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See detailA Partial Approach To Model Checking
Godefroid, Patrice; Wolper, Pierre ULg

in Information & Computation (1994), 110(2), 305--326

This paper presents a model-checking method for linear-time temporal logic that can avoid most of the state explosion due to the modelling of concurrency by interleaving. The method relies on the concept ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a model-checking method for linear-time temporal logic that can avoid most of the state explosion due to the modelling of concurrency by interleaving. The method relies on the concept of Mazurkiewicz's trace as a semantic basis and uses automata-theoretic techniques, including automata that operate on words of ordinality higher than omega. [less ▲]

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See detailA Partial Approach To Model Checking
Godefroid, Patrice; Wolper, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings 6th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (1991)

This paper presents a model-checking method for linear-time temporal logic that avoids the state explosion due to the modelling of concurrency by interleaving. The method relies on the concept of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a model-checking method for linear-time temporal logic that avoids the state explosion due to the modelling of concurrency by interleaving. The method relies on the concept of Mazurkiewicz's trace as a semantic basis and uses automata-theoretic techniques, including automata that operate on words of ordinality higher than omega [less ▲]

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See detailPartial Atomic Charges Of Amino Acids In Proteins
Thomas, Annick ULg; Milon, A.; Brasseur, Robert ULg

in Proteins-Structure Function and Bioinformatics (2004), 56(1), 102-9

Using a semiempirical quantum mechanical procedure (FCPAC) we have calculated the partial atomic charges of amino acids from 494 high-resolution protein structures. To analyze the influence of the protein ... [more ▼]

Using a semiempirical quantum mechanical procedure (FCPAC) we have calculated the partial atomic charges of amino acids from 494 high-resolution protein structures. To analyze the influence of the protein's environment, we considered each residue under two conditions: either as the center of a tripeptide with PDB structure geometry (free) or as the center of 13-16 amino acid clusters extracted from the PDB structure (buried). The partial atomic charges from residues in helices and in sheets were separated. The FCPAC partial atomic charges of the Cbeta and Calpha of most residues correlate with their helix propensity, positively for Cbeta and negatively for Calpha (r2 = 0.76 and 0.6, respectively). The main consequence of burying residues in proteins is the polarization of the backbone C=O bond, which is more pronounced in helices than in sheets. The average shift of the oxygen partial charges that results from burying is -0.120 in helix and -0.084 in sheet with the charge of the proton as unit. Linear correlations are found between the average NMR chemical shifts and the average FCPAC partial charges of Calpha (r2 = 0.8-0.85), N (r3 = 0.67-0.72), and Cbeta (r2 = 0.62) atoms. Correlations for helix and beta-sheet FCPAC partial charges show parallel regressions, suggesting that the charge variations due to burying in proteins differentiate between the dihedral angle effects and the polarization of backbone atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial characterization of testosterone-metabolizing enzymes in the quail brain.
Schumacher, M.; Contenti, E.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Brain Research (1984), 305(1), 51-9

The properties of 5 beta-reductase, 5 alpha-reductase and aromatase, 3 testosterone metabolizing enzymes, were studied in the quail brain by an in vitro incubation technique. The results describe the ... [more ▼]

The properties of 5 beta-reductase, 5 alpha-reductase and aromatase, 3 testosterone metabolizing enzymes, were studied in the quail brain by an in vitro incubation technique. The results describe the changes in time of metabolite production and the effects of temperature, enzyme and cofactor concentrations. The apparent Km and Vmax were evaluated for the 3 enzymes. Aromatase and 5 alpha-reductase have a higher affinity but a lower capacity than 5 beta-reductase. The kinetics of the latter enzyme are complex and suggest the presence of two types of enzymes. These characteristics fit in well with the role probably played by the enzymes in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial Cloning and Distribution of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Avian Brain
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Neuroreport (1998), 9(12), 2743-8

A partial estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) cDNA was isolated from testicular quail RNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers specific to the rat ER-beta sequence. A high expression of ER-beta was demonstrated ... [more ▼]

A partial estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) cDNA was isolated from testicular quail RNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers specific to the rat ER-beta sequence. A high expression of ER-beta was demonstrated by RT-PCR in the telencephalon, diencephalon, pituitary, testis and kidneys of male quail but little or no expression was detected in the cerebellum, pectoral muscle and adrenal gland. In situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled oligoprobe in sections through the preoptic area-rostral hypothalamus identified high expression in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus striae terminalis and nucleus taeniae. These data demonstrate the presence of an ER-beta in brain areas implicated in the control of reproduction in a non-mammalian species. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial Differential Equations and Meshing
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2011, November)

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See detailPartial differential matrix equations for the inverse problem of scattering theory
Coz, M.; Rochus, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Physics (1976), 17

Sufficient conditions for the existence of a continuous translation operator are found in the case of a system of differential equations in which the matrix potential has the singularity of the ... [more ▼]

Sufficient conditions for the existence of a continuous translation operator are found in the case of a system of differential equations in which the matrix potential has the singularity of the centripetal term. The sufficient conditions are found in terms of moments of the nuclear potential. The method used employs the Riemann Green's function. Threshold energies introduce a threshold energy dependence into the translation kernel and lead to a requirement of an exponential decrease for terms of the matrix potential. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial divergence of cytokine mRNA expression in bronchial tissues compared to bronchoalveolar lavage cells in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.
Riihimaki, M.; Raine, Amanda; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2008), 122(3-4), 256-64

The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA levels of cytokines in bronchial epithelium in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) during acute crisis and remission. Additionally, cytokine mRNA ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA levels of cytokines in bronchial epithelium in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) during acute crisis and remission. Additionally, cytokine mRNA levels in endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were compared. Seven RAO horses were examined while in respiratory crisis following provocation and again while in remission after 2 months on pasture, during which time six healthy horses on pasture were also examined. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to assess mRNA expression for cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of IL-8 mRNA was significantly upregulated during crisis in both endobronchial biopsies and BAL cells (p=0.036), while there was a similar trend for upregulation of IL-10 mRNA only in BAL cells that approached significance (p=0.059). Moreover, during crisis the expression of IL-8 mRNA in BAL cells was positively correlated to relative IL-6 mRNA expression (r(s)=0.971, p=0.001) and bronchial epithelial expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta1 mRNA were positively correlated (r(s)=0.943, p=0.005). In comparing the relationship of mRNA expression in BAL to biopsy in individual RAO horses, there was a positive correlation with IL-6 to IL-8 mRNA expression in BAL during respiratory crisis (r(s)=0.971, p=0.001) that also correlated positively with IL-8 expression in biopsies on pasture (r(s)=0.986, p<0.0001 for both). Regarding RAO horses at pasture versus controls neither the cytokine mRNA levels in endobronchial biopsy nor in BAL cells differed significantly. These results further support previous findings that IL-8 mRNA in both BAL cells and bronchial epithelium is upregulated in RAO horses during crisis. However, apart from IL-8, it appears that expression of other cytokines, including IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-beta1 in bronchial epithelium does not necessarily mirror cytokine expression in BAL cells in individual horses with RAO. Accordingly, examination of markers of inflammation in endobronchial tissue provides complementary but not necessarily identical information to that obtained in BAL cells. Given the potential for repeated sampling over time bronchial biopsy can serve as an invaluable additional tool for investigation of time-dependent changes in inflammatory process in this animal model of asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial encryption of images for real-time applications
Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Fourth IEEE Signal Processing Symposium (2004, April)

Multimedia systems mostly base security on a restricted access to services. In the context of real-time imaging applications, this model suffers several drawbacks. Applications become vulnerable to ... [more ▼]

Multimedia systems mostly base security on a restricted access to services. In the context of real-time imaging applications, this model suffers several drawbacks. Applications become vulnerable to password attacks and once exposed attackers have access to all the data. An alternative consists of the systematic encryption of all data. When dealing with images, this approach is inconvenient because the data needs to be processed in its entirety before users can gain any insight. As well, the decryption task requires large amounts of processing power. This presentation shows how partial encryption can match applications requirements without the overhead of full encryption. The paper rst analyzes several schemes mixing encryption and image encoding. Then we focus on a technique that implements partial encryption of images based on JPEG. The technique is built to meet two major requirements: (1) preserve the overall bitrate, and (2) remain compliant with the JPEG file format. Finally we introduce and elaborate on a new scheme that combines flexibility, multiple encryption, spatial selectivity, self sufficiency, and format compliance. We show how it could fit the needs of real-time applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA partial hybrid stress solid-shell element for the analysis of laminated composites
Rah, Kamran; Van Paepegem, Wim; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineerinrg (2011), 200(49-52), 35263539

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has ... [more ▼]

In this paper a low order partial hybrid stress solid-shell element based on the composite energy functional for the analysis of laminated composite structures is presented. This solid-shell element has eight nodes with only displacement degrees of freedoms, and three-dimensional constitutive models can be directly employed in the present formulation without any additional treatment. The assumed interlaminar stress field provides very accurate interlaminar stress calculation through the element thickness. These elements can be stacked on top of each other to model multilayer structures, fulfilling the interlaminar stress continuity at the interlayer surfaces and zero traction conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the laminate. The present solid-shell does not show the transverse shear, trapezoidal and thickness locking phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailA Partial Least Squares Analysis of the self reference effect in Alzheimer's disease: A reply to Irish
Genon, Sarah ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Angel, Lucie et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 54

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See detailPartial or total replacement of fish meal by local agricultural by-products in diets of juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): growth performance, feed efficiency and digestibility
Nyina-Wamwiza, Laetitia; Wathelet, Bernard ULg; Richir, Jonathan ULg et al

in Aquaculture Nutrition (2010), 16

The study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed six diets (D) in which fishmeal (FM) was gradually replaced by a mixture of ... [more ▼]

The study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed six diets (D) in which fishmeal (FM) was gradually replaced by a mixture of local plant by-products. In diets 1 and 2, FM (250 g kg)1) was replaced by sunflower oil cake (SFOC). In diets 3 and 4, FM (250 and 150 g kg)1, respectively) was replaced by SFOC and bean meal (BM) while FM was totally substituted by a mixture of groundnut oil cake (GOC), BM and SFOC in diets 5 and 6. Sunflower oil cake was cooked, soaked or dehulled in order to determine the appropriate processing techniques for improving the SFOC nutritive value and to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) values of the alternative diets. No significant differences were observed for daily feed intake, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) among fish fed D1, D2, D3 (250 g kg)1 FM), D4 (150 g kg)1 FM) and D6 (0 g kg)1 FM). The highest SGR (3.2% per day) and FE (1.2) were achieved in fish fed D3, and the lowest in fish fed D5 (0% FM), suggesting a maximum acceptable dietary concentration of hulled SFOC below 250 g kg)1 in African catfish juveniles. Protein efficiency ratio ranged from 2.2 to 3.2 for all dietary treatments and was positively influenced by FM inclusion. African catfish were able to digest plant protein very efficiently in all diets tested. ADC of protein ranged from 88.6 to 89.5%, while ADC of energy was relatively low for diets containing hulled sunflower oilcake (71–74%) and high when sunflower oilcake was dehulled (78.6–81.3%). Similarly, ADC of dry matter was higher when sunflower was dehulled (72.1%) when compared with crude SFOC (60.5%). Soaking increased ADC values for neutral detergent fibre (NDF), dry matter, energy, protein and amino acids (AA). There were no significant differences in protein ADCs (88–90%) with increased levels of dietary vegetable ingredients. Both soaking and dehulling of sunflower before incorporation helped in the reduction of NDF, antitrypsin and tannins. Digestibility of all AA was generally high, greater than 90% for both indispensable and non-indispensable AA. Based on the data obtained, it was possible to totally replace menhaden fish meal with a mixture of vegetable proteins (7 % of total dietary protein) when diets contained a relatively low percentage of animal protein (28% based on blood meal and chicken viscera meal) without negative effects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe partial proportional odds model in the analysis of
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg

Conference (2010, May 18)

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See detailPartial Purification of rabbit placental PAG (pregnancy-associated glycoprotein)
Othmani-Mecif, Khira; Benazzoug, Y.; Remy, Benoit et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2001), 442(R105), 88

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See detailPartial replacement of fish meal with Azola meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) affects growth and whole body fatty acid composition
Abou, Youssouf; Adite, Alphonse; Ibikounle, Moudachirou et al

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2011), 5(6), 2224-2235

The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six ... [more ▼]

The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, as partial FM substitute. Diet A0 acted as a control. The final weight (51.0-88.3 g), the weight gain (210.8-438.3%) and the SGR (1.3-1.9%day-1) decreased when AM level higher than 10% in diets (P < 0.05). The FCR (1.44 to 2.35) significantly increased when AM level exceeded 20% (P < 0.05). The protein efficiency ratio and the apparent net protein utilization decreased consequently. The fatty acids in the whole fish were significantly influenced by the diets. The replacement of FM by AM produced fish with lower (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids mainly docosahexaenoic acid, and higher arachidonic acid (P < 0.05). The n-3/n- 6 fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.08 to 0.17, and was lower in fish fed A40 and A50 (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that high AM in diets affects Nile tilapia growth and the fern could be incorporated in diets up to 30% without any adverse effect on fish fatty acid composition. However, alternative additional source of lipid must be used to improve the quality of fish fed AM-diets. [less ▲]

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