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See detailLe phénotype d’Akhenaton ; revue critique entre canons artistiques et expression pathologique.
JEDIDI, Zayd ULg; JEDIDI, Haroun ULg; LAVEAUX, Elisabeth ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (in press)

Of all the royal families of ancient or modern fame, few are as iconic as the eighteenth dynasty of pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt, whose opulence and deeds we are still familiar to nearly 3,500 ... [more ▼]

Of all the royal families of ancient or modern fame, few are as iconic as the eighteenth dynasty of pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt, whose opulence and deeds we are still familiar to nearly 3,500 years after their time. Tenth pharaoh of this dynasty and father of Tutankhamun, Akhenaten (Amenhotep/Amenhotep IV) still fascinates Egyptologists and history lovers through the many questions surrounding his atypical rule. One of the most striking aspects of the so-called Amarna period concerns the representations of the pharaoh himself, very confusing compared to the traditional iconography of the New Kingdom. These intriguing portraits of Pharaoh raised a whole lot of medical assumptions, more or less substantiated. We review here the main theories developed throughout history. [less ▲]

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See detailA multifractal formalism for non-concave and non-increasing spectra: the leaders profile method
Esser, Céline ULg; Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

in Applied & Computational Harmonic Analysis (in press)

We present an implementation of a multifractal formalism based on the types of histogram of wavelet leaders. This method yields non-concave spectra and is not limited to their increasing part. We show ... [more ▼]

We present an implementation of a multifractal formalism based on the types of histogram of wavelet leaders. This method yields non-concave spectra and is not limited to their increasing part. We show both from the theoretical and from the applied points of view that this approach is more e cient than the wavelet-based multifractal formalisms previously introduced. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecies delimitation in the recalcitrant moss genus Rhynchostegiella (Brachytheciaceae)
Patiño, J.; Hedenäs, L.; Dirkse, G. et al

in Taxon (in press)

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See detailDevelopment trajectory of an integrated framework for the mitigation of future flood risk: results from the FloodLand project
Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg et al

in Transportation Letters: The International Journal of Transportation Research (in press)

In this paper, the development trajectory of an integrated framework for the mitigation of future flood risk of the Ourthe river basin in Belgium is discussed. The paper contributes to the state-of-the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the development trajectory of an integrated framework for the mitigation of future flood risk of the Ourthe river basin in Belgium is discussed. The paper contributes to the state-of-the-art by presenting an integrated multidisciplinary framework capable of making long-term projections (time horizon 2050 and 2100) with the objective of mitigating future flood risk by proposing alternative land-use scenarios. It bridges numerous different fields, including urban planning, transport engineering, hydrology, geology, environmental engineering, and economics. The overall design and validation results of the different sub-modules of the framework are presented, and ongoing and future enhancements are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a woman portrait behind La Violoniste by Kees Van Dongen through hyperspectral imaging
Herens, Elodie ULg; Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Walter, Philippe et al

in Heritage Science (in press)

Despite the fact that Kees Van Dongen was one of the most famous painter of the 20th century, only little information about his palette and his technique is available. To contribute to the ... [more ▼]

Despite the fact that Kees Van Dongen was one of the most famous painter of the 20th century, only little information about his palette and his technique is available. To contribute to the characterization of Van Dongen's painting materials, La Violoniste, painted by the artist around 1923, has been analyzed by using three complementary techniques: macro X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF), Raman spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. The elemental repartition given by MA-XRF and the results obtained thanks to Raman spectroscopy help us to complete the identification of pigments contained in La Violoniste (lead white, iron oxides, cadmium yellow, vermilion, Prussian blue, titanium white, ultramarine, a chromium pigment and carbon black) while the results obtained via hyperspectral imaging reveal a hidden woman portrait. Besides the fact that Kees Van Dongen was particularly renowned for his female portraits, this hidden composition presents obvious stylistic similarities with the well-known portraits produced by the artist during his Parisian stay (starting from 1899). Thanks to Raman spectroscopy, visual examination and MA-XRF, we show that the original background contains ultramarine, the hidden portrait's clothes are probably made of the same colour as the present violinist's dress and her carnation contains zinc, contrary to the violinist's flesh which is mainly made of lead white. [less ▲]

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See detailCan electoral inequalities be legally justified?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in European Review of Public Law (in press), 2016(Automn),

In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally ... [more ▼]

In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally among the governed people, and others that tend to distribute it unequally. The inequality caused by the latter group may be to some extent legally justified by concerns for the general interest, but also provides rulers with means that help them to remain in power, which is hardly justifiable from a legal perspective. In these legal systems, parties are expected to gain a significant portion of the people’s support: not only should the parliament (as a whole) and its members (as individuals) represent the governed people, but the parties themselves are expected to be sufficiently representative of the people in order to access the legislative assemblies. Notably, this thesis draws examples from the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, from which relevant decisions are mentioned here. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights on the Picasso’s Blue Period painting La famille Soler through non-invasive imaging and analytical techniques
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Walter, Philippe; Rousselière, Hélène et al

in Studies in Conservation (in press)

The material study of La Famille Soler through non-invasive imaging, molecular, structural and elemental techniques, permitted a relevant re-examination of this singular blue period painting, which is ... [more ▼]

The material study of La Famille Soler through non-invasive imaging, molecular, structural and elemental techniques, permitted a relevant re-examination of this singular blue period painting, which is considered as the earliest Picasso’s version of Le déjeuner sur l’herbe by E. Manet. On the one hand, it was concluded that the underlying landscape painted by Vidal in 1903 referred to Manet’s masterpiece. On the other hand, it was assumed that the cubist sketch undertaken by Picasso in 1912, prior to the current blue background, consists of an uncompleted transformation of Vidal’s landscape into synthetic cubism. Additionally, the main pigments associated to the underlying compositions were successfully identified. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on Water Productivity of Winter Wheat Based on MODIS and SEBAL in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China
Yang, Jian-ying; HUO, Zhi-guo; Wu, Ding-rong et al

in Chinese Journal of Agrometeorology (in press)

Understanding how the productivity of water can be increased is widely accepted to be a high priority where water resources are currently scarce and/or over-exploited in China. As the primary data source ... [more ▼]

Understanding how the productivity of water can be increased is widely accepted to be a high priority where water resources are currently scarce and/or over-exploited in China. As the primary data source, MODIS remote sensing, statistics, meteorological data, crop growth period data and ground truth-data from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were used in actual evapotranspiration estimation, yields rasterizing, and water productivity calculation for winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain). The statistical data were synthesized to calculate district-state-level land productivity, which is then further extrapolated to pixel-level values using a MODIS NDVI image, based on a crop dominance map. Spatial variation of crop water productivity was investigated in order to reveal the key factors of crop water productivity. In addition, the relationship between water productivity and actual evapotranspiration and in subsequence yield for winter wheat was discussed in 3H Plain. The main results indicated that the SEBAL is suitable for estimating evapotranspiration in winter wheat based on the comparation between evapotranspiration measured by Yucheng (in Shandong province). The regional average value of water productivity for winter wheat was detected to be 1.21kg·m-3, with the higher value in Beijing, Tianjin, north part of Shandong province and south part of Hebei province. The pronounced relationship of spatial correlation of the yield and water productivity for winter wheat indicated that the increasing yield governed the increment of water productivity for winter wheat in the coastal land-farming-fishing area (zone1), low plain-hydropenia irrigable land and dry land zone (zone2) and basin- irrigable land and dry land (zone5). The increasing water productivity for winter wheat was recognized to be controlled by rather the increment of yield than the reduction of actual evapotranspiration for winter wheat in the piedmont plain-irrigable land (zone2). Whereas, the pronounced relationship of negative correlation of water productivity and actual evapotranspiration for winter wheat described that only the reduction of actual evapotranspiration was responsible for the increment of water productivity for winter wheat in hill-wet hot paddy-paddy field (zone6). The results is expected to provide a basis information for agricultural water management, improvement of crop water productivity and choice of adaptive mechanism under climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai plain. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of an experimental resource pulse on the macrofaunal assemblage inhabiting seagrass macrophytodetritus
Remy, François ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (in press)

Physical disturbances and resource pulses are major structuring drivers of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The accumulations of exported dead leaves from the Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L ... [more ▼]

