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See detailMicrowave-assisted transformations of agroresources: an example of green chemistry
Richel, Aurore ULg

in SciTopics-Research summarises by Experts (2010)

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the biomass has nowadays opened new vistas in the non-food sector. Indeed, original products and structures, potentially biodegradable, are proposed as substitutes for conventional petrochemical derivatives. The steady rise of oil prices, on the one hand, and the implementation of a new European legislation (REACH: Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals), on the other hand, have only help to boost the academic and industrial research in this area. In this context, microwave-mediated synthesis has progressively emerged as a green chemistry technology. Application of microwaves (MW) as a non conventional heating source finds a plethora of illustrations in the field of organic synthesis. Microwaves usually accelerate chemical processes, while offering improved yields and selectivities. MW heating enables reactions under solventless conditions, providing unique chemical pathways, with special advantages such as ease of manipulation and reduction (or prevention) of pollution "at source". Various reactions and processes can be applied to transform lignocellulosic raw materials into valuable fuels and chemicals. Selected examples of strategical modifications of renewable biomass feedstocks via activation by microwave irradiation are proposed herein. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-assisted transformations of agroresources: an example of green chemistry
Richel, Aurore ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

Report (2010)

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the biomass has nowadays opened new vistas in the non-food sector. Indeed, original products and structures, potentially biodegradable, are proposed as substitutes for conventional petrochemical derivatives. The steady rise of oil prices, on the one hand, and the implementation of a new European legislation (REACH: Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals), on the other hand, have only help to boost the academic and industrial research in this area. In this context, microwave-mediated synthesis has progressively emerged as a green chemistry technology. Application of microwaves (MW) as a non conventional heating source finds a plethora of illustrations in the field of organic synthesis. Microwaves usually accelerate chemical processes, while offering improved yields and selectivities. MW heating enables reactions under solventless conditions, providing unique chemical pathways, with special advantages such as ease of manipulation and reduction (or prevention) of pollution "at source". Various reactions and processes can be applied to transform lignocellulosic raw materials into valuable fuels and chemicals. Selected examples of strategical modifications of renewable biomass feedstocks via activation by microwave irradiation are proposed herein. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (7 ULg)
See detailMicrowave-assisted transformations of carbohydrates
Richel, Aurore ULg

Report (2010)

This reports deals with the involvment of microwaves for the conversion of renewable feedstocks, and in particlar for the tranfsormation of monosaccharides and cellulose into high added value materials.

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See detailMicrowave-assisted transformations of carbohydrates
Richel, Aurore ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in SciTopics / Research Summaries by Experts (2010)

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See detailMicrowave-Enhanced Ruthenium Catalysed Atom Transfer Radical Additions
Richel, Aurore ULg; Leclerc, Alain; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

Poster (2005)

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See detailMicrowave-enhanced ruthenium-catalysed atom transfer radical additions
Borguet, Yannick ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Delfosse, Sbastien et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2007), 48(36), 6334-6338

The first monomode microwave-assisted atom transfer radical additions (ATRA) of carbon tetrachloride to various olefins were successfully performed, affording the adducts with almost quantitative yields ... [more ▼]

The first monomode microwave-assisted atom transfer radical additions (ATRA) of carbon tetrachloride to various olefins were successfully performed, affording the adducts with almost quantitative yields in less than 10 min at 160 'C. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-stimulated superconductivity due to presence of vortices
Lara, Antonio; Aliev, Farkhad; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

The response of superconducting devices to electromagnetic radiation is a core concept implemented in diverse applications, ranging from the currently used voltage standard to single photon detectors in ... [more ▼]

