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See detailMontage et résistance du réel chez S. Kracauer: Photographie, cinéma, texte.
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (in press)

Partant de quelques textes dans lesquels S. Kracauer traite du rapport entre montage et réel, cet article tente de préciser et de problématiser l’ambivalence de Kracauer à l’égard de l’outil « montage » ... [more ▼]

Partant de quelques textes dans lesquels S. Kracauer traite du rapport entre montage et réel, cet article tente de préciser et de problématiser l’ambivalence de Kracauer à l’égard de l’outil « montage », notamment dans le champ cinématographique, en ouvrant la réflexion par cette double question : comment définir un « mauvais usage » du montage et, à l’opposé, comment peuvent se mettre en place les conditions d’un « bon usage » du montage selon Kracauer ? Pour y répondre, les auteurs identifient d'abord, dans l’œuvre de Kracauer, les éléments explicites et implicites (montage textuel) qui permettent de saisir au plus près ce que serait, selon le philosophe et sociologue, le principe de réalité. Ensuite, une œuvre photographique, contemporaine des quelques textes évoqués, Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts d’August Sander, permet de mieux circonscrire les possibles concrétisations de cette pensée en la mettant à l’épreuve d’une réalisation en images et en montage. [less ▲]

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See detailMontages critiques
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Scientific conference (2013, March 15)

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See detailMontages poétiques, montages critiques : Sur l'exposition "Atlas. Comment porter le monde sur ses épaules?"
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Article for general public (2011)

Atlas. À la fois le nom d’un Titan révolté contre les dieux et la solution à un problème central de la théorie de l’image. Dans l’exposition madrilène orchestrée par Georges Didi-Huberman, celui qui fût ... [more ▼]

Atlas. À la fois le nom d’un Titan révolté contre les dieux et la solution à un problème central de la théorie de l’image. Dans l’exposition madrilène orchestrée par Georges Didi-Huberman, celui qui fût condamné par Zeus à « porter le monde sur ses épaules » sert de paradigme pour les opérations novatrices par lesquelles la culture visuelle parvient à s’exposer. L’atlas devient ainsi le nom générique pour toute une série de stratégies de présentation de documents visuels. Dans les salles du musée Reina Sofia, on trouve des atlas multiformes cherchant à cartographier le réel à partir d’objets aussi différents que des raz-de-marée (Susan Hiller), des châteaux d’eau (Berndt & Hilla Becher), des désastres (Goya), des morceaux de lave (Roni Horn) ou des courants de fumée (Etienne-Jules Marey). Autant de collections organisées, autant de constellations d’images. L’exposition défie le spectateur de saisir les logiques subversives à l’origine de ces montages incongrus (plusieurs plans, plusieurs éléments, plusieurs images… Pour dire quoi ?). Les atlas font fourmiller les ressemblances, mais aussi les contrastes. Il n’est donc pas facile de voir ce qui relie ces assemblages. [less ▲]

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See detailLes montants affectés aux cultes et à la laïcité
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Sägesser, Caroline; Schreiber, Jean-Philippe (Eds.) Le financement public des religions et de la laïcité en Belgique (2010)

This chapter analyses the various channels through which religious and philosophical communities are financed by public autthorities in Belgium.

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See detailMonte Bianco eterno
Frison-Roche, Roger; Colonel, Fabien; Benzoni, Pietro ULg

Book published by Rizzoli (2002)

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See detailA Monte Carlo Analysis of the VAR-Based Indirect Inference Estimation of DSGE Models
Dubois, David ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

In this paper we study estimation of DSGE models. More specifically, in the indirect inference framework, we analyze how critical is the choice of the reduced form model for estimation purposes. As it ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study estimation of DSGE models. More specifically, in the indirect inference framework, we analyze how critical is the choice of the reduced form model for estimation purposes. As it turns out, simple VAR parameters performs better than commonly used impulse response functions. This can be attributed to the fact that IRF worsen identifica- tion issues for models that are already plagued by that phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailA Monte Carlo model of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V. et al

in Annales Geophysicae (2005), 23

Hydrogen line profiles measured from space-borne or ground-based instruments provide useful information to study the physical processes occurring in the proton aurora and to estimate the proton flux ... [more ▼]