Physical disturbances and resource pulses are major structuring drivers of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The accumulations of exported dead leaves from the Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are ephemeral and highly dynamic detrital habitats offering food sources and shelter for vagile macrofauna community. These habitats are frequently subject to wind and storms which can add “new” detrital material to previous accumulations; these can be defined as resource pulses and could potentially impact the associated macrofauna. This study assesses the impact of an experimental resource pulse on the macrofauna associated with exported P. oceanica litter accumulations. The experimental design consisted of two pulse treatments (the addition of dead leaves with and without the associated fauna), and two controls (one procedural, and one total control), where the added material was left underwater for 14 days. Invertebrates then present in the sampled detritus were all identified and counted. Our data suggest that the responses of these invertebrates to resource pulses present intermediate characteristics between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems responses. Inputting a moderate amount of dead P. oceanica leaves into experimental mesocosms had a non-negligible impact and rapidly affected the macrofauna community. Specialist detritivores species were boosted while herbivore/detritivore species dramatically decreased. Predators also showed a modest but significant density increase, demonstrating the fast propagation of the pulse response throughout the entire community and through several trophic levels. Strict hypoxia-tolerant species were also only observed in the treated mesocosms, indicating the strong influence of resource pulses on physico-chemical conditions occurring inside litter accumulations. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological zoonotic emerging risks, transmitted between livestock animals and humans (2007-2015)
Filippitzi, ME; Goumperis, T; Robinson, T et al

in Transboundary and emerging diseases (in press)

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See detailIdentification of bacterial strains isolated from the traditional date product "Btana" produced in south regions of Algeria
Abekhti, Abdelkader; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Kihal, Mabrouk et al

in Folia Microbiologica (in press)

Eleven samples of the traditional date product " Btana" prepared by direct (DBM) and indirect method (UBM) were analysed to characterize their bacterial diversity. A total of 42 representative isolates ... [more ▼]

Eleven samples of the traditional date product " Btana" prepared by direct (DBM) and indirect method (UBM) were analysed to characterize their bacterial diversity. A total of 42 representative isolates have been chosen for molecular identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the presence of 20 species within 30.9% belonged to the genus Bacillus, 28.6% of the Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus genus. Within the minority represented species, two isolates were identified as Paenibacillus (isolated from UBM exclusively), Streptococci salivarius, Lactobacillus sakei and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Preliminary results indicate that IBM is more selective for spore former bacilli contrary to DBM that show more diversity in the bacterial flora with a prevalence of Enterococcus. API ZYM test showed that the bacilli species have a weak hydrolase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailOutcome after failure of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with acute leukemia: a study by the Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC)
Rorhlich; Roux, C; Tifratene, K et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (in press)

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) contributes to improved outcome in childhood acute leukemia (AL). However, therapeutic options are poorly defined in case of post-transplantation ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) contributes to improved outcome in childhood acute leukemia (AL). However, therapeutic options are poorly defined in case of post-transplantation relapse. We aimed to compare treatment strategies in 334 consecutive children with acute leukemia relapse or progression after SCT in a recent ten-year period. Data could be analyzed in 288 patients (157 ALL, 123 AML and 8 biphenotypic AL) with a median age of 8.16 years at transplantation. The median delay from first SCT to relapse or progression was 182 days. The treatment consisted in chemotherapy alone (n=108), chemotherapy followed by second SCT (n=70), supportive/palliative care (n=67), combination of chemotherapy and DLI (n=30), or isolated reinfusion of donor lymphocytes (DLI) (n=13). The median OS duration after relapse was 164 days and differed according to therapy: DLI after chemotherapy = 385 d, second allograft = 391d, chemotherapy = 174d, DLI alone = 140d, palliative care = 43d. A second SCT or a combination of chemotherapy and donor lymphocytes infusion yielded similar outcome (HR=0.85, p=0.53) unlike chemotherapy alone (HR 1.43 p=0.04), palliative care (HR=4.24, p<0.0001) or isolated DLI (HR=1,94, p<0.04). Despite limitations in this retrospective setting, strategies including immunointervention appear superior to other approaches, mostly in AML. [less ▲]

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See detailArtù italiano e iberico. Appunti in margine ai volumi VII e VIII di ALMA
Morato, Nicola ULg

in Revista de Literatura Medieval (in press), 28

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See detailNégocier une majorité politique et devenir bourgmestre en Belgique. Quelles influences des droits régionaux ?
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Revue Régionale de Droit (in press)

Depuis 2001, les Régions sont compétentes en matière d’organisation et d’élection des pouvoirs locaux. Elles ont adopté des règles différentes. Dans quelle mesure ces règles influencent-elles la ... [more ▼]

Depuis 2001, les Régions sont compétentes en matière d’organisation et d’élection des pouvoirs locaux. Elles ont adopté des règles différentes. Dans quelle mesure ces règles influencent-elles la négociation d’une majorité politique et la désignation des bourgmestres en Belgique ? Afin de répondre à cette question, des entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés avec plusieurs bourgmestres et échevin issus de communes localisées dans les trois Régions. Des différences entre Régions mais également au sein de celles-ci ont été relevées. Les dispositions relatives au mode de désignation du bourgmestre sont primordiales pour comprendre les dynamiques de négociations politiques. Au final, cet article tisse les liens entre les normes juridiques et les jeux des acteurs politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailLa traduction dans le domaine hagiographique médiolatin : l’apport de la linguistique quantitative
Philippart de Foy, Caroline ULg

in Rursus (in press), 9

Au fil des siècles, le corpus latin des vitae sanctorum et des passiones martyrum s’est enrichi par l’introduction de nouveaux textes, par la réécriture et l’adaptation d’anciens remis au goût du jour ... [more ▼]

Au fil des siècles, le corpus latin des vitae sanctorum et des passiones martyrum s’est enrichi par l’introduction de nouveaux textes, par la réécriture et l’adaptation d’anciens remis au goût du jour, ainsi que par la traduction d’oeuvres issues du monde byzantin. Le phénomène de la réécriture hagiographique est bien connu et a fait l’objet de nombreux travaux. Celui de la traduction dans ce domaine reste en revanche peu exploité, tant il existe d’obstacles à son étude (absence de répertoire, manque d’éditions critiques, difficultés à identifier les traductions et les modèles grecs, etc.). Le présent travail propose une approche originale du phénomène, basée sur l’utilisation de la statistique linguistique. Cette approche consiste à étudier le latin utilisé par les traducteurs hagiographes pour rendre leur modèle grec et les techniques qu’ils ont adoptées pour le traduire en considérant les traductions non pas une à une, mais d’une manière comparative au moyen de l’analyse quantitative, dans le but de caractériser et de classer les traductions sur base de critères linguistiques, d’identifier et de qualifier des pratiques, des traditions localisées, des spécificités d’école ou de traducteur. La pratique de la traduction est examinée à travers un corpus de 35 textes représentatif des différentes phases de l’histoire de la traduction hagiographique latine au Moyen Âge et des différents foyers de traduction en Italie. Les analyses sont menées sur divers paramètres lexicaux et syntaxiques, en comparant d’abord le corpus, pris dans son ensemble, à un corpus de textes non traduits, puis en comparant entre eux les différents sous-corpus de traductions. Le premier type de comparaison (externe) a pour objectif de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques des traductions en général, le second (interne) de dégager les spécificités de chaque groupe de traductions. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the phase behaviour of oxetane-CO2 and propargylic alcohols-CO2 binary mixtures by in situ infrared micro-spectrometry
Zaky, Mohamed; Boyaval, Amélie ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Supercritical Fluids (in press)

The phase behaviour of carbon dioxide/propargylic alcohols and carbon dioxide/oxetanes mixtures has been investigated using in-situ FTIR microspectrometry that allows us determining the evolution of the ... [more ▼]

The phase behaviour of carbon dioxide/propargylic alcohols and carbon dioxide/oxetanes mixtures has been investigated using in-situ FTIR microspectrometry that allows us determining the evolution of the concentration of each component in the liquid phase as a function of temperature and pressure. It was at the same time possible to look inside the cell and to visualize the expansion of the liquid phase during the increase of the pressure. The measurements were performed at three different temperatures (40, 70 and 100◦C) for pressures ranging between 0.1 and 15 MPa. Propargylic alcohol (PA), 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBOL), 3-butyn-1-ol (BOL) and trimethylene oxide (TMO) were selected as these molecules are used in the synthesis of cyclic or polycarbonates by coupling with CO2. Thus, we determined the CO2 sorption and the concentration of the substrate in the liquid phase. Thanks to these measurements, we established the pressure-composition phase diagram for the liquid phase of these substrate/CO2 binary mixtures. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental passive flutter suppression using a linear tuned vibration absorber
Verstraelen, Edouard ULg; Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in AIAA Journal (in press)

