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See detailNon-invasive assessment of airway responsiveness in healthy and allergen-sensitised cats by use of barometric whole body plethysmography
Kirschvink, N.; Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Delvaux, François et al

in Veterinary Journal (2007), 173(2), 343-352

This study aimed at determining whether airway responsiveness (AR) tests performed by use of barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP) were repeatable in cats and to what extent AR was affected by the ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at determining whether airway responsiveness (AR) tests performed by use of barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP) were repeatable in cats and to what extent AR was affected by the nebulization protocol used, the age of the animals, the inflammatory status of the airways and prior bronchodilator treatment. Repeatability of AR was tested on two occasions in 30 healthy cats. The concentration of carbachol inducing a 300% increase of the enhanced pause (Penh) - an estimator of airflow limitation - was calculated (C-Penh300) and did not differ significantly between the two tests (0.035 +/- 0.017% compared to 0.034 +/- 0.016%) and was significantly and positively correlated. The comparison between rapidly and slowly increasing carbachol concentrations was performed in ten healthy cats and showed a significantly lower C-Penh300 (%) when slowly increasing concentrations were used (0.037 +/- 0.013% compared to 0.039 +/- 10.015%, P < 0.05). A significant age-related increase of C-Penh300 was evidenced by performing AR tests in 15 healthy cats at 12, 18, 24 and 30 months (12 months: 0.026 +/- 0.008%, 18 months: 0.031 +/- 0.009%, 24 months: 0.038 +/- 0.01%, 30 months: 0.043 +/- 0.014%, P < 0.05). C-Penh300 significantly decreased in 12 Ascaris suum-sensitised cats after allergen exposure (0.026 +/- 0.016% compared to 0.033 +/- 0.016%, P < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with the granulocyte percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (r = -0.36, P < 0.01). Compared with a placebo inhalation, pretreatment with inhaled salbutamol significantly increased C-Penh300 in four healthy cats (0.093 +/- 0.021% compared to 0.036 +/- 0.004%, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that AR determination by use of BWBP is promising as non-invasive indicator of lower airway inflammation or for monitoring response to bronchodilator treatment. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive assessment of arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation in cattle by pulse oximetry
Coghe, Joost; Uystepruyst, Christophe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1999), 145

The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicality and accuracy of different attachment sites for the optodes of a pulse oximeter (measuring arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation) in healthy cattle ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicality and accuracy of different attachment sites for the optodes of a pulse oximeter (measuring arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation) in healthy cattle, and to assess the accuracy of pulse oximetry in diseased cattle with low haemoglobin oxygen saturation values caused by respiratory disease. The tait the nasal septum and the genital mucosa of females provided a continuous, stable and intense signal. The smallest bias, and no significant difference between measurements of arterial haemoglobin (mSp02) with the pulse oximeter and measurements of arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaOZ) with a blood gas analyser was obtained when the probe was attached to the tail. This site was used to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry in animais with respiratory disease. There was a small bias between the measurements of Sa02 and mSp02, with a tendency for pulse oximetry to underestimate higher values and to overestimate lower values. The precision of pulse oximetry decreased substantially with the values for Sa02 <80 per cent, which lies outside the clinically relevant range [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive assessment of growth, gender and time of day related changes of respiratory pattern in healthy cats by use of barometric whole body plethysmography.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2006), 172(3), 446-454

The objective of this study was to establish a reference base for respiratory variables (respiratory rate [R(R)], inspiratory and expiratory time [T(i) and T(e)], peak inspiratory and expiratory ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to establish a reference base for respiratory variables (respiratory rate [R(R)], inspiratory and expiratory time [T(i) and T(e)], peak inspiratory and expiratory pseudoflow [PIF and PEF], tidal volume [V(T)], minute ventilation [V(E)] and enhanced pause [Penh]) of healthy cats by use of barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP). Eighteen healthy European cats (10 male, 8 female) were studied from the age of 3 to 13 months in order to assess growth- and gender-related changes of BWBP variables. Chest radiographs and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology were performed to confirm pulmonary health status. Diurnal changes were investigated every 2 h over a period of 24 h when the cats were adult. V(T), V(E), PIF and PEF significantly increased during somatic growth and were higher in males than in females, whereas R(R), T(i), T(e), T(e)/T(i) ratio, PEF/PIF ratio and Penh remained unchanged and were not affected by gender. When measured over 24 h, Penh, T(e) and T(i) were significantly increased in the early morning hours (04:00 h), whereas R(R), PIF and PEF were decreased at that time. This study provides reference values of BWBP variables for healthy male and female cats and indicates when circadian changes might be observed [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive assessment of tumor hypoxia with the 2-nitroimidazole 18F-EF1 and PET.
HUSTINX, Roland ULg; EVANS, SM.; KACHUR, CY. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (1999), 40