Hydrogen line profiles measured from space-borne or ground-based instruments provide useful information to study the physical processes occurring in the proton aurora and to estimate the proton flux characteristics. The line shape of the hydrogen lines is determined by the velocity distribution of H atoms along the line-of-sight of the instrument. Calculations of line profiles of auroral hydrogen emissions were obtained using a Monte Carlo kinetic model of proton precipitation into the auroral atmosphere. In this model both processes of energy degradation and scattering angle redistribution in momentum and charge transfer collisions of the high-energy proton/hydrogen flux with the ambient atmospheric gas are considered at the microphysical level. The model is based on measured cross sections and scattering angle distributions and on a stochastic interpretation of such collisions. Calculations show that collisional angular redistribution of the precipitating proton/hydrogen beam is the dominant process leading to the formation of extended wings and peak shifts in the hydrogen line profiles. All simulations produce a peak shift from the rest line wavelength decreasing with increasing proton energy. These model predictions are confirmed by analysis of ground-based H-beta line observations from Poker Flat, showing an anti-correlation between the magnitude of the peak shift and the extent of the blue wing of the line. Our results also strongly suggest that the relative extension of the blue and red wings provides a much better indicator of the auroral proton characteristic energy than the position of the peak wavelength. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo model of electron transport for the calculation of Mars dayglow emissions
Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets (2008), 113

A model of the photoelectron collision-induced component of the Mars dayglow using recent cross sections and solar flux is described. The calculation of the photoelectron source of excitation is based on ... [more ▼]

A model of the photoelectron collision-induced component of the Mars dayglow using recent cross sections and solar flux is described. The calculation of the photoelectron source of excitation is based on a stochastic solution of the Boltzmann equation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The neutral atmosphere is taken from outputs of a global circulation model, and recent inelastic collision cross sections are adopted. The calculated vertical profiles of the CO Cameron bands and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] doublet emissions integrated along the line of sight compare well with the Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) limb profiles observed with the SPICAM spectrograph on board Mars Express made at Ls = 166° during the summer season at northern midlatitudes. The comparison shows agreement to within the uncertainties of the excitation cross sections. Seasonal changes in the brightness and the altitude of the emission peaks are predicted with intensity variations in the range 15-20%. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo modelling in Positron Emission Tomography
Taleb, Dounia ULg

Scientific conference (2011, February 04)

Gate (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission), based on Monte Carlo methods allows simulation of full PET-acquisition processes. Gate results for one of CRC’s tomographs, the HR+, are in good ... [more ▼]

Gate (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission), based on Monte Carlo methods allows simulation of full PET-acquisition processes. Gate results for one of CRC’s tomographs, the HR+, are in good agreement with real data, with a maximum mean difference of 6%. Monte Carlo simulations are highly CPU-consuming, so we had to parallelize simulations on the recently setup cluster. In order to use Gate properly on the cluster, the optimal number of CPU was determined. We studied the performances of the small animal microPET FOCUS 120 in terms of counting rate capability (NECR index) for comparison with future simulated results. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo search algorithm discovery for single-player games
Maes, Francis; Lupien St-Pierre, David ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games (2013), 5(3), 201-213

Much current research in AI and games is being devoted to Monte Carlo search (MCS) algorithms. While the quest for a single unified MCS algorithm that would perform well on all problems is of major ... [more ▼]

