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See detailLes réactions de peur chez les ovins: quantification et facteurs de variation.
Bouissou, Marie-France; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Romeyer, A.

Book published by INRA (1994)

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See detailRéactions et réacteurs gaz-liquide-catalyseur solide
Germain, Albert ULg; Crine, Michel ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Nouvelles de la Science et des Technologies (1988), 6

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See detailReactions involving inorganic compounds
Krief, A.; Delmotte, C.; Colaux, Catherine ULg

in Pure & Applied Chemistry (2000), 72(9), 1709-1713

Selenium chemistry became, over the last 30 years, particularly useful for synthetic organic chemistry [1]. Inorganic as well as organic selenium compounds allow transformation which otherwise cannot be ... [more ▼]

Selenium chemistry became, over the last 30 years, particularly useful for synthetic organic chemistry [1]. Inorganic as well as organic selenium compounds allow transformation which otherwise cannot be done or require much more drastic conditions to proceed. We have over the last 25 years explored the reactivity of elemental selenium as well as its inorganic and organic derivatives. We report here our recent finding concerning (i) organic diselenols and -diselenolates and (ii) the role of selenoxides in the enantioselective dihydroxylation of C,C double bonds using catalytic amounts of osmium tetroxide. [less ▲]

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See detailReactions paroxystiques du cuir chevelu.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 180-5

The scalp is a unique site of the human body that may exhibit some particular physiopathological reactions. A few manifestations are paroxysmal. The main ones are the acute pruritus of pediculosis, and ... [more ▼]

The scalp is a unique site of the human body that may exhibit some particular physiopathological reactions. A few manifestations are paroxysmal. The main ones are the acute pruritus of pediculosis, and the pruritus at onset of dandruff or seborrhoeic dermatitis. One must add the telogen effuvium after solar exposure or during the post-partum, and the anagen dystrophic alopecia following chemotherapy. Other paroxysmal events include acute canitia and alopecia areata. [less ▲]

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See detailRéactions physiologiques face à des conditions extrêmes de chaleur et d'humidité relative. Etude de la récupération après l'exercice
Art, Tatiana ULg; Votion, Dominique ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (1996), 28

The purpose of this study was to follow the recovery of horses during 1hour after treadmill exercise performed either in temperated atmospheric conditions (TC) (ambient temperature: 15°C; relative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to follow the recovery of horses during 1hour after treadmill exercise performed either in temperated atmospheric conditions (TC) (ambient temperature: 15°C; relative humidity: 55%) or in hot and humid conditions (HHC) (ambient temperature: 30°C; relative humidity: 75%). Five healthy fit standardbred horses (493± 14 kg; 4± 0,5 yrs) were investigated twice at eight days interval, in TC and in HHC. Some ventilatory and cardiorespiratory measurements were made during a standardised treadmill exercise test (SET), other measurements, i.e. cardiac and respiratory frequencies and rectal temperature, during a 1-hour recovery period. The SET consisted in 8 min warm-up and in 8 min exercise (1 min at 1,7, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 m/sec and 2 min at 4 m/sec with a 6% (3.4°) slope). Venous blond was sampled before, 2 min, 60 min and 48 hours after the completion of the test for biochemical analysis, namely plasma electrolytes and enzymatic activities. Exercising in HHC induced a reduction of the aerobic metabolism to the total energy requierement, i.e. a 20 % decrease of VO, and 55 % increase in lactate, as well as a decrease in VE. The increase in rectal and skip temperature, the dehydration and the weight loss were higher in HHC than in TC. During the recovery period the HR and f remained higher up to 30 minutes after the end of the SET in HHC while the rectal temperature remained higher up to 60 min after the end of this test. Sa, despite the fact that our horses recovered in TC after exercising in HHC, there were significant differences between their physiological parameters measured during the recovery. This means that the recovery in air-conditionned unit would probably be an insufficient measure to ensure an adequate cooling of the horses and justify consequently the adaptations proposed by the FEI, i.e. the decrease of the distance of the run and the increase of the lime devoted to the hall between phases [less ▲]