The current drive for increased efficiency in aeronautic structures such as aircraft, wind turbine blades and helicopter blades often leads to weight reduction. A con- sequence of this tendency can be ... [more ▼]

The current drive for increased efficiency in aeronautic structures such as aircraft, wind turbine blades and helicopter blades often leads to weight reduction. A con- sequence of this tendency can be increased flexibility, which in turn can lead to un- favourable aeroelastic phenomena involving large amplitude oscillations and non- linear effects such as geometric hardening and stall flutter. Vibration mitigation is one of the approaches currently under study for avoiding these phenomena. In the present work, passive vibration mitigation is applied to a nonlinear experimental aeroelastic system by means of a linear tuned vibration absorber. The aeroelastic apparatus is a pitch and flap wing that features a continuously hardening restoring torque in pitch and a linear restoring torque in flap. Extensive analysis of the sys- tem with and without absorber at pre-critical and post-critical airspeeds showed an improvement in flutter speed of around 36%, a suppression of a jump due to stall flutter, and a reduction in LCO amplitude. Mathematical modelling of the exper- imental system is used to demonstrate that optimal flutter delay is achieved when two of the system modes flutter at the same flight condition. Nevertheless, even this optimal absorber quickly loses effectiveness as it is detuned. The wind tunnel mea- surements showed that the tested absorbers were much slower to lose effectiveness than those of the mathematical predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailLe populisme aux Etats-Unis
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (in press)

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See detail"'Vive la rose' in Newfoundland: from Alien to Emblem'
Peere, Isabelle ULg

in B.A.S.I.S International Ballad Studies (in press)

This paper traces the song in European tradition through to its ‘revival’ in the 1960s. It analyses Emile’ Benoît's textual and musical recreation of it in the light of my own and other fieldworkers’ ... [more ▼]

This paper traces the song in European tradition through to its ‘revival’ in the 1960s. It analyses Emile’ Benoît's textual and musical recreation of it in the light of my own and other fieldworkers’ accounts of his personality, ethos and creative talent in tradition. The study traces the song's course and progress in Newfoundland, following in the steps of French-Canadian ethno-historian Ronald Labelle’s suggestion that ‘Vive la Rose’ has come to function as identity emblem for Newfoundland’s francophone minority – and even as its representative throughout French-Canada and especially Acadia. [less ▲]

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See detailPilgrimage Certificates from the Mamluk Period: New Data
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (in press)

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See detailComment la participation à une recherche contribue au développement professionnel : le cas des exemples à l’Université
Fossion, Gilles ULg; Faulx, Daniel ULg

in Recherches Qualitatives (in press)

La recherche scientifique constitue un des piliers centraux de l’activité universitaire. Nous nous sommes donc questionnés sur les apprentissages générés par celle-ci. Après avoir brièvement décrit les ... [more ▼]

La recherche scientifique constitue un des piliers centraux de l’activité universitaire. Nous nous sommes donc questionnés sur les apprentissages générés par celle-ci. Après avoir brièvement décrit les objectifs et enjeux de cette communication, nous proposons une présentation des objectifs et de la méthodologie de la recherche que nous avons menée au sein des Facultés de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Éducation de l’Université de Liège. Nous poursuivons, enfin, par la mise en évidence de ses principaux résultats. Ces résultats se situent sur deux niveaux. D’une part, nous présentons les résultats inhérents à la recherche - relative aux impacts générés par la mobilisation de l’exemple au sein du discours pédagogique - et qui contribue à l’enrichissement du champ scientifique abordé. D’autre part, nous abordons les résultats qui permettent la mise en évidence de l’aspect formatif que revêt la participation à une recherche scientifique pour les acteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailMartin Heidegger, Extrait du dernier cours de Marbourg
Pieron, Julien ULg

in Philosophie (in press)

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See detailOutbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in southwest Niger
Kouato; Fana, EM; King, DP et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (in press)

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See detailNeeds-Supplies Fit and Behavioral Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification
Travaglianti, Fabrice ULg; Babic, Audrey ULg; Pepermans, Roland et al

in Journal of Management & Organization (in press)

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See detailChemokine neutralization as an innovative therapeutic strategy for atopic dermatitis
Abboud, Dayana ULg; Hanson, Julien ULg

in Drug Discovery Today (in press)

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See detailSacred Alliance or Pact with the Devil? How and Why Social Enterprises Collaborate with Mainstream Businesses in the Fair Trade Sector
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Nicholls, Alex; Edinger, Katharina

in Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (in press)

This paper uses institutional theory to highlight different patterns of cross-sector collaboration from the perspective of social enterprises. Specifically, it explores how and why social enterprises ... [more ▼]

This paper uses institutional theory to highlight different patterns of cross-sector collaboration from the perspective of social enterprises. Specifically, it explores how and why social enterprises interact with mainstream businesses and to what extent their collaboration patterns reflect a vision of how their social mission should be implemented and institutionalized. The empirical analysis is derived from a qualitative study of ‘fair trade’ – a hybrid model created by social enterprises and using market mechanisms to support small-scale producers in developing countries and to advocate for changes in international trading practices. The findings highlight three strategies used by fair trade social enterprises to manage their interactions with mainstream businesses: sector solidarity, selective engagement, and active appropriation. This paper suggests that each strategy is motivated by a different vision of how best to articulate the social mission of fair trade via specific types of collaborations. It also notes how each vision has a distinct pattern of institutionalization at the field level. This paper adds to the emergent literatures on social enterprise and social entrepreneurship, fair trade, cross-sector collaboration and hybrid organizing. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalyzed coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates: catalyst design and mechanistic studies
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Méreau, Raphaël et al

in Catalysis Science & Technology (in press)

The coupling of carbon dioxide (CO2) with epoxides with the formation of cyclic carbonates is a highly attractive 100% atom economy reaction. It represents a greener and safer alternative to the ... [more ▼]

The coupling of carbon dioxide (CO2) with epoxides with the formation of cyclic carbonates is a highly attractive 100% atom economy reaction. It represents a greener and safer alternative to the conventional synthesis of cyclic carbonates from diols and toxic phosgene. Today, cyclic carbonates find many applications as intermediates for fine chemicals synthesis, as electrolytes in Li-ion batteries, and polar aprotic solvents, but also serve for the synthesis of important polymers such as polycarbonates and polyurethanes. In view of their broad scope and their strong economic potential, there is a strong need to improve their synthesis and decrease their production costs. However, CO2 is a thermodynamically stable molecule, the use of catalysts is therefore mandatory for activating and facilitating the CO2/epoxide coupling reaction in a selective manner and under mild conditions. Recently organocatalysts deserved more and more interest in this field, and are viewed as alternatives to metal-based ones. Enormous progress has been made these last years to boost their performances, and some organocatalysts are now very competitive, cheap, readily available and exhibit good chemical stability towards moisture, water and air. This review is focusing on the recent advances in the development of metal-free organocatalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates by CO2/epoxide coupling. Most of the state-of-the art organocatalysts used for this reaction are discussed, with a special emphasis to highlight the various routes employed to boost their performances. Their mode of action is also reported based on mechanistic considerations, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that are becoming essential tools for modern catalysts design. Such detailed understanding of the mechanisms involving CO2 transformation should pave the way towards the definition of new modes of activation for converting CO2 with a large scope of substrates into various chemicals, monomers and polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of metal distribution in hypersaline microbialites during early diagenesis: Implications for the fossil record
Sforna, Marie-Catherine ULg; Daye, Mirna; Philippot, Pascal et al

in Geobiology (in press)

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See detailLe pouvoir judiciaire et l'équilibre des pouvoirs : réflexions à propos des récentes réformes
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Pironnet, Quentin ULg

in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (in press)

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See detailNo post-no core approach to restore severely damaged posterior teeth: An up to 10-year retrospective study of documented endocrown cases
BELLEFLAMME, Marcia ULg; Geerts, Sabine ULg; LOUWETTE, Marie ULg et al

in Journal of Dentistry (in press)

