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See detailProduct policy in the context of the indoor environmental quality
Spruyt, Maarten; Kuske, Martyna; Goelen, Eddy et al

Report (2006)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailProduct Specialization, Efficiency and Productivity Change in the Spanish Insurance Industry
Fuentes, Hugo; Griffel-Tatjé, Emili; Perelman, Sergio ULg

Report (2005)

In this paper we analyze the levels of technical efficiency and productivity growth attained by Spanish insurance companies during a period of deregulation. We compute Malmquist productivity indexes using ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyze the levels of technical efficiency and productivity growth attained by Spanish insurance companies during a period of deregulation. We compute Malmquist productivity indexes using the estimates of parametric distance function for several specialized insurance branches. In this way, we show that branch specialization matters a great deal and that firms combining two or three product lines (Health, Property-Liabilities and Life) perform better than firms operating in one insurance line exclusively. In the light of these results, we recommend that the remaining restrictions coming from the European Third Directives on the operations of multi-branch firms should be removed. Moreover, from a management point of view, it would be appropriate to encourage the creation of multi-branch insurance firms. However, in all cases, the estimated scores indicate low productivity growth (less than 2% per year) compared with a huge increase in insurance activity (premiums were multiplied by nearly 3 in a decade) [less ▲]

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See detail« Product-oriented engineering » applied to the development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.
de Bien, Charlotte ULg; Ounally, Thameur; Collard, Valérie ULg et al

Poster (2013, November 15)

Ce travail vise à appliquer une approche « génie-orienté produit » à la fabrication de matrices poreuses synthétiques (scaffolds) susceptibles d’être utilisées en ingénierie tissulaire [1]. Parmi les ... [more ▼]

Ce travail vise à appliquer une approche « génie-orienté produit » à la fabrication de matrices poreuses synthétiques (scaffolds) susceptibles d’être utilisées en ingénierie tissulaire [1]. Parmi les différents polymères biosourcés et biodégradables déjà utilisés pour la fabrication de scaffolds, l’acide polylactique (PLA) a été choisi [2]. Des matrices poreuses ont été obtenues par un procédé de moussage par lyophilisation puis leur microstructure 2D/3D a été caractérisée par microtomographie à rayons X avant d’être mise en lien avec les conditions d’élaboration testées [3]. La diminution de la porosité ainsi que l’augmentation de l’épaisseur des parois avec l’augmentation de rapport polymère/solvant ont été confirmées. [less ▲]

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See detail"Product-oriented engineering" applied to the development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.
de Bien, Charlotte ULg; Ounally, Thameur ULg; Collard, Valérie ULg et al

in Procedia Engineering (2013, September 02)

This work applies a “product-oriented engineering” approach to the development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Polylactic acid scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying process. Their 2D/3D ... [more ▼]

This work applies a “product-oriented engineering” approach to the development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Polylactic acid scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying process. Their 2D/3D microstructure was characterized by X-ray microtomography and related to the operating conditions used. Two types of scaffold end-use properties were characterized in relation to their microstructure: the mechanical and the transport properties. Scaffold young's modulus was computed from data measured on tension-compression devices. To evaluate the permeability, Darcy’s experiments were carried out. The obtained results allowed highlighting the quantitative relationships existing between elaboration conditions, microstructure and end use properties of the fabricated PLA scaffolds. [less ▲]

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See detailLa production agricole et les méthodes de production
Burny, Philippe ULg; Ledent, Albert

in Association belge d'Economie Rurale (Ed.) Livre commémoratif 1979-1989 (1989)

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See detailProduction and activation of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) by HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells
Devy, L.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Baramova, E. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1997), 238

Human promyelocytic HL-60 cells have been used as a model of acute leukemia to investigate the expression and the regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), known to contribute to the degradation of ... [more ▼]

