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See detailPolymerization-filling technique: an efficient way to improve the mechanical properties of polyethylene composites
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(2), 236-237

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See detailPolymers in modern ophthalmic implants—Historical background and recent advances
Bozukova, Dimitriya; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2010), 69(6), 63-83

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical intervention, pursued by replacement of the opacified natural lens by a polymeric intraocular lens (IOL). This paper, based on an exhaustive ... [more ▼]

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical intervention, pursued by replacement of the opacified natural lens by a polymeric intraocular lens (IOL). This paper, based on an exhaustive number of scientific references, provides a brief simplified discussion of the surgical advances for cataract treatment, and is mainly focused on the process of IOL discovery, engineering and development. The performances of the polymer materials, used for the IOLs fabrication are discussed in a comparative way, and their properties, such as handling during surgery, biocompatibility, rate of some post-surgical complications (e.g. Posterior Capsular Opacification) and optical properties, are considered. Special attention is paid on the basic scientific approaches for engineering and modification of the IOL surface and bulk properties. Polymer coating techniques like ‘grafting onto’ and ‘grafting from’ are discussed and exemplified by a variety of coating compositions and performances. In another part of the review, modification techniques concerning optimization of the bulk properties of the polymer lens are also discussed and synthetic approaches such as copolymerization and nanocomposite formation are considered. A perspective aspect of this discussion concerns improvement of the performance of the main polymer by the incorporation of in situ formed or preformed nanoparticles. The most attractive perspectives concerning the improvement of the IOL properties by chemical modification approaches are described. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphic miRNA-mediated gene regulation: contribution to phenotypic variation and disease.
Georges, Michel ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Charlier, Carole ULg

in Current opinion in genetics & development (2007), 17(3), 166-76

The expression of at least a third of mammalian genes is post-transcriptionally fine-tuned by approximately 1000 microRNAs (miRNAs), assisted by the RNA silencing machinery, comprising tens of components ... [more ▼]

The expression of at least a third of mammalian genes is post-transcriptionally fine-tuned by approximately 1000 microRNAs (miRNAs), assisted by the RNA silencing machinery, comprising tens of components. Polymorphisms and mutations in the corresponding sequence space (machinery, miRNA precursors and target sites) are likely to make a significant contribution to phenotypic variation, including disease susceptibility. Here we review basic miRNA biology in animals, survey the available evidence for DNA sequence polymorphisms affecting miRNA-mediated gene regulation and thus phenotype, and discuss their possible importance in the determination of complex traits. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphic miRNA-target interactions : A Novel Source of Phenotypic Variation
Georges, Michel ULg; Clop, Alex; Marcq, Fabienne ULg et al

in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology (2006, June), 71

Studying the muscular hypertrophy of Texel sheep by forward genetics, we have identified an A-to-G transition in the 3'UTRof the GDF8 gene that reveals an illegitimate target site for microRNAs miR-1 and ... [more ▼]

Studying the muscular hypertrophy of Texel sheep by forward genetics, we have identified an A-to-G transition in the 3'UTRof the GDF8 gene that reveals an illegitimate target site for microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 that are highly expressed in skeletal muscle. This causes the down-regulation of this muscle-specific chalone and hence contributes to the muscular hypertrophyof Texel sheep. We demonstrate that polymorphisms which alter the content of putative miRNA target sites are commonin human and mice, and provide evidence that both conserved and nonconserved target sites are selectively constrained. Wespeculate that these polymorphisms might be important mediators of phenotypic variation including disease. To facilitatestudies along those lines, we have constructed a database (www.patrocles.org) listing putative polymorphic microRNA–targetinteractions. [less ▲]

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See detailA polymorphic satellite sequence maps to the pericentric region of the bovine Y chromosome
Perret, J.; Shia, Y.; Fries, R. et al

in Genomics (1990), 6(3), 482-490

Exploiting a serendipitously observed bovine male-specific signal, generated by the mouse pSP64.2.5EI minisatellite probe, we have cloned a bovine (Bos taurus) Y-specific sequence: btDYZ-1. This sequence ... [more ▼]

