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See detailAssessing the causes inducing lengthening of hospital stays by means of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol.
Fontaine, Pierre ULg; Jacques, Jessica ULg; Gillain, Daniel ULg et al

in Health Policy (2011)

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to evaluate the use of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) as a screening tool for determining the causes of the non-justified days to help hospitals to decrease the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to evaluate the use of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) as a screening tool for determining the causes of the non-justified days to help hospitals to decrease the length of stay while preserving the quality of care. METHODS: Three successive cross-sectional surveys were conducted from 2003 till 2005, in 23 Belgian hospitals. During this period, 10921 days were audited by means of the AEP. This study is focused on adult acute non-intensive care units. The appropriateness of each day of the sample was assessed, and for those considered as inappropriate, the reasons explaining the prolongation of the stay were investigated. RESULTS: The proportion of inappropriate days was 24.61%. There is a high variability across specialties and hospitals. Regarding inappropriate days, the analysis of causes of prolongation, globally, by bed index or by hospital, indicated clearly internal and external factors that lengthen stays. The most frequent reasons are waits for an examination (22%) and the lack of extra-hospital structures (31%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of AEP as a tool of internal audit to measure the proportion of non-justified days and their causes turns out to be possible and the obtained results has provided some accurate and useful information for the participating, and allowed them to take concrete decisions which lead to shrinking of the length of hospital stay. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effect of a catchment-scale restoration project in Wallonia (Belgium)
Peeters, Alexandre ULg; Verniers, Gisèle; De le Court, Bernard

in Angelopoulos, Natalie; Buijse, Tom; van Oorschot, Mijke (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the International Conference on River and Stream Restoration “Novel Approaches to Assess and Rehabilitate Modified Rivers”. FP7 REFORM deliverable 7.5. (2015)

In the context of fulfilling the Water Framework Directive requirements, the LIFE+ project Walphy allowed experimental restoration projects to be undertaken on two medium-size catchments of the Meuse ... [more ▼]

In the context of fulfilling the Water Framework Directive requirements, the LIFE+ project Walphy allowed experimental restoration projects to be undertaken on two medium-size catchments of the Meuse basin in Wallonia (Belgium) between 2009 and 2014. Before undertaking sustainable rehabilitation measures, a multi-scale assessment of hydromorphological conditions (catchment, stream and site) was conducted. It was based on a variety of variables characterizing the river system and its geomorphic processes (e.g. sediment transport), along with human-induced disturbances (e.g. barriers to river continuity). The Bocq catchment has been subject to a large-scale restoration project through the removal or modification of 20 barriers (mainly old weirs), reconnecting the Bocq with the Meuse. In addition, 2.6 km of straightened courses were improved by restoring meanders or diversifying habitats through a wide range of rehabilitation techniques. The success of the restoration projects was evaluated on the basis of a multi-disciplinary monitoring. We compared hydromorphological parameters and biological diversity of benthic invertebrates, fish and macrophytes. 2-3 years post-rehabilitation, hydromorphology was significantly improved. Depending on the rehabilitation measures, the restoration effects observed for invertebrates and fish differ. Weir removal and restored meanders have resulted in the most positive effects, while habitat diversification has led to more contrasted results, depending on the level of ambition. The geomorphological monitoring has focused on the effectiveness of spawning gravel rehabilitation and the effect of barriers on sediment transport. Topographic surveys and the use of pebble tracers have highlighted a natural bedload transport following a weir removal. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Effect of Persistent Organic Pollutants on Reproductive Activity in Common Dolphins and Harbour Porpoises
Murphy, S.; Pierce, G.; Law, R. et al

in Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science (2010), 42

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See detailAssessing the effect of the CLPG mutation on the microRNA catalog of skeletal muscle using high-throughput sequencing.
Caiment, Florian ULg; Charlier, Carole ULg; Hadfield, Tracy et al

in Genome Research (2010), 20(12), 1651-62

The callipyge phenotype is a monogenic muscular hypertrophy that is only expressed in heterozygous sheep receiving the CLPG mutation from their sire. The wild-type phenotype of CLPG/CLPG animals is ... [more ▼]

