 eV photon energy by using synchrotron radiation dispersed by three different monochromators. Quantum chemical calculations are performed to help in the analysis of the valence/Rydberg transitions region centered at 7.05 eV including the 3a”(pi)→pi* and the 3a” (pi*)→3s Rydberg transitions. Interactions between states involving transitions to the 3s, 4d and sigma* orbitals are identified. A vibrational analysis is proposed for the structures belonging to these transitions. For the pi(3a”)→pi* transition, one vibrational progression is observed with ω3=1410±50 cm-1 and its lowest excitation energy is determined at about 6.398±0.003 eV. The pi(3a”)→3s Rydberg transition is characterized by a single progression with ω3= 1410±80 cm-1 likely starting at about 6.45 eV. These vibrations are ascribed to the C=C stretching motion. The abundant structure observed in the spectrum between 7.8 eV and 10.5 eV has been analyzed in terms of vibronic transitions to ns (δ= 0.97), np (δ= 0.63 and 0.40) and nd (δ= 0.13 and -0.11) Rydberg states which belong to series converging to the 1,1-C2H2FCl+( 2A”) ionic ground state. The analysis of the vibrational structure of the individual Rydberg states has been attempted leading to average values of the wavenumbers ω3= 1 420±20 cm-1, ω7= 720±50 cm-1 and ω9= 390±50 cm-1. Between 10.5 eV and 12.5 eV nine other Rydberg states converging to the 1,1-C2H2FCl+ ( 2A') first excited state were analyzed by the same way. The vibrational structure of these Rydberg states results from the excitation of one vibrational normal mode ν7 with an average value of ω7= 520±20 cm-1 which is assigned to the C-Cl stretching vibration as inferred from quantum chemical calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of proline and cysteine residues on fragment yield in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry
Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg et al

in Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2014)

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See detailThe PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
Ning, Gang; Bijron, Jonathan G.; Yamamoto, Yusuke et al

in The Journal of pathology (2014)

The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are gamma-H2AXp - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53 ... [more ▼]

The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are gamma-H2AXp - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2n ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7p /PAX2n /EZH2p and underwent ciliated (PAX2n /EZH2n /FOXJ1p ) and basal (Krt7n /EZH2n /Krt5p ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2p but became PAX2n in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2n SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1n and beta-cateninmem (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2p , ALDH1p , beta-cateninnc (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathminp , LEF1p , RCN1p , and RUNX2p expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2n , ALDH1n , beta-cateninmem , but highly expressed EZH2p , LEF1p , RCN1p , and stathminp . This study, for the first time, links PAX2n with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention. Copyright (c) 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailEcosystem services of mixed species forest stands and monocultures: comparing practitioners' and scientists' perceptions with formal scientific knowledge
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Branquart, Etienne et al

in Forestry (2014)

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage ... [more ▼]

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage. Knowledge of stakeholders' perceptions of such ecosystem services in mixed species stands is required for effective policy development. We showed that practitioners' and scientists' perceptions of ecosystem services in mixed species stands in Belgium differed from formal scientific knowledge derived from a synthesis of published studies. The positive perception of supporting, regulating and cultural services in mixed species stands contrasted with less conclusive results from the literature, where positive, negative and neutral effects were reported. Many respondents also signified a lack of information about regulating services. Furthermore, provisioning services were perceived as equal in mixed species stands and monocultures, in contrast to higher productivity demonstrated in mixed species stands in the literature. The regional (Flanders and Wallonia) ecological and socio-economic context influenced both the perception of ecosystem services and of the importance of management objectives. Our results highlighted the need to address the lack of scientific data, to adapt communication to the ecological and socio-economic context, as well as to improve information flow on regulating services and productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Memory Traces Quality in Directed Forgetting: A Comparison of Young and Older Participants
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Grandjean, Julien; Lorant, Caroline ULg et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54(4), 310-327

The presence of a reduced directed-forgetting (DF) effect in normal aging has been frequently observed with the item method. These results were interpreted as age-related difficulties in inhibiting the ... [more ▼]

The presence of a reduced directed-forgetting (DF) effect in normal aging has been frequently observed with the item method. These results were interpreted as age-related difficulties in inhibiting the processing of irrelevant information. However, since the performance of older adults is usually lower on items to remember, the age effect on DF abilities could also be interpreted as reflecting memory problems. Consequently, the present study aimed at investigating the influence of memory traces quality on the magnitude of the DF effects in normal aging. We predicted that increasing the quality of memory traces (by increasing presentation times at encoding) would be associated with attenuated DF effects in older participants due to the increased difficulty of inhibiting highly activated memory traces. A classical item-method DF paradigm was administered to 48 young and 48 older participants under short and long encoding conditions. Memory performance for information to memorize and to suppress was assessed with recall and recognition procedures, as well as with a Remember/Know/Guess (RKG) paradigm. The results indicated that, when memory traces are equated between groups, DF effects observed with the recall, recognition and RKG procedures are of similar amplitude in both groups (all ps>0.05). This suggests that the decreased DF effect previously observed in older adults might not actually depend on their inhibitory abilities but may rather reflect quantitative and qualitative differences in episodic memory functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to Dr Bolland's eLetter: Strontium and cardiovascular events.
REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ULg

in Annals of the rheumatic diseases (2014), 73(2), 9

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See detailPlace de l’agriculture itinérante familiale dans la foresterie communautaire au Gabon
Meunier, Quentin; Boldrini, Sylvie; Moumbogou, Carl et al

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2014), 319(1), 65-69

L’agriculture itinérante reste un système de production partagé par une grande majorité de groupes ethnolinguistiques, et appelé à se maintenir au Gabon. Elle s’exprime généralement dans un rayon de cinq ... [more ▼]

L’agriculture itinérante reste un système de production partagé par une grande majorité de groupes ethnolinguistiques, et appelé à se maintenir au Gabon. Elle s’exprime généralement dans un rayon de cinq kilomètres autour de l’unité de résidence. Au Gabon, cette zone est précisément celle destinée à accueillir depuis fin 2013 les premières forêts communautaires. Les préceptes de durabilité qui sous-tendent la notion de forêt communautaire impliquent le maintien d’un couvert forestier et pourraient entrer en contradiction avec la pratique de cette agriculture itinérante. Celle-ci prélève en effet, à chaque saison, un volume de bois soustrait au potentiel du massif concerné. Les plans simples de gestion des forêts communautaires prévoient une série agricole pour ne pas mettre en concurrence deux activités sur un même espace. Cela permet également de reconnaître la place socio-économique importante de l’agriculture en milieu rural. L’agroforesterie est une des clés pour articuler l’agriculture familiale et l’exploitation de la forêt communautaire. Conserver sur pied des arbres d’intérêts économique, social ou environnemental épargne d’une part de pénibles travaux d’abattage et, d’autre part, limite quantitativement l’impact de la coupe et du brûlis qui n’est plus systématique. L’introduction d’essences utiles, rares, protégées ou encore de bois d’œuvre permet également d’élever la valeur économique et patrimoniale des parcelles agricoles tout en répondant aux exigences en matière de conservation et de durabilité du plan simple de gestion de la forêt communautaire. Par ce biais, l’agriculture familiale coutumière est pérennisée et sécurisée dans l’enceinte d’une portion de forêt légalement reconnue tandis que les techniques culturales y sont optimisées. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the dependence of respiration and photosynthesis upon light, acetate, carbon dioxide, nitrate and ammonium in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using design of experiments and multiple regression
Gerin, Stéphanie ULg; Mathy, Gregory; Franck, Fabrice ULg

in BMC Systems Biology (2014), 8(96),

Background: In photosynthetic organisms, the influence of light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on the cellular bioenergetics has extensively been studied independently, but little information is ... [more ▼]

