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See detailRégulation du potassium
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, October 25)

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See detailLa régulation économique dans la vie des affaires
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Peltzer, Patrick

Book published by Bruylant (2007)

La victoire de l'économie de marché sur l’économie administrée ne s’est pas traduite par un abandon pur et simple des activités économiques au capitalisme sauvage. La puissance publique s’est en effet ... [more ▼]

La victoire de l'économie de marché sur l’économie administrée ne s’est pas traduite par un abandon pur et simple des activités économiques au capitalisme sauvage. La puissance publique s’est en effet efforcé de réinvestir le champ économique sous une nouvelle forme : la régulation. Ce nouveau mode de relation entre le marché et l’État implique, le plus souvent, la mise en place d’autorités administratives indépendantes, chargées de contrôler le respect de l’équilibre entre les différents intérêts en présence (entreprises, consommateurs, fournisseurs, administrations, etc.) sur les marchés concernés. Tel est le cas, en particulier, dans les secteurs des sociétés cotées, des marchés financiers, des télécommunications, des services postaux et de l’énergie. Pour son 56e séminaire - dont le présent ouvrage reprend les actes -, la CDVA a décidé de consacrer une réflexion approfondie à cette mutation profonde du droit et de l’économie, en faisant appel à des spécialistes réputés de la matière et à des praticiens immergés dans la discipline, tous soucieux d'éclairer les enjeux de ce nouvel ordre juridique régulatoire. [less ▲]

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See detailLa régulation économique et ses implications juridiques: enjeux et débats
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Thirion, Nicolas; Peltzer, Patrick (Eds.) La régulation économique dans la vie des affaires (2007)

Etude destinée à identifier les différentes questions juridiques auxquelles donne lieu un processus de libéralisation/ régulation d'un secteur économique

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See detailRegulation endocrinienne et manipulation de la croissance bovine
Renaville, Robert ULg; Sneyers, M.; Devolder, A. et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (1992), 1(2),

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See detailRégulation et concurrence dans le transport collectif urbain
Coppe, Aurélie; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2004), 43(4), 65-76

In Europe, most of the urban public transport services are not operated on a commercial basis. The implication of local public authorities in the sector is important: they organize their local market ... [more ▼]

In Europe, most of the urban public transport services are not operated on a commercial basis. The implication of local public authorities in the sector is important: they organize their local market, they finance services and, sometimes, they also act as producers. This paper analyzes the public transport system in four European cities: Lyon, Stockholm, Helsinki and Brussels and concentrates, in particular, on the introduction of regulated competition. Four different market mechanisms can be used in the public transport sector: (1) competitive tendering, (2) open access with on-track competition, (3) yardstick competition where the operator’s reward is based on a comparative evaluation of its performance and (4) the possibility of challenging the incumbent public operator. The pros and cons of different competitive mechanisms are presented and the article discusses the conditions under which a truly competitive market could be settled [less ▲]

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See detailRégulation et dérégulation de l'âge pubertaire : populations à risque ?
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Domine, Françoise ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62

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See detailRégulation internationale des échanges commerciaux
Michel, Quentin ULg

Learning material (2011)

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See detailRegulation of a-Synuclein Membrane Binding and Its Implications
Chen, Robert; Wislet, Sabine ULg; Mount, Howard et al

in Juliana Dushanova (Ed.) Mechanisms in Parkinson Disease models and treatment (2012)

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See detailRegulation of Acanthamoeba castellanii alternative oxidase activity by mutual exclusion of purine nucleotides; ATP's inhibitory effect.
Woyda-ploszczyca, A.; Sluse, Francis ULg; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2009), 1787

The effects of different adenine and guanine nucleotides on the cyanide-resistant respiration (i.e. alternative oxidase (AcAOX) activity) of mitochondria from the amoeba A. castellanii mitochondria were ... [more ▼]

The effects of different adenine and guanine nucleotides on the cyanide-resistant respiration (i.e. alternative oxidase (AcAOX) activity) of mitochondria from the amoeba A. castellanii mitochondria were studied. We found that guanine nucleotides activate AcAOX to a greater degree than adenine nucleotides, and that nucleoside monophosphates were more efficient activators than nucleoside di- or triphosphates. The extent of the nucleotides' influence on AcAOX was dependent on the medium's pH and was more pronounced at pH 6.8, which is optimal for AcAOX activity. In contrast to other purine nucleosides, we demonstrate, for the first time, that ATP has an inhibitory effect on AcAOX activity. Since we also observed the inhibition by ATP in the mitochondria of another protozoon, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, and the yeast, Candida maltosa, it may be a regulatory feature common to all purine nucleotide-modulated non-plant AOXs. The physiological importance of this discovery is discussed. Kinetic data show that the binding of GMP (a positive allosteric effector) and the binding of ATP (a negative allosteric effector) to AcAOX are mutually exclusive. ATP's inhibition of the enzyme can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of GMP, and conversely, GMP's stimulation can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of ATP. However, an approximately three times lower concentration of GMP compared to ATP gives a half maximal effect on AcAOX activity. This is indicative of a higher binding affinity for the positive effector at the same or, at least overlapping, nucleotide-binding sites on AcAOX. These results suggest that AcAOX activity in A. castellanii mitochondria might be controlled by the relative intracellular concentrations of purine nucleotides. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of an Open Access Essential Facility
Gautier, Axel ULg; Mitra, Manipushpak

in Economica (2008), 75

A vertically integrated firm owns an essential input and operates on the downstream market. There is a potential entrant in the downstream market. Both firms use the same essential input. The regulator’s ... [more ▼]

A vertically integrated firm owns an essential input and operates on the downstream market. There is a potential entrant in the downstream market. Both firms use the same essential input. The regulator’s objectives are (i) to ensure financing of the essential input and (ii) to generate competition in the downstream market. The regulatory mechanism grants non-discriminatory access of the essential facility to the entrant provided it pays a two-part tariff to the incumbent. The optimal mechanism generates inefficient entry. The inefficient entry captures the trade-off between market efficiency and infrastructure financing resulting from incomplete information and non-discriminatory access. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of B cell survival, development and function by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb)
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Pouillon, V.; Marechal, Y.

in Advances in Enzyme Regulation (2011), 51

In mammals, Ins(1,4,5)P3, the well known calcium mobilization messenger, is phosphorylated in the cytosol at the 3-position of the inositol ring to yield Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinases A, B and ... [more ▼]

In mammals, Ins(1,4,5)P3, the well known calcium mobilization messenger, is phosphorylated in the cytosol at the 3-position of the inositol ring to yield Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinases A, B and C isoforms as well as by inositol polyphosphate multikinase (Ipmk). Studies in gene-deficient mice have revealed that these enzymes and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, their reaction product, play essential role in multiple physiological processes, ranging from synaptic plasticity, hematopoietic cell survival, development and function, to mRNA export, transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodelling. Rather than to provide an unique and “universal” mechanism of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 action, these studies in genetically-modified mice point for a role of this inositide in the control of calcium mobilization, of the subcellular localisation of PH domain-containing target proteins, and of higher inositol phosphate production. Mice deficient for the B isoform of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (Itpkb) develop profound alterations in T and B cells as well as in neutrophils and mast cells. Our recent studies indicate that the 3-kinase Itpkb and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 are important for the survival of naïve mature B cells and the control of proapoptotic Bim protein expression, rather than for the control of B cell transition from one developmental stage to another. They also suggest that Itpkb is an important component in the control of B cell anergy. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Bronchomotor Tone in Conscious Calves
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A. R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (1989), 12(1), 58-64