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See detailRéactions physiologiques face à des conditions extrêmes de chaleur et d'humidité relative: Etude des effets de l'exercice
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (1996), 28

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a hot and humid environment on the pattern of breathing and the gas exchange in heavily exercising horses. Five healthy fit standardbred horses ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a hot and humid environment on the pattern of breathing and the gas exchange in heavily exercising horses. Five healthy fit standardbred horses (493± 14 kg; 4± 0,5yrs) were investigated twice at eight days interval, once in temperated atmos¬pheric conditions (TC) (ambient temperature : 15o C; relative humidity : 55 %) and once in hot and humid conditions (HHC) (ambient temperature : 30°C; relative humidity : 75 %). The standardized treadmill exercise test consisted in 8 min warm-up and in 8 min exer¬cise (1 min at 1,7, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 m/sec and 2 min at 4 m/sec with a 6% slope). Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory frequency as well as the 02 and C02 fraction in the inspired and expired gases were continuously recorded, using 2 ultrasonic pneumo¬tachographs connected to a face mask and a mass spectrometer. Oxygen uptake (VO2, carbon dioxide output (VCO2,), respiratory quotient (RQ) and expired minute volume (VE.) as well as alveolar partial pressure in C02 (PAC02) were obtained on a breath-by--breath basis. The maximal values obtained during the highest intensity were used for the comparison between both tests. Heart rate and skip temperature were continuously recorded, using a heart rate recording system and a real time infrared thermographic unit, respecti¬vely. Venous blood was sampled before and 2 min after the completion of the test for hematological and biochemical analysis, namely plasma lactate (LA), beta-endorphins, cortisol (Cor). Running in HHC induced a significant decrease in peak VE, VO2, VCO2 and oxygen pulse, while RQ remained unchanged and PAC02 increased. The changes in skin temperature (ST), i.e. the difference between ST at rest and at 10 m/sec, was dramatically higher in HHC. As well, the test-induced changes, i.e. the differences between the values before and after the test, in Cor, beta-endorphins and LA values after the test were significantly higher. This study shows that performing a strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions in unacclimatized horses induced a reduction of the aerobic capacity, i.e. decrease of the VO2 and increase of LA production. A relative hypoventilation could be partly responsible for this observation, but all the steps of the oxygen transport from the pulmonary ventilation to the muscle metabolism could also potentially be impaired in such conditions [less ▲]

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See detailReactivación de las negociaciones Euro-Mercosur bajo el temor del ‘síndrome mejicano’?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Revista de Derecho Internacional y del Mercosur (2002), 1

L'UE agit semble avoir une stratégie réactive sur la scène internationale. La mise en place de l'ALENA a eu un effet de commerce important au détriment de l'UE mais au profit des Etats-Unis. Cette ... [more ▼]

L'UE agit semble avoir une stratégie réactive sur la scène internationale. La mise en place de l'ALENA a eu un effet de commerce important au détriment de l'UE mais au profit des Etats-Unis. Cette conséquence négative a poussé les instances européennes à négocier et conclure rapidement l'accord global avec le Mexique. La même situation semble se produire dans les relations avec le Mercosur. [less ▲]

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See detailReactivation of HIV-1 after an oxidative stress
Piette, Jacques ULg; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine (1990), 9(Suppl. A), 5

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See detailReactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by transport.
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Saliki, J.; Bublot, M. et al

in Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (1987), 10(1), 59-63

Transport was studied as a cause of reactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (Bovine herpesvirus-1; BHV-1) in heifers vaccinated 2-6 months before transport, using a double dose of the ... [more ▼]

Transport was studied as a cause of reactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (Bovine herpesvirus-1; BHV-1) in heifers vaccinated 2-6 months before transport, using a double dose of the thermosensitive (ts) vaccine strain (Tracherine). Eight out of 19 animals showed ts strain re-excretion over a period of 1-3 days, beginning, in 5 out of the 8 heifers, the day after transport. In 14 other heifers, only sera were examined by sero-neutralisation: only 1 out of these 14 animals showed a rise in BHV-1 neutralising antibodies. Transport can therefore be considered as a stimulus of BHV-1 reactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive Attachment Disorder and socio-emotional development in childhood: Clinical review.
Wertz, Céline ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

