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See detailA rare-event approach to build security analysis tools when N-k (k > 1) analyses are needed (as they are in large-scale power systems)
Belmudes, Florence ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech (2009)

We consider the problem of performing N − k security analyses in large scale power systems. In such a context, the number of potentially dangerous N − k contingencies may become rapidly very large when k ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of performing N − k security analyses in large scale power systems. In such a context, the number of potentially dangerous N − k contingencies may become rapidly very large when k grows, and so running a security analysis for each one of them is often intractable. We assume in this paper that the number of dangerous N − k contingencies is very small with respect to the number of non-dangerous ones. Under this assumption, we suggest to use importance sampling techniques for identifying rare events in combinatorial search spaces. With such techniques, it is possible to identify dangerous contingencies by running security analyses for only a small number of events. A procedure relying on these techniques is proposed in this work for steady-state security analyses. This procedure has been evaluated on the IEEE 118 bus test system. The results show that it is indeed able to efficiently identify among a large set of contingencies some of the rare ones which are dangerous. [less ▲]

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See detailRash de l'ifluenza A H1N1.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2012), 67

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See detailUn rassemblement qui divise : de Gaulle vu de Belgique francophone au temps du RPF
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2007, December 04)

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See detailRat Chromosome 5 (Q22-23) Contains Elements That Control Cell Morphology and Interactions with the Extracellular Matrix: A Study of Normal Fibroblast X Malignant Hepatoma Cell Hybrids
Lewalle, J. M.; Szpirer, C.; Szpirer, J. et al

in Experimental Cell Research (1991), 196(2), 164-71

Cell interactions with the extracellular matrix are consistently modified in neoplasia. Malignant transformation has been correlated with modifications in the synthesis and distribution of matrix ... [more ▼]

Cell interactions with the extracellular matrix are consistently modified in neoplasia. Malignant transformation has been correlated with modifications in the synthesis and distribution of matrix components and with alterations of cell adhesive properties to these components. A particular class of genes, able to suppress the transformed phenotype in normal cells, may be involved in those phenotypic changes. By studying somatic cell hybrids between mouse hepatoma (BWTG3) cells and normal rat skin fibroblasts (RSF), Islam and co-workers were able to localize a gene or a group of genes controlling anchorage dependence and cell growth in vitro. This (or these) gene(s) was (were) assigned to the q22-23 fragment of rat chromosome 5. In the present study, we compare the morphology and the interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins (laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV) and the synthesis of these proteins by RSF X BWTG3 hybrid cells that had either retained (BS181p10) or lost (BS181a5) the q22-23 region of rat chromosome 5. Our results suggest that the rat 5q22-23 fragment controls a part of the cell differentiation program including morphology, attachment to extracellular matrix, and synthesis of some matrix proteins, particularly alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen IV. [less ▲]

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See detailRat embryo fibroblasts immortalization by bovine leukemia virus Tax protein
Willems, Luc ULg; Heremans, H.; Burny, A. et al

in Methods in Cell Science : An Official Journal of the Society for in Vitro Biology (1995)

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See detailRat Gap Junction Connexin-30 Inhibits Proliferation of Glioma Cell Lines
Princen, Frederic; Robe, Pierre ULg; Gros, D. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2001), 22(3), 507-13

Connexins, the structural components of gap junctions, control cell growth and differentiation and are believed to belong to a family of tumour suppressor genes. Studies on connexin localization in brain ... [more ▼]

Connexins, the structural components of gap junctions, control cell growth and differentiation and are believed to belong to a family of tumour suppressor genes. Studies on connexin localization in brain showed that several of these proteins were expressed in distinct compartments of the brain in a cell-type specific manner, indicating that different gap junctions play specific roles in the physiology of the mammalian brain. In this report, we first cloned rat connexin-30 cDNA from brain and showed that it was expressed in long-term primary culture of rat astrocytes. In order to examine the potential role of connexin-30 in tumour cell proliferation, we transfected the connexin-30 cDNA into two rat glioma cell lines (9L and C6) which have lost its expression. Transfected clones adequately expressed membrane-bound connexin-30 protein. Connexin-30-expressing clones showed slower growth, lower DNA synthesis and reduced proliferation in soft agar as compared with the parental and control cells. We concluded that connexin-30 may also probably be considered as a tumour suppressor in rat gliomas. [less ▲]

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See detailRat heart-aorta cluster transplantation : a novel model to study transplant rejection
D'Silva, Milbhor; Candidas, D.; Lee, S. et al

in Transplant International (1995), (8), 298-306

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See detailLe ratage sans gloire. A propos des Martyrs ridicules de Léon Cladel
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Glinoer, Anthony; Brissette, Pascal (Eds.) Bohème sans frontière (2010)

Extrait de l'introduction au volume collectif Bohème sans frontière (P. Brissette et A. Glinoer) : « Les Martyrs ridicules qu'étudie ici Pascal Durand vise l'ensemble des clichés et stéréotypes du mythe ... [more ▼]

Extrait de l'introduction au volume collectif Bohème sans frontière (P. Brissette et A. Glinoer) : « Les Martyrs ridicules qu'étudie ici Pascal Durand vise l'ensemble des clichés et stéréotypes du mythe [de la bohème] à travers l'histoire d'un provincial monté à Paris, histoire des déboires et de la perte des illusions littéraires non compensées, chez le protagoniste, par les succès momentané dont jouit un Lucien de Rubempré au milieu d'Illusions perdues. Durand interroge les motivations qui ont pu conduire le jeune Cladel à entrer en littérature par cette œuvre anti-bohème, et son préfacier, Baudelaire, à coopter son cadet et son geste irrévérencieux l'année où il entre lui-même, avec quelle ironie, dans la lice académique et brigue le siège de Lacordaire » (p. 14-15). [less ▲]

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See detailRate and nature of false positives in the CoRoT exoplanet search
Almenara, J. M.; Deeg, H. J.; Aigrain, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 506

Context: The CoRoT satellite searches for planets by applying the transit method, monitoring up to 12 000 stars in the galactic plane for 150 days in each observing run. This search is contaminated by a ... [more ▼]

Context: The CoRoT satellite searches for planets by applying the transit method, monitoring up to 12 000 stars in the galactic plane for 150 days in each observing run. This search is contaminated by a large fraction of false positives, caused by different eclipsing binary configurations that might be confused with a transiting planet. <BR />Aims: We evaluate the rates and nature of false positives in the CoRoT exoplanets search and compare our results with semiempirical predictions. <BR />Methods: We consider the detected binary and planet candidates in the first three extended CoRoT runs, and classify the results of the follow-up observations completed to verify their planetary nature. We group the follow-up results into undiluted binaries, diluted binaries, and planets and compare their abundances with predictions from the literature. <BR />Results: 83% of the initial detections are classified as false positives using only the CoRoT light-curves, the remaining 17% require follow-up observations. Finally, 12% of the candidates in the follow-up program are planets. The shape of the overall distribution of the false positive rate follows previous predictions, except for candidates with transit depths below about 0.4%. For candidates with transit depths in the range from 0.1-0.4%, CoRoT detections are nearly complete, and this difference from predictions is probably real and dominated by a lower than expected abundance of diluted eclipsing binaries. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil , ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailRate coefficient determination in charge transfer reactions
Vaeck, Nathalie; Baloïtcha, Ezinvy; Desouter, Michèle ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2002), 3

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See detailRate of Malignancies and Infections in a Large Single Center Cohort of IBD Patients Treated With Thiopurines and Anti-TNF-Antibodies.
Ochsenkühn, T; Steinborn, A; Beigel, F et al

in Gut (2011, October)

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See detailRate of Malignancies and Infections in a Large Single Center Cohort of IBD Patients Treated With Thiopurines and Anti-TNF-Antibodies.
Ochsenkühn, T; Steinborn, A; Beigel, F et al

in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2011, May)

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See detailRate of Malignancies and Infections in a Large Single Center Cohort of IBD Patients Treated With Thiopurines and Anti-TNF-Antibodies.
Ochsenkühn, T; Steinborn, A; Beigel, F et al

in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis (2011)

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See detailRate of recycling of dietary nitrogen in the digestive secretions of the pig.
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg; Monmart, Thierry et al

in Protein metabolism and nutrition. Proceedings 7th International Symposium, Vale de Santarem, Portugal, 24-27 May 1995. (1995)

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See detailA rate type constitutive law including explicit localisation: development and implementation in a finite element code
Chambon, René; Charlier, Robert ULg; Desrues, Jacques et al

in 2nd European Specialty Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering (1990, September)

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See detailRates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change
Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, Louis ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2013), 10

Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the ... [more ▼]

Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH), we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite – which consumes most of the CO2 – decreases in both end members (south and north) of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north–south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower lysocline expected in the oceans with increasing atmospheric CO2, we predict a deeper lysocline in future soils. Furthermore, in the central Mississippi Valley, soil lysocline deepening accelerates but in the south and north the deepening rate slows. This result illustrates the complex behavior of carbonate weathering facing short term global climate change. Predicting the global response of terrestrial weathering to increased atmospheric CO2 and temperature in the future will mostly depend upon our ability to make precise assessments of which areas of the globe increase or decrease in precipitation and soil drainage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ratio Bias Phenomenon : Fact or Artifact ?
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Villeval, Marie-Claire; Vieider, Ferdinand

E-print/Working paper (2009)

The ratio bias – according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small ... [more ▼]

The ratio bias – according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small numbers – has recently gained momentum, with researchers especially in health economics emphasizing the policy importance of the phenomenon. Although the bias has been replicated several times, some doubts remain about its economic significance. Our two experiments show that the bias disappears once order effects are excluded, and once salient and dominant incentives are provided. This holds true for both choice and valuation tasks. Also, adding context to the decision problem does not change this outcome. No ratio bias could be found in between-subject tests either, which leads us to the conclusion that the policy relevance of the phenomenon is doubtful at best. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ratio bias phenomenon: fact or artifact?
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieder, Ferdinand; Villeval, MArie-Claire

in Theory and Decision (2011), 71(4), 615-641

The ratio bias—according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small ... [more ▼]

The ratio bias—according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small numbers—has recently gained momentum, with researchers especially in health economics emphasizing the policy importance of the phenomenon. Although the bias has been replicated several times, some doubts remain about its economic significance. Our two experiments show that the bias disappears once order effects are excluded, and once salient and dominant incentives are provided. This holds true for both choice and valuation tasks. Also, adding context to the decision problem does not alter this finding. No ratio bias could be found in between-subject tests either, which leads us to the conclusion that the policy relevance of the phenomenon is doubtful at best. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg)