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See detailMethodology for the Validation of Analytical Methods involved in Uniformity of Dosage Units tests
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2013), 760

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving ... [more ▼]

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a Near Infra-Red Spectrophotometric method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Updating Large Scale Ortho-Photomaps by Means of VHR Satellite imagery
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg; Seba, Gautier; de Béthune, Stanislas et al

in Maktav, Derya; Jürgens, Carsten; Erber Sunar, Filiz (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3d International Symposium of Remote Sensing of Urban Areas (2002)

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1 ... [more ▼]

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1:4000). These are made of very high-resolution digital ortho-rectified aerial photos presented as raster files. Those rasters are grouped by corresponding administrative boundaries and distributed to the local authorities in order to be used for various land and urban planning purposes. One goal of the DGPL is to provide the local administrations with up to date image data, within the limits of some obvious financial constraints. Because significant changes in the landscape appear at different rates over the time and space, it was suggested to devise a methodology to find out these changes would require a rapid update of the imagery. In regard to this situation, a pilot project has been set up in the year 2000 aiming at detecting the location, the extent and the nature of landscape changes in contrasted areas - urban, suburban, rural - from adequately processed very high resolution (VHR) satellite images - typically Ikonos multi-spectral (4m) and panchromatic (1m) images. Hence, this project had to cope with various issues related to multi-source analysis, geometric and radiometric aspects of the processing VHR data, diachronic analysis, in order to provide the administration with the basic knowledge and the appropriate tools to carry out the proposed task. This communication presents the proposed operational methodology for change detection including all processing steps from the digital image processing (image fusion technique, ortho-rectification analysis, change detection schemes). Along the way it also introduces an assessment of the possible complementarities and convergence of VHR satellite imagery and aerial photography. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology manual for European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines.
Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Head, Stuart J.; Thielmann, Matthias et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2015), 48(6), 809-16

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and ... [more ▼]

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and independence. Based on the revision of manuals by other scientific cardiothoracic organizations, this document provides instructions for the development of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines and other types of evidence-based documents. Four key areas have been addressed: (i) selection of taskforce members and transparency of relations with the industry, (ii) methods for critical appraisal of medical evidence, (iii) rules for writing recommendations and (iv) review process. It is hoped that, by adopting this methodology, clinical guidelines produced by the EACTS will be well balanced, objective and, importantly, trusted by physicians and patients who benefit from their implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailMETHODOLOGY OF ANNOTATING VIDEOS AND STILL IMAGES AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOFTWARE COVER
Guillaumont, Brigitte; Carré, Cyril ULg; van den Beld, Inge et al

Conference (2011, June)

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See detailMethodology of Comparative Law
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

Scientific conference (2014, November)

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See detailMethodology of high speed railway network planning
Marchal, Jean ULg; Han, Baoming

in Proceedings of the Second Conference of Hongkong Society for Transportation Studies HKSTS (1997)

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See detailMethodology of the biological risk classification of animal pathogens in Belgium
Van Vaerenbergh, B.; Koenen, Frank; Pauwels, K. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique / Office International des Epizooties = Revista Cientifica y Tecnica / Officina Internacional de Epizootias = Scientific and Technical Review / International Office of Epizootics (2010), 29(3), 513-522

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by ... [more ▼]

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by the World Health Organization, considering the severity of the disease the micro-organism might cause, its ability to spread and the availability of prophylaxis or efficient treatment. Animal pathogens are classified according to the definitions of the World Organization of Animal Health whereby also economic aspects are considered. In Europe, classification is often directly linked to containment measures. The Belgian classification however, considers only the inherent characteristics of the micro-organism, not its use, making it independent of containment measures. Also a common list for human and animal pathogens is elaborated, allowing a comprehensive approach. Evolution of scientific knowledge requires regular updating of classification lists. This paper describes the particularities of the Belgian classification and the methodology that was used for its peer-reviewed revision, hereby focusing on animal pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodology to assess the exactness of Stream Network modeling process on agricultural watersheds
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011)

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled ... [more ▼]