Objectives The objectives of the present study were to (1) retrospectively evaluate documented cases of ceramic and composite endocrowns performed using immediate dentin sealing (IDS); (2) correlate ... [more ▼]

Objectives The objectives of the present study were to (1) retrospectively evaluate documented cases of ceramic and composite endocrowns performed using immediate dentin sealing (IDS); (2) correlate failures with clinical parameters such as tooth preparation characteristics and occlusal parameters. Methods 99 documented cases of endocrowns were evaluated after a mean observation period of 44.7 ± 34.6 months. A classification of restorations was established in function of the level of damage of residual tooth tissues after preparation, from 1 to 3. Evaluation was performed according to FDI criteria and endodontic outcomes were analyzed. Occlusal risk factors were examined and fractographic analysis was performed in case of fracture. Results 48.4% of patients were shown to present occlusal risk factors. 75.8% of restorations were Class 3 endocrowns. 56.6% were performed on molars, 41.4% on premolars and 2.0% on canines. 84.8% were performed in lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic and 12.1% in Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network (PICN) material. The survival and success rates of endocrowns were 99.0% and 89.9% respectively, while the 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimated survival and success rates were 98.8% and 54.9% respectively. Ten failures were detected: periodontal disease (n = 3), endocrown debonding (n = 2), minor chipping (n = 2), caries recurrence (n = 2) and major fractures (n = 1). Due to the reduced amount of failures, no statistical correlation could be established with clinical parameters. Conclusions Endocrowns were shown to constitute a reliable approach to restore severely damaged molars and premolars, even in the presence of extensive coronal tissue loss or occlusal risk factors, such as bruxism or unfavorable occlusal relationships. Clinical significance Practitioners should consider the endocrown instead of the post and core approach to restore severely damaged non-vital posterior teeth. This minimally invasive solution reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and is easily performed. The use of IDS procedure and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic as prosthesis material gave very good results. [less ▲]

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See detailSiblings and the coming out process: a comparative case study
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg; Cerezo, Alison; Bergfeld, Jeanette et al

in Journal of Homosexuality (in press)

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See detailEffect of different parameters on composition of volatile components of Myristica fragrans seeds extracted by hydrodistillation assisted by microwave and head-space solid-phase microextraction
Bouchachia, C; Benkaci-Ali, F; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (in press)

Hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM) and Head space solid phase micro-extraction (HSSPME) of Myristica fragrans houtt (MF) were investigated. A kinetic study was performed for MF seeds using two ... [more ▼]

Hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM) and Head space solid phase micro-extraction (HSSPME) of Myristica fragrans houtt (MF) were investigated. A kinetic study was performed for MF seeds using two techniques (HDAM: Hydrodistillation assisted by microwave and SDAM: steam distillation assisted by microwave). The effect of the cryogenic grinding (CG) showed differences in yields and composition of volatile oils compared to the simple grinding (SG). HDAM–SG (3.4%) and SDAM–SG (2.55%) allowed extraction of substantial amounts of volatile oils in less time compared with HDAM–CG (4.75%) and SDAM–CG (3.8%). The kinetic study (differential and accumulated yields) of essential oil extraction was quantitatively and qualitatively performed showing a significant variation of composition with the extraction time, especially for accumulated yields such as sabinene (31.48–38.78%), α-pinene (12.74–14.09%) and β-pinene (10.01–12.11%). Similarly, the HS-SPME–GC–MS analysis showed also a significant variation of MF seeds volatile composition according some parameters as the type of fibre coating (PDMS: Polydimethylsiloxane and PDMS– DVB: Polydimethylsiloxane divenylbenzene), particle size, grinding mode and the mass used. The chemical groups (monoterpenoids, aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and esters) showed specific behaviour in SPME analysis. SPME sampling parameters were optimized for these components. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing the times of past and future personal events
Ben Malek, Mohamed Hedi ULg; Berna, Fabrice; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Memory (in press)

Humans have the remarkable ability to mentally travel through past and future times. However, while memory for the times of past events has been much investigated, little is known about how imagined ... [more ▼]

Humans have the remarkable ability to mentally travel through past and future times. However, while memory for the times of past events has been much investigated, little is known about how imagined future events are temporally located. Using a think-aloud protocol, we found that the temporal location of past and future events is rarely directly accessed, but instead mostly relies on reconstructive and inferential strategies. References to lifetime periods and factual knowledge (about the self, others, and the world) were most frequently used to determine the temporal location of both past and future events. Event details (e.g., places, persons, or weather conditions) were also used, but mainly for past events. Finally, the results showed that events whose temporal location was directly accessed were judged more important for personal goals. Together, these findings shed new light on the mechanisms involved in locating personal events in past and future times. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux politiques et critiques d'une philosophie des normes
Caeymaex, Florence ULg; Pieron, Julien ULg

in Dissensus (in press)

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See detailOn the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator of ability
Magis, David ULg; Verhelst, Norman

in Psychometrika (in press)

The purpose of this note is to focus on the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in the context of dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to focus on the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in the context of dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that the WLE always returns finite ability estimates. This general result is valid for dichotomous (one-, two-, three- and four-parameter logistic) IRT models, the class of polytomous difference models and divide-by-total models, independently of the number of items, the item parameters and the response patterns. Further implications of this result are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour and browse species selectivity of heifers grazing in a temperate silvopastoral system
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULg; Ramírez-Restrepo, Carlos Alberto; Marche, Christian et al

in Agroforestry Systems (in press)

In Belgium silvopastoral grazing systems associating trees and pasture are instrumental in enhancing dynamic trade-offs between ruminant farming and habitat improvement. A 130-day study was conducted in ... [more ▼]

In Belgium silvopastoral grazing systems associating trees and pasture are instrumental in enhancing dynamic trade-offs between ruminant farming and habitat improvement. A 130-day study was conducted in Belgium from April to September 2013 to evaluate the effects of browsing a combination of shrubs and trees (i.e. hedge) on the selective behaviour of cattle and to relate these observations to changes in forage nutritive value. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (Bos taurus; 487 kg) were allocated to either a control ryegrass pasture (i.e. control pasture group; CPG) or a pasture plus unrestricted browsing (i.e. browsing group; BG) of a hedge composed of shrubs and trees. Behaviour and selectivity towards the woody species were recorded for 14h on a daily basis during 3 consecutive days over spring, early summer and late summer. Leaves and stems of woody species and faecal samples were collected during each season to analyse their nutritive value and predict the dry matter intake by means of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Integrating shrubs and trees along a pasture influenced the heifers’ behaviour and BG heifers spent 19.3, 5.9 and 5.4% of their time browsing during spring, and early and late summer, respectively (P < 0.001). This behaviour was correlated to the pre-grazing pasture biomass (r=0.50; P < 0.001). Compared with the summer seasons, the greater browsing activity in spring was associated with higher plant feeding value. Overall, the most ingested species were Carpinus betulus, Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana and Crataegus monogyna. It was concluded that cattle use a significant time budget for browsing on temperate ryegrass pasture but further research is required to investigate potential benefits of silvopastoral systems in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailGardez votre carte d'identité en poche
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (in press), 2017/1

Dans cette brève contribution, nous abordons la question de l'utilisation de la carte d'identité en Begique et les problèmes que cela soulève en matière de gestion des données à caractère personnel. À ... [more ▼]

Dans cette brève contribution, nous abordons la question de l'utilisation de la carte d'identité en Begique et les problèmes que cela soulève en matière de gestion des données à caractère personnel. À cette fin, nous revenons d’abord sur l’obligation de porter une carte d’identité et sur les raisons d’être de ce document. Nous essayons ensuite de mesurer l’ampleur des risques qu’implique le traitement des données liées à la carte, avant de nous focaliser sur certains usages particuliers de cette dernière. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Powder for Fuel Cell Applications Using an Easy Atmospheric Plasma Approach
Merche, Delphine; Dufour, Thierry; Baneton, Joffrey et al

in Belvac News (in press)

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See detailEvaluation of the spatial and economic effectiveness of industrial land policies in Northwest Europe
Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

in European Planning Studies (in press)

This article stems from the discrepancy between the lack of attention paid to industrial land policy by academics and the predominant thought among elected representatives and development agencies, i.e ... [more ▼]

