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See detailQue les 4x4 arrêtent leur char
Balthasar, Jean-Pierre; Collignon, Fabrice; De Wit, Pierre et al

Article for general public (2006)

Des 4x4 dans la ville, est-ce bien raisonnable? Ce qui est certain, c'est que les SUV et leurs conducteurs représentent pour les autres usagers de la voie publique un danger disproportionné. Un article ... [more ▼]

Des 4x4 dans la ville, est-ce bien raisonnable? Ce qui est certain, c'est que les SUV et leurs conducteurs représentent pour les autres usagers de la voie publique un danger disproportionné. Un article récent du «British Medical Journal» rapporte que les conducteurs de SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle ou véhicule utilitaire de sport; on désigne ici ces véhicules 4x4 de luxe très à la mode) sont quatre fois plus nombreux à conduire en téléphonant (l'appareil à la main, sans «mains-libres») que la moyenne des conducteurs. Ils sont aussi plus nombreux à conduire sans ceinture. Le sentiment de sécurité procuré par le véhicule inciterait le conducteur à prendre plus de risques. [less ▲]

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See detailQue les CRACS se lèvent
Brahy, Rachel ULg; Guillaume, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2006)

Entrer dans l'exercice d'une citoyenneté responsable, active, critique et solidaire, suppose un long et patient travail de déconstruction des représentations initiales de l'action politique, et de ... [more ▼]

Entrer dans l'exercice d'une citoyenneté responsable, active, critique et solidaire, suppose un long et patient travail de déconstruction des représentations initiales de l'action politique, et de reconstruction de connaissances fondamentales. Il s'agit pour les jeunes belges d'appréhender le fonctionnement d'un Etat, de ses entités, de la procédure électorale,... et d'oser entreprendre une action "politique" à l'échelle locale. [less ▲]

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See detailLo que los Sistemas Nacionales de Innovación no miran. Una crítica constructiva de las políticas de ciencia y tecnología a partir del ‘modelo de la soja transgénica’
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Vasen, Federico

in Tula Molina, Fernando; Vara, Ana Maria (Eds.) Riesgo, política y alternativas tecnológicas. Entre la regulación y la discusión pública (2013)

En todo el mundo, las políticas y planes estratégicos de ciencia, tecnología e innovación (CTI) integran y reproducen una narrativa de innovación para el desarrollo a través del crecimiento económico ... [more ▼]

En todo el mundo, las políticas y planes estratégicos de ciencia, tecnología e innovación (CTI) integran y reproducen una narrativa de innovación para el desarrollo a través del crecimiento económico, utilizando conceptos tales como “sistemas nacionales de innovación” (SNI) (Lundvall, 1992) o “sociedad del conocimiento” o “economía del conocimiento”. Incluso si este modelo de innovación no es ideal o no está adaptado a las realidades locales, ha sido propuesto una y otra vez por organismos internacionales de crédito como el Banco Mundial, el Fondo Monetario Internacional o Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. La ecuación que está en el corazón de esta narrativa ha sido siempre la misma: fomentar la innovación (e invirtiendo para fortalecer su lugar en la economía nacional) llevará indefectiblemente a mayores beneficios económicos que en última instancia ayudarán a mejorar el nivel de bienestar social. De hecho, al minimo al nivel del discurso institucional, los sistemas nacionales de innovación existen (o hay promesas acerca de que van a existir) en todo lugar en que haya innovación. Volver real y eficiente el sistema se presenta como una precondición para la competitividad y el desarrollo futuro. En la realidad sin embargo, estos sistemas apenas existen en los mayores países en desarrollo, en función de las características del entramado institucional existente, las características de los actores locales, la falta de recursos materiales y simbólicos, los fuertes lazos de dependencia económica y las amplias desigualdades sociales. De modo central, y sin que exista necesariamente una reflexión acerca de si ese camino es el más indicado, tomar el camino de la “sociedad del conocimiento” seriamente, al establecer una estructura institucional para un sistema nacional de innovación, se transforma en el motor para el financiamiento de nuevas políticas públicas. Si la innovación finalmente tiene lugar, esto puede significar también que el poder ha sido desigualmente distribuido entre un número de actores que participaron, de una u otra forma, de un proceso sistémico complejo que pudo involucrar la extracción de recursos naturales, la investigación fundamental y aplicada, desarrollos industriales y márgenes de competitividad que llevaron a mayores beneficios. Este proceso pudo haber implicado la participación activa de los diferentes stakeholders, y la confrontación de diferentes líneas de argumentos, visiones económicas y prioridades socio-políticas. La mayoría del tiempo, cuando los países en desarrollo adoptan la narrativa de la “innovación para el desarrollo”, caen víctimas de un discurso dominante que está arraigado o relacionado con una estructura hegemónica (Radaelli, 2000), un patrón consistente que refleja la colonialidad del poder (Quijano, 2000). En un artículo reciente, Delvenne y Thoreau (2012) se ocupan del influyente y extendido enfoque de los Sistemas Nacionales de Innovación y discuten su adecuación a países que no son miembros de la OCDE, especialmente en América Latina donde tiende a ser reificado. A pesar de que el enfoque de los SNI supuestamente está pensado para abordar las necesidades más urgentes de las economías a las que se aplica, los autores señalan que se beneficiaría con el desarrollo de una visión más abarcativa, que permita integrar mayor diversidad y complejidad. En este capítulo, nos apoyaremos en primer término en su diagnóstico y lo articularemos con la historia del régimen de CTI en América Latina, con un foco especial en Argentina. En un segundo momento, a través de una visión general del caso de la soja transgénica y su importancia para la balanza de pagos de Argentina, exploramos la siguiente paradoja: mientras numerosos académicos señalan la necesidad de desarrollar una agenda de innovación para los países del sur, con un “marco sureño de pensamiento” (Arocena y Sutz, 2003), los planes nacionales de CTI y los desarrollos actuales en biotecnología siguen descansando en una versión reduccionista de la innovación que impide que esta “perspectiva sureña” pueda emerger, y los limita a metas económicas, considerando las aspectos sociales y ecológicos como meras externalidades. Nos proponemos explorar las razones detrás de esta situación y observamos que esto tiene un impacto en los actores que desean utilizar la CTI de modo más reflexivo, a la vez que también en la eficiencia de las políticas de CTI en Argentina. Nuestra intención no es la de criticar ciegamente la orientación de las políticas CTI hacia el crecimiento económico, sino más bien contribuir -a través de un excelente ejemplo de un sector central de la economía argentina- a introducir una perspectiva más crítica y abarcativa de estas políticas públicas. [less ▲]

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See detailQue ma joie soit sans mélanges
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

in Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth; Havelange, Carl; Denis, Philippe (Eds.) et al Temps culture, religions. Autour de Jean-Pierre Massaut (2004)

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See detailQue mesure la neuro-imagerie fonctionnelle: IRMf, TEP & MEG?
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg; Noirhomme, Quentin ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 231-7

Functional cerebral imaging techniques allow the in vivo study of human cognitive and sensorimotor functions in physiological or pathological conditions. In this paper, we review the advantages and ... [more ▼]

Functional cerebral imaging techniques allow the in vivo study of human cognitive and sensorimotor functions in physiological or pathological conditions. In this paper, we review the advantages and limitations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). fMRI and PET measure haemodynamic changes induced by regional changes in neuronal activity. These techniques have a high spatial resolution (a few millimeters), but a poor temporal resolution (a few seconds to several minutes). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and MEG measure the neuronal electrical or magnetic activity with a high temporal resolution (i.e., milliseconds) albeit with a poorer spatial resolution (i.e., a few millimeters to one centimeter). The combination of these different neuroimaging techniques allows studying different components of the brain's activity (e.g., neurovascular coupling, electromagnetic activity) with both a high temporal and spatial resolution. [less ▲]

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See detail« Que n'allez-vous droit au cinématographe » ? Une déclaration de Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Pierssens, Michel (Eds.) Films et Plumes (2011, October)

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See detailQue nous apprend le fait de replacer la violence dans un contexte historique et sociologique?
Gavray, Claire ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2006)

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See detailQue nous apprennent les enquêtes PISA ?
Baye, Ariane ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailQue pense l’élève de la leçon qu’il vient de vivre ?
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Delfosse, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse et al

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2000), 40(3), 119-129

S'intéresser aux avis des acteurs de la relation pédagogique sur ce qu'ils vivent en classe représente une démarche particulièrement utile pour mieux apprécier la signification des comportements qu'ils ... [more ▼]

S'intéresser aux avis des acteurs de la relation pédagogique sur ce qu'ils vivent en classe représente une démarche particulièrement utile pour mieux apprécier la signification des comportements qu'ils ont adoptés. Il est clair qu'à l'issue d'une leçon d'éducation physique, il est hautement souhaitable que les élèves éprouvent autant de satisfaction que possible. Une estimation globale de satisfaction doit être complétée de perceptions plus spécifiques relatives à l'intensité de la leçon, aux sentiments de compétence en relation avec ce qui fut réalisé, aux corrections reçues, au progrès réalisé, au sentiment de s'être donné à fond, de s'être amusé et d'avoir prêté attention aux interventions de l'enseignant. [less ▲]