The callipyge phenotype is a monogenic muscular hypertrophy that is only expressed in heterozygous sheep receiving the CLPG mutation from their sire. The wild-type phenotype of CLPG/CLPG animals is thought to result from translational inhibition of paternally expressed DLK1 transcripts by maternally expressed miRNAs. To identify the miRNA responsible for this trans effect, we used high-throughput sequencing to exhaustively catalog miRNAs expressed in skeletal muscle of sheep of the four CLPG genotypes. We have identified 747 miRNA species of which 110 map to the DLK1-GTL2 or callipyge domain. We demonstrate that the latter are imprinted and preferentially expressed from the maternal allele. We show that the CLPG mutation affects their level of expression in cis ( approximately 3.2-fold increase) as well as in trans ( approximately 1.8-fold increase). In CLPG/CLPG animals, miRNAs from the DLK1-GTL2 domain account for approximately 20% of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. We show that the CLPG genotype affects the levels of A-to-I editing of at least five pri-miRNAs of the DLK1-GTL2 domain, but that levels of editing of mature miRNAs are always minor. We present suggestive evidence that the miRNAs from the domain target the ORF of DLK1, thereby causing the trans inhibition underlying polar overdominance. We highlight the limitations of high-throughput sequencing for digital gene expression profiling as a result of biased and inconsistent amplification of specific miRNAs. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression models: results from the Belgian national household travel survey.
Eftekhar, Hamed ULg; Creemers, Lieve; Cools, Mario ULg

in Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2016)

In this paper, the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure is assessed using data stemming from the 2010 Belgian national household travel survey. In particular, different (zero ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure is assessed using data stemming from the 2010 Belgian national household travel survey. In particular, different (zero-inflated) negative binomial models were estimated to isolate the effect of nationality, after controlling for other contributing factors such as socio-demographics, residential characteristics, transport options and temporal characteristics. The results indicate that, even if one controls for a series of other influencing factors, nationality plays a significant role in differences in travel time expenditure. This finding is especially relevant in the development of policy packages that are targeted to tackle social inequalities. From a methodological perspective, different methodological options, i.e. two weighting schemes and two bootstrap solutions, were presented to provide sufficient support for the conclusions. In order to generalize the results in further studies, an oversampling of travelers with a different nationality is strongly recommended. Future research should focus more on the underlying psychological constructs of why ethnic and cultural differences persist, even if one accounts for other determinants. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effects of compositional heterogeneity on phylogenomic analyses
Baurain, Denis ULg; Beiko, Robert G.; Ragan, Mark A.

Conference (2005, November 04)

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See detailAssessing the effects of spatial discretization on large-scale flow model performance and prediction uncertainty
Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Goderniaux, Pascal; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2014), 510

Large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models (>100 km2) constitute useful tools for water management since they take explicitly into account the heterogeneity and the physical processes ... [more ▼]

Large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models (>100 km2) constitute useful tools for water management since they take explicitly into account the heterogeneity and the physical processes occurring in the subsurface for predicting the evolution of discharge and hydraulic heads for several predictive scenarios. However, such models are characterized by lengthy execution times. Therefore, modelers often coarsen spatial discretization of large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models for reducing the number of unknowns and the execution times. This study investigates the influence of such a coarsening of model grid on model performance and prediction uncertainty. The improvement of model performance obtained with an automatic calibration process is also investigated. The results obtained show that coarsening spatial discretization mainly influences the simulation of discharge due to a poor representation of surface water network and a smoothing of surface slopes that prevents from simulating properly surface water-groundwater interactions and runoff processes. Parameter sensitivities are not significantly influenced by grid coarsening and calibration can compensate, to some extent, for model errors induced by grid coarsening. The results also show that coarsening spatial discretization mainly influences the uncertainty on discharge predictions. However, model prediction uncertainties on discharge only increase significantly for very coarse spatial discretizations. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization: A graphical targeting approach
Dumont, Marie-Noëlle ULg; der Assen, Niklas Von; Sternberg, André et al