This article stems from the discrepancy between the lack of attention paid to industrial land policy by academics and the predominant thought among elected representatives and development agencies, i.e. that industrial land policy plays a key role in the creation of growth and new jobs. The article begins with a reflection on the literature, which stresses the need to develop knowledge on industrial land policies. To help fill this research gap, we have developed an exploratory piece of research on the theme of their spatial and economic effectiveness, on the basis of statistical analyses dedicated to seven countries. As regards spatial effectiveness, the results underline significant national differentials in terms of land consumption on the one hand, while highlighting the economic sprawl that affects France and Belgium on the other hand. As regards economic effectiveness, our results show that the impact of the development of economic estates on growth depends largely on regional contexts. In particular, the “intermediate regions” in western Germany stand out as belonging to a specific context where land policies seem particularly effective from an economic standpoint. By contrast, the economic effectiveness of industrial land policies requires readjustments in most “predominantly rural regions, close to a city”. [less ▲]

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See detailIgnorance et maîtrise de la bête. Lefort critique de l'éducation "humaniste".
Mancuso, Eva ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)

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See detailInnovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and environment
Ajjan, Fátima N.; Ambrogi, Martina; Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh et al

in Polymer International (in press)

This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications ... [more ▼]

This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, cathechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep-eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures such as new poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers and new (semi)conducting polymer/polyelectrolyte complexes were also developed. As the final goal, the application of these innovative polymers in energy and environment was investigated. Important advances in energy storage technologies included the development of new carbonaceous materials, new lignin/conducting polymer biopolymer electrodes, new iongels and single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and batteries and new poly(ionic liquid) binders for batteries. On the other hand, the use of the innovative polyelectrolytes into sustainable environmental technologies led to the development of new liquid and dry water, new materials for water cleaning technologies such as floculants, oil absorbers, new recyclable organocatalysts platform and multifunctional polymer coatings with antifouling and antimicrobial properties. All in all this article demonstrates the potential of the poly(ionic liquid)s for high-value applications in Energy & Enviromental areas. [less ▲]

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See detailMaqriziana XIV: Al-Maqrīzī’s Last Opus (Al-Ḫabar ʿan al-Bašar) and Its Significance for the History of Islam
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (in press)

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See detailVideo Games in France and Francophone Belgium. Discourses and cultural legitimation
Delbouille, Julie ULg

in Contemporary French Civilization (in press)

Since its first appearance in the early 1960s, video game has become one of the most popular forms of entertainment in France and francophone Belgium. As for other cultural industries, the last decades ... [more ▼]

Since its first appearance in the early 1960s, video game has become one of the most popular forms of entertainment in France and francophone Belgium. As for other cultural industries, the last decades have seen the emergence of multiple discourses around video game, whether they come from the media, the public or the private sphere. From the themes of violence and addiction to the perception of video game as a cultural object, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of game-related discourses and representations (and their recent evolution) in Francophone Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailLandslide risk reduction measures: a review of practices and challenges for the tropics
Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; de Hontheim, Astrid et al

in Progress in Physical Geography (in press)

The overall objective of this review is to gain insights into landslide risk reduction measures that are applied or recommended in tropical landslide-prone countries, and the challenges at play. More ... [more ▼]

The overall objective of this review is to gain insights into landslide risk reduction measures that are applied or recommended in tropical landslide-prone countries, and the challenges at play. More specifically, this review aims to (i) presenting an overview of recent studies on landslides and landslide risk reduction in these countries, (ii) exploring the factors controlling the publication output on landslides and landslide risk reduction, (iii) reviewing the various landslide risk reduction measures recommended and implemented, and (iv) identifying the bottlenecks for the implementation of these strategies. A compilation of recommended and implemented landslide risk reduction measures in 99 landslide-prone tropical countries was made, based on an extensive review of scientific literature (382 publications). The documented measures are analysed Corresponding author: Jan Maes, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E 03.256, Heverlee B-3001, Belgium. Email: maes.jan@kuleuven.be Progress in Physical Geography 1–31 ª The Author(s) 2017 Reprints and permission: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0309133316689344 journals.sagepub.com/home/ppg using a scheme of risk reduction measures that combines classifications of the Hyogo Framework for Action and the SafeLand project. Our literature review shows that the factors influencing the number of publications on landslides and landslide risk reduction per country are (in order of importance) the absolute physical exposure of people to landslides, the population number and the Human Development Index of a country. The ratio of publications on landslide risk reduction versus publications on landslides for landslide-prone tropical countries does not vary much between these countries (average: 0.28). A significant fraction (0.30) of all known landslide hazard reduction measures are neither implemented nor recommended according to our review. The most recommended landslide risk reduction component is ‘risk management and vulnerability reduction’ (0.38). However, the most implemented component is ‘risk assessment’ (0.57). Overall, the ratio of implemented versus recommended landslide risk reduction measures in the tropics is low (<0.50) for most landslide risk reduction components, except for ‘risk assessment’ (3.01). The most cited bottlenecks for implementing landslide risk reduction measures are scientific (0.30) and political (0.29) in nature. [less ▲]

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See detailA Piano Made in Australia: Reinventing an Emblem of Cultural Wealth in Murray Bail's The Voyage
Herbillon, Marie ULg

in Antipodes: A Global Journal of Australian/New Zealand Literature (in press), 31(2),

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See detailPsychological interventions influence patients' attitudes and beliefs about their chronic pain.
VANHAUDENHUYSE, Audrey ULg; Gillet, Aline; MALAISE, Nicole ULg et al

in Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (in press)

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See detailL'espace transitionnel winnicotien et l'_Urraum_ kantien
Seba, Jean-Renaud ULg

in Revista Natureza Humana (in press)

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See detailEvidence for a latitudinal diversity gradient in liverworts and hornworts
Wang, J.; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Hagborg, A. et al

in Journal of Biogeography (in press)

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See detailA.P.M.H. Lardinois, J.H Blok et M.G.M. Van der Poel, Sacred Words: Orality, Literacy and Religion, Leiden-Boston, Brill, 2011
Delli Pizzi, Aurian ULg

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (in press)

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See detailMacro-nutrient concentrations in Antarctic pack ice: Overall patterns and overlooked processes
Fripiat, François ULg; Meiners, K.M.; Vancoppenolle, M. et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (in press)

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See detailA Quantitative Doignon-Bell-Scarf theorem
Aliev, Iskander; Bassett, Robert; De Loera, Jesus et al

in Combinatorica (in press)

The famous Doignon-Bell-Scarf theorem is a Helly-type result about the existence of integer solutions to systems of linear inequalities. The purpose of this paper is to present the following quantitative ... [more ▼]

The famous Doignon-Bell-Scarf theorem is a Helly-type result about the existence of integer solutions to systems of linear inequalities. The purpose of this paper is to present the following quantitative generalization: Given an integer k, we prove that there exists a constant c(n,k), depending only on the dimension n and on the number k, such that if a bounded polyhedron {x in R^n : Ax <= b} contains exactly k integer points, then there exists a subset of the rows, of cardinality no more than c(n,k), defining a polyhedron that contains exactly the same k integer points. In this case c(n,0)=2^n as in the original case of Doignon-Bell-Scarf for infeasible systems of inequalities. We work on both upper and lower bounds for the constant c(n,k) and discuss some consequences, including a Clarkson-style algorithm to find the l-th best solution of an integer program with respect to the ordering induced by the objective function. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of spaceflight and microgravity on the human brain
Van Ombergen, Angelique; Demertzi, Athina ULg; Tomilovskaya et al

in Journal of Neurology (in press)

Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental ... [more ▼]

Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates. Previous space analogue studies and preliminary spaceflight studies have shown an involvement of the cerebellum, cortical sensorimotor, and somatosensory areas and the vestibular pathways. Extending this knowledge is crucial, especially in view of long-duration interplanetary missions (e.g., Mars missions) and space tourism. In addition, the acquired insight could be relevant for vestibular patients, patients with neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the elderly population, coping with multisensory deficit syndromes, immobilization, and inactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailRôle et langue de Tchantchès dans les représentations en castelets des romans de chevalerie : le cas des Quatre fils Aymon
Baiwir, Esther ULg; Impe, Anaëlle

in Enquêtes du Musée de la Vie Wallonne (in press)

Pourquoi et dans quelle mesure les montreurs de marionnettes liégeoises font-ils intervenir Tchantchès aux côtés des grands chevaliers médiévaux, dont les aventures constituent une part importante du ... [more ▼]

