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See detailLa régulation des cycles infectieux du virus de la varicelle et du zona
Piette, Jacques ULg; Defechereux-Thibaut de Maisières, Patricia; Baudoux-Tebache, Laurence et al

in M S-Médecine Sciences (1998), 14(5), 556-565

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an Alphaherpesvirus responsible for two human diseases: primary exposure to the virus results in chicken pox (varicella) and reactivation following a period of latency in ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an Alphaherpesvirus responsible for two human diseases: primary exposure to the virus results in chicken pox (varicella) and reactivation following a period of latency in dorsal lia gives rise to shingles (zoster). Interestingly, several transcripts corresponding to regulatory proteins present during the lytic cycle can be found in latently infected cells. The IE62 protein, component of the viral tegument, is a nuclear phosphoprotein. IE62 may play a crucial role in triggering and regulating the replicative cycle of VZV since it transactivates all classes of VZV genes and is able to repress or activate its own promoter. Moreover, IE62 acts in synergy with IE4, another important regulatory protein, to stimulate VZV gene promoters and IE62 is responsible for the translocation of IE4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. IE4 is expressed at very early times of the VZV productive cycle, Predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, IE4 activates several VZV genes, either alone or in synergy with IE62, as well as heterologous viral genes. At the molecular level, IE4 seems to act both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Another major VZV protein is a 45 kDa phosphorylated protein, called IE63, which is abundantly expressed at the onset of the productive cycle. It is also defected during latency in humans and in a rat animal model an unexpected observation in Alphaherpesviruses. IE63 displays little direct effect on VZV gene promoters, it shows no inhibitory effect on the transactivating functions of IE62 but it represses the IE4 mediated activation. Studies conducted to define the mode of action of three VZV regulatory proteins playing crucial roles in the latency and reactivation of the am-rus mil not only lead to a better understanding of the virus pathogenesis but will probably help define novel therapeutic tools. [less ▲]

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See detailLa régulation des industries de réseau en Belgique
de Streel, Alexandre; Gautier, Axel ULg; Wauthy, Xavier

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2011), L(3), 73-92

Le bilan que l’on peut dresser concernant la libéralisation et le nouveau mode de régulation des industries de réseau en Belgique est assez mitigé. En particulier, les bénéfices issus de la libéralisation ... [more ▼]

Le bilan que l’on peut dresser concernant la libéralisation et le nouveau mode de régulation des industries de réseau en Belgique est assez mitigé. En particulier, les bénéfices issus de la libéralisation tardent à être transférés vers les utilisateurs finaux et le financement des investissements nécessaires aux gains d’efficacité dynamiques n’est parfois pas assez facilité par l’action des régulateurs. Dans cet article, nous analysons tout d’abord d’un point de vue général, les enjeux et les difficultés auxquels les autorités de régulation sont confrontés et ensuite nous identifions quelques éléments critiques, spécifiques à trois industries : l’électricité, les télécommunications, et le transport de fret ferroviaire. En conclusion nous insistons sur la nécessité d’une indépendance accrue des régulateurs, un énoncé plus clair de leurs orientations stratégiques et une simplification institutionnelle. Ces trois conditions nous semblent indispensables pour assurer la sécurité juridique nécessaire à la réalisation optimale des investissements nécessaires dans les infrastructures. Par ailleurs, dans certains cas, une intégration européenne plus poussée est justifiée. [less ▲]

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See detailLa régulation des services publics: les enseignements du droit comparé
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Chroniques de Droit Public = Publiekrechtelijke Kronieken (2002), 4

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See detailLa régulation des télécommunications: une antichambre du droit antitrust?
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Thirion, Nicolas; Peltzer, Patrick (Eds.) La régulation économique dans la vie des affaires (2007)

Etude destinée à présenter le processus de libéralisation / régulation du secteur des communications électroniques en Europe depuis la fin des années 1980

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See detailRégulation du magnésium
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, November 29)

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See detailRégulation du Métabolisme des Chondrocytes par l'Oncostatine M et l'Interleukine 6
Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Deberg, Michelle ULg; Devel, Philippe et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2004), 71(10-11), 1008

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See detailRégulation du phosphore
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, December 20)

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See detailRégulation du potassium
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, October 25)

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See detailLa régulation économique dans la vie des affaires
Thirion, Nicolas ULg; Peltzer, Patrick

Book published by Bruylant (2007)

La victoire de l'économie de marché sur l’économie administrée ne s’est pas traduite par un abandon pur et simple des activités économiques au capitalisme sauvage. La puissance publique s’est en effet ... [more ▼]

La victoire de l'économie de marché sur l’économie administrée ne s’est pas traduite par un abandon pur et simple des activités économiques au capitalisme sauvage. La puissance publique s’est en effet efforcé de réinvestir le champ économique sous une nouvelle forme : la régulation. Ce nouveau mode de relation entre le marché et l’État implique, le plus souvent, la mise en place d’autorités administratives indépendantes, chargées de contrôler le respect de l’équilibre entre les différents intérêts en présence (entreprises, consommateurs, fournisseurs, administrations, etc.) sur les marchés concernés. Tel est le cas, en particulier, dans les secteurs des sociétés cotées, des marchés financiers, des télécommunications, des services postaux et de l’énergie. Pour son 56e séminaire - dont le présent ouvrage reprend les actes -, la CDVA a décidé de consacrer une réflexion approfondie à cette mutation profonde du droit et de l’économie, en faisant appel à des spécialistes réputés de la matière et à des praticiens immergés dans la discipline, tous soucieux d'éclairer les enjeux de ce nouvel ordre juridique régulatoire. [less ▲]

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See detailLa régulation économique et ses implications juridiques: enjeux et débats
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Thirion, Nicolas; Peltzer, Patrick (Eds.) La régulation économique dans la vie des affaires (2007)

Etude destinée à identifier les différentes questions juridiques auxquelles donne lieu un processus de libéralisation/ régulation d'un secteur économique

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See detailRegulation endocrinienne et manipulation de la croissance bovine
Renaville, Robert ULg; Sneyers, M.; Devolder, A. et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (1992), 1(2),

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See detailRégulation et concurrence dans le transport collectif urbain
Coppe, Aurélie; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2004), 43(4), 65-76

In Europe, most of the urban public transport services are not operated on a commercial basis. The implication of local public authorities in the sector is important: they organize their local market ... [more ▼]

In Europe, most of the urban public transport services are not operated on a commercial basis. The implication of local public authorities in the sector is important: they organize their local market, they finance services and, sometimes, they also act as producers. This paper analyzes the public transport system in four European cities: Lyon, Stockholm, Helsinki and Brussels and concentrates, in particular, on the introduction of regulated competition. Four different market mechanisms can be used in the public transport sector: (1) competitive tendering, (2) open access with on-track competition, (3) yardstick competition where the operator’s reward is based on a comparative evaluation of its performance and (4) the possibility of challenging the incumbent public operator. The pros and cons of different competitive mechanisms are presented and the article discusses the conditions under which a truly competitive market could be settled [less ▲]

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See detailRégulation et dérégulation de l'âge pubertaire : populations à risque ?
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Domine, Françoise ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62

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See detailRégulation internationale des échanges commerciaux
Michel, Quentin ULg

Learning material (2011)

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See detailRegulation of a-Synuclein Membrane Binding and Its Implications
Chen, Robert; Wislet, Sabine ULg; Mount, Howard et al

in Juliana Dushanova (Ed.) Mechanisms in Parkinson Disease models and treatment (2012)

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See detailRegulation of Acanthamoeba castellanii alternative oxidase activity by mutual exclusion of purine nucleotides; ATP's inhibitory effect.
Woyda-ploszczyca, A.; Sluse, Francis ULg; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2009), 1787