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See detailQue pense l'équipage ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Delruelle, Edouard; Brausch, Géraldine (Eds.) Le droit sans la justice (2004)

The text is a question adressed to positivist theory of law : to what extent can a positivist theory of law be understandable for profesionals, giving that the practice of law seems to have as a ... [more ▼]

The text is a question adressed to positivist theory of law : to what extent can a positivist theory of law be understandable for profesionals, giving that the practice of law seems to have as a presuposition some kind of a "realist" theory of the law ? [less ▲]

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See detailQue peut apporter la didactique professionnelle à l’évaluation des compétences ?
Chenu, Florent ULg

in L’évaluation des compétences en milieu scolaire et professionnel (2012)

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See detailQue peut dire la littérature en Belgique ? Autonomie de la littérature et procès d'écrivains, de Camille Lemonnier à Pierre Mertens
Denis, Benoît ULg

in Durand, Pascal; Hébert, Pierre-Philippe; Mollier, Jean-Yves (Eds.) et al La Censure de l’imprimé. Belgique, France, Québec et Suisse romande. XIXe-XXe siècles (2006)

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See detailQue peut la guerre d'Espagne dans le roman italien?
Curreri, Luciano ULg

in Corrado, Danielle; Alary, Viviane (Eds.) La guerre d'Espagne en héritage : Entre mémoire et oubli (de 1975 à nos jours) (2007)

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See detailQue peut le métalangage ? What can metalanguage do ?
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Provenzano, François ULg; Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie ULg et al

Book published by Presses Universitaires de Liège (2014)

In the social sciences, research that is conveyed in a display of technical language is not always seen in a good light. This is a trend particularly in semiotics. As a field of study, it has a reputation ... [more ▼]