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2012)

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See detailAssessing the environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization: A graphical targeting approach
Dumont, Marie-Noëlle ULg

Conference (2012, July)

Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state ... [more ▼]

Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state. Thus, a positive environmental effect of a CO2-consuming reaction cannot be taken for granted. In this work, we therefore present a graphical method to identify promising reaction schemes using CO2 as a feedstock. Reactant mixtures leading to minimal life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are determined. The optimal reaction schemes strongly depend on the reactants’ global warming potential (GWP); in the case of CCU, the future GWP values of CO2 and H2 are particularly critical and subject to major uncertainty today. The graphical method therefore provides GWP targets for CO2 capture and H2 production technologies. The method is demonstrated for the production of methanol. Five optimal reaction schemes are identified depending on the GWP values of CO2 and H2. Thus, four threshold relations for the GWP of CO2 and H2 are derived showing directly under which conditions the utilization of CO2 as a feedstock is environmentally preferential. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the foraging behavior of Agriotes sordidus wireworms in dual-choice olfactometers
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Fiers, Marie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(2), 151-156

The different steps of the foraging process of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) would be better understood if accurate and holistic information regarding the role of plant-produced chemicals ... [more ▼]

The different steps of the foraging process of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) would be better understood if accurate and holistic information regarding the role of plant-produced chemicals constituting their environment were available. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play important roles in the interactions between plants and insects in many ecosystems, whether they take place aboveground or belowground. The roles of VOC are still relatively unknown for wireworms, and deserve attention. Here, we performed three experimentations with barley roots as baits. In the two first, we assessed the effect of chopped roots and fungus infected roots on the orientation of wireworms. In the third experiment, the larvae were confronted to both healthy and fungus infected roots. We discuss the results in terms of suitability of the olfactometers we designed for the investigation of olfaction in wireworms, and we provide suggestions to improve their use. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the geographic resolution of exhaustive tabulation for geolocating Internet hosts
Siwpersad, S. S.; Gueye, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba ULg; Uhlig, Steve

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2008, April 29)

Geolocation of Internet hosts relies mainly on exhaustive tabulation techniques. Those techniques consist in building a database, that keeps the mapping between IP blocks and a geographic location ... [more ▼]

Geolocation of Internet hosts relies mainly on exhaustive tabulation techniques. Those techniques consist in building a database, that keeps the mapping between IP blocks and a geographic location. Relying on a single location for a whole IP block requires using a coarse enough geographic resolution. As this geographic resolution is not made explicit in databases, we try in this paper to better understand it by comparing the location estimates of databases with a well-established active measurements-based geolocation technique. We show that the geographic resolution of geolocation databases is far coarser than the resolution provided by active measurements for individual IP addresses. Given the lack of information in databases about the expected location error within each IP block, one cannot havemuch confidence in the accuracy of their location estimates. Geolocation databases should either provide information about the expected accuracy of the location estimates within each block, or reveal information about how their location estimates have been built, unless databases have to be trusted blindly. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of brightness temperature simulation adjustment conditions in correcting Metop-A SST over the Mediterranean Sea
Tomazic, Igor ULg; Roquet, Hervé; Le Borgne, Pierre

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2013)

Multispectral sea surface temperature (SST) algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of ... [more ▼]

