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See detailPregnancies, calves and calf viability after transfer of in vitro produced bovine embryos
Schmidt, T.; Greve, T.; Avery, B. et al

in Theriogenology (1996), 46(3), 527-539

Pregnancy, parturition and calf survival following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro were monitored. A total of 44 blastocysts was transferred in pairs to 1 uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy, parturition and calf survival following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro were monitored. A total of 44 blastocysts was transferred in pairs to 1 uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL) of 22 synchronized heifers. At Day 42 of development 14 recipients (64%) were pregnant; the calving rate was also 64%. The twinning rate was 9/14 at Day 42 and 7/14 at birth, for an overall fetal mortality rate of 9%. The average gestation length was 281 and 275 d for single and twin pregnancies, respectively. Blood samples from recipients were collected for determination of bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (bPAG) from 2 wk after transfer and throughout the pregnancy. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the bPAG concentration was significantly higher in twin than in single bearing heifers, and the perinatal increase in bPAG was correlated positively with the total weight of the fetus(es). The percentage of male calves was 43%. The birth weight of twin individuals was 25 ± 1 kg, which was 78% of the birthweight of the singletons (32 ± 2 kg). One singleton calf was oversized, weighing 58 kg (80% more than the median weight of the other singletons). Stillbirths occurred in 21% of the twins, butin none of the singletons. Calf mortality during the first 14 d was higher for twins (4/11) than for singletons (1/7) due to infections and cerebellar hypoplasia. Karyotyping the calves detected no cytogenetically recognizable abnormalities. All calves were negative for BVD virus and IBR antibodies. The results of this study showed that although the incidence of fetal loss was low, there was an unacceptable high perinatal mortality of the calves. Thus it is likely that the blood supply through the placenta of animals pregnant with twins was impaired or it is possible that these fetuses and calves had increased stress susceptibility caused by the in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the birth of 1 oversized calf, 2 calves with cerebellar hypoplasia and 5 calves succumbing to infections seems to indicate that a proportion of in vitro produced calves may suffer from factors inherent in the in vitro production system [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(4, Oct-Dec), 230-232

Overall, around 25% of women with inflammatory bowel disease will conceive during their disease. Most of the women with inflammatory bowel disease will have a normal pregnancy and healthy children ... [more ▼]

Overall, around 25% of women with inflammatory bowel disease will conceive during their disease. Most of the women with inflammatory bowel disease will have a normal pregnancy and healthy children. However, specific problems may arise related to these pregnancies. This paper reviews what is known on fertility, risk of disease transmission, effect of the disease on the pregnancy and the reverse, delivery, medical follow up and treatment as well as breastfeeding in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy and the immune system: between tolerance and rejection
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Heinen, Ernst ULg

in Toxicology (2003), 185(3), 179-184

Interactions between the conceptus and the mother are bi-directional: the feto-placental tissues need nutrition and a suitable environment in homeostatic condition whereas the mother influenced by the ... [more ▼]

Interactions between the conceptus and the mother are bi-directional: the feto-placental tissues need nutrition and a suitable environment in homeostatic condition whereas the mother influenced by the placental factors adapts her metabolism and immune system. Many different mechanisms acting locally or at distance ensure tolerance of the semi-allogeneic graft by the maternal natural and adaptive immune defences. In front of this tolerance, mechanisms exist ensuring rejection of the conceptus by the mother (spontaneous abortion) through rupture of one or more tolerance mechanisms, notably in stress situations endangering the mother. Thus outcome of a pregnancy is dependent on efficiently working tolerance mechanisms, and rupture of such mechanisms can lead to rejection. The balance of influence leading either to tolerance or rejection is under control of internal (maternal and fetal) and external (environmental) factors. Rejection, if triggered, mainly occurs through immune-induced inflammation, tissue degradation and coagulation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy associated glycoprotein-1,-6,-7, and-17 are major products of bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells at midpregnancy
Klisch, K.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2005), 71(4), 453-460

Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are extensively glycosylated secretory proteins of ruminant trophoblast cells. In cattle placenta several PAG cDNAs are expressed, but the variety of ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are extensively glycosylated secretory proteins of ruminant trophoblast cells. In cattle placenta several PAG cDNAs are expressed, but the variety of correspondent proteins and their degree of glycosylation are not well characterized. Thus, we purified PAGs by using a protocol which included a lectin (Vicia villosa agglutinin) affinity chromatography. Due to their specific glycosylation pattern, PAGs derived from binucleate trophoblast giant cells were highly enriched by this protocol. PAGs were purified from cotyledons of 2 day 100 placentas and from a single placenta at day 155 and 180. In all samples three major bands (75; 66; 56 kDa) were detected by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified the 75 kDa band as a mixture of PAG-7 and PAG-6, the 66 kDa band as PAG-1 and the 56 kDa band as PAG-17. N-terminal sequencing of the day 100 sample confirmed the mass spectrometric identifications. Enzymatic release of N-glycans with peptide-N-glycanase-F from PAGs reduced the molecular weight to approximately 37 kDa which corresponds to the theoretical molecular mass of PAGs. Limited peptide-N-glycanase-F treatment revealed that all four N-glycosylation sites are quantitatively occupied in PAG-1. Compared to PAG-1 the number of potential N-glycosylation sites is lower in PAG-17 (three sites) and higher in PAG-6 and -7 (five and six sites, respectively). This suggests that the number of attached N-glycans is the main determinant of molecular mass of bovine PAGs. The degree of glycosylation may be a major factor regulating the plasma half life of PAGs. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) in postpartum cows, ewes, goats and their offspring
Haugejorden, G.; Waage, S.; Dahl, E. et al

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(8), 1976-1984

Determination of plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) has been used for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows. However, this is complicated by the presence of PAG in plasma for an ... [more ▼]

Determination of plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) has been used for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows. However, this is complicated by the presence of PAG in plasma for an extended period postpartum. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the postpartum elimination rates of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) in sheep, goats and cows in order to gain background information applicable to the use of PAG for pregnancy diagnosis in domestic ruminants. A second objective was to investigate whether PAG are transferred to the foetus and newborn, by measuring plasma PAG concentrations in calves, lambs and goat kids before and after colostrum feeding. PAG in the blood at parturition were eliminated by a first order process in the cows and ewes, while a two-step log-linear decline occurred in the goats. Estimated postpartum half-life of plasma PAG in the cows and ewes was 9 and 4.5 days, respectively. In the goats, half-lives were 3.6 and 7.5 days in the initial fast and terminal slow phase. Basal levels were reached 80-90 days postpartum in cows. Plasma PAG concentration can be used for pregnancy diagnosis from day 28 after AI, provided that the time interval from calving to AI is > 60 days. Using a heterologous antibody RIA, we found 4 ng/mL to be the appropriate cut-off. Due to the presence of PAG residues from the previous gestation, the interval from AI to pregnancy diagnosis should increase by approximately 0.5 days beyond 28 days for each day of AI closer to calving than 60. Measurements in newborn ruminants suggested that PAG enter the foetal blood in utero and that colostral PAG are transferred to the newborn. Following the peak plasma concentration observed 1 day after birth in most of the animals, PAG were rapidly eliminated in a log-linear fashion. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy Associated Glycoproteins in Ruminants: Inactive Members of the Aspartic Proteinase Family
Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Garbayo, J. M. et al

in Acta Veterinaria Hungarica (1999), 47(4), 461-9

The Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) presented in this paper are largely expressed in the ruminant placenta. These proteins are classified as probably inactive members of the aspartic proteinase ... [more ▼]

The Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) presented in this paper are largely expressed in the ruminant placenta. These proteins are classified as probably inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. Pepsinogen, renin, cathepsin E [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy diagnosis in cattle by using a new ELISA for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein: preliminary results.
Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Colemonts, Y. et al

in Proceedings of the 6th European Congress of Bovine Health and Management (ECBHM) (2011, September 07)

In the present study we report the use of a new PAG-ELISA for routine pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. A total of 2777 samples were collected from pregnant or non-pregnant cows and assayed by both classical ... [more ▼]

