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See detailProspects for Nulling Interferometry from Antarctica
Coudé Du Foresto, V.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Barillot, M. et al

Poster (2007, June 01)

The high Antarctic plateau is a very unique environment whose main characteristics make it a premier site for high angular resolution, high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths. This is due ... [more ▼]

The high Antarctic plateau is a very unique environment whose main characteristics make it a premier site for high angular resolution, high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths. This is due to a combination of cold temperatures (low emissivity), dry air (infrared transparency), and a night time atmospheric turbulence which is concentrated in the first ~30m near the ground (which results in a large isoplanatic angle). Above that turbulent layer (a location that can be reached either by support structures or tethered balloons), the free air seeing is both exceptionally benign and slow. There, simulations show that a small dedicated interferometer (two 1m-class telescopes) equipped with a nuller instrument performs better than the same instrument behind 8m-class telescopes on a temperate site. It can characterize the distribution of dust emission around nearby main sequence stars, a necessary precursor science for Darwin and TPF-I. The nature of the site, intermediate between ground and space both in potential and technical challenge, adds particular relevance to the demonstration of nulling for a space mission. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for performing «responsible innovation» in research institutions
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2011, November 09)

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See detailProspects for space solar power in Europe
Summerer, Leopold; Jacques, Lionel ULg

Conference (2011, October 04)

In 2002, a phased, multi-year approach to space solar power has been published. Following this plan, several activities have matured the concept and technology further in the following years. Despite ... [more ▼]

In 2002, a phased, multi-year approach to space solar power has been published. Following this plan, several activities have matured the concept and technology further in the following years. Despite substantial advances in key technologies, space solar power remains still at the weak intersections between the space sector and the energy sector. In the 10 years since the development of the European SPS Programme Plan, both, the space and the energy sectors have undergone substantial changes and many key enabling technologies for space solar power have advanced significantly. The present paper attempts to take account of these changes in view to assess how they influence the prospect for space solar power work for Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for the multiplicity investigation of massive stars with the CARLINA interferometer
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Le Coroller, Hervé; Dejonghe, Julien

in Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (2011), 80

The multiwavelength study of massive stars has revealed many phenomena that are intimately related to their multiplicity. Colliding winds in massive binaries play indeed a significant role in thermal X ... [more ▼]

The multiwavelength study of massive stars has revealed many phenomena that are intimately related to their multiplicity. Colliding winds in massive binaries play indeed a significant role in thermal X-ray emission, particle acceleration, or even dust formation in such systems. In this context, the identification of binaries and the determination of their orbital parameters is a pivotal issue. We first briefly describe the CARLINA project. The sensitivity and imaging capability of Carlina are perfectly adapted for the study of binary systems. Considering its expected specifications, Carlina will operate in complementarity with ELTs and kilometer baseline interferometers. Then, we discuss some prospects for the multiplicity investigation of massive stars, on the basis of the expected performances of the prototype currently studied at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP). [less ▲]

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See detailProspects for the study of dust making Wolf-Rayet binaries with the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI)
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Filho, M.; Harries, T.

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (2010, February), 38

In response to ESO's call for proposals for second generation instruments for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), a consortium has proposed to design and develop the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI ... [more ▼]

In response to ESO's call for proposals for second generation instruments for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), a consortium has proposed to design and develop the VLTI-Spectro-Imager (VSI). In the context of the Phase A study, a science group has prepared a science case taking advantage of the expected performances of VSI. Among several science topics, the case of dust making Wolf-Rayet binaries producing the so-called pinwheel nebulae has been considered. Here, we review the main specifications of VSI, and we provide preliminary results expected to illustrate the imaging capabilities of VSI, and the interest for the study of pinwheel nebulae similar to those formed close to well-known systems such as WR98a and WR104. [less ▲]

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See detailPROSPECTS OF AN IMPROVED SYSTEM PROTECTION SCHEME AGAINST VOLTAGE INSTABILITY IN THE RTE SYSTEM
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Otomega, Bogdan; Lefebvre, Hervé et al

(2008, July)

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking tap changers and shedding loads in a zone. The emergency actions adjust in magnitude and location to the disturbance. Each controller acts in closed loop, which guarantees robustness. The method is illustrated on a real-life model of the Western region of the RTE system. The choice of the controller settings is discussed in some detail and examples of performance are given, combining the above remedial action with capacitor switching and secondary voltage control. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects of application to the French system of fast methods for transient stability and voltage security assessment
Euxibie, Edwige; Goubin, Michel; Heilbronn, Bertrand et al

in Proc. 1992 CIGRE Conference (1992, August)

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See detailThe prospects of detecting exo-planets with the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE)
den Hartog, R.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Gondoin, P. et al

in Aime, C.; Vakili, F. (Eds.) Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques (2006)

