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See detailNew antiobesity agents in type 2 diabetes: overview of clinical trials with sibutramine and orlistat.
Scheen, André ULg; Ernest, Philippe ULg

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2002), 28(6 Pt 1), 437-45

Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Even modest weight reduction can improve blood glucose control in overweight ... [more ▼]

Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Even modest weight reduction can improve blood glucose control in overweight subjects. After failure of lifestyle modifications, antiobesity drugs such as orlistat, a potent and selective inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipases that reduces lipid intestinal absorption, or sibutramine, a noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor that regulates food intake, may be considered to favour weight loss and/or weight maintenance. Several placebo-controlled studies have recently demonstrated that both drugs are able to promote weight loss in obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet alone, sulphonylureas, metformin or insulin. The greater weight reduction as compared to placebo was associated with a significant reduction of glycated haemoglobin levels and/or of the doses of classical antihyperglycaemic agents, especially in good responders who lost at least 10% of initial body weight. In addition, vascular risk factors associated to insulin resistance were also reduced after weight loss. These antiobesity agents may also contribute to delay or prevent the progression from impaired glucose tolerance to overt type 2 diabetes in at risk obese individuals ("Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects" trial). Large long-term prospective studies, such as the "Sibutramine cardiovascular and diabetes outcome study" should better determine the place of pharmacological anti-obesity strategy in the overall management of obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailNew appendix criteria open for a broader concept of chronic migraine.
Olesen, J.; Bousser, M*-G; Diener, H*-C et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2006), 26(6), 742-6

After the introduction of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache as diagnostic entities in The International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition, ICHD-2, it has been shown that ... [more ▼]

After the introduction of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache as diagnostic entities in The International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition, ICHD-2, it has been shown that very few patients fit into the diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine (CM). The system of being able to use CM and the medication overuse headache (MOH) diagnosis only after discontinuation of overuse has proven highly unpractical and new data have suggested a much more liberal use of these diagnoses. The International Headache Classification Committee has, therefore, worked out the more inclusive criteria for CM and MOH presented in this paper. These criteria are included in the appendix of ICHD-2 and are meant primarily for further scientific evaluation but may be used already now for inclusion into drug trials, etc. It is now recommended that the MOH diagnosis should no longer request improvement after discontinuation of medication overuse but should be given to patients if they have a primary headache plus ongoing medication overuse. The latter is defined as previously, i.e. 10 days or more of intake of triptans, ergot alkaloids mixed analgesics or opioids and 15 days or more of analgesics/NSAIDs or the combined use of more than one substance. If these new criteria for CM and MOH prove useful in future testing, the plan is to include them in a future revised version of ICHD-2. [less ▲]

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See detailNew applications of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for space instrumentation and Systems of Nanospacecraft
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Plesseria, Jean-Yves ULg; Corbelli, Alberto et al

Conference (2014, October 03)

In the frame of an ESA TRP project, our consortium has investigated the possibility to use advanced manufacturing methods for application to space hardware. After a review of the state of the art of the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of an ESA TRP project, our consortium has investigated the possibility to use advanced manufacturing methods for application to space hardware. After a review of the state of the art of the new manufacturing methods, including additive manufacturing but also advanced bonding, joining and shaping techniques, several case studies have been realized. These new techniques imply a different approach already at the design phase since the manufacturing constraints can be completely different. The goal of the project was to evaluate the different technologies from the design to the realization and learn how the classical design and development of such parts shall be adapted to take into account the different specificities of the new techniques. Three types of case studies have been developed successively. The first type was a re-manufacture of an existing piece of hardware using advanced techniques to evaluate if there is some potential improvement to be achieved (cost, production time, complexity reduction). The second level was to design and manufacture a part based on the application requirements. The last level was to design and manufacture a part taking into account in addition the subsystem to which it belongs. All case studies have been tested in terms of achieved performances and resistance to the mechanical and thermal environment. For each level, several case studies were proposed by ALMASpace and TAS-F and a pre-selection was performed to verify the feasibility and the interest of the proposed part for the project. For the first 2 levels, the 2 selected case studies have been designed, built and tested. A single case study was built for last level. The cases studies of level one were an aluminium inertial wheel housing (using electron beam welding to connect simple machined parts) and a mechanism housing fully made by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting of Titanium). The ones of level two were an aluminium tray for nanosatellite structure (assembled by salt dip brazing) and an antenna support bracket (designed by topological optimization and manufactured by laser beam melting of aluminium). The third level case study is a Sun Sensor for nanosatellite designed by topological optimization and including electronic circuit (optical detector and proximity electronic) deposited by aerosol jet printing directly on the aluminium structure. All case studies have been manufactured and tested and all part manufactured, despite including some imperfections, fulfilled all performance requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailNew applications of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing (RP/RM) technologies for space instrumentation
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Plesseria, Jean-Yves ULg; van Elsen, M. et al