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See detailNon-invasive imaging of a giant right coronary artery due to a coronary fistula
Gach, Olivier ULg; Davin, Laurent ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Acta Cardiologica (2006), 61(5), 569-571

Coronary artery fistula is a relatively rare finding in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Incidence, angiographic characteristics and natural history of coronary fistulas of this ... [more ▼]

Coronary artery fistula is a relatively rare finding in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Incidence, angiographic characteristics and natural history of coronary fistulas of this type have not been well defined in the literature. We report a case of a 54-year-old man in whom such abnormalities have been diagnosed with invasive and non-invasive coronary imaging and review the epidemiology, treatment and prognosis of coronary fistulas. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive markers: the role of G-CSF?
Munaut, Carine ULg

Conference (2015, September 19)

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See detailNon-Invasive Methods to Predict Breast Muscle Weight in Slow-Growing Chickens
Larivière, Jean-Marc ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Verleyen, Vincent ULg et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2009), 8(7), 689-691

This experiment aims to compare in vivo breast morphometric and ultrasound measurements, as well as live body weight to predict breast meat weight in slow-growing chickens. Traits included Thoracic ... [more ▼]

This experiment aims to compare in vivo breast morphometric and ultrasound measurements, as well as live body weight to predict breast meat weight in slow-growing chickens. Traits included Thoracic Circumference (TC), Chest Width (CW), Keel Length (KL) and angle (KA), Live Weight (LW), thickness of muscle determined by sonography (TM) and Breast Meat Weight (BMW). Birds were then slaughtered and total breast muscles (Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor) were dissected and weighed. A linear model including sex effect and the different predictor measurements, as covariates, were adjusted to the data. Homogeneity test of slopes between sexes showed no difference. Means of the traits were 115.58g (±19.72) for BMW, 1031 g (±163.44) for LW, 68.65o (±6.89) for KA, 26.81 cm (±1.57) for TC, 10.40 cm (±0.62) for KL, 4.67 cm (±0.47) for CW and 11.52 mm (±1.11) for TM. All traits were highly correlated to BMW: TC (0.85), LW (0.84), KL (0.81) and TM (0.79), except for KA (0.28) and CW (0.19). Finally, TC, LW, KL and TM appear to be valuable indicators for estimating BMW in slow-growing chickens but KA and CW remain poor predictors [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive monitoring of mixed cropping systems. A case-study in Ratchaburi province, Thailand
Garré, Sarah ULg; Coteur, Ine; Diels, Jan et al

Poster (2012, July)

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See detailNon-invasive monitoring of soil water dynamics in mixed cropping systems: A case-study in Ratchaburi province, Thailand
Garré, Sarah ULg; Coteur, Ine; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart et al

in Vadose Zone Journal (2013)

Agriculture on shallow or steep soils in the humid tropics often leads to low resource use efficiency. Contour hedgerow intercropping systems have been proposed to reduce run-off and control soil erosion ... [more ▼]

Agriculture on shallow or steep soils in the humid tropics often leads to low resource use efficiency. Contour hedgerow intercropping systems have been proposed to reduce run-off and control soil erosion. However, competition for water and nutrients between crops and associated hedgerows may reduce the overall performance of contour hedgerow systems. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a valuable technique used to assess the distribution and dynamics of soil moisture noninvasively. In this study, we demonstrated its potential to measure soil water depletion in the field in distinct cropping patterns in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The measurements showed that the soils of our experimental plots were very heterogeneous both along the slope as with depth. This observation highlighted some constraints of the ERT method for soil moisture monitoring in the field, such as the difficulty of defining a relationship between electrical conductivity and soil moisture in very heterogeneous soils. Nevertheless, spatial analysis of the data revealed contrasting water depletion patterns under monocropping and intercropping systems. In this way, ERT provides access to information about the vadose zone moisture dynamics that would be unavailable with classical soil moisture measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive monitoring of water and solute fluxes in a cropped soil
Garré, Sarah ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

