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See detailPathophysiology of a fall in arterial oxygen saturation during sputum induction.
Cataldo, Didier ULg

in CHEST (2000), 117(6), 1818-9

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See detailPathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome
Lamy, Maurice ULg; Fallat, R. J.; Koeniger, E. L. et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1975), 26

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See detailPathophysiology of insulin secretion.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2004), 65(1), 29-36

Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the ... [more ▼]

Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the autoimmune process begins years before the beta-cell destruction becomes complete, thereby providing a window of opportunity for intervention. During the preclinical period and early after diagnosis, much of the insulin deficiency may be the result of functional inhibition of insulin secretion that may be at least partially and transiently reversible. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive loss of beta-cell function throughout the course of the disease. The pattern of loss is an initial (probably of genetic origin) defect in acute or first-phase insulin secretion, followed by a decreasing maximal capacity of insulin secretion. Last, a defective steady-state and basal insulin secretion develops, leading to almost complete beta-cell failure requiring insulin treatment. Because of the reciprocal relation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, valid representation of beta-cell function requires interpretation of insulin responses in the context of the prevailing degree of insulin sensitivity. This appropriate approach highlights defects in insulin secretion at the various stages of the natural history of type 2 diabetes and already present in individuals at risk to develop the disease. To date none of the available therapies can stop the progressive beta-cell defect and the progression of the metabolic disorder. The better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease should lead to the development of new strategies to preserve beta-cell function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pathophysiology of Migraine: A Review Based on the Literature and on Personal Contributions
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Functional Neurology (1998), 13(1, Jan-Mar), 7-15

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See detailPathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2003), 58(6), 335-41

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles. However, the mechanisms controlling the interplay of these two impairments are unclear. A number of factors have been suggested as possibly linking insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. A majority of individuals suffering from type 2 diabetes are obese, with central visceral adiposity. Therefore, the adipose tissue should play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Although the predominant paradigm used to explain this link is the portal/visceral hypothesis giving a key role in elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, two new emerging paradigms are the ectopic fat storage syndrome (deposition of triglycerides in muscle, liver and pancreatic cells) and the adipose tissue as endocrine organ hypothesis (secretion of various adipocytokins, i.e. leptin, TNF-alpha, resistin, adiponectin, implicated in insulin resistance and possibly beta-cell dysfunction). These two paradigms constitute the framework for the study of the interplay between insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes as well as between our obesogenic environment and diabetes risk in the next decade. [less ▲]

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See detailLe pathos francophone : francodoxie, argumentation et émotions
Provenzano, François ULg

in Galatanu, Olga; Cozma, Ana-Maria; Marie, Virginie (Eds.) Sens et signification dans les espaces francophones. La construction discursive du concept de francophonie (2013)

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See detailA Pathway closely related to the D-tagatose pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis
Van Der Heiden, Edwige ULg; Delmarcelle, Michaël ULg; Lebrun, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, June)

We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium ... [more ▼]

We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. [less ▲]

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See detailA Pathway closely related to the D-tagatose pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis
Van Der Heiden, Edwige ULg; Delmarcelle, Michaël ULg; Lebrun, Sarah ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental microbiology (2013), 79(11), 3511-3515

We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium ... [more ▼]

We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pathway to Agritourism Development: From Constraints to Opportunities
Dubois, Charline ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Cawley, Mary; Bicalho, Ana Maria; Laurens, Lucette (Eds.) The Sustainability of Rural Systems: Global and Local Challenges and Opportunities (2013)

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing ... [more ▼]

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing pressures. Many choose a tourism business as a means of diversification. This chapter investigates the reasons for choosing farm tourism as a means of diversification, in order to examine the supply dimension of agritourism development. Some main reasons have been highlighted in the literature. Economic and financial factors like sourcing new income and employment, stability against agricultural market fluctuations or better use of farm resources, are often the first motivations to be mentioned. Also significant are social and external factors like sharing experiences, awareness of the success of other farmers, meeting people, educating the public and consumers, and personal interest as a hobby. Reasons for choosing tourism as a form of diversification may change over time, differ according to the characteristics of the farm, its development and its environment, or depend on gender. This chapter uses data from interviews conducted in agritourism accommodation premises in Wallonia and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to explore these motivations. The research is based on a content analysis aimed at a graphical representation of motivations using an adapted actantian model: a multi-scale analysis is used identifying the factors that support and constrain such motivations. The primary motivation stresses the response to a market opportunity; the potential to assign unused farm buildings to new purposes was also observed. Moreover it is shown that entrepreneurship and opportunities become as important as development based on survival of the farm. [less ▲]

