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See detailMultimodular Penicillin-Binding Proteins: An Enigmatic Family of Orthologs and Paralogs
Goffin, Colette ULg; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg

in Microbiology & Molecular Biology Reviews (1998), 62(4), 1079-1093

The monofunctional penicillin-binding DD-peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine beta-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain ... [more ▼]

The monofunctional penicillin-binding DD-peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine beta-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain while retaining the same folding, three-motif amino acid sequence signature, serine-assisted catalytic mechanism, and active-site topology. Fusion events gave rise to multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The acyl serine transferase penicillin-binding (PB) module possesses the three active-site defining motifs of the superfamily; it is linked to the carboxy end of a non-penicillin-binding (n-PB) module through a conserved fusion site; the two modules form a single polypeptide chain which folds on the exterior of the plasma membrane and is anchored by a transmembrane spanner; and the full-size PBPs cluster into two classes, A and B. In the class A PBPs, the n-PB modules are a continuum of diverging sequences; they possess a five-motif amino acid sequence signature, and conserved dicarboxylic amino acid residues are probably elements of the glycosyl transferase catalytic center. The PB modules fall into five subclasses: A1 and A2 in gram-negative bacteria and A3, A4, and A5 in gram-positive bacteria. The full-size class A PBPs combine the required enzymatic activities for peptidoglycan assembly from lipid-transported disaccharide-peptide units and almost certainly prescribe different, PB-module specific traits in peptidoglycan cross-linking. In the class B PBPs, the PB and n-PB modules cluster in a concerted manner. A PB module of subclass B2 or B3 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B2 or B3 in gram-negative bacteria, and a PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 is linked to an n-PB module of subclass B1, B4, or B5 in gram-positive bacteria. Class B PBPs are involved in cell morphogenesis. The three motifs borne by the n-PB modules are probably sites for module-module interaction and the polypeptide stretches which extend between motifs 1 and 2 are sites for protein-protein interaction. The full-size class B PBPs are an assortment of orthologs and paralogs, which prescribe traits as complex as wall expansion and septum formation. PBPs of subclass B1 are unique to gram-positive bacteria. They are not essential, but they represent an important mechanism of resistance to penicillin among the enterococci and staphylococci. Natural evolution and PBP- and beta-lactamase-mediated resistance show that the ability of the catalytic centers to adapt their properties to new situations is limitless. Studies of the reaction pathways by using the methods of quantum chemistry suggest that resistance to penicillin is a road of no return. [less ▲]

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See detailLa multimorbidité : le médecin généraliste et les systèmes de santé mis au défi
Belche, Jean ULg; Crismer, André ULg

in Minerva: Tijdschrift Voor Evidence Based Medicine (2016), 15(3), 55-57

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la ... [more ▼]

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la multimorbidité, chez un même patient. La manière dont sont structurés la production scientifique et les systèmes de santé, dont le paradigme dominant est la prise en charge de patients avec une seule morbidité, complique la prise en charge adéquate de cette population (1). Søndergaard a dès lors exploré les difficultés que rencontre le médecin généraliste (MG) face aux patients en situation de multimorbidité au travers d’ateliers auxquels ont participé près de 180 MG et chercheurs scandinaves. [less ▲]

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See detailMultinational Compagnies, Social Responsibility and Human Resource Manager
Robert, Jocelyne ULg; Goemans, Adeline; Delhez, Gauthier

Conference (2014, July 16)

This communication analyzes the situation of six multinational companies’ policy of "social responsibility" and of "sustainable development". The purpose of this communication is to define how these ... [more ▼]

This communication analyzes the situation of six multinational companies’ policy of "social responsibility" and of "sustainable development". The purpose of this communication is to define how these companies, especially the subsidiaries, are socially responsible and take into account environmental issues. This exploratory and qualitative study is based on the analysis of official discourse of six firms and those of human resources managers. We highlight different types of "social responsibility", the "stakeholders" that are taken into account by companies and the means implemented to achieve the policies of "sustainable development" and of "social responsibility". Our purpose is to show, beyond the official discourse, which role the subsidiaries play and which autonomy they have in their policies’ implementation. We wonder in conclusion about the hypothesis that a new way of human resource management of organizations is likely to appear through this new “social responsibility” and, conversely, if the new management involves the emergence of a new social responsibility. We will show that the types of responsibility, shown through the web site and in the HR discourses, are “ethic” (stands for the respect of the values, the standards and the requirements that stakeholders find fair) and “economic” ( focuses on the production of goods and services). Those classifications depend on the firm’s sector. The Human Resources can be more regardful for the legal aspects or for the political aspects, especially in crisis situation. The human resources play different roles and highlight different priorities: respect of fundamental values, actions of the subsidiary that are presented as models, transparent communication, gather the employees around values and projects… [less ▲]

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See detailMultinational Federalism and Immigrant Multiculturalism in Brussels
Bousetta, Hassan ULg

in Zapata-Barrero, Ricard (Ed.) Immigration and Self-government of Minority Nations (2009)