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were investigated in this study. The forced oscillation technique was used to measure the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the respiratory system at frequencies ranging from 4 to 26 Hz. Isoprenaline (1 microgram/kg i.v.), propranolol (3 micrograms/kg i.v.), noradrenaline (2 micrograms/kg i.v.), xylazine (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) and yohimbine (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) were were administered. Isoprenaline induced a significant decrease of Rrs. An increase of Rrs after administration of propranolol was observed but without any change of the frequency dependence of Rrs. A small increase in the resonant frequency was also recorded. A decrease of Rrs was recorded after yohimbine injection. Noradrenaline and xylazine administration increased the resistances and the resonant frequency and induced a negative frequency dependence of Rrs. These results suggest that (1) the major effects of beta adrenergic drugs are on the central airways, (2) the alpha adrenergic system may play a role on the regulation of bronchomotor tone in calves, (3) the effects of alpha adrenergic drugs are on both central and peripheral airways and (4) the forced oscillation technique allows the differentiation of calibre changes occurring in small and large airways. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of cancer invasion and vascularization by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
Noël, Agnès ULg; Bajou, Khalid ULg; Masson, Véronique ULg et al

in Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis (1999), 13(6), 220-225

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. The proteolytic enzyme plasmin is generated from the precursor plasminogen by the action of ... [more ▼]

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. The proteolytic enzyme plasmin is generated from the precursor plasminogen by the action of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (urokinase, uPA) or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of uPA and tPA. High levels of components of this proteolytic system, including uPA and its cell surface receptor (uPAR), have been correlated with a poor prognosis for different cancers. It was therefore anticipated that PAI-1 expression would be associated with favorable outcome. Paradoxically, high rather than low PAI-1 levels predict poor survival of patients suffering from a variety of cancers. Recent observations indicate a much more complex role of PAI-1 in tumor progression and angiogenesis than initially expected. The exact mechanisms of this multifunctional molecule remain puzzling. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of CD95/APO-1/Fas-induced apoptosis by protein phosphatases.
Gloire, Geoffrey ULg; Charlier, Edith ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2008)

Triggering the CD95/APO-1/Fas receptor by CD95-L induces the assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which permits initiator caspases activation and progression of a signaling cascade ... [more ▼]

Triggering the CD95/APO-1/Fas receptor by CD95-L induces the assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which permits initiator caspases activation and progression of a signaling cascade that culminates in cellular apoptosis. Despite the CD95 receptor does not exhibit any kinase activity by itself, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events seem important to regulate many aspects of CD95-mediated apoptosis. Here, we try to highlight particularly the importance of protein phosphatases in the modulation of the CD95 system. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of corporate tax avoidance
Bourgeois, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

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See detailRegulation of CXCL8/IL-8 expression by Zonula Occludens-1 in human breast cancer cells.
Brysse, Anne ULg; Mestdagt, Mélanie ULg; Polette, Myriam et al

in Molecular Cancer Research (2012), 10(1), 121-32

Accumulating data now suggest that ZO-1, once delocalized from tight junctions, could be implicated in the regulation of tumor promoting genes. Because of their major implication in different steps of ... [more ▼]

Accumulating data now suggest that ZO-1, once delocalized from tight junctions, could be implicated in the regulation of tumor promoting genes. Because of their major implication in different steps of tumor progression, we investigated here the influence of ZO-1 on chemokines expression in breast cancer cells. Using GeneArray analysis to compare chemokine mRNA expression in breast tumor cells transfected with a siRNA against ZO-1, we identified CXCL-8/IL-8 as a major potential target of ZO-1 signaling, being strongly downregulated following ZO-1 siRNA transfection. Examining further the relationship between ZO-1 and IL-8, we first demonstrated that CXCL8/IL-8 expression correlates with a relocalization of ZO-1 in several breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, CXCL8/IL-8 is downregulated in invasive BT549 cells transfected with 3 different ZO-1 siRNA and overexpressed in non-invasive BT20 and SKBR3 cells transfected with vectors expressing ZO-1. We also provide evidence for an activation of the CXCL8/IL-8 promoter by ZO-1. Finally, we demonstrate that the regulation of CXCL8/IL-8 by ZO-1 is independent of the beta-catenin pathway. Our results thus clearly demonstrate an implication of ZO-1 in CXCL8/IL-8 regulation. Because of the major implications of CXCL8/IL-8 in tumor invasion, such a regulation could play an important role in breast cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of dendritic cell numbers and maturation by lipopolysaccharide in vivo.
De Smedt, T.; Pajak, B.; Muraille, E. et al

in Journal of Experimental Medicine (1996), 184(4), 1413-24

Dendritic cells (DC) are described as "nature's adjuvant," since they have the capacity to sensitize T cells in vivo upon first encounter with the antigen. The potent accessory properties of DC appear to ... [more ▼]