Although the influence of root water uptake on solute transport is commonly recognized as important, it has barely been studied throughout the literature. However, plants take up a big amount of the ... [more ▼]

Although the influence of root water uptake on solute transport is commonly recognized as important, it has barely been studied throughout the literature. However, plants take up a big amount of the infiltrating water and therefore they influence water flow patterns in the soil and concurrently solute transport processes. For this reason, experiments are required to investigate the relationship between plant root water uptake and flow field variability. Within this PhD project, we tried to elucidate the role of root water uptake on soil moisture distribution and solute transport in two undisturbed soil columns. During three consecutive experimental phases, the soil hydraulic and solute transport characteristics were investigated and the influence of growing barley on water content and tracer movement were studied. Soil water concentration and moisture content in the lysimeters were monitored non-invasively using 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). ERT is a valuable technique to monitor processes in the unsaturated zone. It is suitable to quantify solute concentration or soil moisture content at the decimeter scale in different soils and under varying conditions. In combination with TDR and effluent measurements, different aspects of the solute transport process and manifestations of preferential flow can be investigated. Steady-state step tracer experiments are very suitable for this purpose. Soil moisture measurements with ERT were conducted as well, but an horizon-specific in-situ calibration of the ERT-measurements for water content was a prerequisite for success. We observed that the solute transport in our silty lysimeters was considerably more heterogeneous than in the loamy-sand soil studied by Koestel (2008; 2009a; 2009b). We observed a clear preferential flow path in one of the lysimeters and found that soil layering had a big influence on the leaching process. The measured water depletion rate, being the result of combined effects of root water uptake and soil water redistribution during the barley experiment without irrigation, was compared with the evaporative demand and root length densities. We could observe a gradual downward movement of the maximum water depletion rate together with periods of redistribution when there was less transpiration. However, we were unable to make the distinction between soil water fluxes and root water uptake, since modeling of the soil water flow field using the time series of water content was not satisfying. We observed root growth at rhizotube surfaces and noted an increasing number of roots with depth. Since the minirhizotron measurements were only conducted at four depths and thus represent a small volume of the entire root zone, we estimated a root architecture model for the barley plants using RootTyp. We were able to set up a simple model, but to obtain better results, the effect of soil constraints and the process of re-iteration should be included. Many aspects of water flow and solute transport in the root zone need to be further investigated. The need for high-quality soil moisture data and simultaneous root architecture data remains. ERT is a promising technique to fill part of this gap, however some issues need to be solved before it can be used without difficulties. Next to measurements, the effort to improve our soil water flow models must be continued in order to improve the estimation of soil water fluxes. Only in this way, we will be able to measure root water uptake at the lysimeter and field scale. This is a necessary step towards a better understanding of the interactions in the soil-plant continuum. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive synchronized spatially high-resolution wireless body area network
Ghoshdastider, U; Viga, R; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Proceedings of "IEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP) - Singapore, April 2014" (2014, April)

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See detailNon-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA): A randomised controlled study.
Gaul, Charly; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Silver, Nicholas et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2015)

Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was ... [more ▼]

Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was examined as adjunctive prophylactic treatment of chronic CH. Methods: PREVA was a prospective, open-label, randomised study that compared adjunctive prophylactic nVNS (n=48) with standard of care (SoC) alone (control (n=49)). A two-week baseline phase was followed by a four-week randomised phase (SoC plus nVNS vs control) and a four-week extension phase (SoC plus nVNS). The primary end point was the reduction in the mean number of CH attacks per week. Response rate, abortive medication use and safety tolerability were also assessed. Results: During the randomised phase, individuals in the intent-to-treat population treated with SoC plus nVNS (n=45) had a significantly greater reduction in the number of attacks per week vs controls (n=48) (-5.9 vs -2.1, respectively) for a mean therapeutic gain of 3.9 fewer attacks per week (95% CI: 0.5, 7.2; p=0.02). Higher #50% response rates were also observed with SoC plus nVNS (40% (18/45)) vs controls (8.3% (4/48); p<0.001). No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adjunctive prophylactic nVNS is a well-tolerated novel treatment for chronic CH, offering clinical benefits beyond those with SoC. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive vagus nerve stimulation with the gammaCore® in healthy subjects: is there electrophysiological evidence for activation of vagal afferents ?
Schoenen, Jean ULg; NONIS, Romain ULg; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg et al

