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Peer Reviewed
See detaila prospective study of intrapulmonary fat accumulation in the newborn lung following intralipid infusion
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Levene, M. I.; Wigglesworth, J. S. et al

in Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica (1984), 73

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See detailProspective studyof CD4 and CD8 T-lynphocyte apoptosis as a marker for radiation induced late effects in 399 individual patients
Ozsahin; Crompton; Shi et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2003), 55(2), 551-552

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See detailProspective survey of digestive tract colonization with enterobacteriaceae that produce ESBLs in intensive care units
Christiaens, Geneviève ULg; Ciccarella, Y.; Damas, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hospital Infection (2006), 62(3), 386-388

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See detailProspective validation in 798 postmenopausal women of a new screening tool for osteoporosis risk assessment: OSIRIS® (osteoporosis index of risk)
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Viethel, P.; Micheletti, M. C. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002, November), 13(Suppl.3), 37-38

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See detailProspective validation in 798 postmenopausal women of a new screening tool for osteoporosis risk assessment: OSIRIS® (osteoporosis index of risk)
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Viethel, P.; Micheletti, M. C. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 94

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See detailProspects for harmonized biodiversity assessments using national forest inventory data
McRoberts, Ronald E.; Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne et al

in Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne; McRoberts, Ronald E. (Eds.) National Forest Inventories - contributions to Forest Biodiversity Assessments (2011)

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to ... [more ▼]

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to which the variables are now assessed. Two conclusions were evident: (1) most countries currently assess most of the variables, but (2) consensus is lacking on assessment methods and necessary field crew expertise, suggesting that harmonization would require emphasis on field operations. For each of the seven essential features into which the 13 variables were grouped, more detailed assessments were conducted. For forest categories, the conclusion was that the only major difference in classification systems used by European NFIs was whether potential or actual vegetation was used to define classes. Thus, the prospects for harmonization of forest categories are considered excellent. For forest structure, the prospects depend on the variable. For tree species, the prospects are excellent because the variable is assessed in the same manner by all NFIs. For dbh and height, considerable variability in measurementthresholds were found, but otherwise the harmonization prospects are good. For social position, definitions of classes varied, but harmonized estimates of proportions for dominant, intermediate, and suppressed classes are considered possible. Prospects for harmonized estimates of layers are consideraly poorer because of different definitions, thresholds and the uncertainty associated with visual assessment methods. Harmonized estimation of forest age is impeded by the increasing proportion of uneven-aged stands for which age is often not assessed, different definitions, and different assessment methods. However, agreement on dominant age as a reference definition would greatly increase the prospects. Deadwood is becoming an increasingly popular indicator of sustainable forest management. Unfortunately, considerable variability was found in deadwood definitions, components (e.g., stumps, limbs), sampling methods, and measurement thresholds. Thus, harmonized deadwood estimation will require development of bridges. Harmonization of regeneration estimates faces challenges due to differences in assessment approaches such as presence/absence versus coverage and all species versus dominant species. Harmonized estimation may be restricte to change in regeneration success. Harmonized estimation for ground vegetation also faces serious challenges due to differences in the components assessed (e.g., small trees, shrubs, herbs, bryophytes, lichens), difference in height thresholds, and differences in categories for which ground vegetation is reported. Forest naturalness integrates many of the other essential feature. However, many countries do not assess naturalness, and among those that do, assessment variables, methods, and reporting classes vary considerably. For harmonized assessment using NFI variables, the hemeroby approach, which emphasizes indications of human influence, is extremely sensitive to plot size. Harmonization using the ecosystem processes approach requires a common dbh threshold and similar plot sizes. The overall conclusion is that harmonization will be considerably easier for some essential features than for others. The factors leading to difficulties often are related to different definitions, different reporting classes, different measurement thresholds, and different features of sampling protocols such as plot sizes and configurations. Nevertheless, construction of reference definitions and bridges greatly facilitate harmonization for all essential features as is illustrated in Chap. 5. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for near-infrared characterisation of hot Jupiters with the VLTI Spectro-Imager (VSI)
Renard, Stéphanie; Absil, Olivier ULg; Berger, J.-P. et al

in Schöller, Markus; Danchi, William; Delplancke, Françoise (Eds.) Optical and Infrared Interferometry (2008, July 01)

