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See detailAssessment of gestation, lactation and fasting on stable isotope ratios in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)
Habran, Sarah ULg; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Dan E. et al

in Marine Mammal Sciences (2010), 26(4), 880-895

Effects of physiological processes such as gestation, lactation and nutritional stress on stable isotope ratios remain poorly understood. To determine their impact, we investigated these processes in ... [more ▼]

Effects of physiological processes such as gestation, lactation and nutritional stress on stable isotope ratios remain poorly understood. To determine their impact, we investigated these processes in simultaneously fasting and lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values were measured in blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. As long- and short-term integrators of diet, blood cells and serum may reflect foraging data or energy reserves from late gestation and lactation, respectively. Limited changes in isotopic signatures of maternal blood over the lactating period were highlighted. Nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with mother-to-offspring transfer of nutrients was generated between mother and offspring during gestation and lactation. This fractionation was tissue and time-specific, it varied between early and late lactation from +0.6‰ to +1.3‰ in blood cells and from +1.1‰ to nonsignificant value in serum. Therefore, if pups appear to be good proxies to investigate the female trophic ecology especially for C sources, much more caution is required in using δ15N values. Further studies are also needed to better define the relative impact of fasting and lactation on the enrichment or depletion of isotopes in different tissues. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of glucose metabolism in humans with the simultaneous use of indirect calorimetry and tracer techniques.
Tappy, L.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Tounian, P. et al

in Clinical Physiology (1995), 15(1), 1-12

Concomitant measurements of sytemic glucose delivery and carbohydrate oxidation are frequently performed in human investigations. Systemic glucose delivery (SGD) is usually determined using dilution of ... [more ▼]

Concomitant measurements of sytemic glucose delivery and carbohydrate oxidation are frequently performed in human investigations. Systemic glucose delivery (SGD) is usually determined using dilution of infused glucose tracers; net carbohydrate oxidation rate (net CHOOX) can be calculated from respiratory gas exchanges and urinary nitrogen excretion (indirect calorimetry); alternatively, glucose oxidation can be measured from labelled CO2 production during infusion of carbon-labelled glucose tracers. In this paper, the theory underlying the use of each of these techniques is briefly reviewed and qualitative differences are outlined. SGD represents the sum of hepatic glucogenolysis, gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol, and, according to the glucose tracer used, glucose cycles (glucose-phosphate cycle, fructose-phosphate cycle, Cori and glucose-alanine cycles); systemic delivery of exogenous glucose after oral or i.v. glucose administration is also measured. Net CHOOX represents oxidation of glucose arising from hepatic or muscle glycogen or from exogenous glucose; it does not take into account oxidation of glucose formed from amino acids or glycerol, which is included in net protein or lipid oxidation. In contrast, isotopic determination of glucose oxidation corresponds to oxidation of glucose originating from hepatic glycogen breakdown, of exogenously administered glucose, and of glucose formed from amino acids and glycerol. Non-oxidative glucose disposal, calculated as SGD-net CHOOX, corresponds to the sum of gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol (which are included in net protein and lipid oxidation), glucose cycles, and glycogen synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of grazing rates in Daphnia galeata
Thys, Isabelle; Pandolfini, Eliana; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (1999, September 14)

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See detailAssessment of hallucinations
Bell, Vaughan; Raballo, Andrea; Laroi, Frank ULg

in Laroi, Frank; Aleman, André (Eds.) Hallucinations: A guide to treatment and management (2010)

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See detailAssessment of health claims in the field of bone: a view of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES)
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Rizzoli, René; Coxam, V. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012), 23

Health claims for food products in Europe are permitted if the nutrient has been shown to have a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. This paper defines health claims related to bone health and ... [more ▼]

Health claims for food products in Europe are permitted if the nutrient has been shown to have a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. This paper defines health claims related to bone health and provides guidelines for the design and the methodology of clinical studies to support claims. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of high sensitive troponin T and I immunoassays in patients with acute chest
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Garweg, Christophe ULg; Laurent, Terry et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2010, July), 56(S6), 127

