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See detailLes orientations stratégiques de la Coopération Universitaire au Développement
Marchal, Jean ULg

(2002, November 28)

Chargée, dès 1997, à préparer et à mettre en œuvre les responsabilités nouvelles des universités francophones de Belgique dans le cadre de la coopération universitaire au développement, la C.U.D. n’a ... [more ▼]

Chargée, dès 1997, à préparer et à mettre en œuvre les responsabilités nouvelles des universités francophones de Belgique dans le cadre de la coopération universitaire au développement, la C.U.D. n’a cessé d’identifier, de définir, d’adapter, d’affiner ses orientations stratégiques. Ce processus a été celui d’un apprentissage continu : de nombreuses évaluations internes à la C.U.D., et à ses groupes de travail, une concertation continue avec les autorités publiques, le relais des institutions universitaires du sud, ont permis à la C.U.D. de consolider, tout au long de l’actuel plan quinquennal 1998-2002, les orientations stratégiques qui guident ses programmes et qui constitueront la base des travaux du prochain plan quinquennal. Dans la présente contribution, sont décrites très brièvement les principales orientations stratégiques qui servent de lignes directrices à la C.U.D. [less ▲]

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See detailLes orifices branchiaux externes des Ascidiens et la formation du cloaque chez Phallusia scabroïdes, nov. Sp.
Van Beneden, Édouard ULg; Julin, Charles

in Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1884), 8(7), 631-646

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See detailThe origin and control of mega-gullies in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo)
Makanzu Imwangana, Fils; Vandecasteele, Ine; Trefois, Philippe et al

in Catena (2015), 125

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to illustrate the concepts behind mega-gully treatment. For this purpose, the diachronic distribution of mega-gullies has been mapped in Kinshasa. All mega-gullies have been reported in ArcGis 9.3 on the orthorectified SPOT 2007 image. A newly elaborated DEM enables the mega-gullies to be placed in their natural topographical context. The GIS inventory on the SPOT 2006/2007 anaglyph indicates the mega-gully situation in the high town of Kinshasa 5 years ago: 308 mega-gullies with a cumulated length of 94.7 km, a mean drainage density of 0.4 km km− 2 and an average width and depth of 17 m and 6 m respectively. On the WorldView 1 (WV1) coverage, the number of mega-gullies has more than doubled between 2007 and 2010 from 160 to 334. The study shows that mega-gullies only develop within the urbanized perimeter of the high town of Kinshasa and only 5 to 10 years after incipient urbanization. The study also indicates that neither the location, the plan form or the downslope course of mega-gullies in Kinshasa are controlled by the natural topography. Forty-three point eight percent of the mega-gullies in Kinshasa are ‘axial’, occupying urban structures which function as artificial runoff drainage lines: roads, tarred or not, with or without side-road trenches, gutters in all forms and materials from concrete to sand, also foot paths and further all artificial runoff drainage lines. The study reveals that every mega-gully is directly or indirectly induced by human activities, but that every gully also finally ends to grow after an initial phase of sudden development. Mega-gully treatment follows two principles, often combined. The first is to stop the alimentation of the mega-gully head with water. The second includes a complete stabilization of the channel and walls inside the mega-gully. This study emphasizes that gully prevention can basically be achieved by control of the runoff discharges in the artificial stream network, as well as beside the roads. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and distribution of Calvin cycle fructose and sedoheptulose bisphosphatases in Plantae and complex algae: A single secondary origin of complex red plastids and subsequent propagation via tertiary endosymbioses
Teich, René; Zauner, Stefan; Baurain, Denis ULg et al

in Protist (2007), 158(3), 263-276

Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) are essential nuclear-encoded enzymes involved in land plant Calvin cycle and gluconeogenesis. In this study, we cloned ... [more ▼]

Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) are essential nuclear-encoded enzymes involved in land plant Calvin cycle and gluconeogenesis. In this study, we cloned seven SBP and seven FBP cDNAs/genes and established sequences from all lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, in order to investigate their origin and evolution. Our data are best explained by a single recruitment of plastid-targeted SBP in Plantae after primary endosymbiosis and a further distribution to algae with complex plastids. While SBP is universally found in photosynthetic lineages, its presence in apicomplexa, ciliates, trypanosomes, and ascomycetes is surprising given that no metabolic function beyond the one in the plastid Calvin cycle is described so far. Sequences of haptophytes, cryptophytes, diatoms, and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (complex red lineage) strongly group together in the SBP tree and the same assemblage is recovered for plastid-targeted FBP sequences, although this is less supported. Both SBP and plastid-targeted FBP are most likely of red algal origin. Including phosphoribulokinase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a total of five independent plastid-related nuclear-encoded markers support a common origin of all complex rhodoplasts via a single secondary endosymbiosis event. However, plastid phylogenies are incongruent with those of the host cell, as illustrated by the cytosolic FBP isoenzyme. These results are discussed in the context of Cavalier-Smith's far-reaching chromalveolate hypothesis. In our opinion, a more plausible evolutionary scenario would be the establishment of a unique secondary rhodoplast and its subsequent spread via tertiary endosymbioses. (c) 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and early evolution of life
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailOrigin and evolution of Dorlodotia (Rugosa)
Denayer, Julien ULg; Poty, Edouard

in Kölner Forum für Geologie und Paläontologie (2011), 19

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See detailOrigin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 4

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two ... [more ▼]

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of monzonorites related to anorthosites
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen = Bulletin Suisse de Minéralogie et Pétrographie (1990), 70