The response of superconducting devices to electromagnetic radiation is a core concept implemented in diverse applications, ranging from the currently used voltage standard to single photon detectors in astronomy. Suprisingly, a sufficiently high power subgap radiation may stimulate superconductivity itself. The possibility of stimulating type II superconductors, in which the radiation may interact also with vortex cores, remains however unclear. Here we report on superconductivity enhanced by GHz radiation in type II superconducting Pb films in the presence of vortices. The stimulation effect is more clearly observed in the upper critical field and less pronounced in the critical temperature. The magnetic field dependence of the vortex related microwave losses in a film with periodic pinning reveals a reduced dissipation of mobile vortices in the stimulated regime due to a reduction of the core size. Results of numerical simulations support the validy of this conclusion. Our findings may have intriguing connections with holographic superconductors in which the possibility of stimulation is under current debate. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-treatment of frozen wood packaging material
Henin, Jean-Marc; Bauduin, Aline; Leyman, Michaël ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 12)

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been ... [more ▼]

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been considered that when using dielectric radiation (i.e. microwaves or radiofrequencies), reaching 60°C or more throughout the entire profile of the wood during at least 60s (i.e. 60°C/60s) ensures the eradication of any noxious organism present in the wood. Regarding the treatment itself, the main requirements mentioned in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1 (IPPC 2011) concern the way to achieve “uniformity of heating” as well as the treatment duration, which must not exceed 30min. Concerning wood characteristics, the only restriction to the DH concerns the thickness of the wood pieces, which must not exceed 20cm; no other restriction exists regarding wood moisture content, density or initial temperature. As reported in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1, it is generally considered that “when using microwaves as a heating source, the coldest part of the wood is the surface”. This statement implies that achieving 60°C (or more) during 60s at the surface of the wood should guarantee compliance with IPPC requirements (i.e. 60°C throughout the profile of the wood). However, since ice and liquid water exhibit very different properties towards microwaves, initially frozen wood (9cmX9cm and 17cmX17cm in cross-section) was irradiated in a 28.8 kW microwave oven (2.45GHz) in order to assess whether achieving 60°C/60s at the surface of less than 20cm-thick planks ensures higher core temperatures. The temperature pattern observed after the treatment was compared with the one observed after the treatment of initially thawed wood pieces. It was observed that, in some conditions, initially frozen pieces exhibit inside temperature (much) lower than 60°C, despite complying with 60°C/60s all over the surface of the wood. These results show that when wood is heated with microwaves, its coldest part may not be the surface. Our results also strongly suggest that the impact of wood properties on post-treatment temperature pattern should be further investigated in order to better identify the limits of the DH (at least on frozen wood). [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowear and Residue Analysis in Perspective: the contribution of ethnoarchaeological evidence
Rots, Veerle ULg; Williamson, Bonny

in Journal of Archaeological Science (2004), 31

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See detailA micro–macro approach of permeability evolution in rocks excavation damaged zones
Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in Computers & Geotechnics (2013), 49

Excavation damaged zone, with significant irreversible deformations and nonnegligible changes in flow and transport properties generally occurs in indurated clay around underground structures. The stress ... [more ▼]

Excavation damaged zone, with significant irreversible deformations and nonnegligible changes in flow and transport properties generally occurs in indurated clay around underground structures. The stress perturbation around the excavation could lead to a significant increase of the permeability physically due to diffuse and/or localized microcracks growth in the material. In the present study, we investigate microcracks-induced damage processes together with the subsequent modification in permeability. The proposed approach is based on a homogenization-based upper bound extended to the context of micro-cracked media in presence of initial stress. Application of this approach is done on a borehole excavation problem related to the Selfrac in situ experiments on Opalinus Clay. Although, the model fails to quan-titatively account for the in situ permeability change (which may also originated from existing macro-fractures), its prediction shows a significant evolution of the material permeability around the borehole. This is in qualitative agreement with available data. [less ▲]

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See detailMid and late Holocene dust deposition in Western Europe: The Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes - Belgium)
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Beghin, Jérémie ULg; Le Roux, Gael et al

in Climate of the Past (2013), 9(2889-2928,),

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes ... [more ▼]

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes, were determined by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, along a  6 m peat section covering 5300 years, from 2000 to 7300 cal.BP dated by the 14C method. Changes in REE concentration in the peat correlate with those of Ti, Al, Sc and Zr that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4.0 g m-2 yr-1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 2750 to 2550 cal.BP and from 5150 to 4750 cal.BP and correspond to cold periods. The Nd values show a large variability from -13 to –5, identifying three major sources of dusts: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. [less ▲]