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See detailLes multinationales de l’information face à l’État : l'exemple des agences de presse anglo-saxonnes
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2003)

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See detailMultinationales et droit de la propriété intellectuelle – Le cas des savoirs traditionnels
Neyrinck, Norman ULg

in Brüls, Christine (Ed.) Les Multinationales (2012)

The present contribution provides an overview of various issues susceptible to arise in the international management of intellectual property right. Chapter I deals with patents and describes, on the one ... [more ▼]

The present contribution provides an overview of various issues susceptible to arise in the international management of intellectual property right. Chapter I deals with patents and describes, on the one hand, a variety of legal options (novelty, exhaustivity, mandatory licensing, ...) that States can take to influence the management of patent portfolios abroad and, on the other hand, the forum shopping strategies that multinationals may implement to take advantage from the rules that favor them most. Chapter II deals with traditional knowledge issues and lists the various methods of protection – whether defensive or offensive – that States may implement to prevent free exploitation of traditional knowledge abroad. Sui generis regimes, trade secrecy, unjust enrichment and extra contractual liability are discussed. Various examples are given. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTIOBJECTIVE DESIGN OF CONTROL CHARTS
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2011, September 24)

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See detailMultiobjective Genetic Algorithm Approach to the Economic Statistical Design of Control Charts with an application to Xbar and S2 charts
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Saniga, Erwin

in Quality and Reliability Engineering International (2013), 29(3), 407-415

Control charts are the primary tools of statistical process control. These charts may be designed by using a simple rule suggested by Shewhart, by a statistical criterion, an economic criterion or a joint ... [more ▼]

Control charts are the primary tools of statistical process control. These charts may be designed by using a simple rule suggested by Shewhart, by a statistical criterion, an economic criterion or a joint economic-statistical criterion. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. One weakness of the methods of design listed above is their lack of flexibility and adaptability, a primary objective of practical mathematical models. In this paper, we explore multi objective models as an alternative for the methods listed above. These provide a set of optimal solutions rather than a single optimal solution and thus allow the user to tailor their solution to the temporal imperative of a specific industrial situation. We present a solution to a well known industrial problem and compare optimal multi objective designs to economic designs, statistical designs, economic statistical designs and heuristic designs. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiparametric observation and analysis of the Sea
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

in Ocean Dynamics (2011)

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See detailMultiparametric observations and analysis in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica), an ideal site for studying the human activity effects and climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea; STARESO
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Conference (2010, May)

STARESO (Station de REcherche Sous marine et Océanographique) is the marine and oceanographic research station of the University of Liège (Belgium) managed by the French company STARESO S.A.. Constructed ... [more ▼]

STARESO (Station de REcherche Sous marine et Océanographique) is the marine and oceanographic research station of the University of Liège (Belgium) managed by the French company STARESO S.A.. Constructed in 1969, it is located near Calvi (Corsica, Western Mediterranean Sea) in an oligotrophic area chosen for the exceptional quality of its coastal waters STARESO offers to the oceanographers, by diving or with boats, a direct access to the sea. The variety of the accessible ecosystems is remarkable and unique in the Mediterranean basin: -the Bay of Calvi is characterized by healthy and very diverse biocenosis (e.g. Posidonia meadows, rocky and sandy communities, -a steep submarine canyon, with depths greater than 1 000 meters, is accessible in 15 minutes of navigation; -the Liguro-Provençal front, a major hydrologic structure, is situated between 10 and 15 miles of the coast. STARESO is accessible all the year for everybody and is functioning like an oceanographic research vessel. The Station is a platform for all oceanographic disciplines with a scientific expertise widely based on a long tradition of interdisciplinary work, and a direct access to time series of physical, chemical and biological data registered with automated systems and variety of sensors deployed in the Bay of Calvi since 30 years. This platform provides the opportunity to reach coastal, pelagic, benthic, deep systems with a manageable cost and ship requirements in a pristine zone. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipartite entanglement criterion from uncertainty relations
Gillet, Jérémie ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Agarwal, G. S.

in Physical Review. A (2008), 78

We formulate an entanglement criterion using Peres-Horodecki positive partial transpose operations combined with the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation. We show that any pure entangled bipartite ... [more ▼]

We formulate an entanglement criterion using Peres-Horodecki positive partial transpose operations combined with the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation. We show that any pure entangled bipartite and tripartite state can be detected by experimentally measuring mean values and variances of specific observables. Those observables must satisfy a specific condition in order to be used, and we show their general form in the 2 x 2 (two qubits) dimension case. The criterion is applied on a variety of physical systems including bipartite and multipartite mixed states and reveals itself to be stronger than the Bell inequalities and other criteria. The criterion also work on continuous variable cat states and angular momentum states of the radiation field. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipartite entanglement criterion from uncertainty relations
Gillet, Jérémie ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Agarwal, G. S.