Poster (2011, May 27)

The quality of interactions experienced with primary attachment figures influence the development of emotional skills. On the other hand, we know how emotions fill a critical adaptive role for the social ... [more ▼]

The quality of interactions experienced with primary attachment figures influence the development of emotional skills. On the other hand, we know how emotions fill a critical adaptive role for the social adjustment, in that they assume both a communicative function and an informative value. In this research, we were particularly interested in how children’s patterns of attachment were expressed in terms of emotional regulation abilities. According to Laible & Thompson’s observations (1998), we tested the following hypothesis: insecure attachment representations are associated with a poverty of skills in decoding emotional signals. They especially would affect the perception of negative emotional expressions. We tested this hypothesis by the meeting of five children of primary school age (5 to 8 years old) with a reactive attachment disorder and through the establishment of two methodological tools. At first, the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton et al., 1990) allowed us to identify attachment representations for each child. Secondly, inspired by Pollak & al.’s study, we developed a recognition task of facial emotional expressions. We observed in these children low average rates of identification of basic and primary emotions. Especially, the accuracy of judgments was not only a function of emotion’s valence, but was also dependant of the child’s attachment pattern. Finally, this research confirmed the observations, already showed in previous studies, that interpersonal difficulties presented by these children could be explained specifically by their inefficiency in interpreting social cues surrounding emotional events (Crick & Dodge, 1994). [less ▲]

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See detailReactive blending of functional PS and PMMA: interfacial behavior of in situ formed graft copolymers
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(15), 5132-5139

ω-Isocyanate PMMA, α-anhydride PMMA, and PS-co-PSNH2 have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with controlled molecular weights (104 and 3.5 × 104) and low polydispersity (1.2 ... [more ▼]

ω-Isocyanate PMMA, α-anhydride PMMA, and PS-co-PSNH2 have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with controlled molecular weights (104 and 3.5 × 104) and low polydispersity (1.2). They have been used as precursors of PS-g-PMMA copolymers and let to react in the melt (170 °C, for 10 min) under moderate shear rate. The well-controlled molecular characteristics of these precursors are a substantial advantage to study the effect of the kinetics of the interfacial reaction on the phase morphology. When the grafting reaction is fast (NH2/anhydride pair) and low molecular weight chains are used, the interfacial reaction is quasi-complete and a nanophase morphology is observed, whereas limited reaction and formation of microphases are observed in all the other cases. A high reaction yield requires not only that the functional groups are highly mutually reactive but also that the interface is anytime made available to the functional polymers for the reaction to progress. Then, a nanophase morphology may be observed, which is that of the copolymer formed by the interfacial reaction. A low reaction yield is dictated by either a slow interfacial reaction or a slow diffusion of the copolymer away from the interface. In the latter case, the phases formed by the unreacted precursors are stabilized by the copolymer which resides at the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of PC/PVDF polymer blends by zinc carboxylate containing poly(methylmethacrylate)ionomers
Moussaif, Noureddine; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2000), 41(15), 5551-5562

Polycarbonate (PC) has been reacted with a random copolymer of methylmethacrylate and 6 mol% of acrylic acid (poly(MMA-co-AA)) and with this copolymer neutralized (totally or not) by Zn cations. When ... [more ▼]

