Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre Amphipathic Asymmetric Peptides Ubiquitous Structures For Membrane Destabilisation?
Rahman, M.; Lins, Laurence ULiege; Thomas, Annick ULiege et al

in Journal of Molecular Modeling (1997), 3(5), 203-215

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these ... [more ▼]

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these fragments at a water/lipid interface is directly related to their fusogenic capacity. On this basis, we have searched for fragments of sequences corresponding to “viral fusion peptides” in other proteins. We have developed a strategy to detect them from primary sequences. Many candidates were detected, especially in transmembrane areas of membranous proteins, in signal sequences and in globular proteins. We suggest that they are involved in the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAre amphipods influenced by Posidonia oceanica seagrass features?
Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Michel, Loïc ULiege et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

In the Mediterranean Sea, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays an important role as habitat for invertebrates, among which amphipod crustaceans represent a dense and diverse assemblage. Recent studies ... [more ▼]

In the Mediterranean Sea, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays an important role as habitat for invertebrates, among which amphipod crustaceans represent a dense and diverse assemblage. Recent studies have observed that amphipod density and biomass vary significantly on small spatial scales. This patchiness may be caused by different factors, such as recruitment, competition, and predation; however, habitat features, resulting in availability of resources such as food or shelter, may also be important in structuring these assemblages. This study examined the relationships between amphipod and habitat features in a P. oceanica meadow of the Revellata Bay (Corsica). The sampling was carried out in a continuous meadow colonizing soft substrates at constant depth in August 2008. We quantified the density and biomass of each amphipod species, as well as habitat features, namely shoot density, leaf and epiphyte biomasses, percentage of leaves per shoot having alteration marks and litter biomass. Using multiple regression analyses, few weak significant relationships were identified between amphipod and habitat features. The number of species and the diversity appeared unaffected by the measured habitat features. In contrast, total amphipod density and biomass were generally positively related to the shoot density and epiphyte biomass of P. oceanica, respectively. Overall, habitat features accounted for 0-30% of the variation in the densities of the amphipod species. A distance-based linear model explained a total of 25.8% of the variation of the amphipod assemblages (of which 18.6% was explained by litter biomass). Amphipods are therefore influenced by some P. oceanica features, but only weakly. Furthermore, some features appeared to influence individual species whereas others functioned at the assemblage level. The main challenge remains in evaluating the scale at which these features act and the way in which they influence the structure of assemblages. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre Antibodies Responsible for a Decreased Superovulatory Response in Goats Which Have Been Treated Repeatedly with Porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone ?
Remy, Benoit; Baril, Gérard; Vallet, J. C. et al

in Theriogenology (1991), 36(3), 389-99

Repeated administration of xenogenic gonadotropins in human or animal species may be responsible for antibody production and refractoriness. An experiment was conducted in which goats were treated with ... [more ▼]

Repeated administration of xenogenic gonadotropins in human or animal species may be responsible for antibody production and refractoriness. An experiment was conducted in which goats were treated with porcine FSH (p-FSH) at 6-week intervals for a period of 7 months. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to detect antibodies to p-FSH in plasma samples taken at short-term intervals during a 7-month period. Antibodies appeared after the first injection, and levels increased following booster injections. A high correlation rate existed between antibody level and superovulatory response. Refractoriness in goats was associated with a high level of antibodies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre Belgian hospitals prepared for an H5NI1-pandemic?
De Cauwer, H. G.; Mortelmans, L. J. M.; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULiege

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007), 14(4), 204-206

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian ... [more ▼]

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian hospitals are able to deal with H5N1-influenza infected patients in the case of a pandemic. Many patients, including children, may require artificial ventilation within 48h after admission. Methods A survey aimed at determining 'availability and preparedness' was sent by e-mail to the different Belgian Emergency Departments. Results and discussion Sixty-five hospitals were finally included. The amount of patients being potentially admitted is limited, owing to the reduced number of intensive care beds equipped with automatic ventilators. Furthermore, the number of available intensive care beds for children is still lower than for adult patients. The number of mortuary places, in the case of a catastrophe, is also insufficient. Although most hospitals set up a disaster plan on H5N1, there are only limited stocks of antiviral medication to protect the hospital staff in the acute phase. A separate triage area is only available in a limited number of hospitals. We conclude that Belgian hospitals and emergency departments are not equipped to deal with potential pandemic situations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAre bio and nano likely to be compared? If so, what are the consequences on public participation?
Thoreau, François ULiege

Conference (2009, March 29)

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also ... [more ▼]