Much current research in AI and games is being devoted to Monte Carlo search (MCS) algorithms. While the quest for a single unified MCS algorithm that would perform well on all problems is of major interest for AI, practitioners often know in advance the problem they want to solve, and spend plenty of time exploiting this knowledge to customize their MCS algorithm in a problem-driven way. We propose an MCS algorithm discovery scheme to perform this in an automatic and reproducible way. We first introduce a grammar over MCS algorithms that enables inducing a rich space of candidate algorithms. Afterwards, we search in this space for the algorithm that performs best on average for a given distribution of training problems. We rely on multi-armed bandits to approximately solve this optimization problem. The experiments, generated on three different domains, show that our approach enables discovering algorithms that outperform several well-known MCS algorithms such as Upper Confidence bounds applied to Trees and Nested Monte Carlo search. We also show that the discovered algorithms are generally quite robust with respect to changes in the distribution over the training problems. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo Simulation of Metastable Oxygen Photochemistry in Cometary Atmospheres
Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 798

Cometary atmospheres are produced by the outgassing of material, mainly H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, CO, and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] from the nucleus of the comet under the energy input from the Sun. Subsequent photochemical ... [more ▼]

Cometary atmospheres are produced by the outgassing of material, mainly H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, CO, and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] from the nucleus of the comet under the energy input from the Sun. Subsequent photochemical processes lead to the production of other species generally absent from the nucleus, such as OH. Although all comets are different, they all have a highly rarefied atmosphere, which is an ideal environment for nonthermal photochemical processes to take place and influence the detailed state of the atmosphere. We develop a Monte Carlo model of the coma photochemistry. We compute the energy distribution functions (EDF) of the metastable O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) species and obtain the red (630 nm) and green (557.7 nm) spectral line shapes of the full coma, consistent with the computed EDFs and the expansion velocity. We show that both species have a severely non-Maxwellian EDF, that results in broad spectral lines and the suprathermal broadening dominates due to the expansion motion. We apply our model to the atmosphere of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and 103P/Hartley 2. The computed width of the green line, expressed in terms of speed, is lower than that of the red line. This result is comparable to previous theoretical analyses, but in disagreement with observations. We explain that the spectral line shape does not only depend on the exothermicity of the photochemical production mechanisms, but also on thermalization, due to elastic collisions, reducing the width of the emission line coming from the O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) level, which has a longer lifetime. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo Simulations of Autorotative Dynamics of a Simple Tower Crane Model
Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wind Engineering (2015)

The increasing number of crane accidents recorded over the last years might be understood as a need for progress on crane modeling. The induced risk of self-excited vibrations has already been ... [more ▼]

The increasing number of crane accidents recorded over the last years might be understood as a need for progress on crane modeling. The induced risk of self-excited vibrations has already been investigated through numerous experiments. This work presents a simple numerical model of a crane in a turbulent wind field, in order to support the available experimental approaches. First, the problem is defined with the necessary assumptions of the model. Second, the equation of motion is developed and wind characteristics are detailed. This equation presents several specificities requiring dedicated resolution methods. In a first analysis, the crane model is simplified in order to approach the behavior of the parametric pendulum and enable a general comparison of both responses. Indeed, the parametric pendulum is a well-known problem that is already widely described in the literature. In a second step, the response of the crane is studied under a realistic stochastic wind load with the full model. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo simulations of the dose from imaging with GE eXplore 120 micro-CT using gate.
Bretin, Florian; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Luxen, André ULg et al

in Medical Physics (2015), 42(10), 5711-5719

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulations in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Methods: Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Results: Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120 microCT, which might alter physiological parameters in a longitudinal study setup. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte-Carlo Tree Search in Backgammon
Van Lishout, François ULg; Chaslot, Guillaume; Uiterwijk, Jos W.H.M.