Background: In photosynthetic organisms, the influence of light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on the cellular bioenergetics has extensively been studied independently, but little information is available on the cumulative effects of these factors. Here, sequential statistical analyses based on design of experiments (DOE) coupled to standard least squares multiple regression have been undertaken to model the dependence of respiratory and photosynthetic responses (assessed by oxymetric and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements) upon the concomitant modulation of light intensity as well as acetate, CO2, nitrate and ammonium concentrations in the culture medium of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The main goals of these analyses were to explain response variability (i.e. bioenergetic plasticity) and to characterize quantitatively the influence of the major explanatory factor(s). Results: For each response, 2 successive rounds of multiple regression coupled to one-way ANOVA F-tests have been undertaken to select the major explanatory factor(s) (1st-round) and mathematically simulate their influence (2nd-round). These analyses reveal that a maximal number of 3 environmental factors over 5 is sufficient to explain most of the response variability, and interestingly highlight quadratic effects and second-order interactions in some cases. In parallel, the predictive ability of the 2nd-round models has also been investigated by k-fold cross-validation and experimental validation tests on new random combinations of factors. These validation procedures tend to indicate that the 2nd-round models can also be used to predict the responses with an inherent deviation quantified by the analytical error of the models. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of the 2 rounds of modeling provide an overview of the bioenergetic adaptations of C. reinhardtii to changing environmental conditions and point out promising tracks for future in-depth investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the present observations. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of an extended French version of ID MigraineTM as a migraine-screening tool
Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2014)

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See detailEchocardiographic reference ranges for normal cardiac chamber size: results from the NORRE study.
Kou, Seisyou; Caballero, Luis; Dulgheru, Raluca et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(6), 680-690

AIMS: Availability of normative reference values for cardiac chamber quantitation is a prerequisite for accurate clinical application of echocardiography. In this study, we report normal reference ranges ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Availability of normative reference values for cardiac chamber quantitation is a prerequisite for accurate clinical application of echocardiography. In this study, we report normal reference ranges for cardiac chambers size obtained in a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for gender and age. Echocardiographic data were acquired using state-of-the-art cardiac ultrasound equipment following chamber quantitation protocols approved by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. METHODS: A total of 734 (mean age: 45.8 +/- 13.3 years) healthy volunteers (320 men and 414 women) were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination was performed on all subjects following pre-defined protocols. There were no gender differences in age or cholesterol levels. Compared with men, women had significantly smaller body surface areas, and lower blood pressure. Quality of echocardiographic data sets was good to excellent in the majority of patients. Upper and lower reference limits were higher in men than in women. The reference values varied with age. These age-related changes persisted for most parameters after normalization for the body surface area. CONCLUSION: The NORRE study provides useful two-dimensional echocardiographic reference ranges for cardiac chamber quantification. These data highlight the need for body size normalization that should be performed together with age-and gender-specific assessment for the most echocardiographic parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailA new insight in the structure, composition and functioning of central African moist forests
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Picard, Nicolas; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014), (329), 195-205

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this ... [more ▼]

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this paper, we aimed to identify large-scale variations in the structure, composition and functioning of African moist forests that could serve as a baseline for both management and conservation purposes. Commercial forest inventory data were assembled for 49,711 0.5-ha plots, covering an area of more than six million hectares, crossing the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo. Floristic composition was analyzed for a subset of 176 genera reliably identified in the field. Three key functional traits of tropical trees: regeneration guild, leaf phenology, and wood specific gravity, were collected at the species level from various sources, and assigned at the genus level. We first investigated the main variations in forest structure and composition, and identified seven forest types based on these variations. Differences in the percentage of pioneer and deciduous stems, and mean wood specific gravity were tested between forest types. Most of the study area was composed of a mosaic of the structural variations of the forests characterized by the occurrence of Celtis (Ulmaceae) species, which are mostly composed of frequent and abundant genera that formed the common floristic pool of the region. Secondary Musanga (Moraceae) forest is located in repeatedly disturbed areas, along roads and around main cities; mixed Manilkara (Sapotaceae) forest covers a huge area in the southern Central African Republic and in the northern Republic of Congo; and monodominant Gilbertiodendron (Fabaceae) forest is sparsely distributed along rivers. The contrasted structure, composition, and functioning of the forest types imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for adapted management and conservation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailCan faecal markers detect a short term reduction in forage intake by cattle?
Benvenutti, Marcelo A.; Coates, David B.; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2014), 194

Detection of a reduction in forage intake is particularly relevant in grazing animals due to its negative effect on animal performance. Estimations of intake reduction using faecal markers can be ... [more ▼]

Detection of a reduction in forage intake is particularly relevant in grazing animals due to its negative effect on animal performance. Estimations of intake reduction using faecal markers can be inaccurate due to the time delay between a change in forage intake and the subsequent change in faecal output. This delay may vary depending on forage quality and marker type. A pen study was conducted for 29 days to test the efficacy of liquid (PEG = polyethylene glycol) and solid (alkanes and CrCl3 = chromium chloride) phase faecal markers to detect a reduction in intake by steers of diets that varied in forage quality. Ten Brahman cross steers (296 ± 16 kg) were allocated equally to diets of leafy, high quality buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay and stemmy, low quality buffel grass hay. Hay was offered ad libitum from day 1 to 7, at 90% of voluntary intake from day 8 to 14 and then reduced by 8% each day from day 15 to 24. On day 5 each steer was dosed with two slow release alkane capsules; also, steers received a single daily dose of PEG and CrCl3 at 09:00 on days 5 to 24. Actual and marker derived estimates of forage intake over days 10 to 22 were assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Overall marker recovery rates were satisfactory (0.92 to 1.03) and there was a significant (P < 0.001) progressive decrease in daily recovery rate over time for all markers and diets. Actual and marker-determined forage intake declined over the course of the experiment for both leafy and stemmy hay diets (P < 0.001) for all three markers. There was a lag of 3 to 5 days to detect a significant reduction in estimated intake by steers using markers. The lag period was similar for both liquid and solid phase markers. Results of this experiment indicated that decreases in forage intake by cattle could be detected using indigestible faecal markers, albeit in association with (i) progressively larger reductions in actual forage intake, and (ii) a time lag of 3 to 5 days between the decrease in actual intake and its statistical detection using faecal markers. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuity amid change in India’s political economy: from “socialist” to “neoliberal” India.
Maiorano, Diego ULg

in Economic and Political Weekly (2014)