Poster (2016, April)

Abstract: Background Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) with the gammaCore® improves migraine and cluster headache. Animal experiments suggest that nVNS acts via stimulation of vagal afferents ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Background Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) with the gammaCore® improves migraine and cluster headache. Animal experiments suggest that nVNS acts via stimulation of vagal afferents, but proof in humans is lacking. Vagal somatosensory evoked potentials (vSEP) are identified after invasive VNS or transcutaneous stimulation of auricular vagal branches, but late components could be muscle artifacts. Objective To search in healthy volunteers for reliable vSEP during nVNS with the gammaCore® Methods In 12 healthy subjects (7males) evoked potentials were recorded at A1/A2 (ref Cz) and C3/C4 (ref F3/F4) during 2-minute stimulation over left/right cervical vagus nerve with the gammaCore® (25Hz, 6-24V) and during stimulation over the inner tragus with a monopolar stimulator (2Hz, 50 stimuli, mean intensity 8mA). Results We identified 3 reproducible peaks P1, N1, P2 in 10 patients on the side of the gammaCore® stimulation at mean latencies of 2.05ms, 5.20ms and 9.13ms. P1-N1 amplitude increased significantly (p<0.01) with increasing voltage from 0.04μV to 0.52μV (C3/C4) and from 0.13µV to 2.04μV (A1/A2) respectively at 10V and 30V. Inner tragus stimulation elicited P1, N1, P2 peaks with shorter mean latencies (2.21ms, 3.72ms, 5.71ms) and a mean P1-N1 amplitude (A1/A2) of 5.0µV. When the gammaCore® was placed over the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there were no reproducible evoked potentials. Conclusion Non-invasive transcutaneous stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve with the gammaCore® elicits evoked potentials similar to those found with implanted electrodes or stimulation of Arnold’s nerve in the outer ear. The gammaCore®-evoked potentials increase in amplitude with stimulation intensity and disappear when the stimulator is positioned over neck muscles, suggesting that they are not muscle artifacts. Their short latency is compatible with their generation at the level of the foramen jugulare. The therapeutic effects reported with the gammaCore® in primary headaches can thus be mediated by genuine activation of vagus nerve afferents. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-isocyanate polyurethane: from the monomer synthesis to foamed materials
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

Poster (2015, May 18)

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with numerous applications such as thermosets, thermoplastics, elastomers, adhesives, sealants, coatings, rigid and flexible ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with numerous applications such as thermosets, thermoplastics, elastomers, adhesives, sealants, coatings, rigid and flexible foams... Classically, PUs are produced by a step-growth polymerization between diols and diisocyanates. However, isocyanates are harmful upon prolonged exposure to vapours which can lead to health issues such as asthma and skin irritation. In addition, isocyanates are produced from even more toxic and explosive phosgene. Due to these problems in combination with increasing regulatory scrutiny, there is today a need to develop isocyanate- and phosgene free- PU synthesis, also called non-isocyanate polyurethane or NIPUs. One of the most promising alternatives to the conventional synthesis of PU relies on the step-growth polymerization between bicyclic carbonate monomers and diamines, but until now, obtaining high molar mass NIPUs in a short time still remains a challenge. This study will be focused on three objectives: 1) The synthesis of CO2-sourced biscyclic carbonates by CO2/epoxide coupling using new highly efficient bicomponent organocatalysts allowing the fast conversion of epoxides into the corresponding cyclic carbonates under mild and solvent-free conditions. 2) The synthesis of high molar mass NIPUs from CO2-sourced monomers and diamines thanks to the use of efficient organocatalysts. A series of organic compounds interacting with cyclic carbonates by hydrogen bonding were first identified and their catalytic activity was highlighted by a model reaction between ethylene carbonate and a primary amine before extrapolation to NIPU synthesis. 3) The scCO2-assisted foaming of CO2-sourced NIPUs with production of potential carbon zero-emission materials with low thermal conductivity [less ▲]