Multispectral sea surface temperature (SST) algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of atmospheric types, mainly influenced by water vapor and temperature profiles. Deriving a SST correction from simulated brightness temperatures (BTs), obtained by applying a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) atmospheric profiles and first guess SST, is one of the solutions to reduce regional biases. This solution is envisaged in the particular case of Metop-A Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived SST. Simulated BTs show errors, linked to RTM, atmospheric profiles or guess field errors. We investigated the conditions of adjusting simulated to observed BTs in the particular case of the Mediterranean Sea over almost one year. Our study led to define optimal spatio/temporal averaging parameters of the simulation observation differences, both during day and night, summer and colder season and for two simulation modes: operational (with reduced vertical resolution – 15 levels – NWP atmospheric profiles and two days old analysis used as first guess SST) and delayed (full vertical resolution – 91 levels – and concurrent analysis used as first guess SST). Each BT adjustment has been evaluated by comparing the corresponding corrected AVHRR SST to the AATSR SST that we adopted as validation reference. We obtained an optimized result across all defined conditions and modes for a spatial smoothing of 15 deg and a temporal averaging between 3 and 5 days. Specifically, analyses based on 10 day averages showed that a standard deviation based criterion favors spatial smoothing above 10 deg for all temporal averaging, while a bias based criterion favors shorter temporal averaging during daytime (< 5 days) and higher spatial smoothing (> 10 deg) for nighttime. This study has shown also the impact of diurnal warming both in deriving BT adjustment and in validation results. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of fungal diseases management on crops and environment. Using dynamic models in the case of foliar diseases in wheat
Bancal, Marie-Odile; Roche, Romain; Gabrielle, Benoit et al

Conference (2007, November 13)

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Public Holidays on Travel Time Expenditure: Differentiation by Trip Motive
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2010)

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons of travel behavior, namely the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, in this paper the impact of public ... [more ▼]

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons of travel behavior, namely the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, in this paper the impact of public holidays on travel time expenditure in Flanders, differentiated by trip motive, is examined. The data used for the analysis stem from a household travel survey that was carried out in 2000. The main modeling approach that is employed is the zero-inflated Poisson regression approach, which explicitly takes into account the inherent contrast between travelers and non-travelers. The zero-inflated Poisson regression models yield findings that are harmonious with international literature: socio-demographic variables, temporal effects and transportation preferences contribute significantly in unraveling the variability of travel behavior. In particular it is shown that public holidays have a non-ignorable impact on daily travel behavior. Triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative techniques seems a solid roadway for further illumination of the underpinnings of travel behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Public Holidays on Travel Time Expenditure: Differentiation by Trip Motive
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2010), 2157

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons for travel behavior, namely, the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, the effect of holidays on travel ... [more ▼]

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons for travel behavior, namely, the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, the effect of holidays on travel time expenditure in Flanders, differentiated by trip motive, is examined. The data used for the analysis stem from a household travel survey carried out in 2000. The zero-inflated Poisson regression approach is used; it explicitly takes into account the inherent contrast between travelers and nontravelers. The zero-inflated Poisson regression models yield findings that are harmonious with international literature: socio-demographic variables, temporal effects, and transportation preferences contribute significantly to unraveling the variability of travel behavior. In particular, it is shown that the effect of public holidays on daily travel behavior cannot be ignored. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative techniques is a solid basis for insight into the underpinnings of travel behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of space and time resolution of brightness temperature simulation conditions in correcting SEVIRI SST over the Adriatic Sea
Tomazic, Igor ULg; Le Borgne, Pierre; Tudor, Martina et al

Conference (2012)

Majority of operational sea surface temperature (SST) infra-red (IR) products have small overall bias but exhibit higher absolute biases in specific regions. Previous studies [for example Tomazic et al ... [more ▼]