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also brings, with its development, promises of a quite huge potential including important economic opportunities. Both of those emergent technologies also raise important social, ethical or environmental issues. Nevertheless, many substantive differences remain between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. The former was introduced in society by a time public actors were less sensitive to public participation, as shows the history of parliamentary Technology Assessment. A lack of public participation is often told to have grounded some public opposition to some particular biotechnologies, with the usually quoted case of GMOs. The latter are currently under development in quite other circumstances, as social shaping of technology begins to be widely acknowledged and role played by STS community grows faster. Nanotechnologies deal with more uncertainties and more complexity. So it is commonly accepted that, within their development process, they should include more public participation to avoid some pitfalls of biotechnologies. Still, other differences that context exist between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. It may be stressed that biotechnologies have left laboratories for a private financial designing of marketable products and that nanotechnologies are just starting to leave laboratories under great public impulsions, with wide public support and funding, as in the case of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. So in the presentation we consider whether, given those differences, biotechnologies and nanotechnologies are likely to be compared. Then we pick a look to potential consequences related to public participation. Should there be more public participation? What for? Should it be driven in a different way? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre blind injections of gleno-humeral joint (GHJ) really less accurate imaging-guided injections? A narrative systematic review considering multiple anatomical approaches.
SIMONI, Paolo ULiege; Grumolato, Marco; MALAISE, Olivier ULiege et al

in Radiologia Medica (La) (2017)

AIM: To perform a systematic review to establish whether blind injections of the gleno-humeral (GHJ) joint may be an accurate alternative to injections performed imaging guidance, considering multiple ... [more ▼]

AIM: To perform a systematic review to establish whether blind injections of the gleno-humeral (GHJ) joint may be an accurate alternative to injections performed imaging guidance, considering multiple anatomical approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our search strategy yielded 478 articles for Scopus, 815 articles for MEDLINE, 128 articles for Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and 555 articles for Embase until May 2016. One hundred and sixty-seven abstracts were retrieved after duplicates removal. Two readers independently reviewed all the 1067 abstracts. They selected for the full-text analysis only the abstracts in which the accuracy of intra-articular position of the needle was confirmed on imaging (humans) or by a surgical dissection (cadavers). Thirty-eight studies were eventually selected for the full-text reading and data extraction. The selected studies included a total of 2309 patients (2690 shoulders) and 195 cadavers (299 shoulders). To objectively assess the methodological quality of the present systematic review, "Assessment of Multiple Systematic Review" (AMSTAR) tool was used. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of the intra-articular injection in GHJ varied from 42 to 100% in the 38 selected studies. Imaging guidance was used in 65% of articles and the overall accuracy of guided GHJ injections was higher than blind injection. However, five articles in which blind injection the GHJ was used (159 shoulders) reported accuracy as high as 100%. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive review of the literature confirms that guided injections of the GHJ have overall accuracy higher compared to blind injection. Nevertheless, in some studies, including a relatively large number of shoulders, blind injections have been proven to be 100% accurate. Hence, blind injections of GHJ could be proposed a cost-effective alternative to imaging-guided injection. A large prospective randomized study is needed to gauge this hypothesis and compare the cost-effectiveness of these two techniques for the most common anatomical approaches. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre blood transfusions associated with greater mortality rates? Results of the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study.
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Sprung, Charles et al

in Anesthesiology (2008), 108(1), 31-9

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of blood transfusion to mortality in European intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: The Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study was a multicenter, observational study that included all adult patients admitted to 198 European ICUs between May 1 and May 15, 2002 and followed them until death, until hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified depending on whether they had received a blood transfusion at any time during their ICU stay. RESULTS: Of 3,147 patients, 1,040 (33.0%) received a blood transfusion. These patients were older (mean age, 62 vs. 60 yr; P = 0.035) and were more likely to have liver cirrhosis or hematologic cancer, to be a surgical admission, and to have sepsis. They had a longer duration of ICU stay (5.9 vs. 2.5 days; P < 0.001) and a higher ICU mortality rate (23.0 vs. 16.3%; P < 0.001) but were also more severely ill on admission (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 40.2 vs. 34.7; P < 0.001; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 6.5 vs. 4.5; P < 0.001). There was a direct relation between the number of blood transfusions and the mortality rate, but in multivariate analysis, blood transfusion was not significantly associated with a worse mortality rate. Moreover, in 821 pairs matched according to a propensity score, there was a higher 30-day survival rate in the transfusion group than in the other patients (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: This observational study does not support the view that blood transfusions are associated with increased mortality rates in acutely ill patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULiege; Losson, Bertrand ULiege; Smeets, François ULiege et al

Poster (2013, October)

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is nou, âvailable that describe the distribuüon, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaÿ marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby caftle farm. High numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them were Culicoides impunc{atus, a potential vector of BïV and other pâthogens. ln addition, fewer numbers of c. obsoletus/c. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULiege; Smeets, François ULiege; Simonon, Grégory et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (12 ULiège)
See detailAre bovine muscarinic receptors activated during respiratory distress syndrome ?
Genicot, B.; Mouligneau, F.; Lekeux, Pierre ULiege

in Smaldone, G. C.; Liebert, M. A. (Eds.) Journal of Aerosol Medicine : Deposition, Clearance, and Effects in the Lung (1993)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season
Bachy, Aurélie ULiege; Aubinet, Marc ULiege; Schoon, Niels et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16(8),