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled. According to the standard ISO-7078 (ISO-7078, 1985) of the Inernational Organization of Standardization, the exactness of a measurement process or a modeled process can be defined as the difference between results obtained from the measurement process and a reference accepted as the «true value». A small watershed of a dozen hectares size has been surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) scanner and photogrammetrical techniques to produce a row data of 30 cm resolution. Three interpolation techniques i.e. natural neighbourg, multiquadratic radial basis function and inverse distance weighted have been applied on the original data to create original digital elevation models (DEM) of 1 m resolution. RTK (Real Time Kinematics) GPS (Global Positionning System) ground control points have been surveyed on the watershed to evaluate DEM errors and fit a variogram that is used by a conditional sequencial gaussian simulation model to generate error maps. However, ground control point’s elevations accuracy is depending on the microtopography of parcels in an agricultural watershed. Depending on the crop that is planned by the farmer, the soil tillage will be different, and soil structure and roughness can considerably influence ground control point’s elevation. Analysis of variance and geostatistical methods have been applied on total station and RTK GPS data to estimate intervals in which, ground control points elevations vary. These intervals have been estimated for two parcels that soils are tilled in different ways. These errors are added to the generated errors maps to create final error maps. The final errors maps are added to the original DEM to create likely DEM realizations for the watershed (Temme and al., 2007). Then, two spurious sinks filtering methods (Colson 2006; Lindsay and Creed, 2005) and one flat area treatment method (Jenson and Domingue, 1988) are applied on each DEM realization for preprocessing. Finally, the three common flow direction extraction methods (D8, D-infity and Multiple Flow Direction) are applied on each preprocessed DEM to extract stream Network. The extracted stream network is overlapped with RTK GPS field positioned stream network i.e. a polyline format data. To estimate the exactness of the stream extraction methods, the polyline format is converted in raster format. That allows to compute for each pixel of the observed stream network, the distance to the extracted stream network. Then, for each pixel the mean distance can be calculated, and can be represented through the stream network. LiDAR technology is becoming useful for environment modeling because of his accuracy. Such quantity of data is not free of errors. This research will allow us to estimate the uncertainty of stream network modeled from agricultural watersheds by considering the main sources of errors that are propagated through computing processes. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to characterize a residential building stock using a bottom-up approach: a case study applied to Belgium
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Georges, Emeline ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management (2014)

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See detailMethodology to fish peptide ligands of nAChRs from Cone snail venoms by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Gilles, Nicolas; Araoz, Romulo et al

Poster (2016, June)

More than 50,000 of venomous species are currently indexed in the world. Each of their venom is composed of hundreds of toxins which potentially exhibit a high selectivity for membrane receptors such as ... [more ▼]

More than 50,000 of venomous species are currently indexed in the world. Each of their venom is composed of hundreds of toxins which potentially exhibit a high selectivity for membrane receptors such as GPCRs or ion channels. Among them, nAChRs are a target for drug discovery, primarily for treating central nervous system troubles. Therefore, the discovery of pharmacological tools and innovative drugs targeting nAChRs from animal venoms appears as an evidence. This study proposes the use a mass-spectrometry based methodology1 to discover new nAChRs ligands from cone snails venoms, and particularly -conotoxins (a-CTXs), known as potential antagonists of nAChRs2. in few words, Torpedo membranes, containing a high concentration of nAChRs, are incubated with BSA tryptic digests (>100 peptides) doped by small amounts of known a-CTXs. After two hours incubation, free (i.e. containing molecules remaining in solution) and bound (i.e. peptides bound to the membranes) fractions were analyzed with a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. The POC (positive and negative controls) as well as a real screening of Conus ermineus venom are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology to Improve the Robustness of Gas Turbine Engine Performance Monitoring Against Sensor Faults
Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Borguet, Sébastien ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (2013), 135(5),

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service ... [more ▼]

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service. Doing so, the simulation model is adapted through a set of so-called health parameters whose values are intended to represent a faithful image of the actual health condition of the engine. For sake of low computational burden, the problem of random errors contaminating the measurements is often considered to be zero-mean, white and Gaussian random variables. However, when a sensor fault occurs, the measurement errors no longer satisfy the Gaussian assumption and the results given by the system identification rapidly become unreliable. The present contribution is dedicated to the development of a diagnosis tool based on a Kalman filter whose structure is slightly modified in order to accommodate sensor malfunctions. The benefit in terms of the diagnostic reliability of the resulting tool is illustrated on several sensor faults that may be encountered on a current turbofan layout. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to model the energy vulnerability of households in Europe based on the current mapping of fuel poverty and transport poverty and its likely evolution until 2040
Pierson, Charlotte; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the Urban Transition Global Summit 2016 (2016)

Fuel poverty refers to a situation in which an individual or household is not able to meet their basic energy needs. Fuel poverty is currently growing in the European Union. Research in this field is ... [more ▼]