in Acta Astronautica (2007), 61

In the frame of a research project, CRIF, KUL and CSL have investigated the possibility to use rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing (RP/RM) techniques during space instrument development. Rapid ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a research project, CRIF, KUL and CSL have investigated the possibility to use rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing (RP/RM) techniques during space instrument development. Rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing terms gather several techniques with the common baseline that parts are built layer by layer, starting from a CAD model. These techniques imply powder, paste or liquid and are applicable to polymers, ceramics and metals. In a first step, the major advantages of these techniques have been presented to Belgian industries implied in the space sector and, as a result of the discussions, development goals for the project have been identified. Several types of use have also been pointed, from demonstration mock-up to real space hardware. In parallel to technical developments, several case studies and tests have been performed. The case studies have shown that the rapid manufacturing allows complex geometries to be created. A drastic decrease of the number of separate parts and bolted junctions ease the predictability of the mechanical and thermal behaviour and limit the risk of imperfect junction. As a result of the project, a guidelines document has been issued to give as much information as possible on how to perform a space instrument design using the advantages of RP/RM techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailNew approach for describing nuclear reactions based on Intra-Nuclear Cascade model with DWBA
Hashimoto, S.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sato, T. et al

in Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (2014), 4

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See detailA New Approach for Detection Improvement of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disorder through a Specific Surface Chemistry Applied onto Titration Wel
Mille, Caroline; Debarnot, Dominique; Zorzi, Willy ULg et al

in Biosensors (2012), 2(4), 433-447

This work illustrates the enhancement of the sensitivity of the ELISA titration for recombinant human and native prion proteins, while reducing other non-specific adsorptions that could increase the ... [more ▼]

This work illustrates the enhancement of the sensitivity of the ELISA titration for recombinant human and native prion proteins, while reducing other non-specific adsorptions that could increase the background signal and lead to a low sensitivity and false positives. It is achieved thanks to the association of plasma chemistry and coating with different amphiphilic molecules bearing either ionic charges and/or long hydrocarbon chains. The treated support by 3-butenylamine hydrochloride improves the signal detection of recombinant protein, while surface modification with the 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-diamine (geranylamine) enhances the sensitivity of the native protein. Beside the surface chemistry effect, these different results are associated with protein conformation. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Approach for the Characterization of Organic Residues from Stone Tools Using GC×GC-TOFMS
Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg et al

in Separations (2016), 3(2), 16

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have traditionally been used, in combination with other analyses, for the chemical characterization of ... [more ▼]

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have traditionally been used, in combination with other analyses, for the chemical characterization of organic residues recovered from archaeological specimens. Recently in many life science fields, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) has provided numerous benefits over GC-MS. This study represents the first use of HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS to characterize specimens from an experimental modern reference collection. Solvent extractions and direct analyses were performed on materials such as ivory, bone, antlers, animal tissue, human tissue, sediment, and resin. Thicker film column sets were preferred due to reduced column overloading. The samples analyzed by HS-SPME directly on a specimen appeared to give unique signatures and generally produced a higher response than for the solvent-extracted residues. A non-destructive screening approach of specimens may, therefore, be possible. Resin and beeswax mixtures prepared by heating for different lengths of time appeared to provide distinctly different volatile signatures, suggesting that GC×GC-TOFMS may be capable of differentiating alterations to resin in future studies. Further development of GC×GC-TOFMS methods for archaeological applications will provide a valuable tool to uncover significant information on prehistoric technological changes and cultural behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailNew approach for the detection of growth promotors residues in animal products
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Helbo, Vincent; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in Third meeting on animal productions. Biotechnologies: society stake. Proceedings of the study day held in Gembloux (Belgium) the 28 January 1998 (1998)

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See detailNew approach for the detection of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase genes in Bacillus strains by polymerase chain reaction.
Tapi, Arthur; Chollet-Imbert, Marlene; Scherens, Bart et al

in Applied microbiology and biotechnology (2010), 85(5), 1521-31

Bacillus strains produce non-ribosomal lipopeptides that can be grouped into three families: surfactins or lichenysins, iturins and fengycins or plispastatins. These biosurfactants show a broad spectrum ... [more ▼]