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More specifically, this paper will argue that the economic policies promoted by the central government between 1980 and 2004 – irrespective of the political party heading the Cabinet – mostly benefited the middle class and the corporate sector, while the poor and the rural world were clearly relegated to a secondary position in the governments’ policy priorities. The paper will highlight six important lines of continuity in India’s economic policy and will argue that if we look at who the “winner” and the “losers” of these policy processes are, the economic reforms of the early 1990s do not separate two different phases of India’s development path. From this point of view the election of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in 2004 might constitute a more important break with the past. [less ▲]

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See detailValorisation des résidus de bois issus de l'exploitation artisanale des forêts communautaires au Cameroun : cas de la forêt communautaire de Mambioko (Gic CRCV)
Malnoury, Gauthier; Zoyiem Ngouanet, Edmond; Julve Larrubia, Cecilia et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(2), 90-94

L’exploitation artisanale du bois des forêts communautaires au Cameroun génère une quantité importante de résidus abandonnés au niveau des sites d’exploitation. Ces pièces de bois pourraient être ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation artisanale du bois des forêts communautaires au Cameroun génère une quantité importante de résidus abandonnés au niveau des sites d’exploitation. Ces pièces de bois pourraient être valorisées en produits commercialisables de manière à améliorer les revenus de la communauté. Cette étude a permis une première estimation de ce volume et présente différentes pistes de valorisation adaptées à la communauté de Mambioko. Cette étude de cas s’adresse à tous les acteurs de la foresterie communautaire au Cameroun et vise une valorisation rationnelle de la matière ligneuse dans un but de développement rural. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear electro-optic effect in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films
Sando, D.; Hermet, Patrick ULg; Allibe, J. et al

in Physical Review B (2014), 89

Multiferroics are materials with coexisting magnetic and ferroelectric orders, which show potential for electrically controlled spintronic devices. A common application of ferroelectrics is in electro ... [more ▼]

Multiferroics are materials with coexisting magnetic and ferroelectric orders, which show potential for electrically controlled spintronic devices. A common application of ferroelectrics is in electro-optical modulators exploiting their electric-field-dependent optical indices. The coupling of optical and magnetic degrees of freedom is attractive for designing multifunctional devices, but to date the electro-optical response of multiferroics has hardly been explored. Here we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of this effect in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films. We confirm the large birefringence present in single crystals and determine the electro-optic coefficients r13 and r33. We present approaches to increase the obtained coefficients, for instance, by using tetragonal-like BiFeO3, and expand the potential of multiferroics to optical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive designs and strategies for low-cost housing using simulation-based optimization and different thermal comfort criteria
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2014), 7(1), 68-81

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design ... [more ▼]

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design and operation of a low-cost dwelling were numerically optimized using a simulation-based approach. Three multi-objective cost functions including construction cost, thermal comfort performance and 50-year operating cost were applied for naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings. Thermal environment inside the house was controlled and assessed by two thermal comfort models. Optimization problems which consist of 18 design parameters and 6 ventilation strategies were examined by two population-based probabilistic optimization algorithms (particle swarm optimization and hybrid algorithm). Optimum designs corresponding to each objective function, differences in optimal solutions, energy saving by the adaptive comfort approach and optimization effectiveness were outlined. The optimization method used in this paper shows a considerable potential of comfort improvement, energy saving and operating cost reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effect of COMT genotype on the brain regions underlying proactive control process during inhibition
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 50

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions. Methods. In an event-related fMRI study, a modified version of the Stroop task was administered to three groups of 15 young adults according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM) and Met/Met (MM)]. Based on the theory of dual mechanisms of control (Braver, et al., 2007), the Stroop task has been built to induce proactive or reactive control processes according to the task context. Results. Behavioral results did not show any significant group differences for reaction times but Val allele carriers individuals are less accurate in the processing of incongruent items. fMRI results revealed that proactive control is specifically associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in carriers of the Met allele, while increased activity is observed in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in carriers of the Val allele. Conclusion. These observations, in keeping with a higher cortical dopamine level in MM individuals, support the hypothesis of a COMT Val158Met genotype modulation of the brain regions underlying proactive control, especially in frontal areas as suggested by Braver et al. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction, smell, and neurodevelopmental disorders: genetic defects in different hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes.
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Rubio Almanza, Matilde; Tome Fernandez-Ladreda, Mariana et al

in Frontiers in endocrinology (2014), 5

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the ... [more ▼]

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the reproductive axis across life. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by partial or complete pubertal failure. HH may result from inadequate hypothalamic GnRH axis activation, or a failure of pituitary gonadotropin secretion/effects. In man, several genes that participate in olfactory and GnRH neuronal migration are thought to interact during the embryonic life. A growing number of mutations in different genes are responsible for congenital HH. Based on the presence or absence of olfaction dysfunction, HH is divided in two syndromes: HH with olfactory alterations [Kallmann syndrome (KS)] and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with normal smell (normosmic IHH). KS is a heterogeneous disorder affecting 1 in 5000 males, with a three to fivefold of males over females. KS is associated with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, FGF17, IL17RD, PROK2/PROKR2, NELF, CHD7, HS6ST1, FLRT3, SPRY4, DUSP6, SEMA3A, NELF, and WDR11 genes that are related to defects in neuronal migration. These reproductive and olfactory deficits include a variable non-reproductive phenotype, including sensorineural deafness, coloboma, bimanual synkinesis, craniofacial abnormalities, and/or renal agenesis. Interestingly, defects in PROKR2, FGFR1, FGF8, CHD7, DUSP6, and WDR11 genes are also associated with normosmic IHH, whereas mutations in KISS1/KISSR, TAC3/TACR3, GNRH1/GNRHR, LEP/LEPR, HESX1, FSHB, and LHB are only present in patients with normosmic IHH. In this paper, we summarize the reproductive, neurodevelopmental, and genetic aspects of HH in human pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailCouvin/Couvin : Trou de l'Abîme
Miller, Rebecca ULg; Cattelain, Pierre; Otte, Marcel ULg et al

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2014), 21

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See detailSynthesis of protected α-alkyl lanthionine derivatives
Denoël, Thibaut; Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in Tetrahedron (2014), 70(30), 4526-4533

Abstract Protected α-alkyl lanthionine derivatives were synthesized in five steps starting from a known phenyloxazoline precursor. This approach involved the synthesis of a family of substituted cyclic ... [more ▼]