Fuel poverty refers to a situation in which an individual or household is not able to meet their basic energy needs. Fuel poverty is currently growing in the European Union. Research in this field is often limited to the assessment of the current risk of fuel poverty based on energy consumptions due to housing. Urban sprawl generates a significant increase in energy consumption related to daily mobility, which generates energy poverty related to transportation needs. This article presents a methodology for modeling the current and future energy poverty of households in Europe on the basis of energy consumptions due to housing, to daily mobility and their combination. Indicators for fuel poverty and transport poverty will be based on Hills’ method, which is widely recognized internationally for fuel poverty assessment and which takes into account two thresholds: energy expenses of households and their available residual income. This article will outline the spatial modeling process of energy costs due to dwellings and mobility thanks to the coupling of a GIS tool, cadastral datasets, existing methods for the assessment of buildings and transport energy consumptions and updated databases (EPB certificates, detailed mobility surveys, data from smart meters, mobile phones and GPS). Different scenarios will be selected to predict the evolution of fuel and transport poverty until 2040 on the basis of national and European prospective studies or, alternatively, based on the historical evaluation of some key parameters and their extrapolation. The evolution of built-up areas will be model thanks to the multinomial logistic regression model (MLR) that enables to visualize the consequence of different urban densities expansion. The different parameters that will influence the evolution of fuel and transport poverty until 2040 will be highlighted (climate change, urban expansion, fuel prices, energy performance of buildings and vehicles, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology used for the European badger (Meles meles) monitoring in Wallonie
Schockert, Vincianne ULg; Lambinet, Clotilde ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in Lecocq, Yves (Ed.) Abstracts of 31st IUGB congress (2013, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 ULg)
See detailMethods
Richelle, Marc ULg; Lejeune, Helga ULg; Mantanus, H. et al

in Richelle, Marc; Lejeune, Helga (Eds.) Time in animal behaviour (1980)

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See detailMethods and means for metabolic engineering and improved product formation by micro-organisms
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Titgemeyer, Fritz; van Wezel, Gilles

Patent (2007)

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See detailMethods and models for brain connectivity assessment across levels of consciousness
Amico, Enrico ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The human brain is one of the most complex and fascinating systems in nature. In the last decades, two events have boosted the investigation of its functional and structural properties. Firstly, the ... [more ▼]

The human brain is one of the most complex and fascinating systems in nature. In the last decades, two events have boosted the investigation of its functional and structural properties. Firstly, the emergence of novel noninvasive neuroimaging modalities, which helped improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the data collected from in vivo human brains. Secondly, the development of advanced mathematical tools in network science and graph theory, which has recently translated into modeling the human brain as a network, giving rise to the area of research so called Brain Connectivity or Connectomics. In brain network models, nodes correspond to gray-matter regions (based on functional or structural, atlas-based parcellations that constitute a partition), while links or edges correspond either to structural connections as modeled based on white matter fiber-tracts or to the functional coupling between brain regions by computing statistical dependencies between measured brain activity from different nodes. Indeed, the network approach for studying the brain has several advantages: 1) it eases the study of collective behaviors and interactions between regions; 2) allows to map and study quantitative properties of its anatomical pathways; 3) gives measures to quantify integration and segregation of information processes in the brain, and the flow (i.e. the interacting dynamics) between different cortical and sub-cortical regions. The main contribution of my PhD work was indeed to develop and implement new models and methods for brain connectivity assessment in the human brain, having as primary application the analysis of neuroimaging data coming from subjects at different levels of consciousness. I have here applied these methods to investigate changes in levels of consciousness, from normal wakefulness (healthy human brains) or drug-induced unconsciousness (i.e. anesthesia) to pathological (i.e. patients with disorders of consciousness). [less ▲]

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See detailMethods for calculating growth velocity for VLBW infants
SENTERRE, Thibault ULg

in Pediatrics (2015), 136(1), 8469757

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See detailMethods for Estimating Areas under Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curves: Illustration with Somatic-Cell Scores in Subclinical Intramammary Infections
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Arendt, J.; Lomba, F. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1999), 41(2-3), 75-88

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to evaluate quarter IMI, and the final IMI diagnosis was made from milk bacteriologic cultures. Data consisted of 11,453 quarter-milk samples collected on 2084 clinically healthy cows located in 154 Belgian herds. Bacteriological analyses showed 16.2%, 7.2%, and 11.9% of quarters infected with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. The ROC curve indicated all the combinations of sensitivity and specificity that quarter SCS was able to provide as a test to identify quarter IMI. Among parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric methods to estimate area under ROC curves, the parametric method seemed the least appropriate for analyzing SCS in this study. With the non-parametric method, the total area under the ROC curves showed quarter SCS could identify quarter IMI with an overall accuracy of 69%, 76%, and 59% for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., S. agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests showed that overall SCS diagnostic capability was significantly (p<0.01) different from chance and was different (p<0.01) across the three bacteria. However, the SCS thresholds yielding the highest percentage of quarters correctly classified as infected (for the observed prevalence and for equal costs assigned to false-positive and false-negative results) were so high that they had no practical value. The major advantage of ROC analysis is the comprehensive description of the discrimination capacity of SCS for all possible choices of critical values. The major disadvantage is the dependency upon the gold standard used for the final diagnosis--but recent improvements of the methodology will correct the problem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (8 ULg)