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See detailThe locked-in syndrome : what is it like to be conscious but paralyzed and voiceless?
Laureys, Steven ULg; Pellas, Frédéric; Van Eeckhout, Philippe et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2005), 150(Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology), 495-511

The locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively deefferented, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. Acute ventral pontine ... [more ▼]

The locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively deefferented, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. Acute ventral pontine lesions are its most common cause. People with such brainstem lesions often remain comatose for some days or weeks, needing artificial respiration and then gradually wake up, but remaining paralyzed and voiceless, superficially resembling patients in a vegetative state or akinetic mutism, In acute locked-in syndrome (LIS), eye-coded communication and evaluation of cognitive and emotional functioning is very limited because vigilance is fluctuating and eye movements may be inconsistent, very small, and easily exhausted. It has been shown that more than half of the time it is the family and not the physician who first realized that the patient was aware. Distressingly, recent studies reported that the diagnosis of LIS on average takes over 2.5 months. In some cases it took 4-6 years before aware and sensitive patients, locked in an immobile body, were recognized as being conscious. Once a LIS patient becomes medically stable, and given appropriate medical care, life expectancy increases to several decades. Even if the chances of good motor recovery are very limited, existing eye-controlled, computer-based communication technology currently allow the patient to control his environment, use a word processor coupled to a speech synthesizer, and access the worldwide net. Healthy individuals and medical professionals sometimes assume that the quality of life of an LIS patient is so poor that it is not worth living. On the contrary, chronic LIS patients typically self-report meaningful quality of life and their demand for euthanasia is surprisingly infrequent. Biased clinicians might provide less aggressive medical treatment and influence the family in inappropriate ways. It is important to stress that only the medically stabilized, informed LIS patient is competent to consent to or refuse life-sustaining treatment. Patients suffering from LIS should not be denied the right tot die - and to die with dignity - but also, and more importantly, and pain and symptom management. In our opinion, there is an urgent need for a renewed ethical and medicolegal framework for our care of locked-in patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLocked-in syndrome after stroke
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

Conference (2013, April)

The development of intensive care has considerably increased the number of patients surviving severe brain damage. In clinical practice, traumatic and non-traumatic coma is a frequent problem and the main ... [more ▼]

The development of intensive care has considerably increased the number of patients surviving severe brain damage. In clinical practice, traumatic and non-traumatic coma is a frequent problem and the main preoccupations of relatives and physicians is the neurologic recovery that may range from absence of cognitive and motor impairments to severe disability or death. The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine defined Locked-In Syndrome (LIS) with the presence of sustained eye opening, intact cognitive function, aphonia or severe hypophonia, quadriplegia or quadriparesis and a primery and elementary code of communication that use vertical or lateral eye movement or blinking of the upper eyelid. LIS is typically caused by a ventral pontine lesion of the brainstem. LIS infrequently occurs in children and in adults and patients may wrongly be considered as being in a coma or in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness state. In order to avoid this misdiagnosis, our group developed active paradigms in which participants are instructed to voluntarily direct their attention to a target stimulus. Limitations of communication make quality of life assessments in LIS patients particularly difficult. Some physicians who take care of acute LIS or healthy individual may consider that the quality of life of a LIS is very limited. However, studies have shown that patients with severe diseases or motor impairments do not necessarily self-report a poor quality of life. [less ▲]

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See detailLocked-in syndrome et états de conscience altérée: comment détecter la conscience?
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg

in Pellas, Frederique; Kiefer; Weiss (Eds.) et al Entretiens de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation (2007)

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See detailLocked-in syndrome et états de conscience altérée: comment détecter la conscience?
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Schnakers, Caroline ULg et al

in Pellas, Frederique; Kiefer, C; Weiss, JJ (Eds.) et al Eveil de coma et états limites (2007)

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See detailLocked-in syndrome in children: report of five cases and review of the literature
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Schnakers, C.; Damas, François ULg et al

in Pediatric Neurology (2009), 41

The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a ... [more ▼]

The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a primary mode of communication that uses vertical or lateral eye movement or blinking. Five cases are reported here, and previous literature is reviewed. According to the literature, the most common etiology of locked-in syndrome in children is ventral pontine stroke, most frequently caused by a vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis or occlusion. In terms of prognosis, 35% of pediatric locked-in syndrome patients experienced some motor recovery, 26% had good recovery, 23% died, and 16% remained quadriplegic and anarthric. These findings raise important ethical considerations in terms of quality of life and end-of-life decisions in such challenging cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLocked-in: don't judge a book by its cover.
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Bernheim, J. L.; Schnakers, Caroline ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2008), 79(1), 2

