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See detailASSESSMENT OF RETAINED AUSTENITIC PHASE IN INDEFINITE CHILL CAST IRON MICROSTRUCTURE TOWARDS VARIOUS TECHNIQUES
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Terziev, Liuben; Sinnaeve, Mario et al

Poster (2007, November 16)

Indefinite Chill Cast Irons also called ICDP when used as rolling mill rolls are high alloyed cast iron alloys belonging to the Fe-Cr-C system. ICDP exhibit improved properties regarding hot oxidation and ... [more ▼]

Indefinite Chill Cast Irons also called ICDP when used as rolling mill rolls are high alloyed cast iron alloys belonging to the Fe-Cr-C system. ICDP exhibit improved properties regarding hot oxidation and wear resistances as their microstructure is a mixture of a martensitic with bulky cementite (M3C) and lamellar graphite fully dispersed into the matrix. Mechanical properties involved depend either on the chemical composition of the alloy or the crystallisation behaviour and the heat treatments performed subsequently in order to lead to the desired microstructure. Thus hardenability of the matrix is of great concern as heat treatments sequence is intended to transform austenite in a more stable structure like martensite or even bainite, depending on Cr content. In fact austenite is known to be unstable during hot working conditions as hot temperature and external stresses could yield transformation of this phase into martensite with major volume distortions and even multiple cracks network on the component involved. To avoid such a hitch in service it is quite necessary to make sure all the austenite is completely transformed into martensite while performing subsequent heat treatments like quenching or tempering on the material obtained after casting process. Various techniques are allowable starting from classical ones (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Image Analysis, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Dilatometry) to more exotic one like Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS). From an industrial point of view, it is important to set a fast and reliable method to assess retained austenite presence into ICDP microstructure at the end of any step of the thermomechanical process. The present work is intended to compare different techniques used for retained austenite assessment in ICDP alloys as a first step prior to the calibration of a classical method like dilatometry. This calibration is to be set starting from complex XRD and CEMS spectrometers analyses. Dilatometry seems to overrate retained austenite volume fraction in the as-cast conditions while good agreements are made on the overall batch of techniques when considering heat treated material where retained austenite transformation occurred [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of sea bass swimming activity and preferential space use in sea cages using acoustic telemetry and archival tags
Faucher, Karine ULg; Millot, Sandie ULg; Struski, Caroline et al

Poster (2007, June)

Swimming activity rhythms and levels as well as space occupation by sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a sea cage (6.5 x 6.5 x 8 m, ca. 25000 fish of 400 g stocked at 30 kg m-3) were recorded using ... [more ▼]

Swimming activity rhythms and levels as well as space occupation by sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a sea cage (6.5 x 6.5 x 8 m, ca. 25000 fish of 400 g stocked at 30 kg m-3) were recorded using acoustic telemetry (9 fish, IBDT Sonotronics) and archival tags (11, DSTs STAR ODDI). Acoustic tracking was realized over a 13 days period and successful for 3 individuals (one fix every 2 min on average). For archival tags, only 4 tags were retrieved and 3 had been recording swimming depth and temperature for 9 mo (Nov 05-June 06). Telemetry results showed an even day/night swimming activity levels in November with fish staying in close association with the bottom. Archival tags recordings revealed a preferential distribution in the water column between mid-water and bottom of the net cage in winter, over the whole water column in spring and near the surface zone in early-summer. In addition, on a 24 hrs period basis, sea bass presented a vertical movement rhythm: they swam closer to the surface during the day, specially around feeding events, and near the bottom at night. That vertical movement was pronounced during winter, faded during spring and almost disappeared in summer. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of sedentary and mobile pastoralism dynamics in the region of Diffa (Niger)
Laouali, Abdoulkadri ULg; Yamba, Boubacar; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Dusan, Kovacevic (Ed.) Book of proceedings - Fifth International Scientific Symposium „Agrosym 2014“ (2014)

This paper builds on the article entitled “Pastoral dynamics in the Region of Diffa: descriptive analysis of livestock capital” published in the Proceedings Agrosym 2013. In view of its agro ecological ... [more ▼]