Dendritic cells (DC) are described as "nature's adjuvant," since they have the capacity to sensitize T cells in vivo upon first encounter with the antigen. The potent accessory properties of DC appear to develop sequentially. In particular, the ability to process antigens and to sensitize native T cells develops in sequence, a process termed "maturation" that is well described in vitro. Here, we obtain evidence for maturation in vivo in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Before LPS treatment, many DC are found at the margin between the red and white pulp. These cells lack the M342 and DEC-205 markers, but process soluble proteins effectively. 6 h after LPS, DC with the M342 and DEC-205 markers are found in increased numbers in the T cell areas. These cells have a reduced capacity to process proteins, but show increases in the B7 costimulator and T cell stimulatory capacity. 48 h after LPS, the number of DC in the spleen is reduced markedly. We interpret these findings to mean that LPS can cause DC in the marginal zone to mature and to migrate into and then out of the T cell areas. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Etioplast Pigment-Protein Complexes, Inner Membrane Architecture, and Protochlorophyllide a Chemical Heterogeneity by Light-Dependent Nadph:Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases a and B
Franck, Fabrice ULg; Sperling, U.; Frick, G. et al

in Plant Physiology (2000), 124(4), 1678-96

The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of ... [more ▼]

The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of protochlorophyll(ide) a [Pchl(ide) a]. Either of two structurally related, but differentially expressed light-dependent NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductases (PORs), PORA and PORB, can assemble the PLB and form dark-stable ternary complexes containing enzymatically photoactive Pchlide-F655. Here we have examined in detail whether these polypeptides play redundant roles in etioplast differentiation by manipulating the total POR content and the PORA-to-PORB ratio of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings using antisense and overexpression approaches. POR content correlates closely with PLB formation, the amounts, spectroscopic properties, and photoreduction kinetics of photoactive Pchlide, the ratio of photoactive Pchlide-F655 to non-photoactive Pchl(ide)-F632, and the ratio of divinyl- to monovinyl-Pchl(ide). This last result defines POR as the first endogenous protein factor demonstrated to influence the chemical heterogeneity of Pchl(ide) in angiosperms. It is intriguing that excitation energy transfer between different spectroscopic forms of Pchl(ide) in etiolated cotyledons remains largely independent of POR content. We therefore propose that the PLB contains a minimal structural unit with defined pigment stoichiometries, within which a small amount of non-photoactive Pchl(ide) transfers excitation energy to a large excess of photoactive Pchlide-F655. In addition, our data suggests that POR may bind not only stoichiometric amounts of photoactive Pchlide, but also substoichiometric amounts of non-photoactive Pchl(ide). We conclude that the typical characteristics of etioplasts are closely related to total POR content, but not obviously to the specific presence of PORA or PORB. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of gene expression by oxygen: NF-kappaB and HIF-1, two extremes.
Michiels, Carine; Minet, Emmanuel; Mottet, Denis ULg et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2002), 33(9), 1231-42

Aerobic life is dependent on molecular oxygen for ATP regeneration, but only possible in a narrow range of oxygen concentrations. Increased oxygen tension is toxic through the generation of reactive ... [more ▼]

Aerobic life is dependent on molecular oxygen for ATP regeneration, but only possible in a narrow range of oxygen concentrations. Increased oxygen tension is toxic through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while a decrease in oxygen concentration impairs energy availability and, hence, cell viability. Cells have developed strategies to respond to changes in oxygen tension: specific systems detect excessive ROS and hypoxia, leading to the activation of specific transcription factors and expression of appropriate target genes. The aim of this review is to describe how hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) are regulated and what could be the sensors to the changes in oxygen levels. Some of the physiological responses initiated by these transcription factors are also mentioned. [less ▲]

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