Majority of operational sea surface temperature (SST) infra-red (IR) products have small overall bias but exhibit higher absolute biases in specific regions. Previous studies [for example Tomazic et al., 2011] showed that over Adriatic Sea there is a positive summer bias sometimes exceeding 0.5 K. Methodology to decrease regional biases [Le Borgne et al., 2011], based on using atmospheric profiles, surface SST fields and radiative transfer model to simulate the non-linear split window SST (NLSST) algorithm error, was used to assess the impact of atmospheric profiles with different spatial resolution (ECMWF: 0.125 deg and ALADIN 2 km), different input surface SST fields (OSTIA 6 km and CNR UHR L4 1 km) and different time and space averaging criteria’s in deriving the algorithm correction. SST corrections derived for the NLSST Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) algorithm for five months (July, October and December 2010 and March and July 2011) are validated with AATSR L2 SST fields and compared to already implemented regional correction procedure at Center de Meteorologie Spatiale (CMS) to assess the optimal combination of space and time averaging criteria’s and input fields. Results show that the best improvement for all available months and for both day and night is obtained when using spatial averaging over the whole domain in combination with time averaging between the last 15 and last 31 days both for day and night time analysis. Using higher resolution ALADIN atmospheric profiles with OSTIA input SST fields didn’t improve the SST correction compared to using combination of coarser ECMWF atmospheric profiles and OSTIA input SST. Small improvement, based only on analysis for two months in 2011, is obtained when using both higher spatial resolution atmospheric profiles (ALADIN) and higher resolution input SST fields (CNR UHR L4 1 km). The best improvement obtained for spatial averaging over the whole domain (Adriatic Sea) suggests that the domain should be more extended (to Mediterranean Sea) to derive optimal spatial averaging, while conclusion of improvement obtained when using both the higher spatial resolution atmospheric profiles and input SST field need extension of analysis on other months in 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2008)

The investigation of weather effects on traffic intensity is important from a road safety point of view, because traffic intensity is noted as the first and primary determinant of traffic safety. Next to ... [more ▼]

The investigation of weather effects on traffic intensity is important from a road safety point of view, because traffic intensity is noted as the first and primary determinant of traffic safety. Next to traffic safety, weather conditions affect other predominant traffic variables, namely traffic demand and traffic flow. Therefore the main objective of this study is the identification and comparison of weather effects on traffic intensity at different site locations. To assess the impact of weather conditions on traffic intensity, the upstream and downstream traffic of four traffic count locations are considered. The traffic intensity data originate from minute data coming from single inductive loop detectors, collected by the Flemish Traffic Control Center. Data concerning weather events were recorded by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. The main modeling philosophy envisaged in this study to identify and quantify weather effects is the linear regression approach. Most appealing result of this study for policy makers, is the heterogeneity of the weather effects between different traffic count locations, and the homogeneity of the weather effects on upstream and downstream traffic at a certain location. The results also indicated that snowfall, rainfall and wind speed have a clear diminishing effect on traffic intensity, while maximum temperature significantly increases traffic intensity. Further generalizations of the findings are possible by studying weather effects on local roads and by shifting the scope towards travel behavior. Simultaneously modeling of weather conditions, traffic intensity rates, collision risk and activity travel behavior is certainly a key challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Weather, Climate and Society (2010), 2(1), 6068

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather conditions uniformly alter daily traffic intensities in Belgium, or in other words whether or not road usage on a particular location determines the size of the impacts of various weather conditions. This general examination is a contribution that allows policymakers to assess the appropriateness of countrywide versus local traffic management strategies. In addition, a secondary goal of this paper is to validate findings in international literature within a Belgian context. To achieve these goals, the paper analyzes the effects of weather conditions on both upstream (toward a specific location) and downstream (away from a specific location) traffic intensities at three traffic count locations typified by a different road usage. Perhaps the most interesting results of this study for policymakers are the heterogeneity of the weather effects between different traffic count locations, and the homogeneity of the weather effects on upstream and downstream traffic at specific locations. The results also indicate that snowfall, rainfall, and wind speed diminish traffic intensity, and high temperatures increase traffic intensity. Further generalizations of the findings might be possible by studying weather impacts on local roads and by shifting the focus of research toward travel behavior. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (1 ULg)