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like ... [more ▼]

The European Space Agency's Darwin and NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) are among the most challenging space science missions ever considered. Their principal objective is to detect Earth-like planets around nearby stars and to characterize their atmospheres. Darwin and TPF-I are currently conceived as nulling interferometers with free-flying telescopes. Within the frame of the Darwin program, the ESA and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), supported by European industries and scientific institutes, have performed two parallel Phase A studies of a ground-based nulling interferometry experiment (GENIE) at the site of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in Paranal, Chile. GENIE will demonstrate several key technologies required for the Darwin mission. Its science objectives include the detection and characterization of dust disks and low-mass companions around nearby stars. These studies have established detailed instrumental designs, in which GENIE will operate in the L' band around 3.8 microns as a single Bracewell nulling or constructive interferometer, using either two Auxiliary or two Unit Telescopes. The studies were supported by detailed numerical simulations which indicated the possibility of detection and low-resolution spectroscopy in nulling mode of extra-solar giant planets (EGPs) with atmospheric temperatures down to 700 K, provided that a proper calibration of instrumental effects is applied. Detection of circumstellar exo-zodiacal (EZ) dust clouds is possible down to 0.5 mJy, with interesting prospects for the characterization of planet-forming disks. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells: impact on the T cell response.
Gosset, Philippe; Pichavant, Muriel; Faveeuw, Christelle et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2005), 35(5), 1491-1500

The local environment in which dendritic cells (DC) differentiate is important for the acquisition of their immunostimulatory properties. Since prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major prostanoid produced ... [more ▼]

The local environment in which dendritic cells (DC) differentiate is important for the acquisition of their immunostimulatory properties. Since prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major prostanoid produced during inflammatory reactions, is involved in the control of immune responses, its effect on the differentiation and functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) was studied. We show that DC differentiated in the presence of PGD(2) (PG/DC) have an unusual phenotype, with modifications in the expression of molecules involved in antigen (Ag) capture and presentation, leading to higher endocytic and Ag-processing activities. However, under conditions that necessitated Ag processing and presentation, PG/DC have an impaired ability to stimulate naive T cells, whereas superAg-pulsed DC efficiently promote their proliferation. Upon lipopolysaccharide or TNF-alpha/IL-1beta stimulation, PG/DC phenotypically mature but produce abnormal amounts of immunoregulatory cytokines (decreased IL-12p70/IL-10 ratio). Moreover, mature PG/DC fail to up-regulate the chemokine receptor CCR7 and show an impaired migration towards its ligand CCL19. Finally, PG/DC favor the differentiation of naive T cells toward Th2 cells, an effect dependent on IL-10 and inducible costimulator ligand expression by DC. Most of the herein described effects of PGD(2) on MDDC can be reproduced, usually with a higher efficacy, with a selective D prostanoid receptor (DP)1, but not DP2, agonist. Taken as a whole, these results demonstrate that PGD(2) impacts DC differentiation and functions, and extend the concept that it exerts important roles in immunity [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the differentiation of human dendritic cells
Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Pichavant, Muriel et al

Poster (2003)

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: consequence on the polarization of naive Th cells.
Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Angeli, Veronique et al

in Journal of Immunology (2003), 170(10), 4943-52

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2 ... [more ▼]

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2) are in part effected through two plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors: the D prostanoid (DP) receptor and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 lymphocytes (CRTH2). In this report, we studied the effects of PGD(2) and of its major physiological metabolite, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), on the functions of human monocyte-derived DC. First, we show that PGD(2) exerts in vitro chemotactic effects on monocytes via CRTH2 activation while it inhibits the chemokine-driven migration of monocyte-derived DC through DP. We also report that PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) alter the LPS- and allergen-induced DC maturation and enhance the CD80/CD86 ratio on mature DC in a DP- and CRTH2-independent manner. Moreover, PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) strongly reduce the secretion of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 and affect the synthesis of chemokines involved in Th1 cell chemotaxis, particularly CXCL10. Inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion implicates at least in part DP, but not CRTH2. The effects exerted by PGD(2) are associated with the phosphorylation of CREB, but do not parallel with the deactivation of the NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, 15d-PGJ(2) seems to target other cellular proteins. Finally, in a model of Th CD45RA(+) differentiation induced by allergen- and superantigen-pulsed DC, PGD(2) impacts on the orientation of the immune response by favoring a Th2 response [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 inhibits the production of interleukin-12 in murine dendritic cells through multiple signaling pathways.
Faveeuw, Christelle; Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2003), 33(4), 889-898

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly ... [more ▼]