Human promyelocytic HL-60 cells have been used as a model of acute leukemia to investigate the expression and the regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), known to contribute to the degradation of extracellular matrix components. As shown by gelatin zymography, HL-60 cells constitutively released significant amounts of proMMP-9 (92 kDa) and moderate amounts of proMMP-2 (72 kDa). Furthermore, casein zymography confirmed the presence of serine proteases in the form of pro-urokinase. Activation of proMMP-9 was dependent on the plasminogen activator/plasmin (PA/plasmin) system and was inhibited by aprotinin. MMP-9 was only detected in cellular extracts or conditioned media incubated with HL-60 cells, indicating that cells are essential to the activation process. Addition of plasminogen increased by 3-fold the basal invasive rate of these cells across a matrigel layer (2.1%versus0.7% in control cells after 4 h of incubation). Taken together, these results indicate that HL-60 cells exhibit an autocrine activation mechanism of proMMP-9 via the PA/plasmin system and that activation of proMMP-9 increases their invasive potential [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and characterization of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against Scd14
Halleux, Caroline; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Thewis, André ULg et al

Poster (2006, May 17)

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See detailProduction and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Bovid Herpesvirus-4
Dubuisson, J.; Thiry, Etienne ULg; Bublot, M. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1989), 19(4), 305-15

Thirty-five hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against bovid herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) strain V. Test were produced. These hybrid cells resulted from the fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells ... [more ▼]

Thirty-five hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against bovid herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) strain V. Test were produced. These hybrid cells resulted from the fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells with splenocytes of BALB/c mice previously immunized with purified BHV-4. A modified indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was applied as a screening procedure and was compared with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The selected Mabs were tested by the same IFAT against a panel of BHV-4 field isolates and against bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine herpesvirus-2 and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1). Comparison of BHV-4 field isolates with Mabs confirmed their close antigenic relationships, but slight antigenic differences were observed between different isolates. One of the Mabs also reacted against AHV-1, indicating an antigenic relationship between BHV-4 and AHV-1. None of the Mabs reacting with BHV-4 possessed neutralizing activity against the strain used for immunization. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and down-stream processing of an extracellular lipase from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Fickers, Patrick ULg; Ongena, MARC ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Enzyme & Microbial Technology (2006), 38(6), 756-759

Lipase constitutes an interesting class of enzyme with many biotechnological applications. However, the development of a fruitful process must be set up to obtained a product compatible with the ... [more ▼]

Lipase constitutes an interesting class of enzyme with many biotechnological applications. However, the development of a fruitful process must be set up to obtained a product compatible with the industrial and commercial needs. Here, we report the development of such a process for the extracellular lipase secreted by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The enzyme production, carried out in a 2000 L bioreactor, led to a lipase activity of approximately 1100 U mL(-1) after 53 h of fermentation. The post-culture treatment, consisting of a centrifugation, a filtration and an ultra-filtration steps, led to 15-fold volume reduction and a 8-fold increased of the lipase activity. Finally, addition of 12% of milk powder and 3% of gum arabic before spray-drying dehydration led to a stable powder with a lipolytic activity of 37,500 U g D.W.(-1). (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and freeze-drying of Lactococcus starters isolated from Tunisian Lben.
Hamdi, M.; Cornelius, C.; Achour, M. et al

Poster (1999, September)

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See detailProduction and freeze-drying of leben lactic starter
Ziadi, M.; Mhir, S.; Abdelsam, M. et al

in Research in Microbiology (2009), 4(1), 31-37

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See detailProduction and kinematics of sodium atoms in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp
Arpigny, Claude ULg; Rauer, H.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1998), 334(Letters), 53-56

High-resolution spectra of sodium D line emission in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, on 25-27 March and on 15-17 April, 1997. The observations have ... [more ▼]

High-resolution spectra of sodium D line emission in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, on 25-27 March and on 15-17 April, 1997. The observations have been used to measure the velocity of sodium atoms in the coma within 2 10(5) km from the nucleus. A comparison between the March and April data provides an illustration of the influence of the heliocentric radial velocity on the strength of the fluorescence (Swings effect), and on the velocity of Na atoms achieved by solar radiation pressure acceleration. Evidence for the presence of a distributed source in the coma is found from the relatively high tailward velocities on the sunward side of the coma, in addition to the sunward extent of sodium emission up to 1.4 10(5) km in April. Based on observations secured at OHP (France) [less ▲]