In the present study we report the use of a new PAG-ELISA for routine pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. A total of 2777 samples were collected from pregnant or non-pregnant cows and assayed by both classical PAG RIA-497 method and newly developed PAG-ELISA (Ref. code E.G.7, CER, Maloie). Pregnancy status was determined on the basis of RIA results. Samples were assumed to be issued from pregnant cows when PAG concentrations were higher than 0.8 ng/mL. PAG concentrations <0.8 ng/mL were considered negative (non-pregnant). PAG concentrations between 0.8 and 1.0 ng/mL were considered doubtful. With regard to ELISA, concentrations below 0.6 were considered negative. Concentrations between 0.6 and 0.8 ng/mL were considered doubtful and finally concentrations under 0.8 ng/mL were assumed as positive. Sensitivity(Se), specificity(Sp) and predictive values (PV) of pregnancy diagnosis were determined. A total of 143(5.2%), 137(4.9%) and 38(1.4%) samples gave doubtful results by RIA, ELISA or both systems, respectively. These samples (318/2777=11.5%) were not used for estimation of Se, Sp, PPV and NPV because clinical confirmation of pregnancy diagnosis could not be established by an additional method (rectal palpation, ultrasound or calving). Taking into account the remaining samples (2459), Se, Sp, PPV and NPV obtained by ELISA were respectively 98.9%, 89.9%, 98.7% and 96.4%. In conclusion, PAG-ELISA can be successfully used for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. In the near future, further investigations are to be conducted in order to compare results obtained by ELISA test with those obtained by rectal palpation and ultrasound in field conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy diagnosis in ruminant species.
Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Szenci, O.; Taverne, M. A. M. et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2008), 43(Suppl 5), 104

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See detailPregnancy diagnosis in sheep by means of ultrasound and ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAGs)
Verberckmoes, S; Vandaele, L; De Cat, S et al

in Proceeding of pregnancy diagnosis in sheep by means of ultrasound and ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (2003, November 17)

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See detailPregnancy diagnosis in the mare by semi quantitative relaxin quick assay kit
Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; van de Weerdt, marie-Lys; Deleuze, Stefan ULg

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2008, July), 43(s3), 111

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See detailPregnancy in rabbits actively immunized against bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1
Banga-Mboko, Henri; Halloy, D.; Perenyi, Zsolt et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2003), 79(1), 226-227

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See detailPregnancy incidence in Norwegian red cows using nonreturn to estrus, rectal palpation, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, and progesterone.
Garmo, R. T.; Refsdal, A. O.; Karlberg, K. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2008), 91(8), 3025-3033

The objectives of the study were to estimate pregnancy incidence and calving rate after first artificial insemination (AI) in Norwegian Red cows undergoing spontaneous estrus, to assess the relationship ... [more ▼]

The objectives of the study were to estimate pregnancy incidence and calving rate after first artificial insemination (AI) in Norwegian Red cows undergoing spontaneous estrus, to assess the relationship between pregnancy and management factors at herd or cow level, to evaluate differences between 60-d nonreturn rate (NRR60d) and pregnancy incidence, and to compare the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) analysis supported by progesterone measurements. In total, 829 animals (n = 229 heifers, 234 first-lactation, 173 second-lactation, and 193 >second-lactation cows) were included. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were collected both at AI and 3 wk later. Cows with progesterone concentrations <3 ng/mL at AI were considered in estrus or having nonactive ovaries, whereas cows with progesterone concentrations >7 ng/ mL 3 wk later were considered pregnant. Blood sampling for PAG analysis and pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation were conducted 57.6 +/- 0.92 d after AI. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations equal to 2.5 ng/mL gave the greatest sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (94.6%) in the assessment of pregnancy. The number of days from calving to first AI was 85.3 +/- 1.71. Overall NRR60d after first AI was 72.5%. The corresponding values for heifers, first-lactation, second-lactation, and >second-lactation cows were 76.9, 67.1, 69.9, and 76.2%. Overall pregnancy incidence after first AI was 63.7%. The corresponding values for heifers, first-lactation, second-lactation, and >second-lactation cows were 70.0, 58.2, 61.6, and 64.9%. Overall calving rate to first AI was 57.2%. The corresponding values for heifers, first-lactation, second-lactation, and >second-lactation cows were 64.9, 54.3, 54.7, and 53.9%. The overall difference between NRR60d and pregnancy incidence was 8.8%, whereas the parity-specific differences were 6.9, 8.9, 8.3, and 11.3% for heifers, first-lactation, second-lactation, and >second-lactation cows, respectively. Eight animals with PAG <2.5 ng/mL and classified as pregnant by rectal palpation calved, whereas 5 animals with PAG >or=2.5 ng/mL and classified as non-pregnant by rectal palpation also calved. The study showed that Norwegian Red cows have relatively high reproductive performance. Breeding for fertility traits over 35 yr is probably an important reason for such high fertility. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy induced hypertension. Principles of management
Brichant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2004, June)

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See detailPregnancy patterns during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows treated with GnRH or progesterone.
Bech-Sabat, G.; Lopez-Gatius, F.; Garcia-Ispierto, I. et al

in Theriogenology (2009), 71

In order to explore pregnancy patterns in high producing dairy cows treated with GnRH or progesterone at pregnancy diagnosis (Days 28-34), two consecutive experiments were designed. In Experiment 1, cows ... [more ▼]

In order to explore pregnancy patterns in high producing dairy cows treated with GnRH or progesterone at pregnancy diagnosis (Days 28-34), two consecutive experiments were designed. In Experiment 1, cows bearing a single embryo were randomly assigned to a PRID (n=40; cows fitted with a progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device for 28 days), GnRH (n=40; cows receiving GnRH) or Control (n=26; untreated cows) group. PRID treatment led to a rise in plasma progesterone concentrations in the 7 days following the onset of treatment compared to the other two groups. In Experiment 2, in which we also examined twin pregnancies, animals were randomly assigned to PRID (n=312) or GnRH (n=294) treatment groups. Treatments were the same as described for Experiment 1. Logistic regression procedures revealed that in cows with a single corpus luteum, the probability of pregnancy loss between the first (Days 28-34) and second (Days 65-62) pregnancy diagnosis decreased by a factor of 0.51 in the PRID group compared to the GnRH group. However, in cows with two or more corpora lutea, PRID treatment increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss by a factor of three, compared to GnRH treatment. In cows carrying twins, the conceptus reduction rate was higher (P=0.02) for the GnRH (36%) than for the PRID (16.4%) group. Formation of a new corpus luteum was recorded in 17.7% of cows in the GnRH group. Our results indicate that compared to GnRH treatment, progesterone treatment given at pregnancy diagnosis in high producing dairy cows, reduced by a factor of 0.51 and increased by a factor of 3 the probability of pregnancy loss in cows with a single or with two or more corpora lutea, respectively, and reduced the conceptus reduction rate in cows carrying twins. The practical implications of our findings are that in herds with a high incidence of early fetal loss of a non-infectious nature, treatment at the time of pregnancy diagnosis with PRID in cows with one corpus luteum and with GnRH in cows with two or more corpora lutea should offer considerable benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during the post partum period in four non-pregnant cows.
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Bella, Amina ULg et al

in Proceedings of the The Life Science Summit (2007)

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) pattern and pregnancy detection in Boer goats using an ELISA with different antisera
Shahin, M; Friedrich, M; Gauly, M et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2013), 113

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are macromolecules produced by placental tissue and released into the maternal circulation where they allow pregnancy diagnosis and follow-up. The present study ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are macromolecules produced by placental tissue and released into the maternal circulation where they allow pregnancy diagnosis and follow-up. The present study addresses the question to what extent plasma PAG determination may serve as a means of early pregnancy detection in goats in a similar way it is practiced in cows, and whether an ovine or bovine PAG-ELISA may be utilized to this end. Blood samples were collected from eight pregnant pluriparous Boer goat does twice weekly during the first seven seeks and the last four weeks of pregnancy and weekly in-between and during four weeks following parturition. Plasma PAG concentrations (mean±SEM) were determined using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Assays were conducted with polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against purified preparations of caprine (AS#706), ovine (AS#780) and bovine PAG (AS#726). In the assay systems purified bovine PAG served as standard and tracer and goat anti-rabbit IgG served as coating antibody. With the antibody raised against caprine PAG (AS#706) a steep increase to a climax of 69±9 ng/ml on day 56 of pregnancy was followed by a gradual decline to 16±3 ng/ml at parturition and 0.3±0.07 ng/ml four weeks postpartum. The results achieved with the antiovine PAG (AS#780) showed close similarity, a maximum of 92±14 ng/ml being reached at 56 days of pregnancy. With anti-bovine PAG (AS#726), the PAG level increased to a maximum of 3.1±0.2 ng/ml on day 105 of pregnancy and fluctuated around 3 ng/ml until the end of pregnancy. The difference between pregnant and non-pregnant does reached a significant level 21 days after conception, one week earlier than with caprine and ovine antisera. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) profiles during pregnancy and postpartum and progesterone (P4) profiles during pregnancy in native goats from Northeast of Brazil.
Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Garbayo, J. M.; Figueiredo, J. R. et al