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly documented. In the present study, we show that PGD(2 )inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, the CD40- and LPS-induced secretion of the Th1-driving factor IL-12 by murine splenic dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. The inhibition of IL-12 production is mediated only in part by the cell surface G alpha s protein-coupled D prostanoid receptor (termed DP1) but not by the G alpha i protein-coupled DP receptor, DP2. We show that recruitment of DP1 in DC results in the activation of a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway that is partially responsible for the inhibition of IL-12 production. We also suggest that the DP1-independent effects exerted by PGD(2) on IL-12 production may be due to the action of ist PGJ(2), but not PGF(2)alpha, metabolites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PGD(2) affects NF-kappa B activation through (the) DP1-independent pathway(s). Together these data suggest that PGD(2), by interacting with DP1 and by binding to other target cellular proteins, may regulate immune responses by affecting IL-12 production in DC [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin E2 induces the expression of functional inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors in human CD8+ T lymphocytes by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A type I pathway.
Zeddou, Mustapha ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; de Valensart, Nicolas et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 70(5), 714-24

The CD94/NKG2A heterodimer is a natural killer receptor (NKR), which inhibits cell-mediated cytotoxicity upon interaction with MHC class I gene products. It is expressed by NK cells and by a small ... [more ▼]

The CD94/NKG2A heterodimer is a natural killer receptor (NKR), which inhibits cell-mediated cytotoxicity upon interaction with MHC class I gene products. It is expressed by NK cells and by a small fraction of activated T cells, predominantly of CD8+ phenotype. Abnormal upregulation of the CD94/NKG2A inhibitory NKR on cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) could be responsible for a failure of immunosurveillance in cancer or HIV infection. In an attempt to identify the mechanisms leading to inhibitory NKR upregulation on T cells, we analyzed the expression of the CD94/NKG2A heterodimer on human CTLs activated with anti-CD3 mAb in the presence of PGE2 or with 8-CPT-cAMP, an analogue of cyclic AMP. As previously described, anti-CD3 mAb-mediated activation induced the expression of CD94/NKG2A on a small fraction of CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, when low concentrations of PGE2 or 8-CPT-cAMP were present during the culture, the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD94/NKG2A was two- to five-fold higher. This upregulation was partially prevented by PKA inhibitors, such as KT5720 and Rp-8-Br-cAMP (type I selective). We also report that cAMP induces upregulation of NKG2A at the mRNA level. We further demonstrated that cross-linking of CD94 on CD8+ T cells expressing the CD94/NKG2A heterodimer inhibits their cytotoxic activity in a bispecific antibody redirected lysis assay. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the PGE2/cAMP/PKA type I axis is involved in the expression of CD94/NKG2A receptor on human CD8+ T lymphocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin E2, prostacyclin, and thromboxane changes during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass in humans.
Faymonville, Marie ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; Larbuisson, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (1986), 91(6), 858-66

To study the effect of lung bypass on the production of prostaglandin E2, prostacyclin, and thromboxane A2, we measured simultaneously arterial and venous plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2, 6-keto ... [more ▼]

To study the effect of lung bypass on the production of prostaglandin E2, prostacyclin, and thromboxane A2, we measured simultaneously arterial and venous plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (stable metabolite of prostacyclin), and thromboxane B2 (stable metabolite of thromboxane A2) before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Seventeen patients (age range 46 to 69 years) undergoing aorta-coronary bypass grafts were investigated. The prostaglandin E2 production rose sharply immediately after the onset of bypass (baseline: 9.7 +/- 2.9 pg/ml to 85 +/- 16.6 pg/ml in venous and 87 +/- 12 pg/ml in arterial plasma, p less than 0.03) and rapidly decreased after pulmonary reperfusion (53 +/- 6.4 and 57 +/- 20 pg/ml, respectively, in venous and arterial plasma at the end of bypass). The increase in prostaglandin E2 was influenced by the heart-lung machine itself (as demonstrated by a closed "bypass" circuit) and by lung bypass. Pulmonary metabolism of prostaglandin E2 was maintained after bypass. The prostacyclin production rose significantly at the beginning of bypass (154 +/- 26 pg/ml venous prebypass level to 361 +/- 94 pg/ml after aortic clamping, p less than 0.03). Prostacyclin decreased progressively during rewarming of the patient, pulmonary reperfusion, and discontinuation of bypass. When prostacyclin decreased, thromboxane B2 production rose significantly and reached peak arterial levels when the lungs were reperfused (112 +/- 33 pg/ml prebypass levels to 402 +/- 101 pg/ml, p less than 0.01). Except for prostaglandin E2, there were no significant differences between arterial and venous plasma levels of these substances. The same prostanoids were also measured in five patients undergoing major orthopedic operations, and no significant changes in prostanoids were observed. Our data demonstrate significant production of prostaglandin E2 in the systemic circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in humans. They further indicate that lung bypass disturbs the plasma prostaglandin/thromboxane balance. [less ▲]

