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See detailQualification of BSO crystals for use onboard the International Space Station
Georges, Marc ULg; Dupont, Olivier ULg; Zayer, I. et al

in Delaye, Ph; Denz, C.; Mager, L. (Eds.) Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices (2003, June)

BSO crystals are excellent recording media for use in the holographic instrument of a multiple diagnostic instrument (Fluid Science Laboratory), for monitoring fluid phenomena onboard the ISS. Some ... [more ▼]

BSO crystals are excellent recording media for use in the holographic instrument of a multiple diagnostic instrument (Fluid Science Laboratory), for monitoring fluid phenomena onboard the ISS. Some experiments have been already presented that showed the potentiality of BSO for this kind of application. Here we present the crystals qualification for use within FSL with respect to gamma rays and protons radiations [less ▲]

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See detailQualification of large reflectors in space environment with a holographic camera based on a BSO crystal
Thizy, Cédric ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg; Lemaire, Philippe ULg et al

in Zhang, G.; Kip, D.; Nolte, D. (Eds.) et al Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices (2005, July)

The next generation of infrared - sub mm space telescopes requires some reflectors with large dimensions and high quality. These ones, according to weight issues, are based on composite materials for ... [more ▼]

The next generation of infrared - sub mm space telescopes requires some reflectors with large dimensions and high quality. These ones, according to weight issues, are based on composite materials for which the behaviors at low temperatures are badly known. A holographic interferometry method for the verification and validation of this type of reflectors in a space environment is presented. It is based on a dynamic holographic camera observing a diffuser illuminated by the object beam coming from the reflecting surface. Photorefractive crystals being self-processing and reusable mediums, the measuring range of the holographic camera is increased with respect to other optical interferometric methods. The metrological certification of the whole system was realised by the measurement of a parabolic antenna with a 1.1 meter diameter, a known behavior and placed in a simulated space environment [less ▲]

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See detailQualification Procedure of Luminaires in the Event of an Impact to the Pole
Marin, Frédéric; Marville, Christian; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

The objective of the study is to develop a testing specification on an electrodynamic shaker which ensures the qualification of a parking lighting device, whose pole is impacted by a car. The methodology ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study is to develop a testing specification on an electrodynamic shaker which ensures the qualification of a parking lighting device, whose pole is impacted by a car. The methodology is based on both a numerical approach and an experimental approach using an electrodynamic shaker. The first step of the analysis consists in modeling the structure and the excitation by means of a finite element approach. The calculation of the dynamic response of the "pole/lighting device" system to impact loading is repeated for different geometries of the pole. The second step is to consider each dynamic response at the fixing point of the lighting device on the pole as input for a base-excited single degree of freedom system. The theory developed for such a system allows to define severity criteria like the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) which is the most representative criterion in the case of an impact. The severity of the vibration environment of the lighting device is then obtained by considering the envelope of the different computed SRS. Finally, different test specifications leading to equivalent SRS are proposed and the device is tested on an electrodynamic shaker. The developed methodology was applied to the NEMO lighting device (Schréder). [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualità delle interazioni triadiche nelle famiglie lesbo-genitoriali: uno studio pilota con la procedura del Lausanne Trilogue Play
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Simonelli, Alessandra; Miscioscia, Marina ULg

in Infanzia & Adolescenza (2013), 12(2), 113-127

Objective: The aim of the study was an exploratory research about the quality of the triadic family interactions across homo-parental families, in which the parental couple is composed by two women. The ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of the study was an exploratory research about the quality of the triadic family interactions across homo-parental families, in which the parental couple is composed by two women. The objectives have been: a) to investigate the quality of the triadic interactions of lesbo-parental families, by identifying specificity stings of strength and/or weakness; b) to compare the quality of lesbian headed families interactions with the data emerged by the literature on the triadic interactions in “traditional families” (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche, Frascarolo, 2010). Method: 10 lesbian headed families procreating through medically assisted procreation (IVF) have participated belonging to a not clinic population and recruit through associations and web sites devoted to homosexual couples and homo-parental families. The quality of the triadic interactions has been valued through the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP; Fivaz-Depeursinge e Corboz-Warnery, 1999). The biological mothers have a mean of 34.4 years (SD = 5.85), not biological mothers have a mean of 36.6 years (SD = 7.69), and children have a middle age of 28.3 months (SD = 22.08). No significant differences was found on T-test analysis about children ages. Results: The collected data show good reliability of the LTP coding to discriminate the quality of the family interactions in comparison to different typologies of families. The comparison among the lesbian headed families group with the data of the research of Favez et al. (2010) on three groups of families (hetero-parents, with depressed mother, hetero-parents recurrent to Medically Assisted Procreation) has shown only meaningful differences with the clinical group. Conclusions: The emerged data seem to underline that the quality of the family triadic interactions is not influenced by the composition of the family. The LTP procedure is able to discriminate the different interactive base typologies of families, with particular reference to those in which a parent manifests clinical symptoms. Otherwise the lesbian headed families appear characterized by a level of triadic iteration closer to hetero-parental families. The present study refers to a different legislative reality from the Italian; we hope that more research can also be developed in the Italian context stimulating the attention of the researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative analysis of pilot selection and basic flying training.
Bertrand, Françoise ULg; Tibax, V.; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2008, October 03)