Poster (2009)

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See detailMultipartite-entanglement monotones and polynomial invariants
Eltschka, Christopher; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Osterloh, Andreas et al

in Physical Review. A (2012), 85

We show that a positive homogeneous function that is invariant under determinant 1 stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) transformations defines an N-qubit entanglement monotone ... [more ▼]

We show that a positive homogeneous function that is invariant under determinant 1 stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) transformations defines an N-qubit entanglement monotone if and only if the homogeneous degree is not larger than four. We then describe a common basis and formalism for the N-tangle and other known invariant polynomials of degree four. This allows us to elucidate the relation of the four-qubit invariants defined by Luque and Thibon [Phys. Rev. A 67, 042303 (2003)] and the reduced two-qubit density matrices of the states under consideration, thus giving a physical interpretation for those invariants. We demonstrate that this is a special case of a completely general law that holds for any multipartite system with bipartitions of equal dimension, e.g., for an even number of qudits. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiperiod vehicle loading optimization with stochastic supply
Amand, Guillaume ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, April 07)

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See detailMultiperiod vehicle loading with stochastic release dates
Pironet, Thierry ULg

Conference (2013, February 08)

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See detailMultiperiod vehicle loading with stochastic release dates
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Kronus, David ULg et al

Conference (2012, May 24)

Production scheduling and vehicle routing problems are well-known topics in operations management. Although these tasks are consecutive in the supply chain, few optimization models tackle the associated ... [more ▼]

Production scheduling and vehicle routing problems are well-known topics in operations management. Although these tasks are consecutive in the supply chain, few optimization models tackle the associated issues. A most common situation, in practice, is actually that transportation management is disconnected from production planning: when production items or batches have been completely processed by the manufacturing plant, they become available for shipping, and they are consequently handled by the transportation managers. From a global managerial perspective, and with a view towards coordination of the product flows and customer satisfaction, this is not an ideal process. It is by far preferable, indeed, to set up an integrated production-transportation plan taking into account, among other constraints, the capacity of the plants and the customer due-dates. The present research proposes a methodology to investigate a multi-period vehicle loading problem with deterministic or stochastic information concerning items arrivals from production. Results from related optimization techniques are statistically compared and the benefits of the multi-period and stochastic modeling is demonstrated. Finally, an efficient heuristic is highlighted and is shown to be robust to the deviation from item arrival forecasts. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiphase flow from a civil engineering perspective
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2012, June)

For over 15 years, our research group at the University of Liege has been conducting basic and applied research on flow and transport phenomena involved in environmental and civil engineering applications ... [more ▼]

For over 15 years, our research group at the University of Liege has been conducting basic and applied research on flow and transport phenomena involved in environmental and civil engineering applications. The research topics cover a wide range of multiphase flow, including aerated flow and sediment-laden flow. The research group has developed the modelling system WOLF, which performs 1D, 2D-horizontal, 2D-vertical and 3D simulations of free surface and pressurized flow, coupled with air- or sediment-transport as well as morphodynamic simulations [9]. An original depth-averaged k- model is used to evaluate the eddy viscosity and diffusivity [5]. In a composite modelling approach [e.g., 2, 8], the numerical simulations have systematically been carried out in parallel with experimental research in flumes and scale models of hydraulic structures [3, 4, 7]. A particularly challenging issue in multiphase flow modelling is the need to handle accurately and efficiently a wide range of time scales involved in the relevant phenomena (e.g., sediment transport). Therefore, the modelling system provides a series of complementary numerical schemes designed to be combined for covering the whole range of relevant time scales. This presentation will provide examples of analysis of aerated flow, such as on stepped spillways and in penstocks [6], and of reservoir sedimentation. In particular, recent experimental findings have revealed that the flow pattern in rectangular shallow reservoirs is considerably modified at a macro-scale when suspended load is added to the flow [1]. This sudden change in flow pattern has been observed to take place quickly after the beginning of the experiment, so that it is very unlikely to result from morphodynamic changes of the reservoir bottom. Therefore, the numerical model WOLF has been used to investigate the effect of two other possible feedback mechanisms of sediment deposits and suspended load on the overall flow pattern, namely (i) increased bottom roughness and (ii) turbulence damping. From the simulations results, it can be argued that turbulence intensity is probably the main cause for the flow pattern to change at a macro-scale, as suspended load exerts a turbulence damping effect at a micro-scale in the two-phase flow (water-sediment mixture). Finally, the analysis of flow and sediment transport in shallow rectangular reservoirs also highlights the need, when structures are designed based on numerical simulations, to carefully check the stability of the computed flow fields needs by conducting sensitivity analyses, not only with respect to the modelling parameters but also with respect to the initial conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multiphase Model for the Transport of Dispersed Phases in Environmental Flows: Theoretical Contribution
Kerger, François ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in European Journal of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering (2010), 3

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See detailMultiphase Saturation Curves of the Oxoglutarate Carrier : A mathematical Model
Holzhütter, H.-G.; Sluse-Goffart, C.; Sluse, Francis ULg

in Mathematical & Computer Modelling (1994), 19(6-8), 263-272

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg)