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See detailMeasuring positive and negative aspects of well-being at work: Intern and extern validity of the PNOSI.
Barbier, Marie ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2009, May)

With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a new tool for measuring Positive and Negative Occupational Stress. Negative occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage but for which they doubt necessary resources are available. Positive occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage and for which they perceive necessary resources are available. Exploratory analyses (Barbier & Hansez, 2008) have identified a two-factor structure, one measuring Positive Occupational Stress (POSI) and the other measuring Negative Occupational Stress (NOSI). The following research has two goals: establishing PNOSI intern structure through a cross-validation strategy using calibration and validation samples (goal 1), and testing its convergent and discriminant validity (goal 2). As regards to goal 1, structural equation modelling using Lisrel 8.80 was performed on 2,713 data collected in a Belgian electricity company. Results show that the two-factor solution suits data best than an alternative one “wellbeing” factor solution. Moreover, eliminating two items leads to better fit. We then fitted this reduced two-factor structure on more than 15,000 data collected in six companies. Results show that the reduced two-factor solution should be preferred to the alternative one in all six samples. PNOSI intern structure is thus replicated. As regards to goal 2, we calculated correlations between NOSI and POSI scales, and constructs of burnout, engagement, workaholism and commitment. Data were collected in a Belgian public institution (N = 954). NOSI was moderately correlated to our burnout measure, and can thus be considered as a different, even if related, construct. POSI was highly correlated to our measure of engagement, challenging our hypothesis that the two are different constructs. Finally, NOSI was moderately and negatively correlated to commitment and positively correlated to workaholism, whereas the reverse was true for POSI. It seems thus that NOSI is distinct from burnout, workaholism and commitment, whereas POSI is distinct from workaholism and commitment. To conclude, we can say that PNOSI two-factor structure is established. NOSI shows convergent validity with the similar construct of burnout, but is distinct from it. Results are less clear concerning POSI and engagement. Finally, NOSI and POSI are differently related to constructs of commitment and workaholism; their discriminant validity is thus established. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring positive and negative occupational states (PNOSI) : Structural confirmation of a new Belgian tool
Barbier, Marie ULg; Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2009), 49(4), 227-247

This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined ... [more ▼]

This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants). The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, such as engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring poverty without the Mortality Paradox
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

in Social Choice and Welfare (2013), 40(1), 285-316

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the “true” poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the ... [more ▼]

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the “true” poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the Mortality Paradox: the worse the survival conditions of the poor are, the lower the measured poverty is. We examine several solutions to avoid that paradox. We identify conditions under which the extension, by means of a fictitious income, of lifetime income profiles of the prematurely dead neutralizes the noise due to differential mortality. Then, to account not only for the “missing” poor, but, also, for the “hidden” poverty (premature death), we use, as a fictitious income, the welfare-neutral income, making indifferent between life continuation and death. The robustness of poverty measures to the extension technique is illustrated with regional Belgian data. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring poverty without the mortality paradox
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the "true" poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the ... [more ▼]

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the "true" poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the Mortality Paradox: the worse the survival conditions of the poor are, the lower the measured poverty is. We examine several solutions to avoid that paradox. We identify conditions under which the extension, by means of a fictitious income, of lifetime income profiles of the prematurely dead neutralizes the noise due to differential mortality. Then, to account not only for the "missing" poor, but, also, for the "hidden" poverty (premature death), we use, as a fictitious income, the welfare-neutral income, making indifferent between life continuation and death. The robustness of poverty measures to the extension technique is illustrated with regional Belgian data. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring productive performance in the non-life insurance industry: the case of French and Belgian markets
Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg et al

in Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management (1995), (40), 47-69

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (11 ULg)
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See detailMeasuring Quantity-Quality Trade-Offs in Regulation: the Brazilian Freight Railways Case
Estache, Antonio; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Trujillo, Lourdes

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2007), 78(1), 1-20

The quantity vs. quality trade-offs in network industries are well known from the theoretical literature and have been the subject of many empirical assessments, although mostly for the telecoms and ... [more ▼]

The quantity vs. quality trade-offs in network industries are well known from the theoretical literature and have been the subject of many empirical assessments, although mostly for the telecoms and energy sectors. The purpose of this paper is to expand the evidence for the railway sector by documenting the importance of this trade-off in the context of the Brazilian freight railway industry reform, the first example of a railway sector in which tariff revisions are subject to joint output and quality performance indicators. The analysis is based on the calculation of the Malmquist productivity index proposed by Fare et al. (1995). The decomposable nature of this total factor productivity (TFP) index reveals the prevalence of quantity-quality trade-offs up to the end of the reform period, but a positive correlation between them during the period just afterwards. This type of information would certainly be useful for regulation purposes, particularly as an alternative way of taking into account quality without introducing complex, and very often ineffective, penalty schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability
Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from ... [more ▼]

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. <BR /> Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. <BR /> Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. <BR /> Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Social Economy in the Framework of the National Accounts
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Defourny, Jacques; Develtere, Patrick; Fonteneau, Bénédicte (Eds.) et al The Worldwide making of the social economy Innovations and changes (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULg)
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See detailMEASURING SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN CROPLANDS AT REGIONAL SCALE USING AIRBORNE IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY
Stevens, Antoine; Udelhoven, Thomas; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Geoderma (2010), 158

Conventional sampling techniques are often too expensive and time consuming to meet the amount of data required in soil monitoring or modelling studies. The emergence of portable and flexible ... [more ▼]

Conventional sampling techniques are often too expensive and time consuming to meet the amount of data required in soil monitoring or modelling studies. The emergence of portable and flexible spectrometers could provide the large amount of spatial data needed. In particular, the ability of airborne imaging spectroscopy to cover large surfaces in a single campaign and to study the spatial distribution of soil properties with a high spatial resolution represents an opportunity for improving the monitoring of soil characteristics and soil threats such as the decline of soil organic matter in the topsoil. However, airborne imaging spectroscopy has been generally applied over small areas with homogeneous soil types and surface conditions. Here, five hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS-160 sensor (430 nm–2540 nm) were analysed with the objective to map soil organic carbon (SOC) at a regional scale. The study area, covering a surface of ∼420 km2 and located in Luxembourg, is characterized by different soil types and a high variation in SOC contents. Reflectance data were related to surface SOC contents of bare croplands by means of 3 different multivariate calibration techniques: partial least square regression (PLSR), penalized-spline signal regression (PSR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR). The performance of these statistical tools was tested under different combinations of calibration/validation sets (global and local calibrations stratified according to agro-geological zones, soil type and image number). Under global calibration, the Root Mean Square Error in the Predictions reached 5.3–6.2 g C kg−1. Under local calibrations, this error was reduced by a factor up to 1.9. SOC maps of bare agricultural fields were produced using the best calibration model. Two map excerpts were shown, which display intra- and inter-field variability of SOC contents possibly related to topography and land management. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring some cognitive effects of using control technology, 'NATO Advanced Research Workshop', Liège, novembre 1992
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Denis, Brigitte (Ed.) Control technology in elementary education (1992)

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See detailMeasuring spore settling velocity for an improved assessment of dispersal rates in mosses
Zanatta, Florian ULg; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Patiño, Jairo et al

in Annals of Botany (2016)

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains ... [more ▼]

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains largely undocumented in bryophytes. The settling velocities of moss spores were measured and it was determined whether settling velocities can be derived from spore diameter using Stokes’ Law or if specific traits of spore ornamentation cause departures from theoretical expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Technical Efficiency in European Railways: A Panel Data Approach
Gathon, Henry-Jean ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Journal of Productivity Analysis (1992), 3

We estimate a factor requirement frontier for European railways using a panel data approach in which technical efficiency is assumed to be endogencously determined. This approach has two main outcomes. On ... [more ▼]

We estimate a factor requirement frontier for European railways using a panel data approach in which technical efficiency is assumed to be endogencously determined. This approach has two main outcomes. On one hand, it allows the identification of factors influencing technical efficiency, and on the other hand, it allows the estimation of alternative efficiency indicators free of these influences. In the case under study, a particular attention is devoted to an autonomy indicator representing the managerial freedom, with respect to public authorities, experienced by firms, that appears to be positively correlated with technical efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the body, measuring through the body
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a ... [more ▼]

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a complex technology, an apparatus for the users. A specific body is presented in this paper: the measured body. Trough racial anthropology, sport performances, demographic statistics, medical treatments, psycho-cognitive surveys, quantified self, or in many other contexts, human body is subject to a wide range of various measures. I would on my own propose some thoughts grounded on field exploration, concerning sensory analysis practices, in various laboratories. According to the symmetrical glaze STS have gave from the beginning to both human and non-humans, objects and subjects, the body is for a start itself one of the “stuffs” overlapping categories, blurring distinctions between things and persons, at the same a time a given and an object to perform. The measures of the body, and made with/through the body, highlight how it could be enacted, revealed, understood, improved by technology, especially when it requires some quantitative data. But it allows us also to grasp how the body is viewed simultaneously as a technological device and as the data origin, to intervene during complex practices (e.g. standardization, lab experiments, and marketing surveys). One of the numerous outcomes of such research could be the role of these bodily measurements in the definition of the actors, as well individuals than collectives. By the way it takes on a share on the network tying body to numerical data and to materiality-other-than-human, to measure the body/ through the body seems to afford socio-materiality in a particularly productive manner. Many scholars have inquired about numbers, how they could bring objectivity, how they produce confidence and security, and how finally they participate to black-box the measures themselves. Here, the aim is to understand the specificity of the body as measurement issue, being the interface of the-objects-to-be-measured and the instrument-of-measure. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Degree of Market Power in the Export Demand for Nigerian Cocoa: An Analysis of Dutch Market
Nwachukwu, I.N.; Onyenweaku, C. E.; Nwaru, J. C. et al

in Journal of Social and Development Sciences (2011), 2(3), 94-103

The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national ... [more ▼]

The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable sources. Two Stage Least Squares (2 SLS) approach was used in the estimation after instrumenting for simultaneity and establishing stationarity alongside cointegration relationship. Findings, on the demand side, showed that the demand for cocoa increases as income of Netherlands (importing country) increases. Total production of the non–participating countries traced out a positive relationship with demand for cocoa by the importing country while the coefficient of price of Coffee (substitute crop) possessed a negative sign. On the supply relation side, the demand for the export crop has a negative sign, indicating decreasing marginal output with respect to cost while the proxy for ocean freight rate with its negative sign, imply increasing export cost. The result further showed that there is relative competitiveness in the Dutch market on the strength of a market power coefficient -0.712 with a Lerner index of 0.122. Based on the findings, the study calls for government intervention in the agricultural export subsector with the aim to revitalize the country’s agricultural export capacity and enhance her market power via increased market shares. These interventions could be in the form of input/production subsidies, targeted export promotion programs, farm settlement, expanded export processing zones to mention but a few. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the economic relevance of the cultural and creative sector: An application to Belgium
Lowies, Jean-Gilles ULg; Lazzaro, Elisabetta

Conference (2015, June 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)