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See detailLocking implants : polyaxial systems
Balligand, Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 18th congress 2016 (2016, September)

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See detailLe Locometrix : outil de dépistage des troubles de la marche chez la personne âgée ?
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007, October)

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See detailLocomotion d'un robot mobile
Lens, Stéphane ULg

Master's dissertation (2008)

Dans le domaine de la robotique mobile, l’étude de la locomotion possède une place prépondérante. De nombreuses approches et solutions peuvent être envisagées et il convient d’apporter un soin particulier ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine de la robotique mobile, l’étude de la locomotion possède une place prépondérante. De nombreuses approches et solutions peuvent être envisagées et il convient d’apporter un soin particulier quant à leur sélection afin de garantir les performances du système final. Ce travail de fin d’études a pour objectif la conception complète du système de locomotion d’un robot mobile participant à un concours de robotique. La réalisation des cartes électroniques de commande pour les moteurs, ainsi que la synthèse des lois de contrôle sont étudiées en détails. Ces lois seront principalement divisées en deux phases : d’une part, la génération d’une trajectoire réalisable, et d’autre part, une régulation sur cette trajectoire grâce, entre autres, à un contrôle local de la vitesse des roues motrices. Ce travail se termine, enfin, par une implémentation pratique du système étudié et par une évaluation de ses performances. [less ▲]

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See detailLocomotives à vapeur, communautés virtuelles et classification décimale universelle. Propos sur l'échantillonnage en recherche qualitative
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 26)

La logique de la découverte en recherche qualitative est souvent mal comprise, y compris par certains de ses praticiens. Les débats autour de l'échantillonnage, de la représentativité et des études de cas ... [more ▼]

La logique de la découverte en recherche qualitative est souvent mal comprise, y compris par certains de ses praticiens. Les débats autour de l'échantillonnage, de la représentativité et des études de cas, en particulier, entretiennent une profonde incompréhension entre les chercheurs. En partant de l'histoire de ses propres terrains, Christophe Lejeune illustre comment l'histoire et l'ethnographie se complètent pour relier la documentation, les logiciels libres et le tourisme ferroviaire. [less ▲]

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See detailLocomotor effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde after peripheral and intraventricular injections in Swiss and C57BL/6J mice
Tambour, Sophie ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2006), 172(1), 145-154

Several studies have suggested that acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, is involved in the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol in mice, although it has never been formally tested ... [more ▼]

Several studies have suggested that acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, is involved in the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol in mice, although it has never been formally tested whether acetaldehyde injected directly into the brain of mice has stimulant properties. Recently, it was also shown in rats that both ethanol and acetaldehyde can induce opposite locomotor effects according to the route of administration. Whereas peripheral administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde induced locomotor depressant effects, their infusions directly into the brain produced locomotor stimulation. The aim of the present study was to characterize in mice the locomotor effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde injected either peripherally by the intraperitoneal route or centrally into the brain ventricles. Additionally, the effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde were compared in two strains of mice known for their differential sensitivity to the locomotor effects of ethanol, namely Swiss and C57BL/6J mice. Ethanol induced a biphasic effect on locomotor activity in Swiss mice, with stimulant effects at low to moderate doses and depressant effects at higher doses. Such a profile of effects was observed whatever the route of administration, peripheral or central. In C57BL/6J mice, ethanol only induced monophasic depressant effects. In this mouse strain, no evidence of the stimulant effects of ethanol was found after either an i.p. or an i.c.v. administration of ethanol. In contrast to ethanol, acetaldehyde yielded only depressant effects in both strains of mice after both peripheral and central administrations. These results indicate that the route of administration does not alter the locomotor effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde in mice. Additionally, the present study shows that the stimulant properties of acetaldehyde, even after direct infusion into the brain, are not as obvious as previously speculated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe locomotory system of pearlfish Carapus acus: What morphological features are characteristic for highly flexible fishes?
Schwartz, Catherine; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Whier, Stefan et al

in Journal of Morphology (2012), 273

The body curvature displayed by fishes differs remarkably between species. Some nonmuscular features (e.g., number of vertebrae) are known to influence axial flexibility, but we have poor knowledge of the ... [more ▼]