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See detailLes prostaglandines : biosynthèse et pharmacologie
Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1983), 127

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See detailProstaglandines et cycle sexuel chez les animaux domestiques
Derivaux, Jules; Ectors, Francis ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1976), 131

In some domestic animal species, cow, ewe, sow, mare, luteal regression and therefore oestral regulation, depends on the action of a luteolytic of uterine origin. This luteolysine should be but a ... [more ▼]

In some domestic animal species, cow, ewe, sow, mare, luteal regression and therefore oestral regulation, depends on the action of a luteolytic of uterine origin. This luteolysine should be but a prostaglandin F2 alpha or an analogue. Progesterone is the regulator of the cycle; plasma level is low (basic level) at day of oestrus (0,5ng/ml) then increases gradually to reach a peak value of 6 to 9 ng/ml at days 6 to 16 of the cycle. Beta-oestradiol level fluctuates including a main peak before ovulation (9 pg/ml) and three accessory peaks at days 4-5, 8, 12-14 of the cycle; however the peak of the 8th day is inconstant. FSH and LH levels are constant during dioestrus, peak level values are observed at the beginning of oestrus, they are practically superposed and of a 6 to 9 hours duration. Administration of prostaglandins during luteal phase produces hormonal changes similar to those observed during the normal cycle. Because of its luteolytic action and its effect on uterine fibre, prostaglandin F2 alpha offers a special interest for stock farming and veterinary medicine. So a full expression can be given to AI and a more extended application of egg transfer can be foreseen. It constitutes an effective therapy in the case of corpus luteum persistence and a way to induce parturition. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandines et physiologie de la reproduction humaine et animale.
Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (1984), 13(4), 351-61

This review of 417 publications in the literature covers various aspects of the role of prostaglandins in human and animal reproductive physiology. The author points out that there are a variety of ... [more ▼]

This review of 417 publications in the literature covers various aspects of the role of prostaglandins in human and animal reproductive physiology. The author points out that there are a variety of prostaglandins all belonging to a family of substances that derive from arachadonic acid. They are present in many human and animal tissues, are extremely labile and are involved in reproduction in the ovary in follicular development and release of the follicle, in the tube in migration of the gametes, and in the uterus in implantation and delivery. The author says that the role of prostaglandins is not an exclusive one but they are linked with the hypothalamo-pituitary hormones, as well as with progesterone and oestrogens. It may be possible that PGE helps to initiate follicular development by stimulating the appearance of LH and FSH receptors. PGE is also luteotrophic. Indomethacin which is a prostaglandin inhibitor however does not modify the ability of LH to stimulate luteinization and maturation of the oocyte. The author postulates on the origin and the identification of the luteolytic factor and gives schematic illustration of the arterio-venous blood supply between the uterus and the ovary which is so important for the good function of the prostaglandins. It is possible that PGF type prostaglandins which are vasoconstrictor may reduce the flow of blood around the ovary, perhaps even specifically to luteal tissue. He postulates that PGF2 alpha in its relationship to its receptors is necessary but insufficient to explain the full luteolytic effect. Turning to the semen he shows that the nature and concentration of prostaglandins in semen varies from one species to another. He thinks that there is a triple role for prostaglandins with semen, which is: a participation in the events of ejaculation, an effect on the female genital tract, and an effect on the mobility of spermatozoa. He speaks of the role of prostaglandins on the Fallopian tubes and believes that they do have an effect on determining the movement of the tubes but cannot explain exactly what. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandines et reproduction animale: données générales
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Le grand livre des prostaglandines (2003)

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See detailProstaglandines, secretion d'insuline et diabete sucre.
Giugliano, D.; Torella, R.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Diabète & Métabolisme (1988), 14(6), 721-7

The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase ... [more ▼]

The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly PGE2, reduce the insulin response to glucose whereas lipo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly 15-HPETE, stimulate insulin secretion. So, for instance, drugs that increase prostaglandins synthesis as colchicine or furosemide inhibit insulin secretion while non steroid anti-inflammator drugs, mainly salicylates, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, enhance the insulin response to various stimuli. In type-2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes, an increased sensitivity to endogenous prostaglandins has been proposed as a possible cause for the insulin secretion defect which characterizes this disease. Play in favor of this hypothesis the fact that the administration of PGE inhibits the insulin response to arginine in type-2 diabetics but not in normal subject and the fact that the administration of salicylates could improve the insulin response to glucose in some of these patients. [less ▲]

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