Pourquoi et dans quelle mesure les montreurs de marionnettes liégeoises font-ils intervenir Tchantchès aux côtés des grands chevaliers médiévaux, dont les aventures constituent une part importante du répertoire liégeois ? Quels sont ses moyens d'action, mais également ses modes d'expression ? Divers registres de langue apparaissent au fil des spectacles ; quels sont ceux prêtés à notre héros ? Et surtout, ce rôle et cette langue ont-ils évolué au fil du temps ? C’est à ces quelques questions que nous tentons de répondre, en observant les différentes interventions de Tchantchès dans les réécritures des aventures des quatre fils Aymon, l’une des œuvres les plus anciennes et les plus fréquemment jouées dans les théâtres liégeois dévolus aux comédiens de bois. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Detection of University Students with Potential Difficulties
Hoffait, Anne-Sophie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg

in Decision Support Systems (in press)

Using data mining methods, this paper presents a new means of identifying freshmen's profiles likely to face major difficulties to complete their first academic year. Academic failure is a relevant issue ... [more ▼]

Using data mining methods, this paper presents a new means of identifying freshmen's profiles likely to face major difficulties to complete their first academic year. Academic failure is a relevant issue at a time when post-secondary education is ever more critical to economic success. We aim at early detection of potential failure using student data available at registration, i.e. school records and environmental factors, with a view to timely and efficient remediation and/or study reorientation. We adapt three data mining methods, namely random forest, logistic regression and artificial neural network algorithms. We design algorithms to increase the accuracy of the prediction when some classes are of major interest. These algorithms are context independent and can be used in different fields. Real data pertaining to undergraduates at the University of Liège (Belgium), illustrates our methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailNow we're free. De lichtheid van Leonard Cohen in You want it darker (2016)
Mus, Francis ULg

in Passage, tijdschrift voor Europese literatuur en cultuur (in press)

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See detailDe l’usage de la photographie dans une enquête ethno-sociologique sur la mémoire de l’exil et de l’immigration espagnols en Belgique
Molina Marmol, Maïté ULg

in RELAIS Revue du laboratoire d'études et de recherches sur l'interculturel (in press)

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See detailThe impact of architectural representations on conveying design intent.
Cunin, Maxime; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULg

in AI EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing (in press)

Architects express themselves graphically in order to communicate ideas both to clients and to themselves. In practice, they rely on a variety of representations such as free-hand drawings, 3D computer ... [more ▼]

Architects express themselves graphically in order to communicate ideas both to clients and to themselves. In practice, they rely on a variety of representations such as free-hand drawings, 3D computer rendered images, and photomontages to convey their design intent. Research to date has demonstrated differences and commonalities in the ways in which expert designers and laymen perceive visual understanding. It is still unclear how architects themselves use different types of representations to express different intentions, and how accurately their expected audience perceives those intentions. The purpose of this research is to investigate how laymen interpret the initial design intent of an architect’s design, and what role different forms of representations play in this process of understanding a design. This paper describes a five-step process for developing a survey that was used to gather data from 686 laymen respondents. It was found that certain types of simpler representations presented in specific contexts are unexpectedly found to be a more efficient way to faithfully transmit an architectural intent. [less ▲]

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See detailVieillir en bonne santé dans une société âgiste...
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Flamion, Allison ULg et al

in NPG. Neurologie - Psychiatrie - Gériatrie (in press)

La vision actuelle du vieillissement est principalement négative, teintée du phénomène d’âgisme (c’est-à-dire toutes les formes de discrimination, de ségrégation ou de mépris fondées sur l’âge). Une telle ... [more ▼]

La vision actuelle du vieillissement est principalement négative, teintée du phénomène d’âgisme (c’est-à-dire toutes les formes de discrimination, de ségrégation ou de mépris fondées sur l’âge). Une telle image de la vieillesse n’est pas anodine. Dans cet article, nous passerons en revue les manifestations de l’âgisme dans notre vie quotidienne, ses origines, ses implications sur nos attitudes, de même que les conséquences qui en résultent pour les personnes âgées. Nous discuterons également de certains enjeux cliniques et éthiques en lien avec ces attitudes âgistes [less ▲]

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See detailFocus sur les lymphocytes T dans la maladie du greffon contre l'hôte après allogreffe de cellules soucges hématopoïétiques: implications pour de nouvelles stratégies de prévention
Vrancken, L; Delens, Loïc ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg et al

in Oncol. Hematol. (in press)

Malgré les stratégies de prévention actuelles, la maladie du greffon contre l’hôte (greffe-versus-hôte, GVH) aiguë (GVHa) reste une complication sévère et fréquente de l’allogreffe de cellules souches ... [more ▼]

Malgré les stratégies de prévention actuelles, la maladie du greffon contre l’hôte (greffe-versus-hôte, GVH) aiguë (GVHa) reste une complication sévère et fréquente de l’allogreffe de cellules souches hématopoïétiques. Bien que la physiopathologie de celle-ci ne reste que partiellement élucidée à ce jour, il est classiquement admis que les lymphocytes T (LT) jouent un rôle important dans son processus biologique. Les progrès récents de l’immunologie des LT dans la GVHa ont permis de diversifier les pistes visant à prévenir la survenue de cette complication post-greffe. Plusieurs approches sont en cours d’exploration dans des essais cliniques avec des résultats encourageant tels que la manipulation ex vivo des LT avant leur transfert chez le patient afin de leur faire exprimer des gènes suicide, l’élimination in vivo des LT proliférant directement après la greffe, l’inhibition de l’activation des LT en interférant avec les voies de signalisation en aval du TCR ou celles induites par les cytokines, l’induction de l’anergie des LT en bloquant les signaux de costimulation, le blocage de l’adressage des LT vers les organes lymphoïdes secondaires et les tissus cibles, la promotion de l’immunotolérance par la perfusion de lymphocytes T régulateurs ou par l’utilisation d’agents favorisant leur différenciation et leurs fonctions in vivo et la modulation de l’expression génique des cellules immunitaires par des modulateurs épigénétiques. Outre la prévention de la GVHa, le défi des nouvelles stratégies consiste également à ne pas compromettre l’effet bénéfique de la greffe contre la tumeur ni la reconstitution des défenses anti-infectieuses. [less ▲]

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See detail“How are you Vulnerable?”: Using Participation for Vulnerability Analysis in Emergency Planning
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Fallon, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Risk Research (in press)

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science ... [more ▼]

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science and Technology Studies (STS) Vulnerability Approach seems very promising. Relying on a constructivist paradigm, it is based on an inductive collection and analysis of a wide range of factors, with a particular focus on cultural factors and actual day-to-day practices. In this paper, we present the roots of this approach and we display findings based on three case studies exploring emergency planning in three different contexts (a city near a SEVESO plant, a school near a nuclear plant, and a city confronted to multiple catastrophic scenarios). The cases studies were realized by conducting three Focus Groups with different types of stakeholders (citizens, teachers, firemen, decision makers, etc.). After presenting the results of the case studies, we discuss how stakeholders’ participation can inform such type of vulnerability analysis in the context of emergency planning. We argue that participation fosters a deep understanding of actual safety governance practices which allows innovative results to emerge as well as it initiates a learning process among the participants. It contributes to questioning the relations between decision-makers, experts and citizens. It has the potential of bypassing the positivist and quantitative rationale of safety, and thus, of redefining the vulnerability governance. As a conclusion, we question the role of such STS vulnerability approach within the actual vulnerability governance. [less ▲]

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See detailStandard versus individualized parenteral nutrition
Riskin, A; Picaud, J-C; Shamir, R et al

in Clinical Nutrition (in press)

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See detailCytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-Ig effectively controls immune activation and inflammatory disease in a novel murine model of leaky severe combined immunodeficiency
Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Schönefeldt, Susan; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (The) (in press)

Background: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA recombination machinery, such as RAG1, RAG2 or DCLRE1C. Defective DNA ... [more ▼]