This paper builds on the article entitled “Pastoral dynamics in the Region of Diffa: descriptive analysis of livestock capital” published in the Proceedings Agrosym 2013. In view of its agro ecological characteristics, Diffa is a largely pastoral region in Niger. Livestock practiced by more than 95% of the population, is the dominant economic activity of local communities. It contributes around 55% of the annual GDP of the Region. To assess and understand the pastoral dynamics in the Region, a survey involving 300 households (150 households with sedentary herds and 150 households with mobile herds) was conducted during the first half of 2012. The paper attempts to capture, from the responses of households surveyed, livestock trends in the Region of Diffa over a period of six years (2007 to 2012). Analysis of results, at least regarding households who provided comprehensive responses, shows reduced livestock over the relevant period with variances according to species. Data cross analysis highlights the occurrence of recurrent fodder deficits, attributable to a series of annual rainfall deficits as well as animal diseases as the main cause of reduced sizes of the herds of households surveyed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of soil metal distribution and environmental impact of mining in Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Bonhoure, Jessica et al

in Applied Geochemistry (2015)

Metal and metalloid (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn) distribution in soils from the Katanga Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo) is investigated in order to characterize the environmental impacts of ... [more ▼]

Metal and metalloid (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn) distribution in soils from the Katanga Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo) is investigated in order to characterize the environmental impacts of mining and smelting activities in that area. The concentrations of Cu, Co, As, Zn, Pb and Cd in soils from mining sites are higher than in non-metalliferous sites and above permissible metal and metalloid concentrations in soils. Moreover, the fractionation and mobility of Co, and Cu in such environment is assessed using the application of both ammonium acetate-EDTA extraction and speciation modeling (WHAM 6). The resulting data set covers wide range of environmental conditions (pH, trace metals concentration, natural soils and soils affected by mining and ore processing). These extractions show that only a small fraction of Cu and Co is mobile, with variation depending on sites: mobility is higher in soils affected by mining and ore processing. The strong affinity of Mn-oxides for Co may explain lower Co mobility in Mn-rich soils. The high Mn and Fe contents of Cu-Co soils from Katanga may actually exert a protective effect against the toxic effects of Co. Finally, Cu-Co speciation modeling of contaminated sites emphasizes that organic matter strongly sorb Cu whereas Co speciation is mostly by Mn content. This type of study leads to a better understanding of metal fractionation and can guide to define different practices of phytoremediation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Solvent Degradation within a Global Process Model of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg

in Klemes, Jiri; Varbanov, Petar; Liew, Peng (Eds.) Proceedings of the 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering – ESCAPE 24 (2014)

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the ... [more ▼]

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the process operations has rarely been studied. In the present work, a kinetics model describing solvent oxidative and thermal degradation has been developed based on own experimental results for the benchmark solvent, i.e. 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) in water. This model has been included into a global Aspen Plus model of the CO2 capture process. The selected process modelling approaches are described in the present work. Using the resulting simulation model, optimal operating conditions can be identified to minimize both the energy requirement and the solvent degradation in the process. This kind of process model assessing solvent degradation may contribute to the design of large-scale CO2 capture plants to consider not only the process energy penalty, but also its environmental penalty. Indeed, both aspects are relevant for the large-scale deployment of the CO2 capture technology. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Solvent Degradation within a Global Process Model of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the ... [more ▼]

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the process operations has rarely been studied. In the present work, a kinetics model describing solvent oxidative and thermal degradation has been developed based on own experimental results for the benchmark solvent, i.e. 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) in water. This model has been included into a global Aspen Plus model of the CO2 capture process. The selected process modelling approaches are described in the present work. Using the resulting simulation model, optimal operating conditions can be identified to minimize both the energy requirement and the solvent degradation in the process. This kind of process model assessing solvent degradation may contribute to the design of large-scale CO2 capture plants to consider not only the process energy penalty, but also its environmental penalty. Indeed, both aspects are relevant for the large-scale deployment of the CO2 capture technology. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of space radiation effects on solid-state Brillouin phase conjugate mirrors
Brignon, Arnaud; Richard, Sébastien; Gusarov, Andreï et al

in Applied Optics (2007), 46(22), 5329-5335

Optical phase conjugation (OPC) provides a means of dynamical correction of thermally induced aberrations in high-power laser systems. This method is particularly interesting for space applications ... [more ▼]