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See detailQualitative analysis of ten-dimensional lovelock cosmological models
Demaret, Jacques; De Rop, Yves ULg; Tombal, P. et al

in General Relativity & Gravitation (1992), 24

The Einstein-like field equations obtained from the variation of a Lagrangian containing linear, quadratic (Gauss-Bonnet) and quartic terms for a ten-dimensional cosmological model cannot be solved ... [more ▼]

The Einstein-like field equations obtained from the variation of a Lagrangian containing linear, quadratic (Gauss-Bonnet) and quartic terms for a ten-dimensional cosmological model cannot be solved analytically. However, we can reduce them to a system of dynamical equations for the “Hubble parameters”. The study of the mathematical properties of the fixed points of this system gives a qualitative picture of the behaviour of a class of possible solutions. The inclusion of a quartic term generates an extremely rich structure for the corresponding dynamical system. Some solutions are shown to exhibit the interesting property of dimensional reduction, which has been proposed as a possible explanation of the three-dimensional character of our universe. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative analysis of the interactive decisions of three coaches involved in a “start to run” session
Cloes, Marc ULg; Dethioux, Sébastien

Conference (2012, July)

Introduction. A growing number of programs are implemented to enable a smooth resumption of physical activity. “Start to run” is a running program promoted by the athletics federation that has gained a ... [more ▼]

Introduction. A growing number of programs are implemented to enable a smooth resumption of physical activity. “Start to run” is a running program promoted by the athletics federation that has gained a great notoriety in Belgium. It proposes sessions of 10 weeks during which participants are trained to run 5 km without stop (10 km for those who are not beginners). No data seems to be available about the coaching process in this specific context of active leisure. The purpose of this study was to enlarge knowledge on this topic. Methods. Based on the principles of the qualitative research, we analyzed three sites: three groups involved in a Start to run session in different communities of the Liege’s area (Wallonia, Belgium). In all sites, data were collected before, during, at the end and 12 weeks after the session. They provided information on the context as well as on the process (coaches and participants behaviors and perceptions), and participants’ achievement and maintenance. In this paper, we will focus our analysis on the interactive decisions of the coaches. It will be based on the observation of three lessons in each site (2d, 5th and 8th weeks): one of the authors attended to the training session as participant observer. Moreover, we will also use data collected through interviews (description of the organization and content of the program) and questionnaires (feelings about the lessons). Participants were also requested to provide their perceptions about the lessons. As evidenced above, the validity of the analysis is guaranteed by the triangulation of the data. Results. The three coaches described a similar teaching model but only subject #2 pointed out technical drills. Only subject #3 respected the “official” program developed by the athletics federation. The two other adapted it according to their experience and purposes of their groups. All of them considered that they were providing enough feedback and were active. On the other hand, they thought themselves as needing to encourage more and to be more effective in group management. Globally, participants confirmed the opinions of their respective coaches but they seemed more critical in group #3, showing a lower satisfaction about the motivational behaviors and feedback. The observation pointed out some problems in the clarity of the explanations (subject #1) and some divergences were reported with the actors. Discussion. The triangulation of the data allows us to consider that the three coaches are doing a very good job and adapt themselves to the expectations and needs of the participants. The identification of the positive and negative aspects in each subject provides a basis to propose some recommendations. Moreover, we pointed out that encouraged to speak about their own teaching process, all coaches modified spontaneously their interactive decisions during the study. This underlines the interest of this systematic analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative and quantitative analyses of a pharmaceutical formulation produced by hot melt extrusion using Raman spectroscopy
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 15)