Background: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA recombination machinery, such as RAG1, RAG2 or DCLRE1C. Defective DNA recombination causes a developmental block in T cells and B cells, resulting in high susceptibility to infections. Hypomorphic mutations in the same genes can also give a partial loss of T cells, in a spectrum including leaky SCID (LS) and Omenn syndrome (OS). These patients not only develop life-threatening infections due to immunodeficiency, but also develop inflammatory/autoimmune conditions due to the presence of autoreactive T cells. Objective: We sought to develop a preclinical model that fully recapitulates the symptoms of LS/OS patients including a model for testing therapeutic intervention. Methods: We generated a novel mutant mouse (Dclre1c leaky) that develops a LS phenotype. Mice were monitored for diseases and immune phenotype and immune function were evaluated using flow cytometry, ELISA and histology. Results: Dclre1c leaky mice present with a complete blockade of B cell differentiation, with a leaky block in T cell differentiation resulting in an oligoclonal TCR repertoire and enhanced cytokine secretion. Dclre1c leaky mice also developed inflammatory symptoms including wasting, dermatitis, colitis, hypereosinophilia and high IgE levels. Development of a preclinical murine model for LS allowed the testing of potential treatment, with administration of CTLA4-Ig reducing disease symptoms and immunological disturbance, resulting in increased survival. Conclusion: These data suggest that CTLA4-Ig should be evaluated as a potential treatment of inflammatory symptoms in LS and OS patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAverage first-passage time of a quasi-Hamiltonian oscillator with parametric and forcing excitations
Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Sound and Vibration (in press)

A linear oscillator simultaneously subjected to stochastic forcing and parametric excitation is considered. The time required for this system to evolve from a low initial energy level until a higher ... [more ▼]

A linear oscillator simultaneously subjected to stochastic forcing and parametric excitation is considered. The time required for this system to evolve from a low initial energy level until a higher energy state for the first time is a random variable. Its expectation satisfies the Pontryagin equation of the problem, which is solved with the asymptotic expansion method developed by Khasminskii. This allowed deriving closed-form expressions for the expected first passage time. A comprehensive parameter analysis of these solutions is performed. Beside identifying the important dimensionless groups governing the problem, it also highlights three important regimes which are called incubation, multiplicative and additive because of their specific features. Those three regimes are discussed with the parameters of the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of fluorinated copolymers via cobalt-mediated radical copolymerization of perfluorohexylethylene and vinyl acetate
Demarteau, Jérémy ULg; Améduri, Bruno; Ladmiral, Vincent et al

in Macromolecules (in press)

Designing novel polyfluoropolymer architectures is attractive for the development of new applications, such as advanced coatings, purification membranes, or materials for energy. Nevertheless, controlling ... [more ▼]

Designing novel polyfluoropolymer architectures is attractive for the development of new applications, such as advanced coatings, purification membranes, or materials for energy. Nevertheless, controlling the radical polymerization of fluoroalkenes is very challenging due to the high reactivity of the propagating fluorinated macroradicals. This study aims at exploring the controlled copolymerization of perfluoro- hexylethylene (PFHE) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in order to prepare a range of well-defined statistical poly(PFHE-stat-VAc) copolymers with different compositions. Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization demonstrated to be active at 40 °C starting from an alkylcobalt(III) initiator, and copolymers with a fluorinated monomer content as high as ca. 80 wt % were successfully prepared. Reactivity ratios were determined to be rVAc = 0.18 and rPFHE = 0 at 40 °C and emphasized a clear tendency for alternation. Unprecedented PFHE/VAc containing block copolymers were also prepared via a single-step approach or through sequential copolymerizations. Finally, hydrolysis of the pendant ester groups of these copolymers led to the corresponding fluorinated copolymers bearing vinyl alcohol (VOH). A preliminary solution behavior study, carried out by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy on block copolymers composed of PFHE and VAc or VOH units, evidenced a marked amphiphilicity of the copolymer composed of an extremely hydrophobic PFHE block associated with a highly hydrophilic PVOH segment. [less ▲]

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See detailNotice brève sur l'ouvrage de O. Dubreucq : L'instruction des laïcs de Jonas d'Orléans
Close, Florence ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (in press)

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See detailFusion-based Additive Manufacturing for Processing Aluminum Alloys: State-of-the-Art and Challenges
Mertens, Anne ULg; Delahaye, Jocelyn ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Advanced Engineering Materials (in press)

Starting early 2015, the fusion-based additive manufacturing of Al alloys has been developing at an ever faster pace after undergoing a comparatively slow start with respect to other metallic materials ... [more ▼]

Starting early 2015, the fusion-based additive manufacturing of Al alloys has been developing at an ever faster pace after undergoing a comparatively slow start with respect to other metallic materials. This paper reviews the recent developments with the aim of identifying major challenges and opportunities for future work. Laser Beam Melting proves the most useful technique for the additive fabrication of Al components with strongly out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced mechanical behavior. Laser Cladding is also promising for specific applications such as repairs and coatings. However, a deeper understanding of the thermal history during fabrication is still needed to further optimize the microstructures and usage properties. The design of new high strength alloys and of Al-matrix composites, and the development of better adapted post-processing procedures to take greater advantage of the specificities of fusion-based additive techniques are two other important issues in view of reaching the full potential of additive Al components. [less ▲]

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See detailDes ressources publiques pour les opérateurs privés d'emploi. Les coulisses de l'accompagnement des chômeurs en Belgique francophone
Remy, Céline ULg

in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (in press)

Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la prise en charge des chômeurs par les opérateurs privés d’emploi. Les services publics de l’emploi doivent partager le marché de l’accompagnement des demandeurs ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la prise en charge des chômeurs par les opérateurs privés d’emploi. Les services publics de l’emploi doivent partager le marché de l’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi avec des prestataires de service qui ont, désormais, pour mission d’organiser l’accompagnement et la formation des chômeurs. Des collaborations naissent entre acteurs privés et publiques sous la forme de « partenariats publics-privés », dans une relation de « délégation » de la mission du service public. Cette gestion « mixte » du marché de l’emploi pose question au niveau de la gestion des ressources publiques par les acteurs privés. Notre enquête, réalisée en Belgique francophone, propose de regarder les effets de cette gestion à travers les défis que pose le marché de l’accompagnement des chômeurs. Les résultats mettent en évidence le développement par les acteurs privés de stratégies « clandestines » pour contourner les problèmes rencontrés lors de la collaboration. Nous verrons dans quelle mesure celles-ci ont un effet sur le parcours d’insertion des demandeurs d’emploi ainsi que la manière dont les agents des services partenariats des services publics de l’emploi gèrent ses stratégies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of time series forecasting in zone order picking systems to predict order pickers’ workload
van Gils, Teun; Ramaekers, Katrien; Caris et al

in International Journal of Production Research (in press)

In order to differentiate from competitors in terms of customer service, warehouses accept late orders while providing delivery in a quick and timely way. This trend leads to a reduced time to pick an ... [more ▼]

In order to differentiate from competitors in terms of customer service, warehouses accept late orders while providing delivery in a quick and timely way. This trend leads to a reduced time to pick an order. This paper introduces workload forecasting in a warehouse context, in particular a zone picking warehouse. Improved workforce planning can contribute to an effective and efficient order picking process. Most order picking publications treat demand as known in advance. As warehouses accept late orders, the assumption of a constant given demand is questioned in this paper. The objective of this study is to present time series forecasting models that perform well in a zone picking warehouse. A real-life case study demonstrates the value of applying time series forecasting models to forecast the daily number of order lines. The forecast of order lines, along with order pickers’ productivity, can be used by warehouse supervisors to determine the daily required number of order pickers, as well as the allocation of order pickers across warehouse zones. Time series are applied on an aggregated level, as well as on a disaggregated zone level. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches are evaluated in order to find the best-performing forecasting method. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Forgotten History of Repetitive Audio Technologies
Levaux, Christophe ULg

in Organised Sound (in press)

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See detailPropagation of material and surface profile uncertainties on MEMS micro-resonators using a stochastic second-order computational multi-scale approach
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Voicu, Rodica et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (in press)

This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline materials, micro-scale uncertainties are due to the grain size, grain orientation, and to the surface profile. First, microscale realizations of stochastic volume elements (SVEs) are obtained based on experimental measurements. To account for the surface roughness, the SVEs are defined as a volume element having the same thickness as the MEMS, with a view to the use of a plate model at the structural scale. The uncertainties are then propagated up to an intermediate scale, the meso-scale, through a second-order homogenization procedure.From the meso-scale plate resultant material property realizations, a spatially correlated random field of the in plane, out of plane, and cross resultant material tensors can be characterized. Owing to this characterized random field, realizations of MEMS-scale problems can be defined on a plate finite element model. Samples of the macro-scale quantity of interest can then be computed by relying on a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure. As a case study, the resonance frequency of MEMS micro-beams is investigated for different uncertainty cases, such as grain preferred orientations and surface roughness effects. [less ▲]