The effects of different adenine and guanine nucleotides on the cyanide-resistant respiration (i.e. alternative oxidase (AcAOX) activity) of mitochondria from the amoeba A. castellanii mitochondria were ... [more ▼]

The effects of different adenine and guanine nucleotides on the cyanide-resistant respiration (i.e. alternative oxidase (AcAOX) activity) of mitochondria from the amoeba A. castellanii mitochondria were studied. We found that guanine nucleotides activate AcAOX to a greater degree than adenine nucleotides, and that nucleoside monophosphates were more efficient activators than nucleoside di- or triphosphates. The extent of the nucleotides' influence on AcAOX was dependent on the medium's pH and was more pronounced at pH 6.8, which is optimal for AcAOX activity. In contrast to other purine nucleosides, we demonstrate, for the first time, that ATP has an inhibitory effect on AcAOX activity. Since we also observed the inhibition by ATP in the mitochondria of another protozoon, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, and the yeast, Candida maltosa, it may be a regulatory feature common to all purine nucleotide-modulated non-plant AOXs. The physiological importance of this discovery is discussed. Kinetic data show that the binding of GMP (a positive allosteric effector) and the binding of ATP (a negative allosteric effector) to AcAOX are mutually exclusive. ATP's inhibition of the enzyme can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of GMP, and conversely, GMP's stimulation can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of ATP. However, an approximately three times lower concentration of GMP compared to ATP gives a half maximal effect on AcAOX activity. This is indicative of a higher binding affinity for the positive effector at the same or, at least overlapping, nucleotide-binding sites on AcAOX. These results suggest that AcAOX activity in A. castellanii mitochondria might be controlled by the relative intracellular concentrations of purine nucleotides. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of an Open Access Essential Facility
Gautier, Axel ULg; Mitra, Manipushpak

in Economica (2008), 75

A vertically integrated firm owns an essential input and operates on the downstream market. There is a potential entrant in the downstream market. Both firms use the same essential input. The regulator’s ... [more ▼]

A vertically integrated firm owns an essential input and operates on the downstream market. There is a potential entrant in the downstream market. Both firms use the same essential input. The regulator’s objectives are (i) to ensure financing of the essential input and (ii) to generate competition in the downstream market. The regulatory mechanism grants non-discriminatory access of the essential facility to the entrant provided it pays a two-part tariff to the incumbent. The optimal mechanism generates inefficient entry. The inefficient entry captures the trade-off between market efficiency and infrastructure financing resulting from incomplete information and non-discriminatory access. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of B cell survival, development and function by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb)
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Pouillon, V.; Marechal, Y.

in Advances in Enzyme Regulation (2011), 51

In mammals, Ins(1,4,5)P3, the well known calcium mobilization messenger, is phosphorylated in the cytosol at the 3-position of the inositol ring to yield Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinases A, B and ... [more ▼]

In mammals, Ins(1,4,5)P3, the well known calcium mobilization messenger, is phosphorylated in the cytosol at the 3-position of the inositol ring to yield Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinases A, B and C isoforms as well as by inositol polyphosphate multikinase (Ipmk). Studies in gene-deficient mice have revealed that these enzymes and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, their reaction product, play essential role in multiple physiological processes, ranging from synaptic plasticity, hematopoietic cell survival, development and function, to mRNA export, transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodelling. Rather than to provide an unique and “universal” mechanism of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 action, these studies in genetically-modified mice point for a role of this inositide in the control of calcium mobilization, of the subcellular localisation of PH domain-containing target proteins, and of higher inositol phosphate production. Mice deficient for the B isoform of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (Itpkb) develop profound alterations in T and B cells as well as in neutrophils and mast cells. Our recent studies indicate that the 3-kinase Itpkb and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 are important for the survival of naïve mature B cells and the control of proapoptotic Bim protein expression, rather than for the control of B cell transition from one developmental stage to another. They also suggest that Itpkb is an important component in the control of B cell anergy. [less ▲]

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