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See detailNon-isocyanate polyurethanes from carbonated soybean oil Using monomeric or oligomeric diamines To achieve thermosets or thermoplastics
Poussard, Loïc; Mariage, J.; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(6), 2162-2171

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived ... [more ▼]

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived from fatty acids to achieve respectively thermoset or thermoplastic NIPUs. Biobased carbonated vegetable oils were first obtained by metal-free coupling reactions of CO2 with epoxidized soybean oils under supercritical conditions (120 °C, 100 bar) before complete characterization by FTIR, 1H NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). In a second step, biobased NIPUs were produced by melt-blending of the so-produced cyclocarbonated oil with the biobased aminated derivatives. The thermal and mechanical properties of resulting polymers were found to be depending on the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil/amine ratio. More precisely, short diamines and CSBO led to the formation of cross-linked NIPUs, and the resulting tensile and thermal properties were poor. In contrast, elastomeric NIPUs derived from oligoamides and CSBO exhibited a better rigidity, an improved elongation at break (εr up to 400%), and a higher thermal stability (T95 wt% > 350 °C) than those of starting oligoamides. These results are impressive and highlight the potentiality of this environmental friendly approach to prepare renewable NIPU materials of high performances. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-isothermal infiltration in plastic bentonite
François, Bertrand ULg; Laloui, Lyesse

in Alonso, Edouardo; Gens, Antonio (Eds.) Unsaturated Soils (2010)

In deep geological repository involving a multi-barrier system, the engineered materials, generally made of bentonite, constitute an important mechanical, thermal and hydraulic barrier to prevent the ... [more ▼]

In deep geological repository involving a multi-barrier system, the engineered materials, generally made of bentonite, constitute an important mechanical, thermal and hydraulic barrier to prevent the interaction between wastes and biosphere. To better understand the THM (thermo-hydro-mechanical) processes in the clayey confining system, experimental tests must be simulated by the means of advance numerical tools. A unified thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated soils, ACMEG-TS, has been developed and implemented in the finite element code LAGAMINE. Material is considered as tri-phase non-isothermal thermo-plastic medium. The results of numerical simulations of non-isothermal infiltration tests through FEBEX bentonite are compared with the available sensors measurements and interpreted in the light of elasto-thermo-plasticity of unsaturated soils. Through those simulations, the advancements in the understanding of the involved processes brought by the ACMEG-TS model are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-isothermal moisture balance equation in porous media: a review of mathematical formulations in Building Physics
Dubois, Samuel ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg; Evrard, Arnaud ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3),

Understanding heat and mass transfers in porous materials is crucial in many areas of scientific research. Mathematical models have constantly evolved, their differences lying mainly in the choice of the ... [more ▼]

Understanding heat and mass transfers in porous materials is crucial in many areas of scientific research. Mathematical models have constantly evolved, their differences lying mainly in the choice of the driving potentials used to describe moisture flows, as well as in the complexity of characterizing the physical phenomena involved. Models developed in the field of Building Physics (HAM models) are used to describe the behavior of envelope parts and assess their impact on user comfort and energy performance. The water balance equation can be described in many ways; it is a function of the boundary conditions considered and the fact they induce high or low water content in the porous materials used. This paper gives an overview of various formulations for this equation that are found in the Building Physics literature. It focuses first on the physically based formulation of moisture balance, drawing on the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) concept, coupled with thermodynamic flow rates description. This is then reformulated in line with various main moisture state variables offering a wide variety of expressions that are compared with available models. This approach provides access to all secondary transport coefficients associated with the process of mathematical transformation. Particular emphasis is placed on the moisture storage function choice and its impact on the final mathematical formulations. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-isotopic determination of bovine growth hormone levels with a sandwich-immunoassay using detection by electrochemiluminescence (ECL).
Rehfeldt, C.; Deaver, D.; Schneider, F. et al

in Proceedings of the 45th Symposium of the German Society for Endocrinology. (2001, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)