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See detailRimbaud flâneur
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Francofonia (in press)

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See detailJésus caricaturé ? À propos des Proses évangéliques
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg; Roland, Florine

in Parade Sauvage (in press), 27

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See detailOn some symmetric multidimensional continued fraction algorithms
Labbé, Sébastien ULg; Arnoux, Pierre

in Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems (in press)

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See detailDemeter's Arrival at Eleusis on an Apulian Oinochoe kept in Foggia
Cuvelier, Graham ULg

in Babesch : Bulletin Antieke Beschaving (in press)

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This ... [more ▼]

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This interpretation is based on the analysis of the iconographic language of the Apulian imagery as well as on the connexion in series of this scene with those appearing on contemporary vases produced in the same cultural community. This article is also accompanied by a set of previously unpublished colour pictures (of the entire vase and of several details) taken on site by the author. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural Marxism : A Survey
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Religion Compass (in press)

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See detailFibroblast growth factor 23 in acute burn patients: Novel insights from an intact-form assay.
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULg; Souberbielle; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

in Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries (in press)

INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a key regulator in phosphate and vitamin D metabolism When measured with c-terminal assay, it has been shown to be increased following burn. Progress ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a key regulator in phosphate and vitamin D metabolism When measured with c-terminal assay, it has been shown to be increased following burn. Progress in understanding FGF23 physiology has emphasized the importance of assessing the intact form of FGF23. METHODS: The present cohort study is a complementary analysis of a previously published work. Patients >18 years, admitted within 24h after injury with burn surface area (BSA) >10% were included. C-terminal (c-term) and intact (i) FGF23 assay were performed at admission and every week during 4 weeks of follow-up. Inflammation and iron status were assessed at the same time points. RESULTS: Twenty patients were initially included and 12 were followed until day 28. The c-term FGF23 tended to gradually increase during the 4 weeks of follow-up while iFGF23 was quite stable into normal ranges. Iron status showed a typical inflammatory profile. C-term FGF23 was significantly positively correlated with c-reactive protein (CRP) and negatively correlated with iron levels. iFGF23 was not correlated with CRP or iron. CONCLUSION: FGF23 status following burn is characterized by a dissociation between c-term FGF23 and iFGF23. The hypothesis of an increased cleavage may be raised. Respective role of inflammation and iron levels in such deregulation need to be specified. Both c-term and intact assays should be performed in further studies aiming to increase knowledge on FGF23 regulation and effects in burn patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHow the reference values for serum parathyroid hormone concentration are (or should be) established?
Souberbielle, J.-C.; Brazier, F.; Piketty, M.-L. et al

in Journal of Endocrinological Investigation (in press)

Well-validated reference values are necessary for a correct interpretation of a serum PTH concentration. Establishing PTH reference values needs recruiting a large reference population. Exclusion criteria ... [more ▼]

Well-validated reference values are necessary for a correct interpretation of a serum PTH concentration. Establishing PTH reference values needs recruiting a large reference population. Exclusion criteria for this population can be defined as any situation possibly inducing an increase or a decrease in PTH concentration. As recommended in the recent guidelines on the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, PTH reference values should be established in vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function with possible stratification according to various factors such as age, gender, menopausal status, body mass index, and race. A consensus about analytical/pre-analytical aspects of PTH measurement is also needed with special emphasis on the nature of the sample (plasma or serum), the time and the fasting/non-fasting status of the blood sample. Our opinion is that blood sample for PTH measurement should be obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Furthermore, despite longer stability of the PTH molecule in EDTA plasma, we prefer serum as it allows to measure calcium, a prerequisite for a correct interpretation of a PTH concentration, on the same sample. Once a consensus is reached, we believe an important international multicentre work should be performed to recruit a very extensive reference population of apparently healthy vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function in order to establish the PTH normative data. Due to the huge inter-method variability in PTH measurement, a sufficient quantity of blood sample should be obtained to allow measurement with as many PTH kits as possible. [less ▲]

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See detailIPCAPS: an R package for iterative pruning to capture population structure
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULg; Abegaz Yazew, Fentaw; Tongsima, Sissades et al

in Bioinformatics : Application Notes (in press)

Resolving population genetic structure is challenging, especially when dealing with closely related populations. Although Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based methods and genomic var- iation with ... [more ▼]

Resolving population genetic structure is challenging, especially when dealing with closely related populations. Although Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based methods and genomic var- iation with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used to describe shared genetic an- cestry, improvements can be made targeting fine-level population structure. This work presents an R package called IPCAPS, which uses SNP information for resolving possibly fine-level population structure. The IPCAPS routines are built on the iterative pruning Principal Component Analysis (ipP- CA) framework to systematically assign individuals to genetically similar subgroups. Our tool is able to detect and eliminate outliers in each iteration to avoid misclassification. It can be extended to de- tect subtle subgrouping in patients as well. In addition, IPCAPS supports different measurement scales for variables used to identify substructure. Hence, panels of gene expression and methylation data can be accommodated. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Continuous Pain in Newborns admitted to NICUs in 18 European Countries
Anand, Kanwaljeet; Eriksson, Mats; Boyle, Elaine et al

in Acta Paediatrica (in press)

Aim: Continuous pain occurs routinely, even after invasive procedures, or inflammation and surgery, but clinical practices associated with assessments of continuous pain remain unknown. Methods: A ... [more ▼]

Aim: Continuous pain occurs routinely, even after invasive procedures, or inflammation and surgery, but clinical practices associated with assessments of continuous pain remain unknown. Methods: A prospective cohort study in 243 Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) from 18 European countries recorded frequency of pain assessments, use of mechanical ventilation, sedation, analgesia, or neuromuscular blockade for each neonate upto 28 days after NICU admission. Results: Only 2113/6648 (31·8%) of neonates received assessments of continuous pain, occurring variably among tracheal ventilation (TrV, 46·0%), noninvasive ventilation (NiV, 35· 0%), and no ventilation (NoV, 20· 1%) groups (p<0· 001). Daily assessments for continuous pain occurred in only 10·4% of all neonates (TrV: 14· 0%, NiV: 10· 7%, NoV: 7· 6%; p<0· 001). More frequent assessments of continuous pain occurred in NICUs with pain guidelines, nursing champions, and surgical admissions prompted (all p<0·01), and for newborns <32 weeks gestational age, those requiring ventilation, or opioids, sedatives-hypnotics, general anesthetics (O-SH-GA) (all p<0·001), or surgery (p=0· 028). Use of O-SH-GA drugs increased the odds for pain assessment in the TrV (OR:1· 60, p<0·001) and NiV groups (OR:1·40, p<0· 001). Conclusion: Assessments of continuous pain occurred in less than one-third of NICU admissions, and daily in only 10% of neonates. NICU clinical practices should consider including routine assessments of continuous pain in newborns. [less ▲]

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See detailThe “Tuchlein” Colours in the Strasbourg Family Text: Recipes for Anthocyanin Pigments
Neven, Sylvie ULg; Sanyova, Jana

in Dyes in History and Archaeology (in press)

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See detailImproving pedestrian detection using motion-guided filtering
Wang, Yi; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Su, Song-Zhi et al

in Pattern Recognition Letters (in press)

In this letter, we show how a simple motion-guided nonlinear filter can drastically improve the accuracy of several pedestrian detectors. More specifically, we address the problem of how to pre-filter an ... [more ▼]

In this letter, we show how a simple motion-guided nonlinear filter can drastically improve the accuracy of several pedestrian detectors. More specifically, we address the problem of how to pre-filter an image so almost any pedestrian detector will see its false detection rate decrease. First, we roughly identify moving pixels by cumulating their temporal gradient into a motion history image (MHI). The MHI is then used in conjunction with a nonlinear filter to filter out background details while leaving untouched foreground moving objects. We also show how a feedback loop as well as a merging procedure between the filtered and the unfiltered frames can further improve results. We tested our method on 26 videos from 6 categories. The results show that for a given miss rate, filtering out background details reduces the false detection rate by a factor of up to 69.6 times. Our method is simple, computationally light, and can be implemented with any pedestrian detector. Code is made publicly available at: https://bitbucket.org/wany1601/pedestriandetection. [less ▲]

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