Abstract Protected α-alkyl lanthionine derivatives were synthesized in five steps starting from a known phenyloxazoline precursor. This approach involved the synthesis of a family of substituted cyclic sulfamidates and their regioselective opening by nucleophilic attack with a protected cysteine. This efficient multistep strategy affords various α-alkylated lanthionine derivatives in high yields. [less ▲]

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See detailFinal Overall Survival: Fulvestrant 500 mg vs 250 mg in the Randomized CONFIRM Trial.
Leo, Angelo Di; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Petruzelka, Lubos et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2014), 106(1), 337

BACKGROUND: At the time of the initial analysis of overall survival (OS) for the Comparison of Faslodex in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer (CONFIRM) randomized, double-blind, phase III trial ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: At the time of the initial analysis of overall survival (OS) for the Comparison of Faslodex in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer (CONFIRM) randomized, double-blind, phase III trial, approximately 50% of patients had died. A final analysis of OS was subsequently planned for when 75% of patients had died. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to fulvestrant 500 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections on days 0, 14, and 28 and every 28 (+/-3) days thereafter or fulvestrant 250 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections (one fulvestrant and one placebo [identical in appearance to study drug]) on days 0, 14 (two placebo injections only), and 28 and every 28 (+/-3) days thereafter. OS was analyzed using an unadjusted log-rank test. No adjustments were made for multiplicity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and best response to subsequent therapy were also reported. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: In total, 736 women (median age = 61.0 years) were randomly assigned to fulvestrant 500mg (n = 362) or 250mg (n = 374). At the final survival analysis, 554 of 736 (75.3%) patients had died. Median OS was 26.4 months for fulvestrant 500mg and 22.3 months for 250mg (hazard ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.96; nominal P = .02). There were no clinically important differences in SAE profiles between the treatment groups; no clustering of SAEs could be detected in either treatment group. Type of first subsequent therapy and objective responses to first subsequent therapy were well balanced between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with locally advanced or metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, fulvestrant 500mg is associated with a 19% reduction in risk of death and a 4.1-month difference in median OS compared with fulvestrant 250mg. Fulvestrant 500mg was well tolerated, and no new safety concerns were identified. [less ▲]

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See detailLa radicalité politique au bout du travail. Du suicide des ouvriers aux suicides en séries des employés
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2014), 84

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See detailMagnetocaloric effect of monovalent K doped manganites Pr0.6Sr0.4−xKxMnO3 (x=0 to 0.2)
Thaljaoui, R.; Boujelben, W.; Pękała, M. et al

in Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (2014), 352(0), 6-12

Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties are reported for polycrystalline monovalent potassium doped manganites Pr0.6Sr0.4−xKxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) crystallized in orthorhombic structure with ... [more ▼]

Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties are reported for polycrystalline monovalent potassium doped manganites Pr0.6Sr0.4−xKxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) crystallized in orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. The increasing K content shifts the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature from 310 K for x=0 to 269 K for x=0.2. The magnetic entropy change under magnetic field variation of 2 T is found to be 1.95, 3.09, 2.89, 3.05 and 3.2 J/kgK for x varying from 0 to 0.2, respectively. The highest relative cooling power of 102 J/kg is observed for the undoped sample. The sensitivity of magnetic entropy change to magnetic field is estimated by a local N(T) exponent exhibiting the characteristic temperature variation. Phenomenological universal curves of entropy change and Arrott plots confirm the second order phase transition. [less ▲]

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See detailGlnR-mediated regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the actinomycete Saccharopolysporaerythraea
Li-Li, Yao; Cheng-Heng, Liao; Gang, Huang et al

in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2014)

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See detailImmunosuppresseurs dans la prévention de la réaction du greffon contre l'hôte : rapport de la SFGM-TC
Belaiche, S.; Yafour, N.; Balcaen, S. et al

in Pathologie Biologie (2014), 62

In the attempt to harmonize dinical practîces between different French transplantation centers, the Frenell Society of Bane Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the fourth annual ... [more ▼]

In the attempt to harmonize dinical practîces between different French transplantation centers, the Frenell Society of Bane Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the fourth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and taak place in September 2013 in Lille. Here we report our recommendatÎons regarding the use of immunosuppressive treatment in the prevention of graft versus hast disease: repOlt by the SFGM-TC. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Three-vessel Coronary Artery Disease.
Durieux, R.; VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Labropoulos, N. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing coronary angiography and to determine the risk factors and a coronary profile associated with AAA. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, abdominal aortic ultrasound was performed on 1,000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected or known CAD, or prior to valve surgery. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. RESULTS: The overall number of previously repaired, already diagnosed, and new cases of AAA in the study population was 42, yielding a prevalence of 4.2%. Among the patients with newly detected AAAs, only two had an AAA diameter of >54 mm and were therefore treated surgically. In men aged >/=65 years, the prevalence reached 8.6%, while in men with three-vessel CAD it was 14.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that age >/=65 years (p = .003), male gender (p = .003), family history of AAA (p = .01), current smoking (p = .002), and three-vessel CAD (p < .001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AAA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AAA was high in men aged >/=65 years and in those with three-vessel CAD regardless of age. While our findings do not prove the cost-effectiveness of screening for AAA in these high risk patients, they do support the usefulness of a quick ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta during routine transthoracic echocardiography in such patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDeltaNp63 isoform-mediated beta-defensin family up-regulation is associated with (lymph)angiogenesis and poor prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma.
Suarez-Carmona, Meggy ULg; Hubert, Pascale ULg; Gonzalez, Arnaud ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2014), sous presse

Beside a role in normal development/differentiation, high p63 immunoreactivity is also frequently observed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Due to the complexity of the gene, the role of each p63 isotype ... [more ▼]

Beside a role in normal development/differentiation, high p63 immunoreactivity is also frequently observed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Due to the complexity of the gene, the role of each p63 isotype in tumorigenesis is still confusing. Constitutively produced or induced in inflammatory conditions, human beta-defensins (HbetaDs) are cationic peptides involved in host defenses against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Here, we investigated both the role of p63 proteins in the regulation of HbetaDs and the implication of these antimicrobial peptides in tumor (lymph)angiogenesis. Thus, in contrast to TAp63 isotypes, we observed that DeltaNp63 proteins (alpha, beta, gamma) induce HbetaD1, 2 and 4 expression. Similar results were observed in cancer tissues and cell lines. We next demonstrated that DeltaNp63-overexpressing SCC are associated with both a poor prognosis and a high tumor vascularisation and lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, we showed that HbetaDs exert a chemotactic activity for (lymphatic) endothelial cells in a CCR6-dependent manner. The ability of HbetaDs to enhance (lymph)angiogenesis in vivo was also evaluated. We observed that HbetaDs increase the vessel number and induce a significant increase in relative vascular area compared to negative control. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that DeltaNp63-regulated HbetaD could promote tumor (lymph)angiogenesis in SCC microenvironment. [less ▲]

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See detailCombating the dual burden: therapeutic targeting of common pathways in obesity and type 2 diabetes
SCHEEN, André ULg; Van Gaal, Luc

in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2014)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent ... [more ▼]

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent inflammation, abnormal hormone secretion, and various metabolic disturbances that contribute to insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects, resulting in type 2 diabetes, and induce a toxic pattern that leads to cardiovascular disease, liver pathologies, and cancer. Despite the importance of weight control strategies in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, long-term results from lifestyle or drug interventions are generally disappointing. Furthermore, most of the classic glucose-lowering drugs have a side-effect of weight gain, which renders the management of most overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes even more challenging. Many anti-obesity pharmacological drugs targeting central control of appetite were withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor orlistat was the only anti-obesity drug available until the recent US, but not European, launch of phentermine–controlled-release topiramate and lorcaserin. Improved knowledge about bodyweight regulation opens new prospects for the potential use of peptides derived from the gut or the adipose tissue. Combination therapy will probably be necessary to avoid compensatory mechanisms and potentiate initial weight loss while avoiding weight regain. New glucose-lowering treatments, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, offer advantages over traditional antidiabetic drugs by promoting weight loss while improving glucose control. In this Review, we explore the overlapping pathophysiology and also how various treatments can, alone or in combination, combat the dual burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is Africa to me now?
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg; Tunca, Daria ULg

in Transition (2014), 113

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See detailSPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols.
Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland ULg

in European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (2014), 41

PURPOSE: Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. METHODS: The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. RESULTS: With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. [less ▲]

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See detailNew mutations in ADC-type beta-lactamases from Acinetobacter spp. affect cefoxitin and ceftazidime hydrolysis.
Perez, Astrid; Perez-Llarena, Francisco Jose; Garcia, Patricia et al

in The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Two natural variants of ADC-type beta-lactamases of Acinetobacter spp., ADC-1 and ADC-5, differ by nine mutations in their protein sequence. ADC-5 hydrolyses cefoxitin better than ADC-1 and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Two natural variants of ADC-type beta-lactamases of Acinetobacter spp., ADC-1 and ADC-5, differ by nine mutations in their protein sequence. ADC-5 hydrolyses cefoxitin better than ADC-1 and the opposite is true for ceftazidime. We produced single and combined mutations in ADC-5 and characterized the variants microbiologically and biochemically to determine which amino acid residues are involved in the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in this family of beta-lactamases. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis, with blaADC-5 as a source of DNA, was used to generate nine single mutated and three combined mutated enzymes. The proteins (wild-type and derivatives) were then expressed in isogenic conditions in Escherichia coli. MICs of beta-lactams were determined using Etest strips. ADC-1, ADC-5, ADC-5-P167S and ADC-5-P167S/D242G/Q163K/G342R were also purified and the kinetic parameters determined for ceftazidime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and ampicillin. RESULTS: Single mutations did not significantly convert the hydrolysis spectrum of the ADC-5 enzyme into that of the ADC-1 enzyme, although among all studied mutants only the quadruple mutant (ADC-5-P167S/D242G/Q163K/G342R) displayed microbiological and biochemical properties consistent with those of ADC-1. CONCLUSIONS: Although some single mutations are known to affect cefepime hydrolysis in ADC-type beta-lactamases, little is known about ceftazidime and cefoxitin hydrolysis in this family of beta-lactamases. Hydrolysis of these antibiotics appears to be positively and negatively affected, respectively, by the Q163K, P167S, D242G and G342R amino acid replacements. [less ▲]

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See detailConcepts d’efficience et de productivité de l’eau (synthèse bibliographique)
Kambou, Donkora ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Ouattara, Korodjouma et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The ... [more ▼]

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/“water consumed”) and efficiency of water application (Ea, “water consumed”/“applied water”). Indeed, the term “water consumed” is referred to variously by several authors as “actual evapotranspiration”, “gross irrigation plus rainfall”, “evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users”, etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent impact and future directions of high throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics.
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

in Virus Research (2014), 188

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of ... [more ▼]

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of highthroughput sequencing (also called Next Generation Sequencing – NGS) technologies and bioinformatics have drastically changed the research on viral pathogens. It is now raising a growing interest for virus diagnostics. This review provides a snapshot vision on the current use and impact of high throughput sequencing approaches in plant virus characterization. More specifically, this review highlights the potential of these new technologies and their interplay with current protocols in the future of molecular diagnostic of plant viruses. The current limitations that will need to be addressed for a wider adoption of high-throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics are thoroughly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroimaging, cognition, light and circadian rhythms
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Schmidt, Christina et al

in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience [=FNSYS] (2014)

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See detailComprehensive plasma profiling for the characterization of graft-versus-host disease biomarkers
De Bock, Muriel; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Talanta (2014), 125

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy ... [more ▼]

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy-relatedtoxicity,earlyspecific markersareneeded.Themainobjectiveofthisstudywas to uncoverdiagnosticbiomarkersbycomparingplasmaproteinprofiles ofpatientsatthetimeofacute GVHDdiagnosiswiththoseofpatientsundergoingHSCTwithoutaGVHD.Additionalanalysisofsamples taken 15daysbeforeaGVHDdiagnosiswasalsoperformedtoevaluatethepotentialofournewly discoveredbiomarkersforearlydiagnosis.Togetcomplementaryinformationfromplasmasamples, we usedthreedifferentproteomicapproaches,namely2D-DIGE,SELDI-TOF-MSand2D-LC-MSE. Weidentified andconfirmed bythemeansofindependenttechniques,thedifferentialexpression of severalproteinsindicatingsignificantly increasedinflammation responseanddisturbanceinthe coagulation cascade.Thevariationoftheseproteinswasalreadyobserved15daysbeforeGVHD diagnosis, suggestingthepotentialearlydetectionofthediseasebeforesymptomsappearance. Finally,logisticregressionanalysisdeterminedacompositebiomarkerpanelcomprising fibrinogen, fragment of fibrinogenbetachain,SAA,prothrombinfragments,apolipoproteinA1andhepcidinthat optimallydiscriminatedpatientswithandwithoutGVHD.Theareaunderthereceiveroperating characteristiccurvedistinguishingthese2groupswas0.95. [less ▲]

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See detailYBa2Cu3O7-δ thick films for magnetic shielding: Electrophoretic deposition from butanol-based suspension
Closset, Raphaël ULg; Kumar, Devendra; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Materials Letters (2014), 119

Multilayered YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thick films were coated on silver substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by heat treatment. A butanol-based YBCO suspension is used instead of the common ... [more ▼]

Multilayered YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thick films were coated on silver substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by heat treatment. A butanol-based YBCO suspension is used instead of the common acetone-iodine combination. Tests with several dispersing agents reveal that a branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) dispersant develops large positive surface charge on suspended YBCO particles. As a demonstration of the performance of this new suspension formulation, a 12-layer 100 μm-thick YBCO coating was deposited on an Ag tube. The superconducting transition is sharp with onset critical temperature at 92 K. The sample can shield a magnetic field of ~1.3 mT at 77 K, i.e., the best value so far for an YBCO coating on a metallic substrate. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction, smell, and neurodevelopmental disorders: genetic defects in different hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes.
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Rubio Almanza, Matilde; Tome Fernandez-Ladreda, Mariana et al

in Frontiers in endocrinology (2014), 5

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the ... [more ▼]

The neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals is governed by a neural hypothalamic network of nearly 1500 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurons that modulate the activity of the reproductive axis across life. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by partial or complete pubertal failure. HH may result from inadequate hypothalamic GnRH axis activation, or a failure of pituitary gonadotropin secretion/effects. In man, several genes that participate in olfactory and GnRH neuronal migration are thought to interact during the embryonic life. A growing number of mutations in different genes are responsible for congenital HH. Based on the presence or absence of olfaction dysfunction, HH is divided in two syndromes: HH with olfactory alterations [Kallmann syndrome (KS)] and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with normal smell (normosmic IHH). KS is a heterogeneous disorder affecting 1 in 5000 males, with a three to fivefold of males over females. KS is associated with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, FGF17, IL17RD, PROK2/PROKR2, NELF, CHD7, HS6ST1, FLRT3, SPRY4, DUSP6, SEMA3A, NELF, and WDR11 genes that are related to defects in neuronal migration. These reproductive and olfactory deficits include a variable non-reproductive phenotype, including sensorineural deafness, coloboma, bimanual synkinesis, craniofacial abnormalities, and/or renal agenesis. Interestingly, defects in PROKR2, FGFR1, FGF8, CHD7, DUSP6, and WDR11 genes are also associated with normosmic IHH, whereas mutations in KISS1/KISSR, TAC3/TACR3, GNRH1/GNRHR, LEP/LEPR, HESX1, FSHB, and LHB are only present in patients with normosmic IHH. In this paper, we summarize the reproductive, neurodevelopmental, and genetic aspects of HH in human pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailDorsomedial prefrontal metabolism and unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits in Alzheimer’s disease
Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014)

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while ... [more ▼]

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in a group of 37 AD patients and in healthy controls to probe self- and hetero-evaluation of patients’ personality and we calculated differential scores between each participant’s and his/her relative’s judgments. A brain-behavior correlation was performed using FDG-PET images. The behavioral data showed that AD patients presented with anosognosia for current characteristics of their personality and their anosognosia was primarily explained by impaired third perspective taking. The brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between anosognosia for current characteristics of personality and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) activity. Behavioral and neuroimaging data are consistent with the view that impairment of different functions subserved by the dMPFC (self-evaluation, inferences regarding complex enduring dispositions of self and others, confrontation of perspectives in interpersonal scripts) plays a role in anosognosia for current characteristics of personality in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detaille mythe de l'infaillibilité médicale menace sérieusement la sécurité du patient !
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2014), 77

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See detailPostures d’apprenants et images sociotypées du professeur de français langue étrangère dans le contexte de la mobilité Erasmus
Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Langage et l'Homme (Le) : Recherches Pluridisciplinaires sur le Langage (2014), 49.1

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See detailNormal reference ranges for echocardiography: do we really need more?
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(3), 253-4

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See detailNanoparticle Growth in Supported Nickel Catalysts during Methanation Reaction-Larger is Better
Munnik, Peter; Velthoen, Marjolein; de Jongh, Petra et al

in Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2014)

A major cause of supported metal catalyst deactivation is particle growth by Ostwald ripening. Nickel catalysts, used in the methanation reaction, may suffer greatly from this through the formation of [Ni ... [more ▼]

A major cause of supported metal catalyst deactivation is particle growth by Ostwald ripening. Nickel catalysts, used in the methanation reaction, may suffer greatly from this through the formation of [Ni(CO)4]. By analyzing catalysts with various particle sizes and spatial distributions, the interparticle distance was found to have little effect on the stability, because formation and decomposition of nickel carbonyl rather than diffusion was rate limiting. Small particles (3–4 nm) were found to grow very large (20–200 nm), involving local destruction of the support, which was detrimental to the catalyst stability. However, medium sized particles (8 nm) remained confined by the pores of the support displaying enhanced stability, and an activity 3 times higher than initially small particles after 150 h. Physical modeling suggests that the higher [Ni(CO)4] supersaturation in catalysts with smaller particles enabled them to overcome the mechanical resistance of the support. Understanding the interplay of particle size and support properties related to the stability of nanoparticles offers the prospect of novel strategies to develop more stable nanostructured materials, also for applications beyond catalysis. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating somatic cell scores with a Bayesian Gaussian linear state-space model.
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Reding, E. et al

in Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience (2014), 8(3), 477-83

Because accurate characterization of health state is important for managing dairy herds, we propose to validate the use of a linear state-space model (LSSM) for evaluating monthly somatic cell scores ... [more ▼]

Because accurate characterization of health state is important for managing dairy herds, we propose to validate the use of a linear state-space model (LSSM) for evaluating monthly somatic cell scores (SCSs). To do so, we retrieved SCS from a dairy database and collected reports on clinical mastitis collected in 20 farms, during the period from January 2008 to December 2011 in the Walloon region of Belgium. The dependent variable was the SCS, and the independent variables were the number of days from calving, year of calving and parity. The LSSM also incorporated an error-free underlying variable that described the trend across time as a function of previous clinical and subclinical status. We computed the mean sum of squared differences between observed SCS and median values of the posterior SCS distribution and constructed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for SCS thresholds going from 0 to 6. Our results show SCS estimates are close to observed SCS and area under the ROC curve is higher than 90%. We discuss the meaning of the parameters in light of our current knowledge of the disease and propose methods to incorporate, in LSSM, this knowledge often expressed in the form of ordinary differential equations. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling
Singer, Bryan F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F. et al

in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2014), 8, 230

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See detailAtomically precise interfaces from non-stoichiometric deposition
Nie, Y. F.; Zhu, Y.; Lee, C.-H. et al

in Nature Communications (2014), 5

Complex oxide heterostructures display some of the most chemically abrupt, atomically precise interfaces, which is advantageous when constructing new interface phases with emergent properties by ... [more ▼]

Complex oxide heterostructures display some of the most chemically abrupt, atomically precise interfaces, which is advantageous when constructing new interface phases with emergent properties by juxtaposing incompatible ground states. One might assume that atomically precise interfaces result from stoichiometric growth. Here we show that the most precise control is, however, obtained by using deliberate and specific non-stoichiometric growth conditions. For the precise growth of Srnþ1TinOnþ1 Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) phases, stoichiometric deposition leads to the loss of the first RP rock-salt double layer, but growing with a strontium-rich surface layer restores the bulk stoichiometry and ordering of the subsurface RP structure. Our results dramatically expand the materials that can be prepared in epitaxial heterostructures with precise interface control—from just the n¼N end members (perovskites) to the entire RP homologous series—enabling the exploration of novel quantum phenomena at a richer variety of oxide interfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailIchthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy et al

in Naturwissenschaften (Die) (2014)

Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is ... [more ▼]

Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian–earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial ‘type’ series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction [less ▲]

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See detailLe temps de la reflexion... a propos de la demographie medicale et de la demographie "societale".
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69(1), 1-3

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See detailMultiple fMRI system-level baseline connectivity is disrupted in patients with consciousness alterations
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Gomez, Francisco; Crone, Julia-Sophia et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 52

Introduction: In healthy conditions, group-level fMRI resting state analyses identify ten resting state networks (RSNs) of cognitive relevance. Here, we aim to assess the tennetwork model in severely ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In healthy conditions, group-level fMRI resting state analyses identify ten resting state networks (RSNs) of cognitive relevance. Here, we aim to assess the tennetwork model in severely brain-injured patients suffering from disorders of consciousness and to identify those networks which will be most relevant to discriminate between patients and healthy subjects. Methods: 300 fMRI volumes were obtained in 27 healthy controls and 53 patients in minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/ UWS) and coma. Independent component analysis (ICA) reduced data dimensionality. The ten networks were identified by means of a multiple template-matching procedure and were tested on neuronality properties (neuronal vs non-neuronal) in a data-driven way. Univariate analyses detected between-group differences in networks’ neuronal properties and estimated voxel-wise functional connectivity in the networks, which were significantly less identifiable in patients. A nearest-neighbor “clinical” classifier was used to determine the networks with high between-group discriminative accuracy. Results: Healthy controls were characterized by more neuronal components compared to patients in VS/UWS and in coma. Compared to healthy controls, fewer patients in MCS and VS/UWS showed components of neuronal origin for the left executive control network, default mode network (DMN), auditory, and right executive control network. The “clinical” classifier indicated the DMN and auditory network with the highest accuracy (85.3%) in discriminating patients from healthy subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery
HOEFFELIN, Harry; JACQUEMIN, Denise ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery ... [more ▼]

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. Materials and methods. - We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings ("in situ" in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. Results. - We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the “in situ” volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. Conclusion. - The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014), 53(3), 213-25

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin, are the first pharmacological class of antidiabetes agents to target the kidney in order to remove excess glucose from the body and, thus, offer new options for T2DM management. SGLT2 inhibitors exert their effects independently of insulin. Following single and multiple oral doses (0.5-800 mg), empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma concentrations after approximately 1.33-3.0 h, before showing a biphasic decline. The mean terminal half-life ranged from 5.6 to 13.1 h in single rising-dose studies, and from 10.3 to 18.8 h in multiple-dose studies. Following multiple oral doses, increases in exposure were dose-proportional and trough concentrations remained constant after day 6, indicating a steady state had been reached. Oral clearance at steady state was similar to corresponding single-dose values, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. No clinically relevant alterations in pharmacokinetics were observed in mild to severe hepatic impairment, or in mild to severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Clinical studies did not reveal any relevant drug-drug interactions with several other drugs commonly prescribed to patients with T2DM, including warfarin. Urinary glucose excretion (UGE) rates were higher with empagliflozin versus placebo and increased with dose, but no relevant impact on 24-h urine volume was observed. Increased UGE resulted in proportional reductions in fasting plasma glucose and mean daily glucose concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring batch lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and fractions by differential scanning calorimetry
Danthine, Sabine ULg; DeClercq, Nathalie; Dewettinck, Koen et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2014)

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See detailEmotional Facial Expression Recognition and Expressivity in Type I and Type II Alcohol Dependent Patients
Dethier, Marie ULg; El Hawa, Maya; Duchateau et al

in Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (2014), 38(1), 89-105

Objective: Alcohol dependent patients (ADs) are known to encounter severe interpersonal problems. Nonverbal communication skills are important for the development of healthy relationships. The present ... [more ▼]

Objective: Alcohol dependent patients (ADs) are known to encounter severe interpersonal problems. Nonverbal communication skills are important for the development of healthy relationships. The present study aimed to explore emotional facial expression (EFE) recognition and posed and spontaneous EFE expressivity in male ADs divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s typology and the impact of their interpersonal relationship quality on the potential nonverbal deficits. Method: Twenty type I ADs, twenty-one type II ADs, and twenty control participants took part in an EFE recognition task and an EFE expressivity task that considered personal emotional events (spontaneous expressivity) and EFE in response to a photo or word cue (posed expressivity). Coding was based on judges’ ratings of participants’ emotional facial expressions. Participants additionally completed a questionnaire on interpersonal relationship quality. Results: No difference between the three groups emerged in the EFE recognition task. Type II ADs showed heightened deficits compared with type I ADs in EFE expressivity: Judges perceived less accurate posed EFE in response to a cue word and less intense and positive spontaneous EFE in type II ADs compared to control participants. In addition, type II ADs reported more relationship difficulties compared to both type I ADs and control participants. These interpersonal relationship difficulties were related to some of the EFE expressivity deficits of AD-IIs. Conclusions: This study underlines the important differences between the interpersonal functioning of AD subtypes. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Han BALTUSSEN, Michael ATKINSON, Michael SHARE, Ian MUELLER (trad.), Simplicius: On Aristotle Physics 1.5-9
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in International Journal of the Platonic Tradition (2014), 8(1), 115-117

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See detailProduction of dissolved organic matter by phytoplankton and its uptake by heterotrophic prokaryotes in large tropical lakes
Morana, Cédric; Sarmento, Hugo; Descy, Jean-Pierre et al

in Limnology & Oceanography (2014), 59(4), 1364-1375

In pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton extracellular release can extensively subsidize the heterotrophic prokaryotic carbon demand. Time-course experiments were carried out to quantify primary production ... [more ▼]

In pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton extracellular release can extensively subsidize the heterotrophic prokaryotic carbon demand. Time-course experiments were carried out to quantify primary production, phytoplankton excretion, and the microbial uptake of freshly released dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from phytoplankton extracellular release (DOCp) in four large tropical lakes distributed along a productivity gradient: Kivu, Edward, Albert, and Victoria. The contributions of the major heterotrophic bacterial groups to the uptake of DOCp was also analyzed in Lake Kivu, using microautoradiography coupled to catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescent in situ hybridization. The percentage of extracellular release (PER) varied across the productivity gradient, with higher values at low productivity. Furthermore, PER was significantly related to high light and low phosphate concentrations in the mixed layer and was comparatively higher in oligotrophic tropical lakes than in their temperate counterparts. Both observations suggest that environmental factors play a key role in the control of phytoplankton excretion. Standing stocks of DOCp were small and generally contributed less than 1% to the total DOC because it was rapidly assimilated by prokaryotes. In other words, there was a tight coupling between the production and the heterotrophic consumption of DOCp. None of the major phylogenetic bacterial groups that were investigated differed in their ability to take up DOCp, in contrast with earlier results reported for standard labeled single-molecule substrates (leucine, glucose, adenosine triphosphate). It supports the idea that the metabolic ability to use DOCp is widespread among heterotrophic prokaryotes. Overall, these results highlight the importance of carbon transfer between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in large African lakes. [less ▲]