The body curvature displayed by fishes differs remarkably between species. Some nonmuscular features (e.g., number of vertebrae) are known to influence axial flexibility, but we have poor knowledge of the influence of the musculotendinous system (myosepta and muscles). Whereas this system has been described in stiffbodied fishes, we have little data on flexible fishes. In this study, we present new data on the musculotendinous system of a highly flexible fish and compare them to existing data on rigid fishes. We use microdissections with polarized light microscopy to study the three-dimensional anatomy of myoseptal tendons, histology and immunohistology to study the insertion of muscle fiber types into tendons, and l-CT scans to study skeletal anatomy. Results are compared with published data from stiff-bodied fishes. We identify four important morphological differences between stiff-bodied fishes and Carapus acus: (1) Carapus bears short tendons in the horizontal septum, whereas rigid fishes have elongated tendons. (2) Carapus bears short lateral tendons in its myosepta, whereas stiff-bodied fishes bear elongated tendons. Because of its short myoseptal tendons, Carapus retains high axial flexibility. In contrast, elongated tendons restrict axial flexibility in rigid fishes but are able to transmit anteriorly generated muscle forces through long tendons down to the tail. (3) Carapus bears distinct epineural and epipleural tendons in its myosepta, whereas these tendons are weak or absent in rigid fishes. As these tendons firmly connect vertebral axis and skin in Carapus, we consider them to constrain lateral displacement of the vertebral axis during extreme body flexures. (4) Ossifications of myoseptal tendons are only present in C. acus and other more flexible fishes but are absent in rigid fishes. The functional reasons for this remain unexplained. [less ▲]

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See detailLa locura como compromiso : Un Quijote actual
Francois, Jeromine ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailThe locus ceruleus is involved in the successful retrieval of emotional memories in humans
Sterpenich, Virginie ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Desseilles, Martin ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 26(28), 7416-7423

Emotional memories are better remembered than neutral ones. The amygdala is involved in this enhancement not only by modulating the hippocampal activity, but possibly also by modulating central arousal ... [more ▼]

Emotional memories are better remembered than neutral ones. The amygdala is involved in this enhancement not only by modulating the hippocampal activity, but possibly also by modulating central arousal. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed the retrieval of neutral faces encoded in emotional or neutral contexts. The pupillary size measured during encoding was used as a modulator of brain responses during retrieval. The interaction between emotion and memory showed significant responses in a set of areas, including the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus. These areas responded significantly more for correctly remembered faces encoded in an emotional, compared with neutral, context. The same interaction conducted on responses modulated by the pupillary size revealed an area of the dorsal tegmentum of the ponto-mesencephalic region, consistent with the locus ceruleus. Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction showed that amygdalar responses were more tightly related to those of the locus ceruleus when remembering faces that had been encoded in an emotional, rather than neutral, context. These findings suggest that the restoration of a central arousal similar to encoding takes part in the successful retrieval of neutral events learned in an emotional context. [less ▲]

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See detailLocus coeruleus syndrome as a complication of tectal surgery.
Kronenburg, Annick; Spliet, Wim G.; Broekman, Marike et al

in BMJ case reports (2015), 2015

We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who underwent a resection of a tectal pilocytic astrocytoma complicated by a sequence of fluctuating consciousness, psychosis with complex hallucinations and ... [more ▼]

We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who underwent a resection of a tectal pilocytic astrocytoma complicated by a sequence of fluctuating consciousness, psychosis with complex hallucinations and lasting sleeping disturbances in which she vividly acts out her dreams. Based on the clinical and anatomical evidence of this case, we propose the term locus coeruleus syndrome to describe this association of iatrogenic symptoms. Along with those of the locus coeruleus, lesions of the dorsal raphe nucleus, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra pars compacta, the superior colliculus and other peduncular lesions (such as peduncular hallucinosis) are involved in the regulation of sleep-wake/arousal, behaviour, sleeping disorders and rapid eye movement atonia. However, iatrogenic lesion of the locus coeruleus could explain the complications on all levels in our patient. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (Lee) of Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (Epec) from Dogs and Cats
Goffaux, F.; China, B.; Janssen, L. et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1999), 473