Exploiting a serendipitously observed bovine male-specific signal, generated by the mouse pSP64.2.5EI minisatellite probe, we have cloned a bovine (Bos taurus) Y-specific sequence: btDYZ-1. This sequence is composed of 60 tandem repetitions of a motif consisting of two parts: a 40-bp-long unit, showing a mean divergence of 27% between repeats, separated from the next repeat by a TG-rich stretch varying in length between 12 and 63 bp. The number of copies of this repeated motif has been estimated at 6 X 10(4) per male genome. As a consequence, the corresponding satellite, DYZ-1, might represent approximately 1/20 of the bovine Y chromosome. btDYZ-1 has been mapped by in situ hybridization to the pericentric region of the Y chromosome. It is characterized by a substantial genetic polymorphism and has been shown to be conserved within the Bos and Bison genera of the Bovinae subfamily. This sequence is being used to develop a sexing procedure for bovine preimplantation embryos based on the polymerase chain reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphism in IgG Fc receptor gene FCGR3A and response to infliximab in Crohn's disease: a subanalysis of the ACCENT I study.
Louis, Edouard ULg; Watier, Herve E; Schreiber, Stefan et al

in Pharmacogenetics and Genomics (2006), 16(12), 911-4

Recently, it has been shown that FCGR3A-158 gene polymorphism is associated with biological and possibly clinical response to infliximab in Crohn's disease. We further assessed this association in a ... [more ▼]

Recently, it has been shown that FCGR3A-158 gene polymorphism is associated with biological and possibly clinical response to infliximab in Crohn's disease. We further assessed this association in a subset of 344 patients from the large and well-defined cohort of 573 patients with Crohn's disease from the ACCENT I study. No association could be observed between FCGR3A-158 gene polymorphism and the clinical response to infliximab, which was primarily defined as a decrease of >or=70 points in the Crohn's disease activity index or clinical remission (Crohn's disease activity index <150). We did, however, confirm a trend towards a greater decrease in C-reactive protein after infliximab in V/V homozygotes as compared with V/F heterozygotes and F/F homozygotes (-79.4, -76.5, and -64.3%, respectively, at week 6; P=0.085; one-tailed P=0.043). This finding has no immediate clinical impact but may enhance the understanding of the complex mechanisms of action of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphism in PERIOD3 predicts fMRI-assessed inter-individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Archer, Simon; Wuillaume, Catherine et al

in Journal of Sleep Research (2008), 17(Suppl. 1),

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See detailPolymorphism, an extension of binary opening
Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Second international conference on Mathematical Morphology and its Applications to Image Processing, Proceedings (1994, September)

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See detailPolymorphisme au niveau du récepteur de l’hormone de croissance et production laitière
Renaville, Robert ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Prandi, Alberto et al

in 2° Carrefour des Productions Animales (1997)

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See detailPolymorphisme du syndrome d'activite continue des fibres musculaires Relation possible avec la choree fibrillaire de Morvan.
Delwaide, P.; Figiel, C.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in Revue Neurologique (1979), 135(8-9), 615-24

Two cases presenting the main features of the continuous muscle activity syndrome (neuromyotonia) are reported. The clinical particularities between the two patients are under lined. The second case is ... [more ▼]

Two cases presenting the main features of the continuous muscle activity syndrome (neuromyotonia) are reported. The clinical particularities between the two patients are under lined. The second case is special because of its acute and reversible evolution and the possible role of gold salts in its etiology. This latter point suggests Morvan's fibrillary chorea. The possible relationships between the two syndrome are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms at the Five Exons of the Growth Hormone Gene in the Algarvia Goat. Possible Association with Milk Traits
Malveiro, E.; Pereirab, M.; Marques, P. X. et al

in Small animal research (2001), 41

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See detailPolymorphisms in innate immunity genes predispose to bacteremia and death in the medical intensive care unit
Henckaerts, L.; Nielsen, K. R.; Steffensen, R. et al

in Critical Care Medicine (2009), 37(1), 192-2011-3

OBJECTIVE: Critically ill patients are at risk of sepsis, organ failure, and death. Studying the impact of genetic determinants may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology and allow ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Critically ill patients are at risk of sepsis, organ failure, and death. Studying the impact of genetic determinants may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology and allow identification of patients who would benefit from specific treatments. Our aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected genes involved in innate immunity on the development of bacteremia or risk of death in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: DNA was available from 774 medical intensive care unit patients. We selected 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in host innate immune defense. Serum levels of MASP2 and chemotactic capacity, phagocytosis, and killing capacity of monocytes at admission were quantified. Univariate Kaplan-Meier estimates with log-rank analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Bootstrap resampling technique and ten-fold cross-validation were used to assess replication stability, prognostic importance of the variables, and repeatability of the final regression model. MAIN RESULTS: Patients with at least one NOD2 variant were shown to have a reduced phagocytosis by monocytes (p = 0.03) and a higher risk of bacteremia than wild-type patients (p = 0.02). The NOD2/TLR4 combination was associated with bacteremia using survival analyses (time to bacteremia development, log-rank p < 0.0001), univariate regression (p = 0.0003), and multivariate regression analysis (odds ratio [OR] 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-9.81; p = 0.0006). Similarly, the same combination was associated with hospital mortality using survival analysis (log-rank p = 0.03), univariate regression (p = 0.02), and multivariate regression analysis (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.09-4.74; p = 0.03). Also variants in the MASP2 gene were significantly associated with hospital mortality (survival analysis log-rank-p = 0.003; univariate regression p = 0.02; multivariate regression analysis OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.38-3.99; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in innate immunity predispose to severe infections and death, and may become part of a risk model, allowing identification of patients at risk, who could benefit from early introduction of specific preventive or therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms in the CYP 2D6 gene: Association with plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and paroxetine
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Broly, Franck; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2003), 25(6), 738-742

Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of ... [more ▼]

Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of whites are poor metabolisers (PM), and, on the contrary, about 5% are ultrarapid metabolizers (UM), inducing very different rates in the transformation of antidepressants extensively metabolized by CYP 2D6. CYP 2D6 polymorphism can be a potential risk factor for the development of side effects or a reason for the poor efficacy of the treatment. Various probe drugs may be used for phenotyping CYP 2D6, but genotyping is now available using leukocyte DNA and is independent of concomitant drug use. in this study, we used PCR-based methods for the identification of CYP 2D6 genotypes in 49 patients receiving standard doses of fluoxetine or paroxetine and found that plasma concentration of the antidepressant drugs was significantly correlated with genetic status. In one patient who displayed CYP 2D6 gene duplication (UM), paroxetine plasma concentration was extremely low. in PM fluoxetine-treated patients, drug plasma concentration was significantly higher than that seen in extensive metabolizers. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms in Type-II SH2 domain-containing Inositol 5-Phosphatase (INPPL1, SHIP2) are Associated with Physiological Abnormalities of the Metabolic Syndrome
Kaisaki, P. J.; Delépine, M.; Woon, P. Y. et al

in Diabetes (2004), 53

Type II SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (INPPL1, or SHIP2) plays an important role in the control of insulin sensitivity. INPPL1 mutations affecting gene function have been found in rat ... [more ▼]

Type II SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (INPPL1, or SHIP2) plays an important role in the control of insulin sensitivity. INPPL1 mutations affecting gene function have been found in rat models of type 2 diabetes and hypertension and in type 2 diabetic patients. We investigated the influence of nucleotide variation in INPPL1 on components of the metabolic syndrome. Following comprehensive resequencing of the gene, we genotyped 12 informative polymorphisms in 1,304 individuals from 424 British type 2 diabetes families that were characterized for several metabolic phenotypes. We have found highly significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of INPPL1 with hypertension as well as with other components of the metabolic syndrome. In a cohort of 905 French type 2 diabetic patients, we found evidence of association of INPPL1 SNPs with the presence of hypertension. We conclude that INPPL1 variants may impact susceptibility to disease and/or to subphenotypes involved in the metabolic syndrome in some diabetic patients [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms of the SHBG gene contribute to the interindividual variation of sex steroid hormone blood levels in young, middle-aged and elderly men
Vanbillemont, G.; Bogaert, V.; De Bacquer, D. et al

in Clinical Endocrinology (2009), 70(2), 303-310

In men there is a large interindividual variation of SHBG levels and consequently of testosterone (T) and E-2 levels. Family and twin studies suggested a strong genetic contribution, besides metabolic and ... [more ▼]

In men there is a large interindividual variation of SHBG levels and consequently of testosterone (T) and E-2 levels. Family and twin studies suggested a strong genetic contribution, besides metabolic and hormonal influences. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a missense mutation in exon 8 (Asp327Asn) and a (TAAAA)(n)-repeat in the promoter region of the SHBG gene, on SHBG and sex steroid serum concentrations in a population of healthy men. SHBG and hormone levels were measured in 1485 men, contributed by three independent cohort studies and representing three different age groups (young, middle-aged and elderly men). The number of TAAAA-repeats was determined by fragment-analysis; carriers of the Asn(327)-allele were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the different age groups, carriers of six TAAAA-repeats presented with higher SHBG (young 19%, middle-aged 20% and elderly 26%; P < 0.001) and T (young 9%, middle-aged 22% and elderly 21%; P < 0.05) levels compared to non-carriers. For free T, a modest increase was found for carriers in the middle-aged group, but not for the young and elderly group. E-2 and free E-2 did not differ between carriers and non-carriers in the different age-groups. The Asn(327)-allele was associated with higher mean SHBG (14.20%, P < 0.001) and T levels (7.33%; P = 0.01) in the middle-aged group only. Our findings show that and the (TAAAA)(n)-repeat and the Asp327Asn polymorphism contribute to the genetically determined interindividual variation in total serum T levels in healthy men through variation in SHBG concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphous light eruption-like lesions on sun-protected injection sites of recombinant IFN-alpha-2b
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Letawe, C. et al

in Journal of Dermatological Treatment (1997), 8(4), 285

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)