(2007)

Monte-Carlo Tree Search is a new method which has been applied successfully to many games. However, it has never been tested on two-player perfect-information games with a chance factor. Backgam- mon is ... [more ▼]

Monte-Carlo Tree Search is a new method which has been applied successfully to many games. However, it has never been tested on two-player perfect-information games with a chance factor. Backgam- mon is the reference game of this category. Today’s best Backgammon programs are based on reinforcement learning and are stronger than the best human players. These programs have played millions of offline games to learn to evaluate a position. Our approach consists rather in playing online simulated games to learn how to play correctly in the current position. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte-Cristo chimiste et physicien des communications : du télégraphe optique au télégraphe électrique
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Cahiers Alexandre Dumas (2014), 41

The modernity of the optical telegraph scene in Le Comte de Monte-Cristo was rather outmoded in 1845. It can be nevertheless viewed as the index of a critical allegory of the technologies of communication ... [more ▼]

The modernity of the optical telegraph scene in Le Comte de Monte-Cristo was rather outmoded in 1845. It can be nevertheless viewed as the index of a critical allegory of the technologies of communication, including the electric telegraph. [less ▲]

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See detailMonteverdi letterato
Moreno, Paola ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailMonth-to-month variability of the general circulation fields in the western Mediterranean and the Gulf of Lions
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Brasseur, P.

in Water Pollution Research (1993), 30

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See detailMonthly oral ibandronate is at least as effective as daily oral ibandronate in increasing hip BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis : 1-year results from mobile
Cooper, C.; Stepan, J. J.; Lorenc, R. et al

in BONE (2005), 36(S2), 417

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See detailMonthly oral ibandronate is at least as effective as daily oral ibandronate: 1-year results from MOBILE
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Cooper, Cyrus; Miller, P. D. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005, March), 16(Suppl.3), 81-82

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See detailMonthly oral ibandronate is effective and well tolerated after 3 years: the MOBILE long-term extension.
Stakkestad, Jacob A; Lakatos, Peter; Lorenc, Roman et al

in Clinical Rheumatology (2008), 27(8), 955-60

Oral ibandronate is the first bisphosphonate licensed for once-monthly treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The 2-year Monthly Oral iBandronate In LadiEs (MOBILE) registration study assessed bone ... [more ▼]

Oral ibandronate is the first bisphosphonate licensed for once-monthly treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The 2-year Monthly Oral iBandronate In LadiEs (MOBILE) registration study assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover and showed that monthly oral ibandronate was at least as effective and well tolerated as a 2.5-mg daily oral regimen. In this study, we report the first year of a long-term extension study to MOBILE and a post hoc analysis of patients receiving 3 years of continuous treatment with monthly ibandronate. Patients who completed MOBILE were eligible for the partially randomized, double-blind extension study and received 100 mg (n = 359) or 150 mg (n = 360) monthly oral ibandronate. A post hoc analysis included patients who received either 100 mg (n = 173) or 150 mg (n = 169) monthly ibandronate continuously throughout the original 2-year MOBILE study and during the first year of the extension study. After one additional year of treatment (total of 3 years), mean lumbar spine BMD increased a further 1.5 and 1.1% in the 150 and 100 mg arms, respectively, compared with 2-year data (original MOBILE study). Total hip BMD changed by 0.3 and -0.08%, respectively. In the post hoc analysis, 3-year increases in lumbar spine BMD were significant in patients receiving ibandronate 150 mg monthly (7.6%; p < 0.0001 vs. baseline) and 100 mg monthly (6.4%; p < 0.0001 vs. baseline). Both groups achieved significant increases in total hip BMD after 3 years compared with baseline (3.4%, 100 mg; 4.1%, 150 mg; p < 0.0001). Serum C-telopeptide of the alpha chain of type I collagen decreased significantly over 3 years' treatment (p < 0.001; all comparisons vs. baseline), remaining within the premenopausal range. Once-monthly oral ibandronate was well tolerated with a low incidence of clinical osteoporotic fractures and upper gastrointestinal events. In conclusion, 150-mg monthly oral ibandronate is an effective and well-tolerated long-term treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis, with consistent improvement in BMD and bone turnover during 3 years' continuous treatment. [less ▲]

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