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See detailPathways of change in a coastal resource system: Study from Kampong Trach district, Kampot province
Voe, Pisidh; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp ... [more ▼]

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp farming, sand mining, and trade, to name just the most significant. Against this background, this study analyzes pathways of change over the past 15 years in coastal resource systems in two neighboring communities in the Kampong Trach district of Kampot province. The analysis proceeds on two different levels. We first look at change in respect of the cross-scale multiple drivers in the resource system at village level and its effects on the social and ecological components of the marine, intertidal and agricultural areas of the coastal zone. Then, at household level, we examine the diversity of adaptation measures adopted to deal with these changes, and evaluate their impacts on livelihoods. We argue that the degradation of fisheries resources in marine and intertidal zones results from drivers that originate outside and inside the communities, but mostly stems from problems of governance. Despite tangible improvements in rain-fed rice yield, the development of the farming sector is constrained by limited capacity to diversify and intensify production. The adaptation paths to this resources degradation squeeze are multiple. The few households who can afford to enhance or intensify their farming and fishing efforts usually manage to improve their food security status. But in a majority of cases, the adaptation works through a move away from the land and the sea, either through self-employed non-farm and non-fishing activities (local business associated with cross-border trade with Vietnam) or through wage labor. Self-employed activities and demand more capital but represent the main path of improvement in these communities. Wage labor - particularly associated with migration - has become widespread but its potential to improve food security is very limited. Accessing credit and going into debt is another significant way in which people have attempted to adapt either to address chronic food insecurity or to maintain the same level of productivity.The increase of mobility is a central element in adaptation strategy adopted by many who have been affected. This includes: mobility of labor (non-farm, wage and migration); the mobility of capital (e.g. conversion from marine zone fishing to trade); and mobility of landownership (occurring through market-based land concentration). However, we suggest that these processes of adaptation have actually reinforced the wealth disparity that exists between households. It has particularly exacerbated the vulnerability of those who are most dependent on small-scale fisheries. [less ▲]

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See detailPathways of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I for viral entry
Boulanger, F.; Rodriguez, Sabrina ULg; Willems, L.

Scientific conference (2011, June 06)

Pathways of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I for viral entry Boulanger Fanny N.J., Rodriguez Sabrina and Willems Luc Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics, GIGA-Research, Liège The Human T-Lymphotropic ... [more ▼]

Pathways of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I for viral entry Boulanger Fanny N.J., Rodriguez Sabrina and Willems Luc Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics, GIGA-Research, Liège The Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-1), the first discovered human retrovirus, infects an estimated number of 20 million people worldwide. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and a neurodegenerative disease called HTLV associated myeolopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). We have been interested in the early steps of HTLV entry into cells. Infection requires interaction of the viral envelope glycoproteins (SU and TM) with the cell membrane. Three molecules are required for binding and entry into cells: heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and the ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1. Consecutive steps of HTLV-1 entry are poorly characterized. These could involve phagocytosis/macropinocytosis, caveolae pathway, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and several mechanisms independent of these two organelles but mediated by dynamin. To identify the endocytic pathways of HTLV-1 entry, we used two complementary strategies based either on pharmacological inhibition or on dominant-negative proteins expression. First, we evaluated the effect of a series of pharmacological inhibitors to interfere with main endocytic pathways. We used wortmannin and cytochalasin D to interfere with phagocytosis and macropinocytosis through their action on phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase and on the actin network, respectively. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was blocked with chlorpromazine and with a polyclonal anti-clathrin antibody as a direct competitor for the formation of clathrin-coated pits. The caveolar function was disrupted with the sterol-binding drug nystatin and the protein tyrosine-kinase inhibitor genistein. Finally, dynamin was competed with a peptide (Dynamin Inhibitory Peptide) or inhibited by dynasore. Since pharmacological inhibitors may have off-target effects, we also used an alternate approach based on dominant-negative proteins expressed by lentivirus-derived vectors. An AP-2-binding site from Eps15 (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Substrate 15) was used to interfere with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A N-terminally GFP-tagged caveolin-1 construct acted as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. A dominant-negative GTP-binding mutant of dynamin2(aa) was used to interfere with dynamin-dependant internalization pathways. Lentiviruses expressing these dominant-negative proteins were transduced into several cell lines or primary cells (T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells). These transduced cells were then infected by co-cultivation with HTLV-1-infected T-lymphocytes (MT2) or with free particles. These different approaches will thus allow identifying the pathways involved in cell entry by HTLV-1. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient assessment using standardized bone mineral density values and a national reference database: implementing uniform thresholds for the reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments in Belgium
Boonen, S.; Kaufman, J. M.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(2), 110-115

