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See detailTuning the Properties of Pd Nanoclusters by Ligand Coatings: Electronic Structure Computations on Phosphine, Thiol, and Mixed PhosphineThiol Ligand Shells
Fresch, Barbara ULg; Remacle, Françoise ULg

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2014)

Tuning the properties of Palladium nanoparticles using different protecting ligand shells is an important step toward the application-orientated design of nanoparticles for nano-electronics and catalysis ... [more ▼]

Tuning the properties of Palladium nanoparticles using different protecting ligand shells is an important step toward the application-orientated design of nanoparticles for nano-electronics and catalysis. We present a density functional theoretical characterization of Pd13 and Pd55 metal cores protected by only-thiol, only-phosphine and mixed phosphine-thiol ligand shells. We analyze the ligand contributions to the frontier orbitals and the charge redistribution between the ligand shell and the metal core and show that these properties control the values of the charging energy and the catalytic activity. The charge transfer character of the metal-ligand interaction is influenced by the presence of other ligands in the capping system indicating a cooperative effect in the ligand induced charge redistribution. Because of the interplay between the stabilization of the frontier orbital due to the contribution of the sulfur and the charge donation by the phosphine, the charging energy of the mixed phosphine-thiol protected cluster is larger than that of the only-phosphine and the only-thiol systems. The complementary point of view is adopted for rationalizing the catalytic properties of the clusters by analyzing the effect of the interaction with the metallic core on the properties of the ligand. The impact of solvation on the electronic structure of the ligand capped Pd13 cluster is investigated by including explicitly a layer of water molecules in the model system. [less ▲]

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See detailBrains creating stories of selves: the neural basis of autobiographical reasoning.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Cassol, Helena; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014), 9

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the ... [more ▼]

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During fMRI scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant memories in two different ways: on some trials, they remembered the concrete content of the events (autobiographical remembering), whereas on other trials they reflected on the broader meaning and implications of their memories (autobiographical reasoning). Relative to remembering, autobiographical reasoning recruited a left-lateralized network involved in conceptual processing (including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and angular gyrus). The ventral MPFC-an area that may function to generate personal/affective meaning-was not consistently engaged during autobiographical reasoning across participants but, interestingly, the activity of this region was modulated by individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in self-reflection. These findings support the notion that autobiographical reasoning and the construction of personal narratives go beyond mere remembering in that they require deriving meaning and value from past experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of land use on pollution status and risk of fish endocrine disruption in small farmland ponds
Mandiki; Gillardin; Martens et al

in Hydrobiologia (2014), 723

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See detailCharacterization and modeling of a scroll expander with air and ammonia as working fluid
Mendoza, Luis Carlos; Navarro-Esbrí; Bruno, Joan Carles et al

in Applied Thermal Engineering (2014), 70

This paper presents the experimental characterization and modeling of a scroll expander. The expander used here is a scroll compressor modified to work as an expander. It is characterized in two ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the experimental characterization and modeling of a scroll expander. The expander used here is a scroll compressor modified to work as an expander. It is characterized in two experimental setups using air and ammonia as working fluids. The paper studies how the main operating variables (supply pressure and temperature, pressure ratio, rotational speed and lubrication) influence the performance of the scroll expander. A semi-empirical model is proposed to determine the scroll expander performance. This model uses some semi-empirical parameters (such as built-in volume ratio, leakage area and mechanical losses), obtained through experimentation, to calculate the mechanical power, supply mass flow rate and exhaust temperature. Using this semi-empirical model, the deviations in the calculated mechanical power, exhaust temperature and supply mass flow rate are ±9%, ±4 K and ±5% Hz. [less ▲]

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See detailRecension: "Invloed van het Europese recht op het Belgisch privaatrecht"
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Droit de la Consommation = Consumentenrecht [= DCCR] (2014), (102), 139-142

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See detailEvidence-based practice: fondements et réflexions sur l’apport en clinique.
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

in Langage et Pratiques (2014), 53

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant ... [more ▼]

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant la nature des preuves liées aux trois piliers de l’EBP (preuves externes, preuves internes ou préférences du patient). La démarche de l’EBP est brièvement discutée ainsi que les freins et les bénéfices attendus en clinique. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociative learning of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to methyldisulfanylmethane
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2014)

Traditional methods of volatile detection used by police typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. The ... [more ▼]

Traditional methods of volatile detection used by police typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. The possibility of using parasitic wasps for detecting explosives and narcotics has been developed. Moreover, wasps are cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. We examined the ability of Nasonia vitripennis Walker to learn and respond to methydisulfanylmethane (DMDS), a volatile discriminator of cadaver. The training aimed to form an association between an unconditioned stimulus (pupae) and the conditioned stimulus (odor source). After the training, the time spent of conditioned wasps in the DMDS chamber was measured. Statistical analysis showed that the increasing concentrations involved an increase in the time spent in the chamber containing DMDS. This study indicates that N. vitripennis can respond to DMDS, which provide further support for its development as a biological sensor. [less ▲]

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See detailAttaques massives de simulies et mort brutale
Caron, Yannick ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2014)

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See detailUn complexe d’espèces d’Afzelia des forêts africaines d’intérêt économique et écologique (synthèse bibliographique)
Donkpegan, Segbedji ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2),

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The distribution of Afzelia species in Africa suggests that the tree has made various adaptations due to ecological factors. However, on the basis of only vegetative criteria, it is difficult to distinguish species in forest inventory, and this could compromise the sustainable management approach promoted by the populations of Central African countries. We show that the genus remains generally understudied, although some of its species are considered by the IUCN as being under threat. Therefore, the ecological and genetic aspects of our investigations should prove relevant to the future cultivation of Afzelia. [less ▲]

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See detailL’éjaculation précoce : une revue de questions
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; ANDRIANNE, Robert ULg; Lequeux, Armand et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2014), 19(2), 35-60

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a disorder characterized by three components: (1) a rapid ejaculation, (2), a feeling of lack of control upon ejaculation, (3) and a distress related to this condition. The ... [more ▼]

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a disorder characterized by three components: (1) a rapid ejaculation, (2), a feeling of lack of control upon ejaculation, (3) and a distress related to this condition. The criterion of rapidity appears to be most controversial: some authors refer only to subjects’ judgment, while other ones set a maximum ejaculatory latency. Although it focused some criticisms related to a lack of objective latency criteria, the definition of PE propounded by the DSM-IV(-TR) remains most currently used. PE affects about 15 to 30% of the male population. However, the estimations can vary widely depending on populations and methodologies. Several factors contribute to the occurrence of the disorder: one may very probably charge bio-constitutional risks, learning factors, cultural and cognitive influences and the role of anxiety. No robust data allow to implicate personality factors other than anxiety. The influence of the age remains a controversial topic. Cognitive-behavioral techniques appear to be quite efficient in the treatment of PE. However the success rates are variable, and the precise nature of the therapeutic active process remains unclear. Serotonergic drugs and local anesthetics are also efficient, but their action remains strictly symptomatic. The usefulness of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors is disputed. Combining psychological and pharmacological approaches might be promising. Unfortunately, there is a lack of clinical trials in this field. Although effective treatments do exist, only a few affected people appear to use them satisfactorily. Efforts have still to be made in order to train adequately heath practitioners and to make the treatments more accessible to the public. [less ▲]

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See detailPortrait photographique d’écrivain et newsmagazine. Pour une approche rhétorique de l’événementialité du littéraire
Provenzano, François ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2014), 14

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See detailChanges in elastin density in different locations of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse.
DE LANDSHEERE, Laurent ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in International Urogynecology Journal & Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (2014)

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to analyze the histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: In 15 women undergoing ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to analyze the histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: In 15 women undergoing surgery for POP, full-thickness biopsies were collected at two different sites of location from the anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall. Properties of the precervical area (POP-Q point C/D) were compared with the most distal portion of the vaginal wall (POP-Q point Ba/Bp) using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. The densities of total collagen fibers, elastic fibers, smooth muscle cells, and blood vessels were determined by combining high-resolution virtual imaging and computer-assisted digital image analysis. RESULTS: The mean elastin density was significantly decreased in the lamina propria and muscularis layer of the vaginal wall from the most distal portion of the prolapsed vaginal wall compared with the precervical area. This difference was statistically significant in the lamina propria for both anterior (8.4 +/- 1.2 and 12.1 +/- 2.0, p = 0.048) and posterior (6.8 +/- 0.5 and 10.1 +/- 1.4, p = 0.040) locations, and in the muscularis for the anterior (5.2 +/- 0.4 and 8.4 +/- 1.2, p = 0.009) vaginal wall. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean densities of collagen fibers, smooth muscle cells or blood vessels between the two locations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed changes in elastin density in two different locations of the vaginal wall from women with POP. The histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall can be variable from one place to another in the same patient. This result supports the existence of most vulnerable locations within the vaginal wall and the potential benefit of site-specific prolapse surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a formic/acetic acid delignification treatment on beech wood and its influence on the structural characteristics of the extracted lignins
Simon, Mathilde; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2014), 89(1), 128-136