Bacillus strains produce non-ribosomal lipopeptides that can be grouped into three families: surfactins or lichenysins, iturins and fengycins or plispastatins. These biosurfactants show a broad spectrum of biological activities. To detect strains able to produce these lipopeptides, a new polymerase chain reaction screening approach was developed using degenerated primers based on the intraoperon alignment of adenylation and thiolation nucleic acid domains of all enzymes implicated in the biosynthesis of each lipopeptide family. The comparative bioinformatics analyses of each operon led to the design of four primer pairs for the three families taking into account the differences between open reading frames of each synthetase gene. Tested on different Bacillus sp. strains, this technique was used successfully to detect not only the expected genes in the lipopeptide producing strains but also the presence of a plispastatin gene in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 and a gene showing a high similarity with the polyketide synthase type I gene in the B. subtilis ATCC 6633 genome. It also led to the discovery of the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase genes in Bacillus thuringiensis serovar berliner 1915 and in Bacillus cereus LMG 2098. In addition, this work highlighted the differences between the fengycin and plipastatin operon at DNA level. [less ▲]

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See detailA new approach in deciphering early protist paleobiology and evolution: Combined microscopy and microchemistry of single Proterozoic acritarchs
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Marshal, C. P.

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2006), 139(1-4), 1-15

Beside a few cases, the biological affinities of Proterozoic and Paleozoic acritarchs remain, by definition, largely unknown. However, these fossils record crucial steps in the early evolution of ... [more ▼]

Beside a few cases, the biological affinities of Proterozoic and Paleozoic acritarchs remain, by definition, largely unknown. However, these fossils record crucial steps in the early evolution of microorganisms and diversification of complex ecosystems. We present how combining microscopy (light microscopy, scanning and transmitted electron microscopy) with microchemical analyses of individual microfossils may offer further insights into the paleobiology and evolution of early microorganisms. We use our ongoing work on early Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic assemblages, as well as other published work, as examples to illustrate how this approach may clarify the evolution of early microorganisms and we underline how useful this approach could be for palynologists working on younger material. Such a multidisciplinary approach offers new possibilities to investigate the biological affinities of acritarchs and the record of early life on Earth and beyond. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNew approach in modelling floods over steep river basins
Dubois, Jérôme; Boillat, Jean-Louis; Schleiss, Anton et al

in 2nd Inter-Regional Conference on Environment-Water (1999)

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See detailA new approach in protein phosphorylation for Nanofitin radiolabelling
Goux, Marine ULg

Poster (2013, December)

Recently, new strategies emerged in the field of monoclonal antibodies radiolabeling for PET imaging with the use of positron emitter such as 89Zr or 68Ga. Despite their important role in the therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Recently, new strategies emerged in the field of monoclonal antibodies radiolabeling for PET imaging with the use of positron emitter such as 89Zr or 68Ga. Despite their important role in the therapeutic world, antibodies have many disadvantages related to their structure making their production difficult and expensive: limited stability, disulfide bridges and post-translational modifications. Moreover, conjugation of chelating agent often occurs on lysines, which is non-regioselective and leads to a heterogeneous mixture of products. In addition, the long clearance of antibodies can be a problem to obtain a good contrast when they are used in imaging. To address these limitations, we developed a chemistry-free system consisting of a highly phosphorylatable peptide tag to chelate stereoselectively radionuclides for PET imaging. To ensure an efficient targeting of the radionuclide, the tag was genetically fused to a Nanofitin®, a protein scaffold developed as an alternative to antibodies. Nanofitins share the advantages of being small, cystein-free, easy to engineer, highly stable both to temperature and pH and expressed with high yield in E. coli. We developed an in vivo phosphorylation system consisting in the co-expression of a Nanofitin® fused to the phosphorylatable tag and the α subunit of casein kinase II, in order to save purification steps and decrease production costs. Effectiveness was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and staining with a specific phosphoprotein staining gel. To further optimize and validate the system, the rate of phosphorylation is evaluated by an isoelectric focusing method (based on pHi variability). In addition, we are developing a phosphoprotein purification protocol based on gallium(III) or iron(III) functionalized chromatography beads. Eventually, the use of a single tag for both the purification and the labeling together with Nanofitins as a highly stable targeting moiety will provide a much simpler and straightforward system. [less ▲]

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See detailNew approach of calculation of dynamics of ball bearings
Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg; Servais, Christophe ULg

Conference (2015, March)

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See detailA new approach of food microbiology with the metagenomic tools: an application on fish
Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