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See detailThe production and localization of laminin in cultured vascular and corneal endothelial cells.
Gospodarowicz, D.; Greenburg, G.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (1981), 107(2), 171-83

The production and localization of laminin, as a function of cell density (sparse versus confluent cultures) and growth stage (actively growing versus resting cultures), has been compared on the cell ... [more ▼]

The production and localization of laminin, as a function of cell density (sparse versus confluent cultures) and growth stage (actively growing versus resting cultures), has been compared on the cell surfaces of cultured vascular and corneal endothelial cells. Comparison of the abilities of the two types of cells to secrete laminin and fibronectin into their incubation medium reveals that vascular endothelial cells can secrete 20-fold as much laminin as can corneal endothelial cells. In contrast, both cell types produce comparable amounts of fibronectin. Furthermore, if one compares the secretion of laminin and fibronectin as a function of cell growth, it appears that the laminin released into the medium by either vascular or corneal endothelial cells, is a function of cell density and cell growth, since this release is most pronounced when the cells are sparse and actively growing, and decreases by 10- and 30-fold, respectively, when either vascular or corneal endothelial cell cultures become confluent. With regard to fibronectin secretion, no such variation can be seen with vascular endothelial cell cultures, regardless of whether they are sparse and actively growing or confluent and resting. Corneal endothelial cell cultures, demonstrated a twofold increase in fibronectin production when they were confluent and resting as compared to when they were sparse and actively growing. When the distribution of laminin versus fibronectin within the apical and basal cell surfaces of cultured corneal and vascular endothelial cells is compared, one can observe that unlike fibronectin, which in sparse and subconfluent cultures can be seen to be associated with both the apical and basal cell surfaces, laminin does not ever seem to be present on the apical cell surface. In confluent cultures, laminin can be found associated primarily with the extracellular matrix beneath the cell monolayer, where it codistributes with type IV collagen. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and marketing constraints of dairy farmers in Son La milk value chain, Vietnam
Nguyen Hung, Anh; Tran Huu, Cuong; Bui, Thi Nga ULg

in Greener Journal of Business and Management Business Studies (2013), 3(1), 31-37

Rural livelihood augmentation has long been a crucial challenge for the effectiveness of Vietnamese government policies in agricultural sector. Despite the amazing fact that farmers’ participation in the ... [more ▼]

Rural livelihood augmentation has long been a crucial challenge for the effectiveness of Vietnamese government policies in agricultural sector. Despite the amazing fact that farmers’ participation in the dairy value chain has promised the better outcome, there are still millions of rural farmer households struggling against the inefficient production and marketing, and decline with hope of improving their main source of income. Plus the extreme price volatility and the market power of downstream actors, rural dairy farmers with small-scale production have verged to the edge of selling up the whole supply chain. This paper attempted to analyze the production and marketing constraints faced by the local dairy farmers in the milk value chain of Northern mountainous Sonla provinces of Vietnam. The Pearson’s chi-square test was employed to assess the statistical significance of farmer’s responses across the study sites. The results of the study revealed farmers produce and different marketing different qualities of milk to two main buyers under the constraints of high input prices, feed scarcity, exploitation by downstream actors, capital investment inadequacy, inadequate poor market information and knowledge, lack of technical support from dairy manufacturer and local authority, land limit, and cow diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and oil-emulsion formulation of Cadophora malorum and Alternaria jacinthicola, two biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Dagno, Karim ULg; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2011), 5(8), 924-929

Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under <br />development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores ... [more ▼]

Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under <br />development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores of these agents on locally available substrates (Water Hyacinth, powdered paddy rice chaff, wheat semolina) was assessed with a view to mass production. The C. malorum isolate sporulated best on Water Hyacinth (4.08 × 107 spores ml-1), followed by wheat (1.06 ×107 spores ml-1), whereas A. jacinthicola produced more spores on paddy rice chaff and wheat (0.24 x 107 spores ml-1). The severity of the damage caused by each pathogen was evaluated in the greenhouse and in the field. Under both greenhouse and field conditions, the biocontrol efficacy of the fungal isolates was improved with (unrefined) Carapa procera (L.) oil or (refined) palm oil, supplemented with soybean lecithin and Tween 20. When such a formulation was used, the incubation time was 4 to 5 days in the greenhouse and 7 to 9 days on the field, and the damage severity (DS) recorded 6 weeks after treatment varied from 87.02 to 93.13% in the greenhouse and from 59.11 to 63.00% in the field. For unformulated C. malorum and A. jacinthicola respectively, the incubation times were longer and the DS values were only 22.11 and 29.05% in the greenhouse and 12.05 and 15.15% on the field. Our results highlight good substrates for mass production of these mycoherbicides and demonstrate the ability of vegetable oil formulations to improve their efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and partial characterization of chitinase from a halotolerant Planococcus rifitoensis strain M2-26
Essghaier, Badiaa; Rouaissi, Mustapha; Boudabous, Abdellatif et al

in World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2010), 26(6), 977-984

This paper is the first to investigate the production and partial characterization of the chitinase enzyme from a moderately halophilic bacterium Planococcus rifitoensis strain M2-26, earlier isolated ... [more ▼]

This paper is the first to investigate the production and partial characterization of the chitinase enzyme from a moderately halophilic bacterium Planococcus rifitoensis strain M2-26, earlier isolated from a shallow salt lake in Tunisia. The impact of salt, salinity concentration, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production and activity have been determined. This is the first report on a high salt-tolerant chitinase from P. rifitoensis, since it was active at high salinity (from 5 to 30% NaCl) as well as in the absence of salt. This enzyme showed optimal activity at 70 C and retained up to 82 and 66% of its original activity at 80 or 90 C, respectively. The activity of the enzyme was also shown over a wide pH range (from 5 to 11). For characterization of the enzyme activity, the chitinase secreted in the culture supernatant was partially purified. The preliminary study of the concentrated dialysed supernatant on native PAGE showed at least three chitinases produced by strain M2-26, with highest activity approximately at 65 kDa. Thus, the thermo-tolerant and high salt-tolerant chitinases produced by P. rifitoensis strain M2-26 could be useful for application in diverse areas such as biotechnology and agro-industry. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and processing of canna vermicelli in Hung Yen Province toward sustainable development
Le, Thi Long Vy ULg; Do Truong, Lam; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

in Hanoi University of Agriculture; Francophone Joint University Council (CIUF) (Eds.) Proceedings of Scientific Research Results - Institutional University Cooperation Program 2008-2012 (2013)

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See detailProduction and processing of canna vermicelli in Hung Yen province toward sustainable development
Le Thi Long, Vy; Do Truong, Lam; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Conference (2011)

Located in the Red River Delta region, Hung Yen province has 923000 ha of total land area, of which agricultural land area occupied 60.67%. The agricultural land area per labor is 0.1 ha. However, it has ... [more ▼]

Located in the Red River Delta region, Hung Yen province has 923000 ha of total land area, of which agricultural land area occupied 60.67%. The agricultural land area per labor is 0.1 ha. However, it has been annually decreasing due to the development of industrial zone, construction of urban zone, expansion of road… For these reasons, the stainable development for production and processing of agricultural products plays a very important role in job creation for farmers who loosed their own agricultural land, avoidance of quantity and quality loosing of raw agricultural products and increase in economic efficiency of agricultural production and processing. The production and processing of canna are traditional jobs of rural households in Hung Yen. They not only have been creating jobs for rural households but also increasing in their income. Beside the social and economic benefit created by these activities, the processing activity has caused many negative consequences. It led to environmental pollution due to its waste, overuse of chemical substances. Desiccated of vermicelli in bad condition resulted in the unsafe food. Therefore, this study is conducted to deeply investigate both positive effects and negative consequences created by production and processing of canna vermicelli in term of economic, social and environmental aspects. This study concentrates on the farm households; discuss advantages and disadvantages of production inputs, processing techniques and output market of their products from arrowroot to vermicelli; and find out solutions for the sustainable development for production and processing of vermicelli. [less ▲]

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