Background In order to replace petrochemicals by bio-based lignin products in a lot of high value-added applications, a formic/acetic acid treatment was adapted to beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) for ... [more ▼]

Background In order to replace petrochemicals by bio-based lignin products in a lot of high value-added applications, a formic/acetic acid treatment was adapted to beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) for lignin extraction. Results Beech wood particles were delignified at atmospheric pressure by a formic acid/acetic acid/water mixture. Cooking time and temperature were optimized for delignification, pulp yield and 2-furfural concentration. Response surface design analysis revealed that delignification yield increased with cooking time and temperature. Conclusion The multi-criteria optimization of delignification was used to find the ideal cooking conditions (5h07 min, 104.2°C) which could be satisfactory for the maximization of delignification (70.5%) and pulp yield (58.7%) and, to a lesser extent, for the minimization of 2-furfural production. Treatment conditions were found to influence the chemical structure of extracted lignins. Cooking time and temperature influenced inversely lignin molecular weights. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization in rat serotonergic neurons
Alix, Philippe ULg; Venkatesan, Kumar; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2014), 39(2), 186-196

Most serotonergic neurons display a prominent medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP), which is mediated by small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Recent ex vivo and in vivo experiments ... [more ▼]

Most serotonergic neurons display a prominent medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP), which is mediated by small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Recent ex vivo and in vivo experiments have suggested that SK channel blockade increases the firing rate and/or bursting in these neurons. The purpose of this study was therefore to characterize the source of Ca2+ which activates the mAHP channels in serotonergic neurons. In voltage clamp experiments, an outward current was recorded at -60 mV after a depolarizing pulse to + 100 mV. A supra-maximal concentration of the SK channel blockers apamin or (-)- bicuculline methiodide blocked this outward current. This current was also sensitive to the broad Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+ and was partially blocked by both ω-conotoxin and mibefradil, which are blockers of N-type and T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. Neither blockers of other voltage-gated Ca2+ channels nor DBHQ, an inhibitor of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, had any effect on the SK current. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of cement and aggregate type on thaumasite formation in concrete
Nielsen, peter; Sven, Nicolai; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Cement & Concrete Composites (2014), 53

In this study the influence of binder type on the formation of thaumasite in mortars made with expanded clay lightweight aggregates (LWA) was examined. For this purpose mortar prisms (20x20x160mm) were ... [more ▼]

In this study the influence of binder type on the formation of thaumasite in mortars made with expanded clay lightweight aggregates (LWA) was examined. For this purpose mortar prisms (20x20x160mm) were made with different binders and expanded clay lightweight aggregate or quartz sand, which after 28 days of curing in water were exposed to a 2.37 % Na2SO4 solution. The length and weight change of the prisms was recorded in triplicate as a function of time of exposure to dry-wet cycles in the sulphate solution or deionised water, at a temperature of 5 ± 1°C. The influence of the binder type on the expansion of the prisms in the 2.37 % Na2SO4 solution with dry and wet cycling can be ordered from strong to weak as follows: (1) CEM I + limestone filler, (2) CEM I, (3) CEM I + fly ash, (4) CEM III. The use of specific cements or cement blends can clearly inhibit the formation of thaumasite (and/or ettringite). The influence of the aggregate type (quartz versus LWA) on the sulphate reaction is more difficult to determine because the porosity of LWA can accommodate the growing sulphate crystals. All the mortar prisms made with quartz aggregate were bent or broken after 21 to 24 weeks exposure to the sulphate solution, while most mortar prisms made with expanded clay aggregate were still intact. The only exception being the mortar prisms containing limestone filler. The latter disintegrated between 24 and 34 weeks of exposure to the sulphate solution. The expansion of the prisms made with CEM I and CEM I + fly ash levelled off between 50 and 100 weeks of exposure to the sulphate solution. The prisms made with CEM III showed minimal expansion (≤ 0.1 %) after 3 years of exposure. The prisms exposed to demineralised water showed no or minimal expansion. The presence and mineralogy of secondary sulphate phases in the mortars was checked by XRD analysis and SEM-EDS analysis of (degraded) mortar prisms. In most cases a solid solution of ettringite-thaumasite was observed. Based on the composition, treatment and expansion of the different mortar prisms, key factors controlling the formation of thaumasite or a solid solution of thaumasite-ettringite are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailINDICATIONS D’UN TRAITEMENT DE RADIOTHERAPIE LOCALE APRES PROSTATECTOMIE RADICALE
HERMESSE, Johanne ULg; WERENNE, Xavier ULg; PHILIPPI, Sven ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 29-31

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See detailCervical cancer and HPV: Awareness and vaccine acceptability among parents in Morocco.
Mouallif, Mustapha; Bowyer, Harriet L.; Festali, Soukaina et al

in Vaccine (2014), 32(3), 409-16

Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since ... [more ▼]

Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter </=26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailLes indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêts feuillues tempérées : synthèse bibliographique
Lehaire, François ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Morelle, Kevin ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 262-272

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters) and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.). The choice of indicator plants, as it affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, must be carried out with caution taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help to understand the relationships between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended to forest managers that would like to monitor red deer pressure in regards to forest management goals and forest sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term fracture rates seen with continued ibandronate treatment : pooled analysis of DIVA and MOBILE long-term extension studies
Miller, PD; Recker, RR; Harris, S et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(1), 349-357

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See detailEclipsing Am binary systems in the SuperWASP survey
Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Pintado, O. I. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 564

The results of a search for eclipsing Am star binaries using photometry from the SuperWASP survey are presented. The light curves of 1742 Am stars fainter than V = 8.0 were analysed for the presence of ... [more ▼]

The results of a search for eclipsing Am star binaries using photometry from the SuperWASP survey are presented. The light curves of 1742 Am stars fainter than V = 8.0 were analysed for the presence of eclipses. A total of 70 stars were found to exhibit eclipses, with 66 having sufficient observations to enable orbital periods to be determined and 28 of which are newly identified eclipsing systems. Also presented are spectroscopic orbits for 5 of the systems. The number of systems and the period distribution is found to be consistent with that identified in previous radial velocity surveys of "classical" Am stars. [less ▲]

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See detailComment comprendre l’influence au sein de groupes d’adolescents ? Le conflit socio-cognitif en appui de la théorie de l’apprentissage social
Mathys, Cécile ULg; Vitaro, Frank; Born, Michel ULg

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2014), 46(2), 289-230

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See detailLeptogenesis with a dynamical seesaw scale
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Tortola, Maria; Valle, Jose et al

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2014), 2014

In the simplest type-I seesaw leptogenesis scenario right-handed neutrino annihilation processes are absent. However, in the presence of new interactions these processes are possible and can affect the ... [more ▼]

In the simplest type-I seesaw leptogenesis scenario right-handed neutrino annihilation processes are absent. However, in the presence of new interactions these processes are possible and can affect the resulting B-L asymmetry in an important way. A prominent example is provided by models with spontaneous lepton number violation, where the existence of new dynamical degrees of freedom can play a crucial role. In this context, we provide a model-independent discussion of the effects of right-handed neutrino annihilations. We show that in the weak washout regime, as long as the scattering processes remain slow compared with the Hubble expansion rate throughout the relevant temperature range, the efficiency can be largely enhanced, reaching in some cases maximal values. Moreover, the B-L asymmetry yield turns out to be independent upon initial conditions, in contrast to the ''standard'' case. On the other hand, when the annihilation processes are fast, the right-handed neutrino distribution tends to a thermal one down to low temperatures, implying a drastic suppression of the efficiency which in some cases can render the B-L generation mechanism inoperative. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical and biological controls on DMS,P dynamics in ice-shelf influenced fast ice during a winter-spring and a spring-summer transitions
Carnat, G.; Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Papakyriakou, T. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2014), 119

We report the seasonal and vertical variations of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in fast ice at Cape Evans, McMurdo Sound (Antarctica) during the spring-summer ... [more ▼]

We report the seasonal and vertical variations of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in fast ice at Cape Evans, McMurdo Sound (Antarctica) during the spring-summer transition in 2011 and winter-spring transition in 2012. We compare the variations of DMS,P observed to the seasonal evolution of the ice algal biomass and of the physical properties of the ice cover, with emphasis on the ice texture and brine dynamics. Isolated DMS and DMSP maxima were found during both seasonal episodes in interior ice and corresponded to the occurrence of platelet crystals in the ice texture. We show that platelet crystals formation corresponded in time and depth to the incorporation of dinoflagellates (strong DMSP producers) in the ice cover. We also show that platelet crystals could modify the environmental stresses on algal cells and perturb the vertical redistribution of DMS,P concentrations. We show that during the winter-spring transition in 2012, the DMS,P profiles were strongly influenced by the development and decline of a diatom dominated bloom in the bottom ice, with DMSP variations remarkably following chl a variations. During the spring-summer transition in 2011, the increase in brine volume fraction (influencing ice permeability) on warming was shown to trigger (1) an important release of DMS to the under-ice water through brine convection (2) a vertical redistribution of DMSP across the ice [less ▲]

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See detailCreativity and entrepreneurship: Changing currents in education and public-life
Dufays, Frédéric ULg

in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (2014), 20(3), 297-299

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a ... [more ▼]

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a key element. In this book, they compile a series of contributions that analyse, share experiences, model such (cross-sector) partnerships. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Popescu, Bogdan A.; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014)

Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards ... [more ▼]

Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum: SN 2007uy − metamorphosis of an aspheric Type Ib explosion
Roy, Rupak ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

The supernovae (SNe) of Type Ibc are rare and the detailed characteristics of these explosions have been studied only for a few events. Unlike Type II SNe, the progenitors of Type Ibc have never been ... [more ▼]

The supernovae (SNe) of Type Ibc are rare and the detailed characteristics of these explosions have been studied only for a few events. Unlike Type II SNe, the progenitors of Type Ibc have never been detected in pre-explosion images. So, to understand the nature of their progenitors and the characteristics of the explosions, investigation of proximate events are necessary. Here we present the results of multi-wavelength observations of Type Ib \sn\ in the nearby ($\sim$ 29.7 Mpc) galaxy NGC 2770. Analysis of the photometric observations revealed this explosion as an energetic event with peak absolute $R$ band magnitude $-18.5\pm0.16$, which is about one mag brighter than the mean value ($-17.6\pm0.6$) derived for well observed Type Ibc events. The SN is highly extinguished, \ebv\ = 0.63$\pm$0.15 mag, mainly due to foreground material present in the host galaxy. From optical light curve modeling we determine that about 0.3 \msun\ radioactive $^{56}$Ni is produced and roughly 4.4 \msun\ material is ejected during this explosion with liberated energy $\sim 15\times10^{51}$ erg, indicating the event to be an energetic one. Through optical spectroscopy, we have noticed a clear aspheric evolution of several line forming regions, but no dependency of asymmetry is seen on the distribution of $^{56}$Ni inside the ejecta. The SN shock interaction with the circumburst material (CSM) is clearly noticeable in radio follow-up, presenting a Synchrotron Self Absorption (SSA) dominated light curve with a contribution of Free Free Absorption (FFA) during the early phases. Assuming a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, with wind velocity $\ga 10^3 {\rm km~s}^{-1}$, as a progenitor, we derive a lower limit to the mass loss rate inferred from the radio data as $\dot{M} \ga 2.4\times10^{-5}$ \msun\,~yr$^{-1}$, which is consistent with the results obtained for other Type Ibc SNe bright at radio frequencies. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sons de contact de l'ombrine côtière - Umbrina cirrosa (Linné, 1758)
Lagardère, Jean-Paul; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Bulletin de la Société de Borda (2014), 514

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See detailBiological nitrate utilization in south Siberian lakes (Baikal and Hovsgol) during the last glacial period: the influence of climate changes on primary productivity
Watanabe Nara, F.; Watanabe, T.; Kakegawa, T. et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2014), 90

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See detailDisease management patterns for postmenopausal women in Europe with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative advanced breast cancer.
Andre, Fabrice; Neven, Patrick; Marinsek, Nina et al

in Current medical research and opinion (2014)

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of hormonal therapy (HT), and only recommend chemotherapy for patients with extensive visceral involvement or rapidly progressive disease. This study evaluated actual physician-reported treatments for advanced BC in Europe. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 355 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who progressed on >/=1 line of HT (adjuvant or advanced) and completed >/=1 line of chemotherapy (advanced). Treatment choice was evaluated for each line of therapy. Results: Of 355 patients, 111 (31%) received first-line chemotherapy, whereas 218 (61%) and 26 (7%) switched from HT to chemotherapy in second and third line, respectively. More patients receiving first-line HT had bone metastases (73% vs 27% chemotherapy). Patients treated with first-line chemotherapy had more brain (12% vs 3% HT) or extensive liver (13% vs 6% HT) metastases. Subgroup analysis of 188 patients who received first-line HT and had de novo advanced BC or relapsed/recurrent disease more than 1 year after adjuvant therapy found that the majority (89%; n = 167) of these patients switched to chemotherapy in second line. However, among these 167 patients, 27% had no significant changes in metastases between first and second line. Among the 73% of patients who had significant changes in metastases, 20% had no brain metastases or extensive visceral disease. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the guideline-recommended use of multiple HT lines is open to interpretation and that optimal treatment for European postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who responded to HT may not be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailA new insight in the structure, composition and functioning of central African moist forests
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Picard, Nicolas; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014), (329), 195-205

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this ... [more ▼]

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this paper, we aimed to identify large-scale variations in the structure, composition and functioning of African moist forests that could serve as a baseline for both management and conservation purposes. Commercial forest inventory data were assembled for 49,711 0.5-ha plots, covering an area of more than six million hectares, crossing the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo. Floristic composition was analyzed for a subset of 176 genera reliably identified in the field. Three key functional traits of tropical trees: regeneration guild, leaf phenology, and wood specific gravity, were collected at the species level from various sources, and assigned at the genus level. We first investigated the main variations in forest structure and composition, and identified seven forest types based on these variations. Differences in the percentage of pioneer and deciduous stems, and mean wood specific gravity were tested between forest types. Most of the study area was composed of a mosaic of the structural variations of the forests characterized by the occurrence of Celtis (Ulmaceae) species, which are mostly composed of frequent and abundant genera that formed the common floristic pool of the region. Secondary Musanga (Moraceae) forest is located in repeatedly disturbed areas, along roads and around main cities; mixed Manilkara (Sapotaceae) forest covers a huge area in the southern Central African Republic and in the northern Republic of Congo; and monodominant Gilbertiodendron (Fabaceae) forest is sparsely distributed along rivers. The contrasted structure, composition, and functioning of the forest types imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for adapted management and conservation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailWomen's skin throughout lifetime.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; CHARLIER, Corinne ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

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See detailSerum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is Selectively Upregulated in Patients with Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis
Morlet, Julien; Mahoney, David; Zarei, Ali et al

in Rheumatology (2014), 53(1), 188-188

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See detailValidation d’un test d’inhibition auprès d’enfants présentant un trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec/sans hyperactivité
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2014), 46(1), 66-72

The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5-11 years old children with the “Stroop fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5-11 years old children with the “Stroop fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the clinical value of this tool. 346 French-speaking children without any developmental disorders or learning disabilities were included in this study. A clinical group of 25 children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder was also assessed with this task. Developmental analyses on age groups show an enhancement of performance in the interference condition between 5 and 8 years old. Furthermore, results also show that the clinical group performed significantly less accurately that the control group for the interference condition, which confirms the clinical interest of this tool. [less ▲]

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See detailDental occlusion influences knee muscular performances in asymptomatic females.
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier et al

in Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association (2014), 28(2), 492498

Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female ... [more ▼]

Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age 24.1 +/- 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to three randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 degrees /s and 240 degrees /s in concentric and 30 degrees /s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). By contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the two other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the potential of an algorithm based on mean climatic data to predict wheat yield
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Ferrandis, Salvador et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

The real-time non-invasive determination of crop biomass and yield prediction is one of the major challenges in agriculture. An interesting approach lies in using process-based crop yield models in ... [more ▼]

The real-time non-invasive determination of crop biomass and yield prediction is one of the major challenges in agriculture. An interesting approach lies in using process-based crop yield models in combination with real-time monitoring of the input climatic data of these models, but unknown future weather remains the main obstacle to reliable yield prediction. Since accurate weather forecasts can be made only a short time in advance, much information can be derived from analyzing past weather data. This paper presents a methodology that addresses the problem of unknown future weather by using a daily mean climatic database, based exclusively on available past measurements. It involves building climate matrix ensembles, combining different time ranges of projected mean climate data and real measured weather data originating from the historical database or from real-time measurements performed in the field. Used as an input for the STICS crop model, the datasets thus computed were used to perform statistical within-season biomass and yield prediction. This work demonstrated that a reliable predictive delay of 3-4 weeks could be obtained. In combination with a local micrometeorological station that monitors climate data in real-time, the approach also enabled us to (i) predict potential yield at the local level, (ii) detect stress occurrence and (iii) quantify yield loss (or gain) drawing on real monitored climatic conditions of the previous few days. [less ▲]

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See detailEFSA's scientific activities and achievements on the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) during its first decade of existence: looking back and ahead.
Devos, Yann; Aguilera, Jaime; Diveki, Zoltan et al

in Transgenic research (2014), 23(1), 1-25

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk ... [more ▼]

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk analysis process, the role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which was created in 2002 in response to multiple food crises, is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks that the use of GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. EFSA's scientific advice is elaborated by its GMO Panel with the scientific support of several working groups and EFSA's GMO Unit. This review presents EFSA's scientific activities and highlights its achievements on the risk assessment of GMOs for the first 10 years of its existence. Since 2002, EFSA has issued 69 scientific opinions on genetically modified (GM) plant market registration applications, of which 62 for import and processing for food and feed uses, six for cultivation and one for the use of pollen (as or in food), and 19 scientific opinions on applications for marketing products made with GM microorganisms. Several guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific issues such as post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) were elaborated. EFSA also provided scientific advice upon request of the European Commission on safeguard clause and emergency measures invoked by EU Member States, annual PMEM reports, the potential risks of new biotechnology-based plant breeding techniques, evaluations of previously assessed GMOs in the light of new scientific publications, and the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. Future challenges relevant to the risk assessment of GMOs are discussed. EFSA's risk assessments of GMO applications ensure that data are analysed and presented in a way that facilitates scientifically sound decisions that protect human and animal health and the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Frontiers in Marine Science - Marine Ecosystem Ecology (2014), 1(4),

Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS) would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean ... [more ▼]

Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS) would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean acidification). However, in coastal environments, the carbonate chemistry of surface waters was also strongly modified by eutrophication and related changes in biological activity (increased primary production and change in phytoplankton dominance) during the last 50 years. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMS emissions in marine coastal environments also strongly responded to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We used the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model in the eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are high producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS. We showed that, for the period from 1951 to 2007, eutrophication actually led to an increase of DMS emissions much stronger than the response of DMS emissions to ocean acidification. [less ▲]

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See detailHypothalamic response to the chemo-signal androstadienone in gender dysphoric children and adolescents.
Burke, Sarah M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J. et al

in Frontiers in endocrinology (2014), 5

The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate ... [more ▼]

The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate whether puberty modulated this sex difference in response to androstadienone, we measured the hypothalamic responsiveness to this chemo-signal in 39 pre-pubertal and 41 adolescent boys and girls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We then investigated whether 36 pre-pubertal children and 38 adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD; DSM-5) exhibited sex-atypical (in accordance with their experienced gender), rather than sex-typical (in accordance with their natal sex) hypothalamic activations during olfactory stimulation with androstadienone. We found that the sex difference in responsiveness to androstadienone was already present in pre-pubertal control children and thus likely developed during early perinatal development instead of during sexual maturation. Adolescent girls and boys with GD both responded remarkably like their experienced gender, thus sex-atypical. In contrast, pre-pubertal girls with GD showed neither a typically male nor female hypothalamic activation pattern and pre-pubertal boys with GD had hypothalamic activations in response to androstadienone that were similar to control boys, thus sex-typical. We present here a unique data set of boys and girls diagnosed with GD at two different developmental stages, showing that these children possess certain sex-atypical functional brain characteristics and may have undergone atypical sexual differentiation of the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical modelling of water, fauna and flora: knowledge gaps, avenues for future research and infrastructural needs
ROBERT, THOMAS; JOHNSON, MATTHEW; FROSTICK, LYNNE et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (2014), 52

Physical modelling is a key tool for generating understanding of the complex interactions between aquatic organisms and hydraulics, which is important for management of aquatic environments under ... [more ▼]

Physical modelling is a key tool for generating understanding of the complex interactions between aquatic organisms and hydraulics, which is important for management of aquatic environments under environmental change and our ability to exploit ecosystem services. Many aspects of this field remain poorly understood and the use of physical models within eco-hydraulics requires advancement in methodological application and substantive understanding. This paper presents a review of the emergent themes from a workshop tasked with identifying the future infrastructure requirements of the next generation of eco-hydraulics researchers. The identified themes are: abiotic factors, adaptation, complexity and feedback, variation, and scale and scaling. The paper examines these themes and identifies how progress on each of them is key to existing and future eðorts to progress our knowledge of eco-hydraulic interactions. Examples are drawn from studies on biofilms, plants, and sessile and mobile fauna in shallow water fluvial and marine environments. Examples of research gaps and directions for educational, infrastructural and technological advance are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailLA RADIOTHÉRAPIE DANS LE CANCER DU RECTUM CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE: Quel bénéfice pour le traitement ?
MARTINIVE, Philippe ULg; ALLEPAERTS, Sophie ULg; VAN DAELE, Daniel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 47-52

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous ... [more ▼]

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous permettent de prendre en charge de façon correcte cette population oncologique âgée ? Les patients âgés présentent souvent de multiples co-morbidités pouvant interférer avec le traitement oncologique rendant d’autant plus complexe leur prise en charge. Le pic d’inci - dence du cancer du rectum se situe autour des 80 ans, loin au-dessus de l’âge moyen des patients inclus dans les études cliniques. La survie globale des patients traités pour un cancer du rectum s’est améliorée au cours de la dernière décennie, essentiellement pour des patients de moins de 75 ans. Le trai - tement du cancer du rectum nécessite une approche multidis - ciplinaire. L’évaluation gériatrique en fait partie intégrante. Elle permet de définir au mieux la stratégie thérapeutique en fonction de l’état général du patient, de son contexte neuro- psychologique, fonctionnel et social. La radiothérapie joue un rôle majeur dans le traitement du rectum. Quelle est sa place chez les personnes âgées ? Bénéficient-elles également de la radiothérapie, comme la population jeune sélectionnée dans les études contrôlées ? Quel est l’impact de ce traitement sur la qualité de vie ? Voilà des questions essentielles auxquelles nous allons tenter d’apporter une réponse [less ▲]

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See detailManaging understory light to maintain a mixture of species with different shade tolerance
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014)

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See detailLa gouvernance environnementale au Sud : regard sur un projet de conservation des tortues au Sri Lanka
Rosillon, Caroline ULg

in ethnographiques.org (2014), 27

Les régions rurales du Sud du Sri Lanka sont soumises aujourd'hui à des tensions croissantes entre un développement économique précipité et la conservation des ressources naturelles qui participent à la ... [more ▼]

Les régions rurales du Sud du Sri Lanka sont soumises aujourd'hui à des tensions croissantes entre un développement économique précipité et la conservation des ressources naturelles qui participent à la renommée de l'île. Dans ce contexte, l'article se penche sur la question des initiatives locales de protection de la biodiversité à travers une étude de cas portant sur un projet de conservation des tortues de mer dans le district d'Hambantota (l'ONG-T). Dans une perspective d'anthropologie politique, l'analyse met en lumière la manière dont ce type de projet s'intègre et influence les structures sociopolitiques dans la société locale. Après avoir brièvement présenté quelques données contextuelles et historiques sur le village de pêcheurs dans laquelle est implantée l'ONG, l'étude de cas révèle les nouvelles formes d'interactions, les enjeux de pouvoirs et les conflits que peut susciter localement l'implantation de ce type de projet. [less ▲]

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See detailAging Reduces the Stimulating Effect of Blue Light on Cognitive Brain Functions
Daneault, Véronique; Hébert, Marc; Albouy, Geneviève et al

in Sleep (2014)

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See detailSHIP2 signaling in normal and pathological situations: Its impact on cell proliferation.
Elong Edimo, W; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Roger, PP et al

in Advances in Biological Regulation (2014), 54

Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases are critical enzymes in modulating the concentrations of PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2. The SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases SHIP1 and SHIP2 belong to ... [more ▼]

Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases are critical enzymes in modulating the concentrations of PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2. The SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases SHIP1 and SHIP2 belong to this family of enzymes that dephosphorylate the 5 position of PI(3,4,5)P3 to produce PI(3,4)P2. Data obtained in zebrafish and in mice have shown that SHIP2 is critical in development and growth. Exome sequencing identifies mutations in the coding region of SHIP2 as a cause of opsismodysplasia, a severe but rare chondrodysplasia in human. SHIP2 has been reported to have both protumorigenic and tumor suppressor function in human cancer very much depending on the cell model. This could be linked to the relative importance of PI(3,4)P2 (a product of SHIP2 phosphatase activity) which is also controlled by the PI 4-phosphatase and tumor suppressor INPP4B. In the glioblastoma cell line 1321 N1, that do not express PTEN, lowering SHIP2 expression has an impact on the levels of PI(3,4,5)P3, cell morphology and cell proliferation. It positively stimulates cell proliferation by decreasing the expression of key regulatory proteins of the cell cycle such as p27. Together the data point out to a role of SHIP2 in development in normal cells and at least in cell proliferation in some cancer derived cells. [less ▲]

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See detailRemote sensing of colour, temperature and salinity – new challenges and opportunities
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Ruddick, Kevin; Minnett, Peter

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2014), 146

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See detailPhosphine- and ammonium-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons as supports for cluster-derived metal nanoparticles
Vidick, Deborah; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Poleunis, Claude et al

in Catalysis Today (2014), 235

An ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was functionalized with ammonium or chelating phosphine ligands. In both cases, the functionalization procedure started by oxidation by nitric acid treatment, followed ... [more ▼]

An ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was functionalized with ammonium or chelating phosphine ligands. In both cases, the functionalization procedure started by oxidation by nitric acid treatment, followed by activation of surface carboxylic acid groups with thionyl chloride, then formation of amide bonds with diamines. The pendant amine groups were then either quaternized or further reacted with phosphine. The introduced functions were used as anchors for molecular mixed-metal clusters. These organometallic grafted species could then be thermally transformed into hetero-metallic nanoparticles (NP) embedded within the mesoporous framework. The NP/OMC nanocomposites could find application in hydrogenation, heterogeneous catalysis or as electrodes in fuel cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery
HOEFFELIN, Harry; JACQUEMIN, Denise ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery ... [more ▼]

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. Materials and methods. - We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings ("in situ" in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. Results. - We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the “in situ” volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. Conclusion. - The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Fischer, Adam M. et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 266(1), 119-130

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially-induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers. [less ▲]

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See detailBone forming agents for the management of osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Neuprez, A.; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Panminerva medica (2014), 56(2), 97-114

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these ... [more ▼]

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these medications provide only limited fracture reduction and may be linked to skeletal and non-skeletal long-term safety concerns. Therefore, some patients are considered candidates for bone-forming agents because they remain severely osteoporotic or because they failed antiresorptive therapy. Over the last decade, a particular interest was shown in the developmentofmedicationsabletoincreaseosteoblastsnumber,lifespan or activity, hence stimulating bone formation Peptides from the parathyroid hormone family and strontium ranelate were shown to significantly reduce fracture rates but strontium ranelate is no longer an option for treating osteoporosis because of its safety profile. New therapeutic options, including monoclonal antibodies against sclerostin seem to be promising but their role in the armamentarium of osteoporosis will depend on the results of the current phase 3 studies, assessing antifracture efficacy and long-term safety. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent impact and future directions of high throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics.
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

in Virus Research (2014), 188

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of ... [more ▼]

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of highthroughput sequencing (also called Next Generation Sequencing – NGS) technologies and bioinformatics have drastically changed the research on viral pathogens. It is now raising a growing interest for virus diagnostics. This review provides a snapshot vision on the current use and impact of high throughput sequencing approaches in plant virus characterization. More specifically, this review highlights the potential of these new technologies and their interplay with current protocols in the future of molecular diagnostic of plant viruses. The current limitations that will need to be addressed for a wider adoption of high-throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics are thoroughly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDeconsecrating a doctrinal monument: Raymond M. Lemaire and the revisions of the Venice Charter
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Change Over Time (2014), (fall),

Considering himself as the “main author” of the charter, Raymond M. Lemaire has been one of the first, together with Piero Gazzola, to plead for a revision of the document. As early as 1971, the two men ... [more ▼]

Considering himself as the “main author” of the charter, Raymond M. Lemaire has been one of the first, together with Piero Gazzola, to plead for a revision of the document. As early as 1971, the two men, respectively first Secretary General and President of ICOMOS, tended to launch a debate in favour of a better consideration of the social value of heritage, and the development of specific principles for historical cities conservation, to be included in the Venice charter. Lemaire’s recent experience in that field had indeed convinced him that, contrary to the assertion of article 14, “a literal application of principles valid for monuments, considered as such, is not always possible, nor desirable, for the ensembles”. The adoption of the Amsterdam declaration didn’t put an end to his efforts. Despite his unsuccessful attempt to get a revised version approved by the ICOMOS General assembly in Moscow (1978), R.M.Lemaire always remained critical towards the charter and the application of its principles in the field, underlining, in the eighties, its shortcomings in terms of cultural diversity and, in one of his last texts, in 1996, the negative effect of article 9, leading to the idea that “the mere essence of a conservation operation is a modernist intervention on the edifice or neighbourhood”. Beyond its interest for conservation history, the awareness of Lemaire’s early critical position towards the Venice Charter should inspire the current debates and help us overcome our reluctance to challenge the sacred principles of what we consider a doctrinal monument. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations for the treatment of diabetes in patients with liver disease.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology (2014)

Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis and about one-third of cirrhotic patients ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis and about one-third of cirrhotic patients have diabetes. However, the use of several antidiabetic agents may be a cause for concern in the case of hepatic impairment (HI). Areas covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the influence of HI on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of glucose-lowering agents and the potential consequences for clinical practice as far as the efficacy/safety balance of their use in diabetic patients with CLD is concerned. Expert opinion: Almost no PK studies have been published regarding metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in patients with HI. Only mild changes in PK of glinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporters type 2 inhibitors were observed in dedicated PK studies in patients with various degrees of HI, presumably without major clinical relevance although large clinical experience is lacking. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have a renal excretion rather than liver metabolism. Rare anecdotal case reports of hepatotoxicity have been described with various glucose-lowering agents contrasting with numerous reassuring data. Nevertheless, caution should be recommended, especially in patients with advanced cirrhosis, including with the use of metformin. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014)

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (C max) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Symmetries of the Laplacian via Quantization
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Annales de l'Institut Fourier (2014), 64

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally ... [more ▼]

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally at manifold and recover results of Eastwood, Leistner, Gover and ilhan. In particular, conformally equivariant quantization establishes a correspondence between the algebra of Hamiltonian symmetries of the null geodesic ow and the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Combined with a symplectic reduction, this leads to a quantization of the minimal nilpotent coadjoint orbit of the conformal group. The star-deformation of its algebra of regular functions is isomorphic to the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Both identify with the quotient of the universal envelopping algebra by the Joseph ideal. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation-based study comparing multiple imputation methods for non-monotone missing ordinal data in longitudinal settings
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Mauer, Murielle; Lambert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2014)

The application of multiple imputation (MI) techniques as a preliminary step to handle missing values in data analysis is well established. The MI method can be classified into two broad classes, the ... [more ▼]

The application of multiple imputation (MI) techniques as a preliminary step to handle missing values in data analysis is well established. The MI method can be classified into two broad classes, the joint modeling and the fully conditional specification approaches. Their relative performance for the longitudinal ordinal data setting under the missing at random (MAR) assumption is not well documented. This paper intends to fill this gap by conducting a large simulation study on the estimation of the parameters of a longitudinal proportional odds model. The two MI methods are also illustrated in quality of life data from a cancer clinical trial. [less ▲]

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See detailUnique recurrence patterns of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia following excision of the squamo-columnar junction.
Herfs, Michael ULg; SOMJA, Joan ULg; Howitt, Brooke E. et al

in International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer (2014)

Recent studies have identified a putative cell of origin for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer at the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) and suggest that these cells may not ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have identified a putative cell of origin for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer at the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) and suggest that these cells may not regenerate following excision (LEEP). This study addressed the impact of SCJ excision on the temporal dynamics, histologic and viral (HPV) characteristics of recurrent CIN. One hundred thirty one consecutive patients treated by excision and attending follow-up visits were enrolled. We compared recurrent and initial CIN with attention to excision margins, timing of recurrence, CIN grade, HPV types, p16 immunophenotype, and SCJ immunophenotype. During the follow-up period (up to four years), sixteen (12.2%) recurrences were identified. Four (25%) were identified at the first follow-up visit, closely resembled the initial CIN 2/3 in grade and HPV type, and were typically SCJ marker positive [SCJ(+)], suggesting non-excised (residual) disease. Twelve (75%) manifested after the first postoperative visit and all were in the ectocervix or in mature metaplastic epithelium. All of the 12 delayed recurrences were classified as CIN 1 and were SCJ (-). Nine of 11 SCJ (-) recurrences (82%) followed regressed spontaneously. Taken together, these results show that new lesions developing from any HPV infection are delayed and occur within the ectocervix or metaplastic epithelium. This dramatically lower risk of CIN 2/3 following successful SCJ excision suggests that removal of the SCJ could be a critical variable in reducing the risk of subsequent CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de Eilene Powell et al.: La novela sugestiva
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg

in Iberoamericana America Latina-Espana-Portugal (2014), (53), 218-220

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See detailÉduquer à la démocratie : Protagoras et la question de l’égalité
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2014)

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See detailValidation of real-time PCR for detection of six major pathogens in seafood products
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Lemaire et al

in Food Control (2014), 44

Seafood can pose a public health concern to consumers. It is often consumed rawand may be contaminated with several foodborne pathogens. In order to guarantee the safety of seafood, real-time polymerase ... [more ▼]

Seafood can pose a public health concern to consumers. It is often consumed rawand may be contaminated with several foodborne pathogens. In order to guarantee the safety of seafood, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols may be used as these enable results to be provided within 24 h. The first goal of our work was to develop real-time PCR protocols enabling the detection of six foodborne pathogens that may be present in seafood products (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus). The corresponding gene targets were: 50S/VS1, rfbE, ttr, tlh, and vvp. A multiplex PCR was also developed to detect the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus: tdh and trh. A total of 420 bacterial strains belonging to four different genera/strains were used in this study. Sensitivity and specificity were always 100%, except in the case of Salmonella spp., where three strains were not detected by our PCR protocols. The second objective of our work was to assess the detection limit of our real-time PCR protocols on artificially contaminated seafood products (raw shrimps, cooked shrimps, and raw mussels), purchased in public stores. Six different levels of contamination were assayed in four replicates for each matrix. The real-time PCR protocols enabled a better level of detection than the ISO methods, except for Salmonella in raw shrimps and for V. vulnificus in shrimps (raw and cooked). The estimated level of detection was between 1 and 47 cfu/25 g sample for the ISO norms and between 1 and 315 cfu/25 g sample for the realtime PCR protocols tailored in our work. The real-time PCRs developed in our work allowed for good selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. The sensitivity on seafood products was estimated at a level of 100%, except for Salmonella (97%). In the spiking assays, the levels of detection were lower with the real-time PCR protocol than those obtained with the ISO method. This was not the case for V. vulnificus in raw and cooked shrimps and for Salmonella in raw shrimps. These real-time PCR protocols appear to be good alternative methods for surveillance of seafood products to ensure the absence of foodborne pathogens. One additional conclusion is that laboratories have to use enrichment media that are compatible with those recommended by ISO standards. This may facilitate the isolation of the pathogen if the real-time PCR protocol gives a suspect positive signal during the first step of the seafood analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive designs and strategies for low-cost housing using simulation-based optimization and different thermal comfort criteria
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2014), 7(1), 68-81

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design ... [more ▼]

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design and operation of a low-cost dwelling were numerically optimized using a simulation-based approach. Three multi-objective cost functions including construction cost, thermal comfort performance and 50-year operating cost were applied for naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings. Thermal environment inside the house was controlled and assessed by two thermal comfort models. Optimization problems which consist of 18 design parameters and 6 ventilation strategies were examined by two population-based probabilistic optimization algorithms (particle swarm optimization and hybrid algorithm). Optimum designs corresponding to each objective function, differences in optimal solutions, energy saving by the adaptive comfort approach and optimization effectiveness were outlined. The optimization method used in this paper shows a considerable potential of comfort improvement, energy saving and operating cost reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailExercise Echocardiography in Asymptomatic Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.
Henri, Christine; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound (2014), 22(1), 1-5

The management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains controversial. Recent series reported that early aortic valve replacement might be associated with improved clinical ... [more ▼]

The management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains controversial. Recent series reported that early aortic valve replacement might be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, the risk-benefit ratio should be carefully evaluated and early surgery only be proposed to a subset of asymptomatic patients considered at higher risk. Exercise echocardiography can help unmask symptomatic patients combined with assessment of the hemodynamic consequences of AS. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise echocardiography can provide incremental prognostic value to identify patients who may benefit most from early surgery. In "truly" asymptomatic patients, an increase in mean aortic gradient >/= 18-20 mmHg, a limited left ventricular contractile reserve or a pulmonary hypertension during exercise are predictive parameters of adverse cardiac events. Exercise echocardiography is low-cost, safe and available in many referral centers, and does not expose patients to radiation. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of exercise testing and echocardiography in the management of asymptomatic patients with severe AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. [less ▲]

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See detailAppropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice: a position statement of the ESC/EACVI taskforce.
Garbi, Madalina; Habib, Gilbert; Plein, Sven et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(5), 477-182

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice in Europe, a dedicated taskforce has been appointed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). The present paper describes the appropriateness criteria development process. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive plasma profiling for the characterization of graft-versus-host disease biomarkers
De Bock, Muriel; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Talanta (2014), 125

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy ... [more ▼]

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy-relatedtoxicity,earlyspecific markersareneeded.Themainobjectiveofthisstudywas to uncoverdiagnosticbiomarkersbycomparingplasmaproteinprofiles ofpatientsatthetimeofacute GVHDdiagnosiswiththoseofpatientsundergoingHSCTwithoutaGVHD.Additionalanalysisofsamples taken 15daysbeforeaGVHDdiagnosiswasalsoperformedtoevaluatethepotentialofournewly discoveredbiomarkersforearlydiagnosis.Togetcomplementaryinformationfromplasmasamples, we usedthreedifferentproteomicapproaches,namely2D-DIGE,SELDI-TOF-MSand2D-LC-MSE. Weidentified andconfirmed bythemeansofindependenttechniques,thedifferentialexpression of severalproteinsindicatingsignificantly increasedinflammation responseanddisturbanceinthe coagulation cascade.Thevariationoftheseproteinswasalreadyobserved15daysbeforeGVHD diagnosis, suggestingthepotentialearlydetectionofthediseasebeforesymptomsappearance. Finally,logisticregressionanalysisdeterminedacompositebiomarkerpanelcomprising fibrinogen, fragment of fibrinogenbetachain,SAA,prothrombinfragments,apolipoproteinA1andhepcidinthat optimallydiscriminatedpatientswithandwithoutGVHD.Theareaunderthereceiveroperating characteristiccurvedistinguishingthese2groupswas0.95. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructure and Mechanical Properties of a Mixed Si-Al TRIP-Assisted Steel Subjected to Continuous Galvanizing Heat Treatments
Mertens, Anne ULg; Bellhouse, Erika M.; McDermid, Joseph R.

in Materials Science & Engineering : A (2014), 608

Heat treatments with an isothermal bainitic transformation temperature of 465°C compatible with the continuous galvanizing process were performed on a 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.0Si-0.5Al (wt%) TRIP-assisted steel. The ... [more ▼]

Heat treatments with an isothermal bainitic transformation temperature of 465°C compatible with the continuous galvanizing process were performed on a 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.0Si-0.5Al (wt%) TRIP-assisted steel. The effect of intercritical annealing temperature and isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) time at 465C on mechanical properties and microstructure were determined. The best combination of strength and ductility was obtained for the lower intercritical annealing temperature of 750°C for an isothermal bainitic transformation time of 90 s at 465°C. However, after intercritical annealing at a higher temperature of 797°C, optimum mechanical properties were obtained for a shorter isothermal bainitic transformation time of 60 s at 465°C, likely due to the lower C content of the intercritical austenite bringing about faster transformation kinetics. It was concluded that varying the intercritical temperature and IBT time can play an important role in the development of a suitable process window to obtain the desired mechanical properties in low alloy TRIP-assisted steels given the constraints associated with the continuous galvanizing process. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiresorptive Drugs Beyond Bisphosphonates and Selective Oestrogen Receptor Modulators for the Management of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Neuprez, A.; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Drugs & aging (2014), 31

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. Since postmenopausal osteoporosis is related to an increase in osteoclastic activity at the time of menopause, inhibitors ... [more ▼]

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. Since postmenopausal osteoporosis is related to an increase in osteoclastic activity at the time of menopause, inhibitors of bone resorption have genuinely been considered an adequate strategy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates and selective oestrogen receptor modulators are widely prescribed to treat osteoporosis. However, other antiresorptive drugs have been developed for the management of osteoporosis, with the objective of providing a substantial reduction in osteoporotic fractures at all skeletal sites, combined with an acceptable long-term skeletal and systemic safety profile. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand, has shown efficacy against vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures. Its administration every 6 months as a subcutaneous formulation might significantly influence compliance and persistence to therapy. Additional results regarding long-term skeletal safety (i.e. osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical diaphyseal femoral fracture) are needed. Odanacatib, a selective cathepsin K inhibitor, is a promising new approach to the inhibition of osteoclastic resorption, with the potential to uncouple bone formation from bone resorption. Results regarding its anti-fracture efficacy are expected in the coming months. [less ▲]

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See detailHearing capacities and otolith size in two ophidiiform species (Ophidion rochei and Carapus acus)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

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See detailEffects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: Results from two randomized trials.
Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe et al

in Vaccine (2014)

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. METHODS: In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). RESULTS: One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10mug VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20mug VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4+ T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of through-plate component in beam-to-column joints with circular hollow columns
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2014), 92

A configuration of beam-to-column joint with circular hollow section columns is proposed. A vertical plate, called through-plate, passing through the column is used to support the beams. In order to ... [more ▼]

A configuration of beam-to-column joint with circular hollow section columns is proposed. A vertical plate, called through-plate, passing through the column is used to support the beams. In order to facilitate connecting the beams, two horizontal plates, each side of the column, are welded to the upper side of the through-plate. The lower flanges of the steel beams are connected to the horizontal plates by bolts, and the upper flanges are attached to the concrete slab by shear connections. The joint is considered as hinges in the construction phase while semi-rigid and partial strength can be adopted for the joint behaviour during the exploitation time. A development on the through-plate component of the joint is presented in this paper. Global behaviour of the joint under hogging moment and shear force is analysed leading to a mechanical model of the through-plate component. Using the elastic buckling theory of plates, the analytical formulas for critical stresses of the through-plate are obtained. The coefficients taking into account boundary conditions, material plasticity and geometrical imperfection are determined by finite element analysis. The proposed model is validated by experimental results showing a good accuracy. The design guideline for the component is finally provided for the practical purpose. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the Palaeolithic site of Kulbulak (Uzbekistan): First results from luminescence dating
Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Flas, Damien ULg; De Dapper, Morgan et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 324

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See detailLa Radiothérapie: le parcours du patient, de l’information au traitement
LENNERTS, Eric ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 3-8

La radiothérapie fait partie intégrante de l’arsenal thérapeutique en oncologie et on estime que deux tiers des patients cancéreux vont bénéficier d’une radiothérapie à un moment ou un autre de leur prise ... [more ▼]

La radiothérapie fait partie intégrante de l’arsenal thérapeutique en oncologie et on estime que deux tiers des patients cancéreux vont bénéficier d’une radiothérapie à un moment ou un autre de leur prise en charge. Le parcours d’un patient en radiothérapie est pourtant souvent méconnu du corps médical et le but de cet article est de retracer celui- ci. De la prise de décision de réaliser de la radiothérapie en concertation multidisciplinaire à la délivrance des rayons par les accélérateurs linéaires, il y a la première rencontre avec le radiothérapeute, la simulation, la délimitation des volumes et la planification du traitement. La mise en route d’un trai - tement de radiothérapie demande du temps et beaucoup de précision à chaque étape. Les technologies évoluent constam - ment et la recherche en matière d’amélioration du traitement est une priorité. Le but est d’arriver à adapter individuelle - ment le traitement de radiothérapie. [less ▲]

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See detailChoisir des cas exemplaires. La Strategic litigation face aux discriminations
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Déviance et Société (2014), 38(1), 55-76

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances ... [more ▼]

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances strategic litigation is deemed relevant to fight employment discrimination in Belgium and on which grounds and arguments exemplary cases are chosen. The article also highlights possible changes in the mobilizations of courts and the judicial arena. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of collagen preservation in bones recovered in archaeological contexts using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Vincke, Damien; Miller, Rebecca ULg; Stassart, Edith ULg et al

in Talanta (2014), 125

The scope of this article is to propose an innovative method based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging (NIR-HCI) to rapidly and non-destructively evaluate the relative degree of collagen ... [more ▼]

The scope of this article is to propose an innovative method based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging (NIR-HCI) to rapidly and non-destructively evaluate the relative degree of collagen preservation in bones recovered from archaeological contexts. This preliminary study has allowed the evaluation of the potential of the method using bone samples from the Early Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods at the site of Trou Al'Wesse in Belgium. NIR-HCI, combined with chemometric tools, has identified specific spectral bands characteristic of collagen. A chemometric model has been built using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to identify bones with and without collagen. This enables the evaluation of the degree of collagen preservation and homogeneity in bones within and between different strata, which has direct implications for archaeological applications (e.g., taphonomic analyses, assemblage integrity) and sample selection for sub- sequent analyses requiring collagen. Two archaeological applications are presented: comparison between sub-layers in an Early Upper Palaeolithic unit, and evaluation of the range of variability in collagen preservation within a single Holocene stratum. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Adherence to a Convulsion management Protocol for Children in Rwanda
kaputu-kalal-malu, Célestin; D'Amour Birindabagabo, Jean; Walker, Timothy David et al

in Journal of Tropical Pediatrics (2014), 60(2), 124-128

Inappropriate seizure management may result in high morbidity and mortality. We assessed the adherence of health professionals in southern Rwanda to a national protocol for pharmacological management of ... [more ▼]

Inappropriate seizure management may result in high morbidity and mortality. We assessed the adherence of health professionals in southern Rwanda to a national protocol for pharmacological management of seizures in children. A questionnaire featuring a 5-year-old child with generalized prolonged seizures was administered. The questions focused on the choice of initial treatment and the sequence of management following failure of the initial treatment choice. Benzodiazepine was chosen as initial therapy by 93.7% of physicians and 90.9% of nurses. Only 49.2% of physicians and 41% of nurses would repeat the initial treatment in case of failure of the first dose and 47% of doctors would wait 30 min to intervene. In case of refractory status epilepticus, 34% of physicians would give three doses of benzodiazepine, whereas 19% did not know what to do. These results suggest poor adherence to national protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiovascular imaging.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Habib, Gilbert; Negila, Danilo et al

in European heart journal (2014), 35(18), 1161-2

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See detailQuantification of HTLV-1 Clonality and TCR Diversity.
Laydon, Daniel J.; Melamed, Anat; Sim, Aaron et al

in PLoS computational biology (2014), 10(6), 1003646

Estimation of immunological and microbiological diversity is vital to our understanding of infection and the immune response. For instance, what is the diversity of the T cell repertoire? These questions ... [more ▼]

Estimation of immunological and microbiological diversity is vital to our understanding of infection and the immune response. For instance, what is the diversity of the T cell repertoire? These questions are partially addressed by high-throughput sequencing techniques that enable identification of immunological and microbiological "species" in a sample. Estimators of the number of unseen species are needed to estimate population diversity from sample diversity. Here we test five widely used non-parametric estimators, and develop and validate a novel method, DivE, to estimate species richness and distribution. We used three independent datasets: (i) viral populations from subjects infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1; (ii) T cell antigen receptor clonotype repertoires; and (iii) microbial data from infant faecal samples. When applied to datasets with rarefaction curves that did not plateau, existing estimators systematically increased with sample size. In contrast, DivE consistently and accurately estimated diversity for all datasets. We identify conditions that limit the application of DivE. We also show that DivE can be used to accurately estimate the underlying population frequency distribution. We have developed a novel method that is significantly more accurate than commonly used biodiversity estimators in microbiological and immunological populations. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of misalignment on pull-off test results: numerical and experimental assessments
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît; Garbacz, Andrzej et al

in ACI Materials Journal (2014), 111(2), 153-162

The successful application of a concrete repair system is often evaluated through pull-off testing. For such in-situ quality control (QC) testing, the inherent risk of misalignment might affect the ... [more ▼]

The successful application of a concrete repair system is often evaluated through pull-off testing. For such in-situ quality control (QC) testing, the inherent risk of misalignment might affect the recorded value and eventually make a difference in the acceptance of the work. So far, the issue of eccentricity in pull-off testing has been ignored in field practice, because it is seen as an academic issue. This paper presents the results of a project intended to quantify the effect of misalignment on pull-off tensile strength evaluation and provide a basis for improving QC specifications if necessary. The test program consisted first in an analytical evaluation of the problem through 2-D FEM simulations and, in a second phase, in laboratory experiments in which the test variables were the misalignment angle (0°, 2° and 4°) and the coring depth (15 mm [1.18 in.], 30 mm [2.36 in.]). It was found that calculations provide a conservative but realistic lower bound limit for evaluation the influence of misalignment upon pull-off test results: a 2° misalignment can be expect to yield a pull-off strength reduction of 7 to 9 % respectively for 15-mm [1.18-in.] and 30-mm [2.36-in.] coring depths, and the corresponding decrease resulting from a 4° misalignment reach between 13 and 16%; From a practical standpoint, the results generated in this study indicate that when specifying a pull-off strength limit in the field, the value should be increased (probable order of magnitude: 15%) to take into account the potential reduction due to testing misalignment. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the dependence of respiration and photosynthesis upon light, acetate, carbon dioxide, nitrate and ammonium in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using design of experiments and multiple regression
Gerin, Stéphanie ULg; Mathy, Gregory; Franck, Fabrice ULg

in BMC Systems Biology (2014), 8(96),

Background: In photosynthetic organisms, the influence of light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on the cellular bioenergetics has extensively been studied independently, but little information is ... [more ▼]

Background: In photosynthetic organisms, the influence of light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on the cellular bioenergetics has extensively been studied independently, but little information is available on the cumulative effects of these factors. Here, sequential statistical analyses based on design of experiments (DOE) coupled to standard least squares multiple regression have been undertaken to model the dependence of respiratory and photosynthetic responses (assessed by oxymetric and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements) upon the concomitant modulation of light intensity as well as acetate, CO2, nitrate and ammonium concentrations in the culture medium of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The main goals of these analyses were to explain response variability (i.e. bioenergetic plasticity) and to characterize quantitatively the influence of the major explanatory factor(s). Results: For each response, 2 successive rounds of multiple regression coupled to one-way ANOVA F-tests have been undertaken to select the major explanatory factor(s) (1st-round) and mathematically simulate their influence (2nd-round). These analyses reveal that a maximal number of 3 environmental factors over 5 is sufficient to explain most of the response variability, and interestingly highlight quadratic effects and second-order interactions in some cases. In parallel, the predictive ability of the 2nd-round models has also been investigated by k-fold cross-validation and experimental validation tests on new random combinations of factors. These validation procedures tend to indicate that the 2nd-round models can also be used to predict the responses with an inherent deviation quantified by the analytical error of the models. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of the 2 rounds of modeling provide an overview of the bioenergetic adaptations of C. reinhardtii to changing environmental conditions and point out promising tracks for future in-depth investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the present observations. [less ▲]

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See detailNormal reference ranges for echocardiography: do we really need more?
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(3), 253-4

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See detailAmantadine, Apomorphine and Zolpidem in the Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Thonnard, Marie ULg et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2014), 20

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to ... [more ▼]

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes in the neurological status in patients, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition. [less ▲]

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See detailDioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls contamination in poultry liver related to food safety - A review
Ghimpeteanu, Oana-Margarita; Militaru, Manuella; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg

in Food Control (2014), 38

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated ... [more ▼]

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with high chemical stability; they are lipophilic compounds and they are not destroyed by microbial, photochemical, chemical or thermal degradation. Dioxins and PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which are present in all marine plant and animals, birds, mammals and humans and bioaccumulate through the food chain. In the last years, there has been concern regarding food contamination with different chemical substances and their effect on food safety. More particularly, at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, there were a series of incidents related to dioxin and PCBs, which directly affected human or contaminated the soil and accumulated in feed and then in food products, such as poultry liver. It was shown in case of dioxin incident that tetra and penta-chlorinated congeners (the most toxic ones) accumulates selectively in poultry livers. Maximal concentrations have been fixed in the European legislation for dioxins and PCBs in food from animal origin, in order to protect the consumer. Data about background poultry liver contamination are scarce and the few available show levels below the legal limit for dioxins, but data are still lacking for DL-PCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu : Michel FRANCARD, Wallon, picard, gaumais, champenois. Les langues régionales de Wallonie
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Wallonnes : Chronique de la Société de Langue et de Littérature Wallonnes (2014)

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See detailConcomitant manipulation of NMDA- and AMPA-receptors to produce pro-cognitive drug effects
Vignisse, Julie ULg; Steinbusch, Harry W.M.; Grigoriev, Vladimir et al

in European Neuropsychopharmacology (2014), 24

Bifunctional drug therapy targeting distinct receptor signaling systems can generate increased efficacy at lower concentrations compared to monofunctional therapy. Non-competitive blockade of the NMDA ... [more ▼]

Bifunctional drug therapy targeting distinct receptor signaling systems can generate increased efficacy at lower concentrations compared to monofunctional therapy. Non-competitive blockade of the NMDA receptors or the potentiation of AMPA receptors is well documented to result in memory enhancement. Here, we compared the efficacy of the low-affinity NMDA receptor blocker memantine or the positive modulator of AMPA receptor QXX (in C57BL/6J at 1 or 5 mg/kg, ip) with new derivatives of isothiourea (0.5-1 mg/kg, ip) that have bifunctional efficacy. Low-affinity NMDA blockade by these derivatives was achieved by introducing greater flexibility into the molecule, and AMPA receptor stimulation was produced by a sulfamide-containing derivative of isothiourea. Contextual learning was examined in a step-down avoidance task and extinction of contextual memory was studied in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Memantine enhanced contextual learning while QXX facilitated memory extinction; both drugs were effective at 5 mg/kg. The new derivative IPAC-5 elevated memory scores in both tasks at the dose 0.5 mg/Kg and exhibited the lowest IC50 values of NMDA receptor blockade and highest potency of AMPA receptor stimulation. Thus, among the new drugs tested, IPAC-5 plicated the properties of memantine and QXX in one administration with increased potency. Our data suggest that a concomitant manipulation of NMDA- and AMPA-receptors results in pro-cognitive effects and supports the concept bifunctional drug therapy as a promising strategy to replace monofunctional therapies with greater efficacy and improved compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailChromera velia, Endosymbioses and the Rhodoplex Hypothesis - Plastid Evolution in Cryptophytes, Alveolates, Stramenopiles and Haptophytes (CASH Lineages)
Petersen, Jörn; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria et al

in Genome Biology and Evolution (2014)

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we compared the molecular footprints of a eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbiosis in C. velia to their equivalents in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (PCD) to re- evaluate recent claims in favor of a common ancestry of their plastids. To this end, we established the draft genome and a set of full-length cDNA sequences from C. velia via next- generation sequencing. We documented the presence of a single coxI gene in the mitochondrial genome, which thus represents the genetically most reduced aerobic organelle identified so far, but focused our analyses on five “lucky genes” of the Calvin cycle. These were selected because of their known support for a common origin of complex plastids from cryptophytes, alveolates (represented by PCDs), stramenopiles and haptophytes (CASH) via a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga. As expected, our broadly sampled phylogenies of the nuclear- encoded Calvin cycle markers support a rhodophycean origin for the complex plastid of Chromera. However, they also suggest an independent origin of apicomplexan and dinophycean (PCD) plastids via two eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. Although at odds with the current view of a common photosynthetic ancestry for alveolates, this conclusion is nonetheless in line with the deviant plastome architecture in dinoflagellates and the morphological paradox of four versus three plastid membranes in the respective lineages. Further support for independent endosymbioses is provided by analysis of five additional markers, four of them involved in the plastid protein import machinery. Finally, we introduce the “rhodoplex hypothesis” as a convenient way to designate evolutionary scenarios where CASH plastids are ultimately the product of a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga, but were subsequently horizontally spread via higher-order eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.
Kpoviessi, Salome; Bero, Joanne; Agbani, Pierre et al

in Journal of ethnopharmacology (2014), 151

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of ... [more ▼]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. RESULTS: All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citraus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, beta-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by the presence of trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by beta-citronellal, nerol, beta-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and beta-eudesmol. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can be a good source of antitrypanosomal agents. This is the first report on the activity of these essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and analysis of their cytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailSnijders’ correction of Infit and Outfit indexes with estimated ability level : an analysis with the Rasch model
Magis, David ULg; Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles

in Journal of Applied Measurement (2014), 15

The Infit mean square W and the Outfit mean square U are commonly used person fit indexes under Rasch measurement. However, they suffer from two major weaknesses. First, their asymptotic distribution is ... [more ▼]

The Infit mean square W and the Outfit mean square U are commonly used person fit indexes under Rasch measurement. However, they suffer from two major weaknesses. First, their asymptotic distribution is usually derived by assuming that the true ability levels are known. Second, such distributions are even not clearly stated for indexes U and W. Both issues can seriously affect the selection of an appropriate cut-score for person fit identification. Snijders (2001) proposed a general approach to correct some person fit indexes when specific ability estimators are used. The purpose of this paper is to adapt this approach to U and W indexes. First, a brief sketch of the methodology and its application to U and W is proposed. Then, the corrected indexes are compared to their classical versions through a simulation study. The suggested correction yields controlled Type I errors against both conservatism and inflation, while the power to detect specific misfitting response patterns gets significantly increased. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening for malnutrition in lung cancer patients undergoing therapy
BARTHELEMY, Nicole ULg; Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg et al

in Supportive Care in Cancer (2014)

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See detailLe temps de la reflexion... a propos de la demographie medicale et de la demographie "societale".
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69(1), 1-3

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See detailJupiter's Magnetotail
Krupp, Norbert; Kronberg, Elena; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg

in AGU Monograph (2014)

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See detailPulmonary rehabilitation and COPD: providing patients a good environment for optimizing therapy.
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; NGUYEN DANG, Delphine ULg; VAN CAUWENBERGE, Hélène ULg et al

in International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2014), 9

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive and progressive airway disease associated with an important reduction in daily physical activity and psychological problems that contribute ... [more ▼]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive and progressive airway disease associated with an important reduction in daily physical activity and psychological problems that contribute to the patient's disability and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Nowadays, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) plays an essential role in the management of symptomatic patients with COPD, by breaking the vicious circle of dyspnea-decreased activity-deconditioning-isolation. Indeed the main benefits of comprehensive PR programs for patients with COPD include a decrease in symptoms (dyspnea and fatigue), improvements in exercise tolerance and HRQoL, reduction of health care utilization (particularly bed-days), as well as an increase in physical activity. Several randomized studies and meta-analyses greatly established the benefits of PR, which additionally, is recommended in a number of influential guidelines. This review aimed to highlight the impact of PR on COPD patients, focusing on the clinical usefulness of PR, which provides patients a good support for change. [less ▲]

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See detailCombating the dual burden: therapeutic targeting of common pathways in obesity and type 2 diabetes
SCHEEN, André ULg; Van Gaal, Luc

in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2014)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent ... [more ▼]

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent inflammation, abnormal hormone secretion, and various metabolic disturbances that contribute to insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects, resulting in type 2 diabetes, and induce a toxic pattern that leads to cardiovascular disease, liver pathologies, and cancer. Despite the importance of weight control strategies in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, long-term results from lifestyle or drug interventions are generally disappointing. Furthermore, most of the classic glucose-lowering drugs have a side-effect of weight gain, which renders the management of most overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes even more challenging. Many anti-obesity pharmacological drugs targeting central control of appetite were withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor orlistat was the only anti-obesity drug available until the recent US, but not European, launch of phentermine–controlled-release topiramate and lorcaserin. Improved knowledge about bodyweight regulation opens new prospects for the potential use of peptides derived from the gut or the adipose tissue. Combination therapy will probably be necessary to avoid compensatory mechanisms and potentiate initial weight loss while avoiding weight regain. New glucose-lowering treatments, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, offer advantages over traditional antidiabetic drugs by promoting weight loss while improving glucose control. In this Review, we explore the overlapping pathophysiology and also how various treatments can, alone or in combination, combat the dual burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand le savoir s'emmêle... La construction discursive de la norme chez les locuteurs non experts
Meunier, Deborah ULg; Rosier, Laurence

in Carnets du Cediscor (2014), 12

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See detailExternal constraints on optical control strategies in molecular orientation and photofragmentation: role of zero-area fields
Sugny, Dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Journal of Modern Optics (2014), 61

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See detailInteractions of lipases with milk fat globule membrane monolayers using a Langmuir film balance
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

in International Dairy Journal (2014), 35(1), 81-87

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See detailContinuity amid change in India’s political economy: from “socialist” to “neoliberal” India.
Maiorano, Diego ULg

in Economic and Political Weekly (2014)

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More specifically, this paper will argue that the economic policies promoted by the central government between 1980 and 2004 – irrespective of the political party heading the Cabinet – mostly benefited the middle class and the corporate sector, while the poor and the rural world were clearly relegated to a secondary position in the governments’ policy priorities. The paper will highlight six important lines of continuity in India’s economic policy and will argue that if we look at who the “winner” and the “losers” of these policy processes are, the economic reforms of the early 1990s do not separate two different phases of India’s development path. From this point of view the election of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in 2004 might constitute a more important break with the past. [less ▲]

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