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called LEE. The LEE was identified, characterized and completely sequenced from the human EPEC strain E2348/69. The LEE carries genes coding for: a type III secretion system (genes esc and sep), the translocated intimin receptor (gene tir), the outer membrane protein intimin (gene eae) and the E. coli secreted proteins EspA, EspB, and EspD (genes esp). In addition to man and farm animals, EPEC are also isolated from dogs and cats. We studied structurally and functionally the LEE of dog and cat EPEC. First, we used four probes scattered along the LEE to identify the presence of a LEE in canine and feline EPEC isolates. Second, by PCR, we checked the presence of genes homologous to eae, sep, esp, and tir genes in these strains. Third, since the four types of eae and tir genes were described, we developed a multiplex PCR in order to determine the type of eae and tir genes present in each strain. Fourth, we determined by PCR the site of the LEE insertion on the chromosome. Fifth, we tested several of the canine EPEC in their capacity to induce attaching and effacing lesions in the rabbit intestinal loop assay. We can conclude from this study: first, that the a LEE-like structure is present in all tested strains and that it contains genes homologous to esp, sep, tir, and eae genes; second, that there is some preferential associations between the type of eae gene and the type of tir gene present in a strain; third, that the majority of the tested strains contained a LEE located elsewhere on the chromosome in comparison to the human EPEC strain E2348/69; and fourth that dog EPEC were able to induce attaching and effacing lesions in rabbit ileal loop assay. [less ▲]

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See detailA locus for febrile seizures (FEB3) maps to chromosome 2q23-24.
Peiffer, A.; Thompson, J.; Charlier, Carole ULg et al

in Annals of Neurology (1999), 46(4), 671-8

Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures, occurring in 2% to 5% of North American children. We report a large Utah family with 21 members affected by febrile seizures inherited as ... [more ▼]

Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures, occurring in 2% to 5% of North American children. We report a large Utah family with 21 members affected by febrile seizures inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. All had generalized tonic-clonic seizures with onset associated with fever, consistent with the consensus febrile seizure phenotype, and none had febrile seizures beyond 6 years of age. Eighteen affected individuals had recurrent febrile seizures. Eight individuals developed afebrile seizures between ages 5 and 13 years. Afebrile seizures consisted of generalized tonic-clonic, generalized tonic, generalized atonic, simple partial, and partial complex seizure types and were associated with abnormal electroencephalographic findings in 5 individuals, all of whom were intellectually normal. We undertook linkage analysis in this family, defining the disease phenotype as febrile seizures alone. Linkage analysis in epilepsy candidate gene/loci regions failed to show evidence for linkage to febrile seizures. However, a genomewide scan and subsequent fine mapping revealed significant evidence for a new febrile seizure locus (FEB3) on chromosome 2q23-24 with linkage to the marker D2S2330 (LOD score 8.08 at theta = 0.001). Haplotype analysis defined a critical 10-cM region between markers D2S141 and D2S2345 that contains the FEB3 locus. [less ▲]

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See detailLocusts and Grasshoppers: Future Foods?
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, May 08)

Consuming locusts and grasshoppers as food is not a new concept, because some people have been doing it for a long time and there are many references in the religious literature to support this. About 80 ... [more ▼]

Consuming locusts and grasshoppers as food is not a new concept, because some people have been doing it for a long time and there are many references in the religious literature to support this. About 80 locust and grasshopper species are consumed worldwide, and the large majority of grasshopper species are edible. From the nutritional point of view they are an excellent source of proteins, lipids and other minor components like vitamins and minerals. They are an excellent source of amino acids and their lipids contain a large majority of unsaturated fatty acids. Environmentalists have supported human consumption of grasshoppers owing to the facts that they usually appear as pests. Using them as food could help reduce their population and result in limited application of harmful pesticides. Their production usually generates lesser amount of greenhouse gases & ammonia; a lower amount of water is required for their production in comparison to conventional proteins sources. Some species of grasshoppers usually feed on dead organic matter, this reduces the environmental load. In the developing world, catching of grasshoppers and selling them for human consumption has played a key role in improving the livelihood of women and underprivileged children. Eating grasshopper and locust is not a very common practice in temperate areas. However it is a very common practice in the tropical areas of world because of the higher density, bigger size of the insect and yearlong availability in such areas. To encourage their consumption in temperate areas, it is now necessary to perform accurate research regarding food safety (minor components, toxicity, allergens,…) but also to develop value added products to make it easier for people to adapt with entomophagy. Furthermore we have to develop methods for commercial production and organize awareness campaigns to explain about the nutritional and other benefits related to locust & grasshopper consumption as food to people. [less ▲]

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See detailLocutif: une catégorie syntaxique de marqueurs de discours
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg; Kahane, Sylvain

Conference (2017)

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