In the social sciences, research that is conveyed in a display of technical language is not always seen in a good light. This is a trend particularly in semiotics. As a field of study, it has a reputation for eagerness to use semio-jargon at the worst, or at best, a reputation for walling itself off in a self-reflective meta-language. It is true that the best known and most cited treatise on structural semiotics, by Greimas and Courtés, was published as an Analytical Dictionary. And it is also true that Peirce's work is prodigiously crammed with terminological inventions and speculations. It would seem that in both cases, the quest for scientific rigor took precedence over elegance of expression and of so-called natural discourse. Nothing new under the sun, n'est-ce pas? They say that a courtesan under Louis XIV scandalized the Sun King's court by uttering a technical term in the king's bedchamber, which illustrates how far back the issue goes; it certainly didn't begin with the development of the academic study of signs. In issue 4 of Signata we would like to examine the various aspects of building the meta-language of semiotics. The intention is not to adopt a philological perspective, but to look at the issue of terminologies in current scientific epistemology. We will examine the diversity of the possible meta-languages (natural language versus technical language?), the influence of related disciplines (what implications do the borrowed terms from grammar, logic, mathematics, and so on have for semiotics?), the reasons — explicit or not — for the choices made, and the stylistic impacts of those choices. An inquiry of this sort could go in many directions. What follows is an open-ended, non-exhaustive enumeration: Semiotics: A special case? Is it actually true that the semiotic approach generates a more prolific meta-linguistic output than other disciplines? How and why? It would be interesting, for example, to do comparisons with these more or less related disciplines (linguistics, sociology, psychology, etc.), to assess whether their rapport with the meta-language might possibly be different, and the reasons for and effects of those differences. In these assessments, of course, there arises the issue of "natural language", which is so readily its own meta-language: Are there disciplines that reconcile themselves with this supposed naturalness without any detriment? An updated meta-language may be deemed as unavoidable for a discipline whose vocation is to generalize, which implies substantial modeling power. But what do we find in philosophy, which can be expressed without abandoning natural language, and which seems to incur less reproach for its jargon than semiotics? The archaeology of meta-languages Another line of inquiry would be of a genealogical nature: This would involve examining the theoretical justifications that underpin meta-language borrowings from this or that other discipline, at this or that other time in its history, and the repercussions, both stylistic and epistemological, of the trade in terminology. On this score, we note that classical structuralism has expressed itself to a great extent in a grammatical and more broadly linguistic language (actants, modalities, deixis, articulation, semes, etc.). But it is common knowledge that other approaches to semantic facts have favored the language of logic. And yet others have shown that it is both possible and effective to use language taken from geometry or optics. In addition to these, from the perspective of the primacy of perception, the language of the natural sciences must be included — particularly that of the neurosciences —, and the language of sensory forms from phenomenology. Whether one is helping oneself to terms like "isotopy" and "valence" from physics and chemistry or "topology" from mathematics, these are not innocent choices in a discipline that has blazed its trail through the social sciences. The epistemological influence of the meta-language. Without any doubt, herein lies the most complex, ambivalent issue. Firstly, when one adopts a meta-language, by definition one views the object of study as a language (whether it is the natural language or the language of images, or the language of social practices). Yet this operation is so laden with consequences that to enumerate them would be an impossible task. We will merely note that many theoretical categories and analytical tools seem to emerge directly from the choice of a particular meta-language and the distance dictated by it. Secondly, opting for one meta-language over another is ipso facto a choice of which explanatory form the analysis will use. It follows that working on the meta-language, far from being a deathly sterile activity, is a practice intended to generate the form the explanation will take (which is without any doubt a major issue in scientific discussion). But these two epistemological impacts of meta-language generation can trigger a great deal of discussion on what we might call "the adverse effects" of the chosen options. For example, if there is a consensus within a group on a particular meta-language (such as in Greimassian semiotics), it may become just a template to apply, simply a schema to project onto objects; but if it is an object of inquiry (such as in Peirce's work), it may yield an approach that is more theoretical than practical. Hence the question: Hasn't semiotics in fact been above all a field with a mix of applied and self-reflective approaches? And in any case, does it truly explain things when one supports a meta-language and seeks to apply it and think within its terms? For example, we might question whether the meta-linguistic power of semiotics hasn't made it a discipline that is quick to generalize, and kept it from focusing on the singularity of its objects. We might also question whether semiotic research isn't all too often more formal than substantial, both in the Hjelmselvian sense and the usual sense. Ultimately, even further up the line, one could debate the epistemological possibility of the meta-language itself — as the poststructuralist philosophies have done. Isn't the distinction between object language and meta-language actually a bit utopian in the natural languages, since it assumes that the terms completely lose their reflexivity? Lastly, we might question whether the meta-language as a theoretical tool doesn't entail more than just artless transparency, but also an effort to define the theory within a restrictive set of evidence. For example, to bring up the "semiotic square" presupposes that there is always a semiotic square that explains the basis of the discourse (in such a way that what was a working hypothesis could become a non-falsifiable theory). The socio-rhetorical effects of the meta-language Aside from the epistemological requirements, when technical terminology is reworked, this has impacts on the circulation of concepts and their appropriation by different groups, which then affects group members' recognition of one another and how they differentiate one group from another. The boundary drawn on a conceptual system by a terminological apparatus thus gives rise to corollary inclusion-exclusion repercussions that are not unimportant. There are fights over terminological legitimacy, whose foremost characteristic is actually that they are not formulated as such. Any meta-language also has impacts on the social aspects of thinking. This is especially true of the meta-language of semiotics, because, due to its dedication to generality and transposability, it must fully support deconstruction. On the other side of the coin, one can maintain that meta-language is to objects what bureaucracy is to communities: It is helpful in creating order and making distinctions, in establishing levels and empty slots, but the risk, then, is that it may become an end in itself that must be maintained and tended, and that it ultimately disallows acting and thinking in other ways. In the light of this rhetorical approach, finally, we will set down some things to consider on the manner in which semiotics talks to itself: Are "techno-speak" and "jargon" inevitable? Are "elegance" and "practicality" valid criteria for a meta-language? What impacts on the meta-language are due to the obligation we often have in semiotics to dialogue with those outside our field: Can/ should this influence the way semiotics is communicated? And what is the cost of this influence? [less ▲]

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See detailQue peut-on attendre des marqueurs immunohistochimiques du mélanome?
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Nouvelles Dermatologiques (1994), 13

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See detailQue pouvons-nous attendre du sommet européen de décembre 2013 ?
Dumoulin, André ULg

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Hypothèses autour des décisions attendues du sommet UE spécial défense prévu en décembre 2013 avec les différentes écoles de pensée

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See detailQue représente l'introduction de la kétansérine pour le traitement de l'hypertension artérielle?
Rorive, Georges ULg; Carlier, P. G.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1988), 43

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See detailQue reste-t-il de l’autorité de la chose jugée du pénal sur le civil ?
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge (2005)

Etat de la question de l'autorité de chose jugée du pénal sur le civil, en particulier en matière de roulage,la conclusion étant que cette autorité a tendance à disparaître

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See detail"Que reste-t-il de l'infini ?" [Préface à L'Impromptu de Coye et autres poèmes, de Gérard Prévot]
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in L'Impromptu de Coy et autres poèmes (2010)

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