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale ... [more ▼]

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m−2 h−1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (17 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAre BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season
Bachy, Aurélie ULiege; Aubinet, Marc ULiege; Schoon, Niels et al

Conference (2016, April 18)

This oral communication aims to present the main outputs of the BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) flux measurement campaign performed on a maize field in Belgium. It begins by highligthing the ... [more ▼]

This oral communication aims to present the main outputs of the BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) flux measurement campaign performed on a maize field in Belgium. It begins by highligthing the interest of investigating BVOC exchanges on maize; then measurement techniques are briefly presented. The second half of the communication aims to present and discuss the main outputs of this measurement campaign (similar BVOC composition, lower exchange rate than other maize and cropland/grassland studies, significant importance of soil in ecosystem exchanges, strong differences between exchanges rates observed in this study and those used by up-scaling models). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (6 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre CAB gene expression and flowering under the control of the same clock in Lolium temulentum Ceres ?
Hustin, Cécile; Bernier, Georges ULiege; Périlleux, Claire ULiege

in Biological Rhythm Research (1999), 30

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre cannibalistic morphs of the tiger salamander obligatory cannibals?
Denoël, Mathieu ULiege; Whiteman, Howard; Wissinger, Scott

Conference (2005)

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal ... [more ▼]

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal morphs usually foraging on conspecifics and rarely on small organisms. Our aim was to determine whether the cannibal and typical morphs shift their diets across time and particularly whether conspecifics are necessarily the main prey of cannibals and plankton the primary prey of typicals. We found that only the cannibal morph foraged on conspecifics, but not all the time. Cannibalism typically occurred only early after the ontogenetic divergence between morphs. Cannibals shifted their diet later in the summer to plankton, and this ontogenetic shift led to dietary overlap with the typical morph. In contrast to other studies, our findings suggest that the cannibal morphology actually allows the consumption of a larger variety of prey, rather than specialization on specific resources (i.e., conspecifics). The outcomes of the cannibalistic ontogenetic pathway include a higher biomass intake from food and a larger size than typicals. From a foraging perspective, the cannibalism pathway is clearly advantageous over the typical morphology. However, the increased diet breadth of cannibal morphs found in this study suggests that the maintenance of the polyphenism is more complex than has previously been suggested. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (0 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailARE CAPABILITY INDICES USEFULL TO ASSESS ANALYTICAL METHODS VALIDITY ?
Rozet, Eric ULiege; Bouabidi, Abderrahim ULiege; Talbi, M. et al

Poster (2012, February)

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability ... [more ▼]

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability indices has to be made. Indeed, the commonly used formulas to compute capability indices such as Cpk, will highly overestimate the true capability of the methods. Especially during methods validation or transfer, there are only few experiments performed and, using in these situations the commonly applied capability indices to declare a method as valid or as transferable to a receiving laboratory will conduct to inadequate decisions. In this work, an improved capability index, namely Cpk-tol and the corresponding estimator of proportion of non conforming results ( ) is proposed. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, they have been shown to greatly increase the estimation of analytical methods capability in particular in low sample size situations as encountered during methods validation or transfer. Additionally, the usefulness of this capability index is illustrated through several case studies covering applications commonly encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. Finally a methodology to determine the optimal sample size required to validate analytical methods is also given using the proposed capability metric. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (6 ULiège)
See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULiege

Conference (2001, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULiege

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2001), 39(suppl), 36

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre central executive functions working in patients with focal frontal lesions?
Andrès Bénito, P.; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Neuropsychologia (2002), 40(7), 835-845

The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis of a link between frontal cortex and two executive functions in working memory: the capacity to perform a dual task and the ability to inhibit ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis of a link between frontal cortex and two executive functions in working memory: the capacity to perform a dual task and the ability to inhibit irrelevant information. A dual task designed to assess the capacity to perform storage and processing simultaneously and a directed forgetting task designed to assess the capacity to actively inhibit no-longer relevant information were administered to a group of patients with focal frontal lesions and to a group of control participants. The results revealed that despite showing reduced short-term storage, frontal patients performed the dual task and inhibited the no-longer relevant information as well as control participants. These findings suggest that not all-executive processes are exclusively sustained by the frontal cortex [Quart J Exp Psychol 9 (1996) 5; Curr Opin Neurobiol 10 (2000) 195; Neuropsychology (1994) 544; The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Alzheimer-type dementia. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996]. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAre Children Conservative, Liberal or Metacognitive? Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Decision Making
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2015), 132

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children ... [more ▼]

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the results of the signal detection analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (16 ULiège)