In the pharmaceutical industry, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) is a recent technique used to integrate poor water soluble drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. Indeed, more and more active pharmaceutical ... [more ▼]

In the pharmaceutical industry, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) is a recent technique used to integrate poor water soluble drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. Indeed, more and more active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) belong to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) II and IV. Their integration in pharmaceutical solid forms is a big deal. HME processes increase the bioavailability and the solubility of those API by encompassing them in a polymeric carrier and by forming solid dispersions [1]. Moreover, in 2004, the FDA’s guidance initiative promoted the usefulness of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools when developing a manufacturing process. Vibrational spectroscopy is an appropriate PAT tool to analyze extrudates [2 – 3]. In this case, Raman spectroscopy, which belongs to vibrational spectroscopy, was used to analyze itraconazole extrudates qualitatively and quantitatively. During HME, the main objective is to develop solid dispersions by converting a crystalline API in an amorphous one, in order to improve its solubility and bioavailability [4]. According to Raman spectra, it is possible to identify the polymorphic form of the components in the extrudates by integrating or rationing the Raman bands that are characteristic of the API or by calculating the width at half intensity of some bands [5]. After determining the polymorphic form of the API, a quantitative method was developed in order to measure the ratio between the API and the polymer. Finally, chemical imaging was performed on extrudates to identify the distribution of the homogeneity of the API inside the polymer [6]. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate tool to follow an extrusion process. By qualitative and quantitative analyses it is possible to determine the composition, the polymorphic form, the homogeneity, and the concentration of pharmaceutical matrices according to Raman fingerprint. References: [1] S. Shah et. al., Int J Pharm 453 (2013) 233 – 252. [2] L. Saerens et. al., Anal Chem 85 (2013) 5420 – 5429. [3] T. De Beer et. al., J Pharm Biomed Anal 48 (2008) 772 – 779. [4] A. Sarode et. al., Eur J Pharm Sci 48 (2013) 371 – 384. [5] E. Widjaja et. al., Eur J Pharm Sci 42 (2011) 45 – 54. [6] J. M. Amigo, Anal Bioanal Chem 398 (2010) 93 – 109. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative and quantitative criteria for comfortable urban public spaces
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; De Herde, André

in Carmeliet, Jan; Hens, Hugo; Vermeir, Gerrit (Eds.) Research in building physics. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Building Physics (2003, September)

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See detailQualitative and quantitative evaluation of bisindole usambarane alkaloids in Strychnos usambarensis roots by high performance liquid chromatography diode-array
Frederich, Michel ULg; Tits, Monique ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg

in Phytochemical Analysis [=PCA] (1998), 9(2), 63-66

A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of bisindole usambarane alkaloids from the roots of Strychnos usambarensis using a diode-array detector is proposed, The ... [more ▼]

A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of bisindole usambarane alkaloids from the roots of Strychnos usambarensis using a diode-array detector is proposed, The system, consisting of a RP-8 Select B column and a linear gradient elution with acetonitrile and acetate buffer allowed the separation of all the alkaloids in 20 min, Usambarensine was found to be the major tertiary alkaloid present in the roots, In order to demonstrate the possibility of quantifying the bisindole alkaloids in crude roots extracts, the quantitative evaluation of 3',4'-dihydrousambarensine, usambarensine and N-b-methylusambarensine was carried out. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative and quantitative evaluation of equine respiratory mechanics by impulse oscillometry
Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Votion, Dominique ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2006), 38(1), 52-58

Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new technology, such as the impulse oscillometry system (IOS). Objectives: To evaluate the potential use of the IOS as a clinical respiratory function test and compare it to the current CRT in horses suffering from common upper and lower airway dysfunctions. Methods: Six healthy horses were tested before and after induction of a unilateral nasal obstruction (UNO) or transient left laryngeal hemiplegia. (LLH). Six heaves-affected horses were tested in clinical remission and during a heaves crisis, before and after nebulisation of cumulative doses of a bronchodilator therapy (ipratropium bromide; IPB). Results: As opposed to the CRT, the IOS was able to detect partial upper airway obstruction (UAO) caused by UNO or LLH in resting horses, without differentiating both conditions. Upper airway obstruction caused an upward shift of resistance (R-rs) from 5 to 35 Hz without altering reactance (X-rs). As for the CRT, IOS respiratory parameters measured in heaves-affected horses in crisis differed significantly from values measured during remission. The difference in frequency-dependent behaviour of R-rs and X-rs allowed discrimination between upper and lower airway obstructions. Bronchodilator treatment induced significant dose-dependent changes in X-rs at 5 and 10 Hz, from the first dose. Total pulmonary resistance (R-L) and R-rs at 5 Hz were affected from the second dose and displayed similar sensitivity. Although post treatment R-L values were comparable to remission, R-rs and X-rs remained significantly different, characterising persistent peripheral obstruction. Conclusions: The IOS was more sensitive than the CRT in detecting partial UAO in resting horses and persistent post treatment peripheral dysfunction in heaves-affected horses. The IOS is a sensitive test that provides graded quantitative and qualitative information on disease-induced respiratory dysfunctions as well as on treatment efficiency in horses. Potential relevance: The IOS could represent a practical and sensitive alternative respiratory function test for routine clinical investigations of common airway obstructive diseases and therapy in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative approach of the general vacuum Bianchi VI and VII cosmological models near the singularity
De Rop, Yves ULg

in General Relativity & Gravitation (1989), 21

We first show that the chaos-generating terms are absent from the vacuum field equations in the case of the general Bianchi VI and VII cosmological models. According to recent studies, this proves that ... [more ▼]

We first show that the chaos-generating terms are absent from the vacuum field equations in the case of the general Bianchi VI and VII cosmological models. According to recent studies, this proves that the Kasnerian metric is a general solution for these models in the neighborhood of the initial singularity. Then, using a method developed by Jantzen, we reduce the field equations to a nonautonomous system of order two. A numerical integration leads to the explicit four-parameter asymptotic form of a general solution, which is indeed Kasnerian in the canonical invariant basis. [less ▲]

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See detailA qualitative assessment of the influence of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments
Martin, Patrick; Boes, Xavier; Goddeeris, Baudouin et al

in Global and Planetary Change (2005), 46(1-4), 87-99

The impact of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments, particularly on rhythmic layering and mixing, was assessed by studying the actual vertical distribution of benthic animals in continuous accumulation ... [more ▼]

The impact of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments, particularly on rhythmic layering and mixing, was assessed by studying the actual vertical distribution of benthic animals in continuous accumulation zones selected by seismic survey (Vydrino, Shoulder, Posolskoe Bank, Continent Ridge). To assess the influence of the bioturbation, animals were extracted from short cores and identified at the relevant taxonomic level. The faunal distribution is examined in parallel with the bioturbation tracks observed in thin section. Oligochaeta, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, Gammaridae, Chironomidae and Hydrachnidia were found inhabiting the sediment. Among them, only oligochaete worms were assumed to have a significant impact on sediment mixing because of their "conveyor belt" feeding. The other two most abundantly sampled groups, nematods and copepods, belong to the interstitial fauna that has no significant impact on the vertical displacement of sediment particles and do not ingest the sediment. The presence of a benthic fauna as deep as 15 cm in the sediment indicates that the possibility of sediment disturbance by invertebrate activity cannot be dismissed in Lake Baikal. The effect of biological mixing is more limited in the deepest stations because the number of potential bioturbators is reduced, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Located in the abyssal zone, Continent and Vydrino (but outside turbidites) deep stations appear to be most promising sediment records for tracking climate signal at high resolution. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative assessment of the purity of multi-walled carbon nanotube samples using krypton adsorption
Gommes, Cédric ULg; Noville, Francis ULg; Bossuot, Christophe et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2005), 160

Krypton is a subcritical vapour at the nitrogen boiling temperature. As such, its adsorption on crystalline surfaces leads to condensation steps, typical of type VI isotherms according to IUPAC, while its ... [more ▼]

Krypton is a subcritical vapour at the nitrogen boiling temperature. As such, its adsorption on crystalline surfaces leads to condensation steps, typical of type VI isotherms according to IUPAC, while its adsorption on rough surfaces is BET-like. Based on this property of krypton adsorption at 77 K, a methodology is proposed to determine the purity of carbon nanotubes samples. The method is tested on model samples obtained by mixing mechanically purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes with various amounts of the same catalyst as used for their synthesis. [less ▲]

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