in Arquivos - Faculdade de Veterinária, UFRGS (1997), 25(1 (Suppl)), 304-305

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See detailPregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) profiles during the peri-implantation period in recipients carrying bovine somatic clones: preliminary results
Heyman, Y; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Journal of Reproduction & Fertility. Abstract Series (2004), 17(2), 168169

Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (bPAGs) are secreted by binucleate cells of the placenta and can be assayed in maternal plasma as indicators of pregnancy and markers for the functional status of ... [more ▼]

Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (bPAGs) are secreted by binucleate cells of the placenta and can be assayed in maternal plasma as indicators of pregnancy and markers for the functional status of the trophoblast. The concentrations of PAGs vary differentially during the peri-implantation period. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) and abnormal placentation have been associated in cloned fetuses with abnormally increased pregnancy-specific protein 60 (PSP60). The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of plasma levels of PAGs measured by the use of three different RIA systems in heifers after transfer of somatic cloned embryos and to compare that to plasma levels of control recipients during early pregnancy to distinguish which ones vary differentially. Cloned embryos were derived from nuclear transfer from fibroblasts of an adult cell line to in vitro-matured bovine oocytes according to Vignon et al. (1998 Theriogenology 49, 392). Control embryos were obtained in vitro after IVF and cultured in serum-free medium up to the blastocyst stage. By Day 7, cloned (n = 29) and control embryos (n = 10) were transferred to synchronous recipient heifers of the Normande breed (one embryo per recipient). Blood samples were taken every 2–3 days between Days 25 and 50 of pregnancy from recipients that had a positive progesterone test on Day 21, and the plasma was stored frozen until assay. Pregnancy status was monitored by repeated ultrasound scanning from Day 35 to Day 90. Concentrations of PAGs were determined by validated RIA assays for the different forms (PAGI67, PAG55+62, PAG55+59) using 3 antisera (AS 497, AS 706, AS 708, respectively) (Perenyi et al. 2002 Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37, 100–104). profiles of only the recipients that were confirmed pregnant by scanning over Day 50 (n = 18 clones, n = 4 controls) were analyzed and compared. Concentrations of PAGs measured by AS 497 and AS 706 were significantly higher in clones than in control recipients during the second month of pregnancy, indicating that the placenta of clones secreted these forms in a different manner compared to controls. Moreover, we found that concentrations of PAGs as determined with the two same antisera were higher for recipients with a cloned fetus that developed to term compared to those which had fetal loss before 3 months. For instance, using the AS 706, respective values of PAGs at Day 45 were 17.64 ± 7.59 and 10.96 ± 6.38 ng/mL for pregnancies with cloned and control fetuses, respectively, (P < 0.05) and 21.29 ± 4.77 and 12.88 ± 8.90 ng/mL in pregnancies with cloned fetuses that developed normally to term or died before 3 months of age, respectively, (P < 0.05). We conclude that our assays using two antisera could be a predictive test for fetal loss in clone pregnancies. Until now, recipients carrying cloned embryos that develop LOS during late pregnancy could not be detected by conventional assays in maternal serum or by scanning during the period of 35–50 days. This study provides a new diagnostic tool to detect them. Investigations are in progress to check the localization of these different forms of PAG in placentomes removed from recipients carrying somatic clones. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) profiles during the peri-implantation period in recipients carrying bovine somatic clones: preliminary results
Heyman, Yvan; Chavatte-Palmer, P.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Reproduction, Fertility and Development (2005), 17(1-2), 168

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