Polycarbonate (PC) has been reacted with a random copolymer of methylmethacrylate and 6 mol% of acrylic acid (poly(MMA-co-AA)) and with this copolymer neutralized (totally or not) by Zn cations. When conducted in solution at 240°C, the reaction leads to the grafting of PC onto the copolymer neutralized or not. In the melt at 235°C, the grafting reaction occurs only when the copolymer is at least partly neutralized. Whatever the experimental conditions (solution or bulk), PMMA does not react with PC, which confirms that the acidolysis of PC is at the origin of the grafting reaction. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PC have been melt blended at 235°C in the presence of the poly(MMA-co-AA) copolymer totally neutralized or not by Zn cations, the purpose being the reactive formation of PMMA-g-PC copolymer that would act as compatibilizer for the PC/PVDF blend. The phase morphology and the mechanical properties of the compatibilized PC/PVDF blends have been compared with the parent non-reactive polyblends. Compared to the modification of PVDF by 20 wt% of PMMA, the use of 20 wt% of the partly neutralized poly(MMA-co-AA) copolymer decreases further the average size of the dispersed phase, enhances its adhesion to the matrix, and results in a considerable increase of the elongation at break. The beneficial effect of zinc carboxylate in the PMMA copolymer is explained by the grafting of PC onto PMMA at the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends. 1. Dependence of the phase morphology development on the reaction kinetics
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Koning, Cor; Leemans, Luc et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(17), 6275-6283

SAN containing 20 wt % of reactive SAN-X has been melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt % of EP chains grafted by maleic anhydride (EP-g-MA). Two types of reactive groups (X) have been attached to SAN ... [more ▼]

SAN containing 20 wt % of reactive SAN-X has been melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt % of EP chains grafted by maleic anhydride (EP-g-MA). Two types of reactive groups (X) have been attached to SAN (2 mol % of X), i.e., a primary amine and a precursor of it at the processing temperature, i.e., a carbamate. The SAN/rubber weight composition was kept constant at 75/25. The development of the phase morphology from pellet-sized rubber particles to dispersed submicrometer droplets has been investigated during reactive mixing for the two types of reactive SAN and has been found to depend on the interpolymer reaction rate and thus on the relative reactivity of the amine and the carbamate groups attached to SAN toward the maleic anhydride function of EP. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends. 2. Effect of type and content of reactive groups randomly attached to SAN
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(4), 965-975

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the ... [more ▼]

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase, while keeping constant the overall SAN/EPR composition, i.e., 75/25 w/w. For this purpose, reactive SAN chains containing 0.004, 0.028, 0.049, and 0.078 mol/wt % of either primary amine or carbamate (an amine precursor) have been synthesized, and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase has been changed from 2.5 to 73.33 wt %. It appears that the number and type of reactive groups attached onto SAN affect not only the extent of the compatibilization reaction but also the compatibilization capability of the in situ formed graft copolymer in a strong dependence on molecular weight and molecular architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends: Effect of kinetics of the compatibilization reaction on the interfacial adhesion
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 149

The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of ... [more ▼]

The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of SAN bearing groups reactive toward maleic anhydride. The rate of the interfacial reaction, which is controlled by the reactive groups attached to SAN (amine vs. carbamate) and by the method used to build up the sandwich assembly, has a decisive effect on the capability of the SAN-g-PP graft copolymer formed at the interface to improve the fracture toughness in direct dependence on its molecular architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends: Effect of rubber content and reactivity of the SAN functional groups
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Martin, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2000), 201(16), 2181-2194

SAN containing 20 wt.-% reactive SAN-X was melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt.-% maleic anhydride EPR grafted chains (EP-g-MA). The rubber content was changed from 15 to 80 wt.-%, and 2 types of ... [more ▼]

SAN containing 20 wt.-% reactive SAN-X was melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt.-% maleic anhydride EPR grafted chains (EP-g-MA). The rubber content was changed from 15 to 80 wt.-%, and 2 types of reactive groups (X) were attached to SAN (0.028 mol X/ wt.-%), i. e. primary amines and carbamates which are primary amine precursors at the processing temperature. Phase morphology, tensile properties and impact strength depend not only on the rubber content but also on the relative reactivity of the amine and the carbamate groups towards maleic anhydride, in a strong dependence on the reaction rate and the reaction completeness. The dispersion mechanism has been discussed, including formation of sub-inclusions. Dependence of the impact resistance on the rubber phase content for non-reactive blends (□) and blends modified by SAN-NH2 (;) and SAN-carb (o), respectively. [less ▲]

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