Optical phase conjugation (OPC) provides a means of dynamical correction of thermally induced aberrations in high-power laser systems. This method is particularly interesting for space applications because it is passive, mechanically simple, and allows for improved beam quality with only a small loss in power. To exploit it one has to assess the effect of the space environment, and in particular of space radiation, on the properties of the materials that are suitable for phase-conjugating mirrors (PCMs). We have investigated both materials providing OPC via stimulated Brillouin scattering and actual PCMs with regard to their radiation hardness. Proton- and gamma-irradiated PCMs in the form of 30-cm long silica rods and 5-cm long TeO2 crystals were tested in a single frequency flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG system delivering up to 220 mJ pulses with a 20 ns duration at a 50 Hz repetition rate. The difference in the reflectivity between irradiated and nonirradiated components was found to be within the measurement errors. Gamma irradiation of TeO2 resulted in a decrease of the laser-induced damage threshold, while for silica possible changes were below the detection limit. Our results show that synthetic fused silica, and Lithosil in particular, can be used for generating the OPC in laser systems operating in a space radiation environment. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of stress level in horses (Equus caballus): behavioural and physiological measurements in hospital.
Peeters, Marie ULg; Péters, F.; Sulon, J. et al

Conference (2008)

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See detailAssessment of stress level in horses during competition using salivary cortisol: preliminary studies
Peeters, Marie ULg; Sulon, Joseph; Serteyn, Didier ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Behavior : Clinical Applications and Research (2010, July), 5(4), 216

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See detailAssessment of structure-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis: surrogate or hard clinical end points?
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Future Rheumatology (2006), 1(2), 199-206

Current regulatory requirements for the development of disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) still consider the measurement of joint space narrowing (a change in joint space width over many years ... [more ▼]

Current regulatory requirements for the development of disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) still consider the measurement of joint space narrowing (a change in joint space width over many years) on plain x-rays as the appropriate primary end point for the demonstration of efficacy. However, other outcomes have recently been proposed. Among these, time to joint replacement appears to be an attractive option. Preliminary results are encouraging; however, more data are needed before recommending joint replacement as a primary outcome in disease-modifying OA drugs. It should be acknowledged that, owing to potential biases (e.g., absence of recommended guidelines, socio–economic and gender disparities in the rates of knee surgery, variability from country to country and willingness of patients to undergo the surgery), a recent expert consensus panel did not recommend this particular outcome as the primary end point for assessing the success or failure of a disease-modifying drug. Other tools, such as magnetic resonance imaging or biochemical markers, have potential as outcome measures but more studies are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of systolic myocardial function in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion
Mc Entee, K; Amory, Hélène ULg; Pypendop, B et al

in In Proceedings of the 6th ESVIM Congress (1996)

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See detailAssessment of the 3D Localization of Metallic Nanoparticles in Pd/SiO2 Cogelled Catalysts by Electron Tomography
Gommes, Cédric ULg; de Jong, Krijn; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Langmuir (2005), 21

The purpose of this study is to analyze the localization of palladium nanoparticles within their silica support, in two heterogeneous catalysts synthesized by the sol-gel process, with different metal ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to analyze the localization of palladium nanoparticles within their silica support, in two heterogeneous catalysts synthesized by the sol-gel process, with different metal loadings. Electron tomography demonstrates that the palladium particles are localized deep inside the silica skeleton. The use of digital image analysis further shows that the dispersion of palladium is optimal in the sample with the lowest loading. The particles are regularly spaced in the middle of the silica skeleton, with a distance between them comparable to the diameter of the struts of silica. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the acaricidal activity of several plant extracts on the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae) in Tunisian citrus orchards
Attia, Sabrine; Grissa, Kaouthar Lebdi; Zeineb, Ghrabi-Gammar et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Entomologie = Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie (2011), 147(I-IV), 71-79