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See detailCHARACTERISTICS OF DUCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN RED RIVER AND MEKONG RIVER DELTAS
Vu Dinh, Ton; Phan Dang, Thang ULg

in Journal of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics (2014), 22(8), 8

In Vietnam, the economic growth in recent years has brought a strong demand for animal products consumption, particularly poultry meat. This research aims to better understand how the factors in the duck ... [more ▼]

In Vietnam, the economic growth in recent years has brought a strong demand for animal products consumption, particularly poultry meat. This research aims to better understand how the factors in the duck sector adapt to current economic conditions in Red River Delta and Mekong Delta by analyzing livestock farming systems with their various constraints. The research had been conducted by interviewing and production record keeping system at the household farms which have duck production at different scales in Hanoi Suburbs in Red River Delta from December 2008 to November 2009 and Long An Province in Mekong Delta from March to August, 2007. Three duck production systems have been identified (1) industrial duck production system with high-yield potential imported races; (2) transhumant duck production system at semi-industrial scale with local or cross-bred ducks. Broiler or layer ducks are freely grazed or transhumant on rice fields for taking the residual paddy; and (3) duck production system at small scale or backyard production. Broiler duck farms have obtained weak productivity with high mortality rate. The net income has varied from 7,358,000 to 10,151,000 Vietnam Dongs per farm per year with broiler ducks and reproductive ducks at semi-industrial and industrial systems. Backyard duck farms are widely practiced in household farms with low investment. The net income of duck production is also weak in households (728,000 Vietnam Dongs per farm per year with broiler ducks and 1,368,000 Vietnam Dongs with layer ducks. Majority surveyed farms raised various species of chickens and ducks. Duck meat production also aims to satisfy a significant share of the demand for self-consumption with ducks in small households. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Coexistence Approach--theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossils for climate quantification
Utescher, T.; Bruch, A. A.; Erdei, B. et al

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2014), 410

The Coexistence Approach was established by Mosbrugger and Utescher (1997) as a plant-based method to re- construct palaeoclimate by considering recent climatic distribution ranges of the nearest living ... [more ▼]

The Coexistence Approach was established by Mosbrugger and Utescher (1997) as a plant-based method to re- construct palaeoclimate by considering recent climatic distribution ranges of the nearest living relatives of each fossil taxon. During its existence for over more than 15 years, its basics have been tested and reviewed in comparison with other terrestrial and marine climate reconstruction techniques and climate modelling data. However, some controversies remain about its underlying data or its applicability in general. In view of these controversies this paper discusses the power and limitations of the Coexistence Approach by summarising past results and new developments. We give insights into the details and problems of each step of the application from the assignment of the fossil plant to the most suitable nearest living relative, the crucial consideration of the usefulness of specific taxa towards their climatic values and the correct interpretation of the software-based suggested palaeoclimatic intervals. Furthermore, we reflect on the fundamental data inte- grated in the Coexistence Approach by explaining different concepts and usages of plant distribution information and the advantages and disadvantages of modern climatic maps. Additionally, we elaborate on the importance of continually updating the information incorporated in the database due to new findings in e.g., (palaeo-)botany, meteorology and computer technology. Finally, for a transparent and appropriate use, we give certain guidelines for future applications and emphasize to users how to carefully consider and discuss their results. We show the Coexistence Approach to be an adaptive method capable of yielding palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental information through time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of anisotropy and viscosity to model the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
Tuninetti Vásquez, Victor ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Materials Science and Engineering: A (2014)

This paper compares the predictions of an isotropic-thermo-elasto-viscoplastic approach and of an anisotropic-thermo-elastoplastic one with experimental results representative of the mechanical behavior ... [more ▼]

This paper compares the predictions of an isotropic-thermo-elasto-viscoplastic approach and of an anisotropic-thermo-elastoplastic one with experimental results representative of the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V at moderate temperatures and low strain rates. The first model is the well known Norton-Hoff viscoplastic constitutive law with isotropic von Mises yield locus identified by using monotonic tension tests performed at strain rates from 10-3 s-1 to 10-1 s-1 and at temperatures up to 400°C. The second model is a thermo-elasto-plastic one defined by the orthotropic yield criterion CPB06. It takes into account the anisotropy and the strength differential (SD) effect in tension-compression of Ti-6Al-4V at RT, 150°C and 400°C. The identification of the SD effect is done by using tension and compression tests and the anisotropy behavior is identified by using shear, plane strain, tension and compression tests performed in three orthogonal material directions. The accuracy of the load and displacements predictions of the two macroscopic constitutive models are compared to experimental results obtained from tests performed on specimens with multiaxial loadings and large strain at several temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of disturbance-tolerant cercopithecine monkeys as seed dispersers in degraded habitats
Albert, Aurélie; McConkey, Kim; Savini, Tommaso ULg et al

in Biological Conservation (2014), 170

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See detailThe influence of particle size distribution on sunflower tahini rheology and structure
Mureşan, Vlad; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Racolţa, Emil et al

in Journal of Food Process Engineering (2014)

Different particle size sunflower tahini prototypes were obtained by controlling the milling process of roasted sunflower kernels. Not only the physicochemical properties of these samples but also of an ... [more ▼]

Different particle size sunflower tahini prototypes were obtained by controlling the milling process of roasted sunflower kernels. Not only the physicochemical properties of these samples but also of an industrial reference were compared and discussed in order to understand tahini behavior and structure. Granulometry was determined by a laser-scattering analyzer and revealed for all studied samples, trimodal particle size distributions. Histogram modes, as well as cumulative volume percentages (CVPs) of smal l- and middle-class populations, increased with the number of passes through colloidal mill, while for large particle size population, both the modes and CVPs decreased. Pseudoplastic behavior was observed for all sunflower tahini prototypes and reference, irrespective of studied temperature and particle size. However, the value of consistency coefficient ranged from 3,049 to 6.6 Pa·s n being strong dependent on particle size and temperature while flow behavior indexes between 0.53 and 0.87. Time-dependent rheological analysis revealed higher thixotropic degree of coarser sunflower tahini samples. Studied samples had rheological properties characteristic for a viscoelastic mate- rial, the response in the dynamic frequency sweep being typical for weak gels. The finest sunflower tahini prototype showed the lowest Krieger–Dougherty estimated volume fraction (0.48), while the coarsest sample the highest (0.69), sunflower tahini reference being placed in a median position with a volume fraction of 0.56. By combining all those data, a schematic structure of sunflower tahini was pro- posed for the first time [less ▲]

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