Introduction: Cardiac troponin I and T are specific markers of myocardial injury that are widely used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In acute chest pain without ST-segment elevation ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Cardiac troponin I and T are specific markers of myocardial injury that are widely used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In acute chest pain without ST-segment elevation, they are used to differentiate unstable angina from non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Recently, troponin assays with higher analytical sensitivities became available to enable the detection of minor myocardial damage and identify individuals at higher risk for ACS. As a result of its high tissue-specificity, cardiac troponin T and I are cardio-specific, highly sensitive markers for myocardial damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the new higher sensitive troponin (T and I) in patients with stable angina and acute chest pain without ST-segment elevation. Methods: Sixty subjects (mean age : 65.5± 11 years), were included: 20 healthy controls, 20 patients with stable angina, 9 with unstable angina (troponin-) and 18 patients with NSTEMI myocardial infarction (troponin+). The protocol was approved by the ethic committee of the University of Liège (Belgium). High sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) determination was realized on heparin plasma by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Modular E (Roche Diagnostic). Troponin I II (TnI II) is a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for the quantitative determination of cardiac troponin-I in heparine plasma on the ARCHITECT i System (Abbott Diagnostic). The lower detection limit of these assays was 0.005μg/L for hsTnT and 0.01μg/L for TnI II. Stastistical analysis was performed using t test. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: HsTNT levels were 0.003(0.003, 0.004) [median baseline (1st, 3rd quartile)]ng/ml in controls, 0.0075 (0.00475, 0.014) ng/ml in stable angina, 0.011(0.006, 0.012) ng/ml in unstable angina and 0.3715 (0.1795, 1.00725) ng/ml in NSTEMI ACS. TnI II levels were 0 (0, 0.001) ng/ml in controls and in patients with stable angina, 0.07 (0.005, 0.014) ng/ml in unstable angina and 1.4475 (0.0407, 2.656) ng/ml in NSTEMI. HsTNT and TnI II levels were significantly increased in NSTEMI as compared to control subjects, patients with stable and unstable angina. TnI II levels were also increased in unstable angina as compared to controls. Conclusion: In our population, TnI II was more sensitive than hsTNT to detect minor myocardial damage in patients with unstable angina as compared to controls. Therefore, future studies will have to determine whether TnI II might contribute to better risk stratification and treatment strategy in this group of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of insulin resistance in vivo: application to the study of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Hormone Research (1992), 38(1-2), 19-27

Besides insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity plays a key role in the feedback glucose-insulin closed loop. It can be altered in numerous physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions. It ... [more ▼]

Besides insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity plays a key role in the feedback glucose-insulin closed loop. It can be altered in numerous physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions. It can be estimated in vivo using methods that open the feedback loop (insulin suppression test, glucose clamp) or that analyze the closed loop by employing mathematical models of glucose kinetics. The most popular method is the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp. This test should be ideally coupled with a priming-constant infusion of a glucose tracer together with indirect calorimetry. This combination allows to study the glucose kinetics (Ra and Rd, and thus endogenous-mainly hepatic-glucose production) and its metabolism (oxidation or storage as glycogen), respectively. One alternative approach is the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test where the dynamic changes in plasma insulin and glucose levels are analyzed using the so-called 'minimal model' method. Noninsulin-dependent or type 2 diabetes is characterized by a significant defect in both insulin secretion and action. The insulin resistance is located at the liver site (increased glucose production) and at the peripheral tissues (decreased oxidation and, even more, defective storage of glucose in the muscles). This insulin resistance, which predominates at the postreceptor level, seems to be genetically determined but is worsened by weight excess and by hyperglycemia itself. This contributes to a vicious circle which aggravates progressively the severity of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAn assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems.
World Health Organization Maximizing Positive Synergies Collaborative Group; Porignon, Denis ULg

in Lancet (2009), 373(9681), 2137-69

Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have ... [more ▼]

Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have claimed that these initiatives burden health systems that are already fragile in countries with few resources, whereas others have asserted that weak health systems prevent progress in meeting disease-specific targets. So far, most of the evidence for this debate has been provided by speculation and anecdotes. We use a review and analysis of existing data, and 15 new studies that were submitted to WHO for the purpose of writing this Report to describe the complex nature of the interplay between country health systems and GHIs. We suggest that this Report provides the most detailed compilation of published and emerging evidence so far, and provides a basis for identification of the ways in which GHIs and health systems can interact to mutually reinforce their effects. On the basis of the findings, we make some general recommendations and identify a series of action points for international partners, governments, and other stakeholders that will help ensure that investments in GHIs and country health systems can fulfil their potential to produce comprehensive and lasting results in disease-specific work, and advance the general public health agenda. The target date for achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals is drawing close, and the economic downturn threatens to undermine the improvements in health outcomes that have been achieved in the past few years. If adjustments to the interactions between GHIs and country health systems will improve efficiency, equity, value for money, and outcomes in global public health, then these opportunities should not be missed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe assessment of job satisfaction for the Healthcare providers in University Clinics of Lubumbashi, D.R.Congo
Mundongo Tshamba, Henri; Van Caillie, Didier ULg; Kaj Malonga, Françoise et al

in Panafrican Medical Journal (2014), 2014

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See detailAssessment of joint space narrowing in knee osteoarthritis has good long-term intercentre reproducibility when read in pairs with a semi-automated device
Gensburger, Deborah; DEROISY, Rita ULg; Arlot, Monique et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012, March), 23(Suppl. 2), 247-248

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See detailAssessment of joint space narrowing with conventional standing antero-posterior radiographs: relief in mild-to-moderate pain is not a confounder in recent osteoarthritis structure-modifying drug trials
Rovati, L. C.; Pavelka, K.; Giacovelli, G. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2006), 14(Suppl. A), 14-18