To develop sustainable pest control in Tunisian citrus orchards, the present work aimed to evalute the toxicity of 31 plant extracts obtained from Tunisia and two synthetic acaricides (spirodiclofen and ... [more ▼]

To develop sustainable pest control in Tunisian citrus orchards, the present work aimed to evalute the toxicity of 31 plant extracts obtained from Tunisia and two synthetic acaricides (spirodiclofen and fenbutatin oxide) on the phytophagous mite species Tetranychus urticae (Koch). [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the Biological Effectiveness of Nasal Synthetic Salmon Calcitonin (Ssct) by Comparison with Intramuscular (I.M.) or Placebo Injection in Normal Subjects
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Denis, D.; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Bone and Mineral (1987), 2(2), 133-40

For patients who require treatment over a period of some years, intranasal administration of synthetic salmon calcitonin (SSCT) obviates the discomfort associated with administration by injection ... [more ▼]

For patients who require treatment over a period of some years, intranasal administration of synthetic salmon calcitonin (SSCT) obviates the discomfort associated with administration by injection. Moreover, this mode of administration is not associated with the side effects normally encountered when calcitonin is injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously. The aim of this study was to assess, in normal subjects, the biological activity of nasal SSCT by comparing the fluctuations of parameters reflecting calcium-phosphorus metabolism after nasal instillation, injection of SSCT and injection of placebo, respectively. In nine healthy subjects, this instillation of 200 IU of SSCT into the nasal cavity caused a fall in serum calcium, a fall in serum phosphorus and a transient rise in parathyroid hormone levels similar to that observed after the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 80 IU of SSCT. SSCT whether administered by the nasal route or by injection, does not inhibit endogenous calcitonin secretion. There were no changes in serum beta-endorphin, magnesium or erythrocyte magnesium levels after administration of calcitonin by the intranasal route or by injection. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the cell-mediated immunity in cattle infection after bovine herpesvirus 4 infection, using an in vitro antigen-specific interferon-gamma assay.
Godfroid, J.; Czaplicki, G.; Kerkhofs, P. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 53(1-2), 133-41

The cell-mediated immunity (CMI) following bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection has been poorly investigated in cattle. The in vivo response measured by a delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) assay has ... [more ▼]

The cell-mediated immunity (CMI) following bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection has been poorly investigated in cattle. The in vivo response measured by a delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) assay has been reported to be positive in only few animals showing serological evidences of BHV4 infection. We have investigated the CMI following BHV4 infection by an in vitro antigen-specific interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release assay, as an indicator of an actively acquired immunity to BHV4. Our preliminary results using a partially purified antigen suggest that there was a measurable CMI in 75 out of 168 animals (44.4%) originating from a farm with a clinical history and serological evidences (76.3% seropositivity) of BHV4 infection. If the results of serological tests and BHV4 IFN-gamma test are interpreted in parallel, 81.5% of the animals are classified positive, demonstrating the complementarity of these tests. The specificity of the BHV4 IFN-gamma test was supported by the absence of a measurable CMI in 41 animals originating from a farm with no clinical history or serological evidence of BHV4 infection. In an allied study, we developed a bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) IFN-gamma test. This allowed us to measure the antigen specific IFN-gamma release after stimulation with a mixture of BHV1 and BHV4 antigens. Animals that were classified negative by the BHV4 IFN-gamma test and by the BHV1 IFN-gamma test, were classified negative after stimulation with a mixture of both antigens. Animals that were classified positive by the BHV4 IFN-gamma test or the BHV1 IFN-gamma test, were classified positive after stimulation with a mixture of both antigens. Taken together these results suggest that the in vitro assessment of the CMI after BHV4 infection should be further investigated as a specific and valuable alternative to the DTH assay. [less ▲]

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