Poster (2012, September 03)

Metagenomics has appeared as a powerful tool to study bacterial composition of various environmental samples. Its interest has started to appear in food microbiology but only on the study of very ... [more ▼]

Metagenomics has appeared as a powerful tool to study bacterial composition of various environmental samples. Its interest has started to appear in food microbiology but only on the study of very particular bacterial populations of fermented food. This work describes the application of this technique to study the bacterial population of two fresh fish filets. The two fish species are from freshwater (pangasius) and seawater (haddock), respectively. Samples where directly analyzed the day of receipt. Others samples were analyzed at the end their shelf life after storage at 4°C (1/3 of their shelf life) and 8°C (2/3 of their shelf life). For these samples, packagings were made in plastic wrap for atmospheric air condition and in trays under modified atmosphere. Classical microbiological and 16S rDNA metagenomic analysis were carried out on all these samples. The composition and evolution of microbial populations of fish filet stored under different packaging conditions and temperatures of storage were investigated with identification of bacteria species. A total of 40 different species were identified for both fish types. Gram-negative bacteria are always predominated among the initial flora and at the end of the shelf life in all the trials. At the beginning of storage, the predominant Gram-negative microflora consisted of Moraxellaceae (Acinetobacter spp, Psychrobacter spp.), Pseudomonadaceae (Pseudomonas spp), and Shewanella spp and the Gram-positive flora was identified as Lactobacillaceae (Carnobacterium spp), Brochothrix thermosphacta and Planococcus donghaensis (only for pangasius). Regardless the packaging and the fish origin, significant variations of the initial flora were noted. The important growth of some Gram negative populations could indicate a risk of spoilage. Thus, the metagenomic approach could be used to adequately determine the duration of shelf-life. For the pangasius, Planococcus donghaensis is only present before the fish is packed and its dominant presence could provide an indication of the freshness of the fish. The metagenomic analysis is a useful tool to identify and to measure the relative proportions of bacterial species in fish filet samples. [less ▲]

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See detailA new approach to analyze genotypes of colony-forming cyanobacteria from environmental samples.
Lara, Yannick ULg; BOUTTE, Christophe; PERETYATKO, Anatoly et al

Poster (2008, August 31)

Several studies have shown the efficiency of sequences as rRNA-ITS, cpcBA, rbcLX and other housekeeping genes to study taxonomy [1, 2, 3], population, community structure of cyanobacteria, or for Multi ... [more ▼]

Several studies have shown the efficiency of sequences as rRNA-ITS, cpcBA, rbcLX and other housekeeping genes to study taxonomy [1, 2, 3], population, community structure of cyanobacteria, or for Multi Locus Sequence Analysis [4]. Recently, the genotypic analysis of single colonies and single filaments directly isolated from the environment has been carried out by other authors. It appears that different genotypes of Microcystis are present in one population in one lake. Besides, succession of toxic and non-toxic genotypes may have a critical influence on toxin concentrations during the blooms [5]. Genotypic analysis of colony-forming cyanobacteria requires enough DNA. So far, the genotypes of environmental single colonies of Microcystis were characterized on the basis of one or two PCR [6]. As the DNA content of one single colony only allows for a few PCR reactions, we have developed a new approach using Whole Genome Amplification with Phi29 polymerase to allow for the Multi Locus Sequences Typing analysis of a single colony or filament. For the first time, we were able to amplify and sequence more than one locus of the genome of a single colony of Microcystis. In addition, we have obtained the first sequences of rpoC1, rbcLX and rRNA-ITS from a single colony of the genus Woronichinia ( identified by microscopy). This approach allows to work with a small amount of DNA, and represents a concrete answer to the lack of data on non-cultivable cyanobacteria. This research is supported by the Belgian Science policy under the science for a sustainable development (SSD) and Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS with a FRIA fellowship. References: [1] Otsuka S, et al (1999) FEMS Microbiology Letters 172 15-21 [2] Gugger M, et al (2002) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 1867-1880 [3] Haverkamp T, et al (2008) Environmental Microbiology 10(1) 174-188 [4] Lodders N, et al (2005) Environmental Microbiology 7 (3) 434-442 [5] Kardinaal E, and Visser P (2005) In Harmfuf cyanobacteria, Springer Dordrecht pp 41-64 [6] Janse I, et al (2004) Appl Environm Microbiol 70 (7) 3979–3987 [less ▲]

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See detailA new approach to coil-planet centrifuges for extraction and phase separation in downstream processing
Scherübel, Peter; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

Conference (2014, September 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)