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See detailOrigin and evolution of Precambrian Anorogenic Magmatism
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Martin, Hervé; Rämö, Tapani

in Precambrian Research (2003), 124(2-4), 105-344

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See detailOrigin and evolution of Proterozoic Anorogenic Magmatism
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Martin, Hervé; Rämö, Tapani

in Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Martin, Hervé; Rämö, Tapani (Eds.) Lithos (2003)

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See detailOrigin and evolution of Proterozoic Anorogenic Magmatism - Preface
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg

in Precambrian Research (2003), 124(2-4), 105-106

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See detailOrigin and evolution of SR proteins in Eukaryotes
Califice, Sophie ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg; Hanikenne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2009, February 05)

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See detailOrigin and evolution of the early land plants in Argentina and South America through the palynological record
Rubinstein, C.V.; Garcia Muro, V.J.; Steemans, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014)

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See detailORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE DISJUNCTION IN THE MOSS GENUS HOMALOTHECIUM (BRACHYTHECIACEAE)
Huttunen, Sanna; Hedenäs, Lars; Ignatov, Misha et al

in American Journal of Botany (2008)

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See detailOrigin and fate of the single island endemic moss Orthotrichum handiense
Patino Llorente, Jairo ULg; Medina, R; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2013), 40

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See detailOrigin and immunoescape of uterine cervical cancer
Van hede, Dorien ULg; Langers, Inge ULg; DELVENNE, Philippe ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2014)

Human papillomavirus associated uterine cervical cancer is an important public health problem since it is classified as the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with more than 500 000 recorded ... [more ▼]

Human papillomavirus associated uterine cervical cancer is an important public health problem since it is classified as the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with more than 500 000 recorded cases. This review is focused on where and why HPV infection induces cervical cancers and how this virus avoids the host immune response. Immunological therapeutic approaches are also addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and properties of the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface: a first-principles hybrid functional study.
Fontaine, Denis ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Complex oxides exhibit a wide range of physical properties making them very attractive for future electronic and device applications. Although more and more studied, additional scientific investigations ... [more ▼]

Complex oxides exhibit a wide range of physical properties making them very attractive for future electronic and device applications. Although more and more studied, additional scientific investigations are required, especially in oxide interfaces, where new and amazing phenomena can arise. A prototypical example is the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface that appear to be conducting, magnetic or even supra-conducting while these properties are not present in the LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 bulk insulator compounds. The conductivity arises from the formation of a highly localized electron gas at the interface which exhibits a different behavior than the one at semiconductor interfaces. Even nowadays, its exact origin, intrinsic versus extrinsic, is still intensively debated. The existence of an electric field in LaAlO3 used as a key feature of models based on an intrinsic origin is highly controversial. In these models, the closing of the band gap with increasing LaAlO3 film thicknesses finally results to a Zener breakdown and to the metal/insulator transition. In this Ph.D. thesis we aim to investigate the various consequences of the presence of an electric field in LaAlO3 through first-principles calculations in pristine LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces. First, using both experimental and theoretical structural distortions in LaAlO3, we predicted a lattice expansion via an electrostrictive effect, supporting the existence of an electric field in LaAlO3. Second, the metal/insulator transition was tuned with regards to the intensity of the electric field in the film, which was controlled by the composition of a solid solution between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The theoretical results match the experimental one where, nevertheless, extrinsic origin mechanisms are allowed and defects are present. These two works are in favors of an intrinsic origin of the electronic gas observed in LaAlO3-SrTiO3 heterostructures. In addition, a relationship between the sheet carrier density and spatial extension of the gas was established and thus setting an intrinsic threshold to the sheet carrier concentration. At lower density the electrons are strictly localized close to the interface while above this value the carriers start to spill into the SrTiO3 substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and Pulsation of Hot Subdwarfs
Randall, Suzanna K; Fontaine, Gilles; Charpinet, Stéphane et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union (2014, February), 301

We briefly introduce hot subdwarfs and their evolutionary status before discussing the different types of known pulsators in more detail. Currently, at least six apparently distinct types of variable are ... [more ▼]

We briefly introduce hot subdwarfs and their evolutionary status before discussing the different types of known pulsators in more detail. Currently, at least six apparently distinct types of variable are known among hot subdwarfs, encompassing p- as well as g-mode pulsators and objects in the Galactic field as well as in globular clusters. Most of the oscillations detected can be explained in terms of an iron opacity mechanism, and quantitative asteroseismology has been very successful for some of the pulsators. In addition to helping constrain possible evolutionary scenarios, studies focussing on stellar pulsations have also been used to infer planets and characterize the rotation of the host star. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and putative colonization routes for invasive rodent taxa in the democratic Republic of Congo
Kaleme, P. K.; Bates, J. M.; Belesi, H. K. et al

in African Zoology (2011), 46(1), 133-145

The threat posed by biological invasions is well established. An important consideration in preventing the spread of invasives and also subsequent introductions lies in understanding introduction pathways ... [more ▼]

The threat posed by biological invasions is well established. An important consideration in preventing the spread of invasives and also subsequent introductions lies in understanding introduction pathways. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) houses a large percentage of the world's biodiversity, yet no national strategy exists to deal with the growing number of invasive alien species. Amongst these are the house mouse and ship and Norwegian rats. By comparing our result to published data, we show that species were possibly introduced into the DRC via two routes. The first is via the western seaport at Kinshasa where specimens of M. m. domesticus and R. rattus on the western and northwestern side of the DRC show ties with European haplotypes. The second is via the east where specimens of R. rattus appear linked to Arab and southeast Asian haplotypes. Future work should consider more comprehensive sampling throughout the DRC to more accurately investigate the occurrence of invasive species throughout the country as well as extend sampling to other African countries. [less ▲]

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