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See detailMid and late Holocene dust deposition in Western Europe: The Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes - Belgium)
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Le Roux, Gael et al

Poster (2012, June 28)

The Misten peat bog representing 7.5 m of peat accumulation in the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau, Belgium, provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition since more than 7000 years. The analyses of REE ... [more ▼]

The Misten peat bog representing 7.5 m of peat accumulation in the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau, Belgium, provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition since more than 7000 years. The analyses of REE and lithogenic element concentrations, as well as the Nd isotopes, were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in peat layers previously dated by 210Pb and 14C. REE concentration variations in peat samples are correlated with Ti, Zr and Sc that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs [1] and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Peat humification, C/N ratio, ash content and bulk density were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The Nd values show large variability, between +1 to –22, identifying three major sources of dusts falling into the peat: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. More recently, industrial emissions provide a fourth source of dusts [2], which is also clearly recorded in the last 200 years of the Misten peat profile. [less ▲]

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See detailMid and late Holocene dust deposition in Western Europe: The Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes - Belgium)
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Le Roux, Gael; Piotrowska, Natalia et al

Poster (2012, June)

Multi-proxy climate recorded from peatlands have been used to tracer the climate change during the Holocene. The initiation of peatland may be related to a change to colder and or wetter climate, and the ... [more ▼]

Multi-proxy climate recorded from peatlands have been used to tracer the climate change during the Holocene. The initiation of peatland may be related to a change to colder and or wetter climate, and the variations in peat composition reflect changes in precipitation and temperature. Peat has been used as an archive to reconstruct climate change over the Holocene (e.g., Shotyk et al., 1998; Sapkota et al., 2006). To characterize the climate in Belgium, a 570 cm-long core from Misten peat bog was studied. Several radiocarbon ages allow to define an accurate age model, the peat core represents 5500 years of record. The analyses of REE and lithogenic element contents, as well as the Nd isotopes, were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS. Peat humification, C/N ratio, ash content and bulk density were used to evaluate local hydroclimatic conditions. The dust deposition ranges from 0.03 to 4 g m -2 yr -1. As a first observation the highest rates of atmospheric dust deposition correspond to cold periods. The Nd values show large variability, between +1 to –22, identifying three major sources of dusts falling into the peat: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. Further studies are in progress to better identify the main forcing factor on the evolution of the atmospheric dust deposition over the Holocene. [less ▲]

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See detailMid infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies coupled with factorial discriminant analysis technique to identify sheep milk from different feeding systems
Karoui, Romdhane; Hammami, Moncef; Rouissi, Hamadi et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 127(2), 743-748

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed ... [more ▼]

Mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) combined with multivariate data analysis was used to discriminate between ewes milk samples according to their feeding systems (controls, ewes fed scotch bean and ewes fed soybean). The MIR spectra were scanned throughout the first 11 weeks of the lactation stage. When factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) with leave one-out cross-validation was applied, separately, to the three spectral regions in the MIR (i.e. 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)), the classification rate was not satisfactory. Therefore, the first principal component (PCs) scores (corresponding to 3, 10 and 10 for, respectively, the 3000-2800, 1700-1500 and 1500-900 cm(-1)) of the principal component analysis (PCA) extracted from each of the data sets were pooled (concatenated) into a single matrix and analysed by FDA. Correct classification amounting to 71.7% was obtained. Finally, the same procedure was applied to the MIR and fluorescence data sets and 98% of milk samples were found to be correctly classified. Milk samples belonging to control and soybean groups were 100% correctly classified. Regarding milk samples originating from the scotch bean group, only 2 out of 33 samples were misclassified. It was concluded that concatenation of the data sets collected from the two spectroscopic techniques is an efficient tool for authenticating milk samples according to their feeding systems, regardless of the lactation stage. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-Famennian cryptalgal-sponge crinoidal mud mounds and oolitic ironstones of the Limbourg-Dolhain area (Verviers Synclinorium, Eastern Belgium): Stop 2.
Dreesen, Roland; Marion, Jean-Marc ULg; Poty, Edouard ULg

Scientific conference (1993, June 09)

After the mass extinction of colonial reefs in the Ardennes at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, (crypt)algal-sponge-crinoidal mud mounds suddenly appeared during the mid-Famennian time (Early-Late ... [more ▼]

After the mass extinction of colonial reefs in the Ardennes at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, (crypt)algal-sponge-crinoidal mud mounds suddenly appeared during the mid-Famennian time (Early-Late marginifera Zone) in the Verviers Synclinorium (Eastern Belgium). These carbonate buildups represent the first reported occurrence of mud mounds in the latest Upper Devonian of Western Europe. The mounding sites for the mud mounds (locally known as "the Marbre rouge à crinoïdes de Baelen") are developed on a block-faulted basement. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-FIR Properties of ELAIS Sources
Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory (2001, July 01)

We present the properties of all the galaxies detected by ISO at 7, 15 and 90 microns in ELAIS northern fields. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of those 20 galaxies with IRAS detections can ... [more ▼]

We present the properties of all the galaxies detected by ISO at 7, 15 and 90 microns in ELAIS northern fields. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of those 20 galaxies with IRAS detections can generally be well fitted by a predominant cirrus component plus a modest starburst contribution. Follow-up spectroscopy has shown that all the objects are emission-line galaxies but without a very intense star formation event. Most of the galaxies analyzed by means of optical R band photometry result to host an important exponential disk component, in good agreement with the SED IR modelling. We note that galaxies with morphological signs of perturbations seem to show slightly higher f[SUB]15[/SUB]/f[SUB]6.7[/SUB] ratios, indicating that star formation could be more important in them. One of the objects is a broad-line, radio-quiet quasar at z=1.099; its spectral energy distribution indicates that it is a hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIG), the first HLIG detected in the ELAIS areas. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt Pinatubo eruption
Rinsland, C. P.; Yue, G. K.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (1994), 52(3), 241-252

Quantitative measurements of the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction in the 750–3400 cm-1 spectral region have been derived from 0.01 cm-1 resolution stratospheric solar occultation spectra ... [more ▼]

Quantitative measurements of the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction in the 750–3400 cm-1 spectral region have been derived from 0.01 cm-1 resolution stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded by the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) Fourier transform spectrometer about 912 months after the Mt Pinatubo volcanic eruption. Strong, broad aerosol features have been identified near 900, 1060, 1720, and 2900 cm-1 below a tangent height of ~30 km. Aerosol extinction measurements derived from ~0.05 cm-1 wide microwindows nearly free of telluric line absorption in the ATMOS spectra are compared with transmission calculations derived from aerosol size distribution profiles retrieved from correlative SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) II visible and near i.r. extinction measurements, seasonal and zonally averaged H2SO4 aerosol weight percentage profiles, and published sulfuric acid optical constants derived from room temperature laboratory measurements. The calculated shapes and positions of the aerosol features are generally consistent with the observations, thereby confirming that the aerosols are predominantly concentrated H2SO4-H2O droplets, but there are significant differences between the measured and calculated wavelength dependences of the aerosol extinction. We attribute these differences as primarily the result of errors in the calculated low temperature H2SO4-H2O optical constants. Errors in both the published room temperature optical constants and the limitations of the Lorentz-Lorenz relation are likely to be important. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-infrared High-contrast Imaging of HD 114174 B: An Apparent Age Discrepancy in a "Sirius-like" Binary System
Matthews, Christopher T.; Crepp, Justin R.; Skemer, Andrew et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2014), 783

We present new observations of the faint "Sirius-like" companion discovered to orbit HD 114174. Previous attempts to image HD 114174 B at mid-infrared wavelengths using NIRC2 at Keck have resulted in a ... [more ▼]

We present new observations of the faint "Sirius-like" companion discovered to orbit HD 114174. Previous attempts to image HD 114174 B at mid-infrared wavelengths using NIRC2 at Keck have resulted in a non-detection. Our new L'-band observations taken with the Large Binocular Telescope and L/M-band InfraRed Camera recover the companion (ΔL = 10.15 ± 0.15 mag, ρ = 0.''675 ± 0.''016) with a high signal-to-noise ratio (10σ). This measurement represents the deepest L' high-contrast imaging detection at subarcsecond separations to date, including extrasolar planets. We confirm that HD 114174 B has near-infrared colors consistent with the interpretation of a cool white dwarf (WD; J - L' = 0.76 ± 0.19 mag, K - L' = 0.64 ± 0.20). New model fits to the object's spectral energy distribution indicate a temperature T [SUB]eff[/SUB] = 4260 ± 360 K, surface gravity log g = 7.94 ± 0.03, a cooling age t[SUB]c[/SUB] ≈ 7.8 Gyr, and mass M = 0.54 ± 0.01 M [SUB]⊙[/SUB]. We find that the cooling ages given by theoretical atmospheric models do not agree with the age of HD 114174 A derived from both isochronological and gyrochronological analyses. We speculate on possible scenarios to explain the apparent age discrepancy between the primary and secondary. HD 114174 B is a nearby benchmark WD that will ultimately enable a dynamical mass estimate through continued Doppler and astrometric monitoring. Efforts to characterize its physical properties in detail will test theoretical atmospheric models and improve our understanding of WD evolution, cooling, and progenitor masses. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-infrared microlensing of accretion disc and dusty torus in quasars: effects on flux ratio anomalies
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Kishimoto, M.; Anguita, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 553

Multiply-imaged quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed in the mid-infrared (MIR) range are commonly assumed to be unaffected by the microlensing produced by the stars in their lensing galaxy ... [more ▼]

Multiply-imaged quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed in the mid-infrared (MIR) range are commonly assumed to be unaffected by the microlensing produced by the stars in their lensing galaxy. In this paper, we investigate the validity domain of this assumption. Indeed, that premise disregards microlensing of the accretion disc in the MIR range, and does not account for recent progress in our knowledge of the dusty torus, which has unveiled relatively compact dust emission. To simulate microlensing, we first built a simplified image of the quasar composed of (i) an accretion disc whose size is based on accretion disc theory, and (ii) a larger ring-like torus whose radius is guided by interferometric measurements in nearby AGNs. The mock quasars are created in the 10[SUP]44.2[/SUP]-10[SUP]46[/SUP] erg/s (unlensed) luminosity range, which is typical of known lensed quasars, and are then microlensed using an inverse ray-shooting code. We simulated the wavelength dependence of microlensing for different lensed image types and for various fractions of compact objects in the lens. This allows us to derive magnification probabilities as a function of wavelength, as well as to calculate the microlensing-induced deformation of the spectral energy distribution of the lensed images. We find that microlensing variations as large as 0.1 mag are very common at 11 μm (typically rest-frame 4 μm). The main signal comes from microlensing of the accretion disc, which may be significant even when the fraction of flux from the disc is as small as 5% of the total flux. We also show that the torus of sources with L[SUB]bol[/SUB] ≲ 10[SUP]45[/SUP] erg/s is expected to be noticeably microlensed. Microlensing may thus be used to get insight into the rest near-infrared inner structure of AGNs. Finally, we investigate whether microlensing in the mid-infrared can alter the so-called R[SUB]cusp[/SUB] relation that links the fluxes of the lensed images triplet produced when the source lies close to a cusp macro-caustic. This relation is commonly used to identify massive (dark-matter) substructures in lensing galaxies. We find that significant deviations from R[SUB]cusp[/SUB] may be expected, which means that microlensing can explain part of the flux ratio problem. Microlensing maps and source profiles used for our simulations are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr>cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <a href=">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/553/A53</A> [less ▲]

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