In this paper, we study the feasibility of obtaining near-infrared spectra of bright extrasolar planets with the 2nd generation VLTI Spectro-Imager instrument (VSI), which has the required angular ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the feasibility of obtaining near-infrared spectra of bright extrasolar planets with the 2nd generation VLTI Spectro-Imager instrument (VSI), which has the required angular resolution to resolve nearby hot Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs) from their host stars. Taking into account fundamental noises, we simulate closure phase measurements of several extrasolar systems using four 8-m telescopes at the VLT and a low spectral resolution (R = 100). Synthetic planetary spectra from T. Barman are used as an input. Standard chi[SUP]2[/SUP]-fitting methods are then used to reconstruct planetary spectra from the simulated data. These simulations show that low-resolution spectra in the H and K bands can be retrieved with a good fidelity for half a dozen targets in a reasonable observing time (about 10 hours, spread over a few nights). Such observations would strongly constrain the planetary temperature and albedo, the energy redistribution mechanisms, as well as the chemical composition of their atmospheres. Systematic errors, not included in our simulations, could be a serious limitation to these performance estimations. The use of integrated optics is however expected to provide the required instrumental stability (around 10[SUP]-4[/SUP] on the closure phase) to enable the first thorough characterisation of extrasolar planetary emission spectra in the near-infrared. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for Near-infrared Characterisation of Hot Jupiters with the VLTI Spectro-imager (VSI)
Renard, Stéphanie; Absil, Olivier ULg; Berger, Jean-Philippe et al

in Moorwood, A. (Ed.) Science with the VLT in the ELT Era (2009)

Since the discovery of the first exoplanet around 51 Pegasi, the study of planetary systems receives an increasing attention, with the development and test of more and more detection techniques. Among the ... [more ▼]

Since the discovery of the first exoplanet around 51 Pegasi, the study of planetary systems receives an increasing attention, with the development and test of more and more detection techniques. Among the direct detection techniques, interferometry is one of the most promising for the near future. It already provides the required angular resolution, but the dynamic range needs to be improved. The detection and characterisation of extrasolar planets is one of the main science cases of the 2nd generation VLTI Spectro-Imager instrument (VSI). The goal of this work is to study the feasibility of obtaining near-infrared spectra of bright extrasolar giant planets (EGP) with VSI. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for Nulling Interferometry from Antarctica
Coudé Du Foresto, V.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Barillot, M. et al

Poster (2007, June 01)

The high Antarctic plateau is a very unique environment whose main characteristics make it a premier site for high angular resolution, high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths. This is due ... [more ▼]

The high Antarctic plateau is a very unique environment whose main characteristics make it a premier site for high angular resolution, high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths. This is due to a combination of cold temperatures (low emissivity), dry air (infrared transparency), and a night time atmospheric turbulence which is concentrated in the first ~30m near the ground (which results in a large isoplanatic angle). Above that turbulent layer (a location that can be reached either by support structures or tethered balloons), the free air seeing is both exceptionally benign and slow. There, simulations show that a small dedicated interferometer (two 1m-class telescopes) equipped with a nuller instrument performs better than the same instrument behind 8m-class telescopes on a temperate site. It can characterize the distribution of dust emission around nearby main sequence stars, a necessary precursor science for Darwin and TPF-I. The nature of the site, intermediate between ground and space both in potential and technical challenge, adds particular relevance to the demonstration of nulling for a space mission. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for performing «responsible innovation» in research institutions
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2011, November 09)