Objective: Knee pain relief has been suggested to potentially alter radioanatomic positioning in conventional standing antero-posterior knee radiographs. This study was performed to determine whether this ... [more ▼]

Objective: Knee pain relief has been suggested to potentially alter radioanatomic positioning in conventional standing antero-posterior knee radiographs. This study was performed to determine whether this is always the case and in particular if it applied to two recent randomised, placebo-controlled trials showing both symptom- and structure-modification with glucosamine sulfate in knee osteoarthritis. Design: Patients in the two studies were selected if they completed the 3-year evaluations and, irrespectively of treatment, (1) were pain-improvers in that they underwent Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) pain decrease at least equal to the mean improvement observed with glucosamine sulfate, or (2) if their baseline standing knee pain (item #5 of the WOMAC pain scale) was "severe" or "extreme" and improved by any degree at the end of the trials. Changes in minimum joint space width were then compared between treatments. Results: Knee pain was of mild-to-moderate severity in the two original studies and in all patient subsets identified here. Obviously, there were more pain-improvers in the glucosamine sulfate than in the placebo subsets (N 76 vs 57 in pooling the two studies), but WOMAC pain scores improved to the same extent (over 50% relative to baseline). Notwithstanding such a major pain relief, patients in the placebo subsets of both studies suffered a definite mean (SE) joint space narrowing, that was of -0.22 (0.15) mm in the pooled analysis, and that was not observed with glucosamine sulfate: +0.15 (0.07) mm; P= 0.003. Similar evidence was found in the smaller subsets with at least severe baseline standing knee pain improving after 3 years. Conclusions: Knee pain relief did not bias the report of a structure-modifying effect of glucosamine sulfate in two recent long-term trials, possibly due to the mild-to-moderate patient characteristics. Consensus deliverables should acknowledge that the potential limitations of conventional standing antero-posterior radiographs should not be overestimated since they may not apply to all patient populations and to all studies using this gold standard technique. (C) 2006 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe assessment of kidney function
cohen, Eric P.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Cohen, Eric P (Ed.) Cancer and the Kidney - The frontier of nephrology and oncology (2010)

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See detailAssessment of kidney function: estimating GFR in children.
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Ebert, Natalie

in Nature Reviews Nephrology (2012), 8(9), 503-504

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See detailAssessment of Lake Sediment Sensitivity along the North Anatolian Fault
Boes, Xavier; Ulas, Avsar; King, J et al

Conference (2007, October)

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See detailAssessment of Lake Sediment Sensitivity to Earthquakes and Climate Cycles along the North Anatolian Fault,
Boes, Xavier; Avsar, Ulas; King, J et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2007, April), 9

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See detailAssessment of Lake Sediment Sensitivity to Earthquakes and Climate Cycles along the North Anatolian Fault,
Boes, Xavier; Avsar, Ulas; Doner, L. et al

Conference (2007, July)

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See detailAssessment of landslides activity in Maily‐Say Valley, Kyrgyz Tien Shan
Schlögel, Romy; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Braun, Anika et al

in Landslide Science and Practice (2013)

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See detailAssessment of left ventricular volumes and primary mitral regurgitation severity by 2D echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Van De Heyning, Caroline M.; Magne, Julien ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg et al

in Cardiovascular ultrasound (2013), 11

BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven to establish left ventricular function more accurately and might evaluate mitral regurgitation severity more reliably. We sought to compare routine evaluation of left ventricular function and mitral regurgitation severity by 2DTTE with assessment by CMR in moderate to severe primary mitral regurgitation without overt left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: We prospectively included 38 patients (79% of male, age 57 +/- 14 years) with at least moderate primary mitral regurgitation, a left ventricular ejection fraction >/=60% and a left ventricular end-systolic diameter </=45 mm. Patients with evidence of coronary artery disease, arrhythmias or significant concomitant valvular disease were excluded. All patients were scheduled for 2DTTE and CMR. RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly underestimated by 2DTTE in comparison with CMR, although there was a strong correlation (Pearson r = 0.81, p < 0.00001 and r = 0.7, p < 0.00001, respectively). Measurement of the regurgitant orifice was similar between 2DTTE PISA method and planimetry by CMR (47 +/- 24 vs. 42 +/- 16 mm2, p = 0.12) with a strong correlation between both imaging techniques (Pearson r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). By contrast, assessment of the regurgitant volume by 2DTTE and by phase contrast velocity mapping by CMR showed poor agreement. CONCLUSIONS: In moderate to severe primary mitral regurgitation without overt left ventricular dysfunction, 2DTTE significantly underestimates left ventricular remodelling in comparison to CMR. Measurement of the regurgitant orifice with planimetry by CMR shows good agreement with the PISA method by 2DTTE and thus may be a valuable alternative to assess mitral regurgitation severity. [less ▲]

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