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone ... [more ▼]

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone mineral content (BMC) and area measurements and in part to the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. As a result, significant differences exist between Hologic, Lunar and Norland systems in the reported young normal standard deviation scores or T-scores. In a number of European countries, including Belgium, a T-score below -2.5 is one of the key criteria for reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments. This paper addresses the first attempt to implement a nationwide, uniform expression of BMD in patients, in order to harmonize drug reimbursement. To this end, measures were taken to implement a uniform expression of BMD in Belgian patients, by converting each manufacturer's absolute BMD to standardized BMD (sBMD) values and by establishing a single national reference range. [less ▲]

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See detailLe patient cancéreux ambulatoire traité par radiothérapie
Vanderick, JEAN ULg

in Revue Médicale de Bruxelles (1998), 18(4), 221-225

Le peu de connaissances en radiothérapie acquises par le médecin généraliste au cours de sa formation le rendent souvent désarmé face à un patient qui lui pose de nombreuses questions quant aux effets ... [more ▼]

Le peu de connaissances en radiothérapie acquises par le médecin généraliste au cours de sa formation le rendent souvent désarmé face à un patient qui lui pose de nombreuses questions quant aux effets secondaires du traitement ou le consulte en urgence suite à la survenue brutale de réactions imprévues. Quelle attitude adopter face à une dermite, une mucite, une leucopénie, une alopécie, sur radiothérapie ? Sans se montrer exhaustif, cet article vise à expliquer la pathogénie des réactions aiguës ou chroniques les plus fréquentes rencontrées lors des traitements ambulatoires, à aider à leur reconnaissance précoce, à envisager leur suivi en commun avec le radiothérapeute, leur pronostic et si nécessaire leur traitement en première ligne. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient coronarien avec co-morbidites: integrer indications et contre-indications dans le raisonnement pharmaco-therapeutique.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(7-8), 476-81

A patient with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is exposed to a high risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and/or renal insufficiency. The ... [more ▼]

A patient with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is exposed to a high risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and/or renal insufficiency. The management of such a patient requires different medications, which should be prescribed by taking into account both (relative and absolute) indications and contra-indications to improve overall prognosis. The present clinical case report illustrates the therapeutic reasoning leading to an appropriate pharmacological polytherapy, combined with life-style changes. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient morbidity after 2 different surgical protocols to treat miller class I recession in the anterior maxilla: A Comparaitive Ramdomized Control Trial.
SALHI, Leila ULg; ROMPEN, Eric ULg; LECLOUX, Geoffrey ULg et al

Conference (2012, June)

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare two different periodontal plastic surgery procedures to treat Miller’s class I recession: a coronally advanced flap (control group) versus the pouch ... [more ▼]

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare two different periodontal plastic surgery procedures to treat Miller’s class I recession: a coronally advanced flap (control group) versus the pouch technique (test group), both of which were associated with connective tissue graft. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were included, with 20 patients being allocated for each group. The level of recession coverage, the keratinised tissue quantity, gingival aesthetics (PES), and postoperative outcomes were assessed for a follow-up period of 6 months. Results: After 6 months, both techniques allowed for the excellent mean root coverage of 96.3 ± 12.1% in the control group and of 91.3 ± 17.6% in the test group. Complete root coverage was achieved in 89.5% (17/19) and 79% (15/19) of the recession cases in the control and the test groups, respectively. A significant increase in keratinised tissue height (p=0.0011) was observed in the test group. A significant improvement in the pink aesthetic score was found in the 2 groups, but gingival texture displayed significantly better results in the test group (p<0.0001). No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in terms of the morbidity outcomes. Pain killer consumption was similar in the 2 groups and significantly decreased over time. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient morbidity after socket preservation using a connective tissue graft versus a bilayer collagen matrix: Preliminary results of a comparative Randomized Control Trial.
FERNANDEZ AYORA, Alberto ULg; VANHOUTTE, Vanessa ULg; LECLOUX, Geoffrey ULg et al