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See detailProspects for space solar power in Europe
Summerer, Leopold; Jacques, Lionel ULg

Conference (2011, October 04)

In 2002, a phased, multi-year approach to space solar power has been published. Following this plan, several activities have matured the concept and technology further in the following years. Despite ... [more ▼]

In 2002, a phased, multi-year approach to space solar power has been published. Following this plan, several activities have matured the concept and technology further in the following years. Despite substantial advances in key technologies, space solar power remains still at the weak intersections between the space sector and the energy sector. In the 10 years since the development of the European SPS Programme Plan, both, the space and the energy sectors have undergone substantial changes and many key enabling technologies for space solar power have advanced significantly. The present paper attempts to take account of these changes in view to assess how they influence the prospect for space solar power work for Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for the multiplicity investigation of massive stars with the CARLINA interferometer
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Le Coroller, Hervé; Dejonghe, Julien

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

The multiwavelength study of massive stars has revealed many phenomena that are intimately related to their multiplicity. Colliding winds in massive binaries play indeed a significant role in thermal X ... [more ▼]

The multiwavelength study of massive stars has revealed many phenomena that are intimately related to their multiplicity. Colliding winds in massive binaries play indeed a significant role in thermal X-ray emission, particle acceleration, or even dust formation in such systems. In this context, the identification of binaries and the determination of their orbital parameters is a pivotal issue. We first briefly describe the CARLINA project. The sensitivity and imaging capability of Carlina are perfectly adapted for the study of binary systems. Considering its expected specifications, Carlina will operate in complementarity with ELTs and kilometer baseline interferometers. Then, we discuss some prospects for the multiplicity investigation of massive stars, on the basis of the expected performances of the prototype currently studied at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP). [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for the study of dust making Wolf-Rayet binaries with the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI)
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Filho, M.; Harries, T.

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (2010, February), 38

In response to ESO's call for proposals for second generation instruments for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), a consortium has proposed to design and develop the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI ... [more ▼]

In response to ESO's call for proposals for second generation instruments for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), a consortium has proposed to design and develop the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI). In the context of the Phase A study, a science group has prepared a science case taking advantage of the expected performances of VSI. Among several science topics, the case of dust making Wolf-Rayet binaries producing the so-called pinwheel nebulae has been considered. Here, we review the main specifications of VSI, and we provide preliminary results expected to illustrate the imaging capabilities of VSI, and the interest for the study of pinwheel nebulae similar to those formed close to well-known systems such as WR98a and WR104. [less ▲]

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See detailPROSPECTS OF AN IMPROVED SYSTEM PROTECTION SCHEME AGAINST VOLTAGE INSTABILITY IN THE RTE SYSTEM
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Otomega, Bogdan; Lefebvre, Hervé et al

(2008, July)

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking tap changers and shedding loads in a zone. The emergency actions adjust in magnitude and location to the disturbance. Each controller acts in closed loop, which guarantees robustness. The method is illustrated on a real-life model of the Western region of the RTE system. The choice of the controller settings is discussed in some detail and examples of performance are given, combining the above remedial action with capacitor switching and secondary voltage control. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects of application to the French system of fast methods for transient stability and voltage security assessment
Euxibie, Edwige; Goubin, Michel; Heilbronn, Bertrand et al

in Proc. 1992 CIGRE Conference (1992, August)

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See detailThe prospects of detecting exo-planets with the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE)
den Hartog, R.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Gondoin, P. et al

in Aime, C.; Vakili, F. (Eds.) Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques (2006)

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like ... [more ▼]

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like planets around nearby stars and to characterize their atmospheres. Darwin and TPF-I are currently conceived as nulling interferometers with free-flying telescopes. Within the frame of the Darwin program, the ESA and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), supported by European industries and scientific institutes, have performed two parallel Phase A studies of a ground-based nulling interferometry experiment (GENIE) at the site of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in Paranal, Chile. GENIE will demonstrate several key technologies required for the Darwin mission. Its science objectives include the detection and characterization of dust disks and low-mass companions around nearby stars. These studies have established detailed instrumental designs, in which GENIE will operate in the L' band around 3.8 microns as a single Bracewell nulling or constructive interferometer, using either two Auxiliary or two Unit Telescopes. The studies were supported by detailed numerical simulations which indicated the possibility of detection and low-resolution spectroscopy in nulling mode of extra-solar giant planets (EGPs) with atmospheric temperatures down to 700 K, provided that a proper calibration of instrumental effects is applied. Detection of circumstellar exo-zodiacal (EZ) dust clouds is possible down to 0.5 mJy, with interesting prospects for the characterization of planet-forming disks. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells: impact on the T cell response.
Gosset, Philippe; Pichavant, Muriel; Faveeuw, Christelle et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2005), 35(5), 1491-1500

The local environment in which dendritic cells (DC) differentiate is important for the acquisition of their immunostimulatory properties. Since prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major prostanoid produced ... [more ▼]

The local environment in which dendritic cells (DC) differentiate is important for the acquisition of their immunostimulatory properties. Since prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major prostanoid produced during inflammatory reactions, is involved in the control of immune responses, its effect on the differentiation and functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) was studied. We show that DC differentiated in the presence of PGD(2) (PG/DC) have an unusual phenotype, with modifications in the expression of molecules involved in antigen (Ag) capture and presentation, leading to higher endocytic and Ag-processing activities. However, under conditions that necessitated Ag processing and presentation, PG/DC have an impaired ability to stimulate naive T cells, whereas superAg-pulsed DC efficiently promote their proliferation. Upon lipopolysaccharide or TNF-alpha/IL-1beta stimulation, PG/DC phenotypically mature but produce abnormal amounts of immunoregulatory cytokines (decreased IL-12p70/IL-10 ratio). Moreover, mature PG/DC fail to up-regulate the chemokine receptor CCR7 and show an impaired migration towards its ligand CCL19. Finally, PG/DC favor the differentiation of naive T cells toward Th2 cells, an effect dependent on IL-10 and inducible costimulator ligand expression by DC. Most of the herein described effects of PGD(2) on MDDC can be reproduced, usually with a higher efficacy, with a selective D prostanoid receptor (DP)1, but not DP2, agonist. Taken as a whole, these results demonstrate that PGD(2) impacts DC differentiation and functions, and extend the concept that it exerts important roles in immunity [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the differentiation of human dendritic cells
Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Pichavant, Muriel et al

Poster (2003)

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: consequence on the polarization of naive Th cells.
Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Angeli, Veronique et al

in Journal of Immunology (2003), 170(10), 4943-52

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2 ... [more ▼]

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2) are in part effected through two plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors: the D prostanoid (DP) receptor and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 lymphocytes (CRTH2). In this report, we studied the effects of PGD(2) and of its major physiological metabolite, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), on the functions of human monocyte-derived DC. First, we show that PGD(2) exerts in vitro chemotactic effects on monocytes via CRTH2 activation while it inhibits the chemokine-driven migration of monocyte-derived DC through DP. We also report that PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) alter the LPS- and allergen-induced DC maturation and enhance the CD80/CD86 ratio on mature DC in a DP- and CRTH2-independent manner. Moreover, PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) strongly reduce the secretion of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 and affect the synthesis of chemokines involved in Th1 cell chemotaxis, particularly CXCL10. Inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion implicates at least in part DP, but not CRTH2. The effects exerted by PGD(2) are associated with the phosphorylation of CREB, but do not parallel with the deactivation of the NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, 15d-PGJ(2) seems to target other cellular proteins. Finally, in a model of Th CD45RA(+) differentiation induced by allergen- and superantigen-pulsed DC, PGD(2) impacts on the orientation of the immune response by favoring a Th2 response [less ▲]

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