Poster (2012, June)

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The present randomized controlled trial compared socket preservation procedures using bovine hydroxyapatite (Bio-Oss®, Geistlich, Switzerland) covered with a connective tissue graft ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The present randomized controlled trial compared socket preservation procedures using bovine hydroxyapatite (Bio-Oss®, Geistlich, Switzerland) covered with a connective tissue graft (CT) versus a bilayer collagen membrane (CM) (Mucograft®, Geistlich, Switzerland), placed from buccal to palatal in split-thickness pouches in order to seal the extraction site and to potentially thicken the buccal mucosa. The aim of this present abstract was to evaluate post-operative complications and patient-centered outcomes of the two independent surgical protocols. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 26 patients (16 female, 10 male) aged from 20 to 69 years (mean: 42.6, SD: 12). 26 teeth were extracted atraumatically and the 2 distinct surgical protocols were applied randomly. Patients filled out a VAS form 1 week after the surgery to evaluate their level of discomfort and post-operative pain. Drug intakes as well as complications were also recorded. RESULTS: No statistical significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of post-operative complications (bleeding) and post-operative pain. The consumption of painkillers after the surgery decreased over time but was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: According to the preliminary results of the present RCT, none of both protocols seemed to induce significant post-operative pain and discomfort. There was no difference between the two procedures regarding post-operative complications and patient centered outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient out-of-pocket contributions related to hip fracture hospital costs in Belgium
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Gathon, Henry-Jean ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2011, March), 22(Suppl.1), 333

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See detailLe patient polyvasculaire. Etude rétrospective de 4200 patients vasculaires opérés entre 1980 et 1986
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Creemers, Etienne ULg; Dekoster, Guy ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1988), 88(2, Mar-Apr), 111-9

Polyvascular patients. Among a consecutive series of 4200 patients submitted to vascular surgery, a group of 292 people operated on, in at least two anatomically and physiologically different sites, is ... [more ▼]

Polyvascular patients. Among a consecutive series of 4200 patients submitted to vascular surgery, a group of 292 people operated on, in at least two anatomically and physiologically different sites, is individualized as polyvascular patients. A subgroup is characterized by simultaneous procedures in two separated fields; 32 have benefited in the same time from carotid and coronary procedures, i.e., 0.6% of all coronary patients and 2% of all carotid patients. The carotid-coronary group exhibited a more severe anatomical disease both in the carotid and the coronary vasculatures. Apart from simultaneously operated patients, others were sequentially treated over a 7 years period: people with carotid (25%) or visceral (40%) arterial disease were more prone to become polyvascular. Polyvascular patients differ from monovascular patients in that hypertension is more frequent and more severe, mean cholesterol level higher and incidence of severe hypercholesterolemia more frequent. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient preference for eletriptan 80 mg versus subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg: results of a crossover study in patients who have recently used subcutaneous sumatriptan
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Pascual, J.; Rasmussen, S. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2005), 12(2), 108-117

This current randomized, open-label, crossover study evaluated preference for oral eletriptan 80 mg compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg (suma-sc) amongst patients (n = 311) meeting IHS criteria ... [more ▼]

This current randomized, open-label, crossover study evaluated preference for oral eletriptan 80 mg compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg (suma-sc) amongst patients (n = 311) meeting IHS criteria for migraine who had recently used suma-sc, and found it well tolerated. Three attacks were treated on each study medication. Assessment of subjective preference was evaluated, after which patients freely chose which study medication they wished to use to treat each of three additional migraine attacks. A slight majority (50.6%) preferred or greatly preferred eletriptan, whilst 43% preferred suma-sc. When permitted to choose between eletriptan and suma-sc for subsequent treatment, 78% of patients who had preferred eletriptan took eletriptan during the extension phase for all three of their attacks, whilst only 37% of patients who preferred suma-sc took suma-sc for all of their extension-phase attacks (P < 0.05). Secondary efficacy measures showed comparable efficacy for each study medication, except for faster headache response and pain-free rates favor of suma-sc, and a significantly lower recurrence rate on eletriptan (25% vs. 40%; P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that eletriptan is a strong alternative option for patients who have been prescribed suma-sc. [less ▲]

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