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See detailLoad-Introdcution resistance of column webs in strong axis beam-to-column joints
Maquoi, René ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

Learning material (1992)

Present paper is aimed at presenting the results of the study performed at F1 the University of Liege on the deformability and the resistance of column H5 web panels in strong axis beam-to-column joints ... [more ▼]

Present paper is aimed at presenting the results of the study performed at F1 the University of Liege on the deformability and the resistance of column H5 web panels in strong axis beam-to-column joints, when subjected to ‘:5 transverse loads carried over by the beam(s). "S Formulae for the assessment of the ultimate resistance and stability E (buckling and crippling) of the column webs are proposed; they are based on me the conclusions of a parametrical study which is briefly described. b‘ Present paper is restricted to the beam-to-column joints with ll or I E‘ hobrolled sections. [less ▲]

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See detailLoad-introduction deformability of column webs in strong axis beam-to-column joints and structural stability of frames.
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Atamaz Sibai, W.

in Proceedings of the Fourth international colloquium on structural stability asian session (ICSSAS'89) (1989)

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See detailLoadbearing capacity criteria in fire resistance testing
Dumont, Fabien ULg; Wellens, Eric ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2015)

Experimental testing may be used to demonstrate the fire resistance of building construction elements. In order to allow comparing the results of tests made in different laboratories on various types of ... [more ▼]

Experimental testing may be used to demonstrate the fire resistance of building construction elements. In order to allow comparing the results of tests made in different laboratories on various types of elements, the tests have to be performed under well-defined standardised conditions. Such standards define the heating and loading conditions, but also the performance criteria that have to be applied to measure the fire resistance duration. In Europe, the procedure that leads to the classification of building construction elements with regards to fire resistance involves a two level process. In the first stage, one or several tests are performed by a laboratory that must have accreditation according to ISO 17025, and one test report is issued for each test. Thereafter, a competent body will compile the necessary test reports and issue a classification report, the results of which can be used by the different stakeholders of the construction process, e.g. by authorities having jurisdiction. For the loadbearing performance, it appears that different logical combinations of the criteria are considered in the test standard and in the classification standard, leading to a inextricable situation. This situation has to be fixed in order to lead to a complete credible and applicable system. In order to provide scientific evidence about the consequences of adopting one or the other of both loadbearing definitions, the results of 46 tests performed in the fire resistance lab of the University of Liege in the recent years are analysed in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailLoadbearing capacity criteria in fire resistance testing
Dumont, Fabien ULg; Wellens, Eric ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg et al

in Materials and Structures (2016), 49(11), 4565-4581

The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the ... [more ▼]

The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the loadbearing performance. This article analyzes the implications of the present conflict between the standard for testing and the standard for classification. The prescribed criteria for loadbearing performance are related to the exceedance of deflection and rate of deflection thresholds. A database of 46 fire resistance tests performed at the University of Liege is collected that contains the time at which these thresholds are reached in fire tests with different typologies of elements (walls, floors, columns and beams). Then, the loadbearing performance (and hence the fire resistance rating) can be derived according to the two standards. The evolutions of deflection and rate of deflection during the tests are also analyzed to gain a better understanding of the adequacy of the standards. The selection of one or the other standard affects the time at which “failure” is deemed to occur in fire tests. Statistically speaking, the difference in terms of failure time that results from using one or the other standard has a 25% probability to exceed 10%. In certain cases, this results in a difference in fire resistance rating; this was observed for 3 of the analyzed tests. The apparent contradiction in two codes in application has potential practical implications and therefore needs to be solved. The article suggests some guidelines for defining homogenized and consistent criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailLoading and skeletal development and maintenance.
Bergmann, P.; Body, J. J.; BOONEN, S. et al

in Journal of Osteoporosis (2010), 2011

Mechanical loading is a major regulator of bone mass and geometry. The osteocytes network is considered the main sensor of loads, through the shear stress generated by strain induced fluid flow in the ... [more ▼]

Mechanical loading is a major regulator of bone mass and geometry. The osteocytes network is considered the main sensor of loads, through the shear stress generated by strain induced fluid flow in the lacuno-canalicular system. Intracellular transduction implies several kinases and phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. Several extra-cellular mediators, among which NO and prostaglandins are transducing the signal to the effector cells. Disuse results in osteocytes apoptosis and rapid imbalanced bone resorption, leading to severe osteoporosis. Exercising during growth increases peak bone mass, and could be beneficial with regards to osteoporosis later in life, but the gain could be lost if training is abandoned. Exercise programs in adults and seniors have barely significant effects on bone mass and geometry at least at short term. There are few data on a possible additive effect of exercise and drugs in osteoporosis treatment, but disuse could decrease drugs action. Exercise programs proposed for bone health are tedious and compliance is usually low. The most practical advice for patients is to walk a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day. Other exercises like swimming or cycling have less effect on bone, but could reduce fracture risk indirectly by maintaining muscle mass and force. [less ▲]

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See detailloads hungry and masses too big: measure nouns on the move?
Declerck, Bernard; Brems, Lieselotte ULg

Conference (2010)

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See detailLobe frontal, mémoire de travail et mémoire épisodique
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Andrès, Pilar

in Azouvi, Philippe; Bussel, B. (Eds.) Syndrome frontal : évaluation et rééducation : actes des 11e Entretiens de l'Institut Garches (1998)

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See detailLobeline-Induced Hyperpnea in Equids. Comparison with Rebreathing Bag and Exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1991), 38(2), 148-152

In order to facilitate lung auscultation, a transitory hyperpnea may be obtained by lobeline administration, use of a rebreathing bag or exercise. The effect of these three methods on the pulmonary ... [more ▼]

In order to facilitate lung auscultation, a transitory hyperpnea may be obtained by lobeline administration, use of a rebreathing bag or exercise. The effect of these three methods on the pulmonary function were studied and compared in 5 healthy ponies. Respiratory airflow and tidal volume were measured with a pneumotachograph Nr. 5 and pleural pressure with the esophageal balloon catheter technique. Pulmonary function values were measured before, during and after the hyperpnea induced by (i) lobeline, (ii) rebreathing and (iii) exercise. Lobeline administration induced an hyperpnea due to both an increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate; this increase in ventilation lasted for about 90 s and was accompanied by a sharp rise in the respiratory peak airflows, especially the expiratory ones. The rebreathing method induced a less hyperpnea which lasted only 30 s. Lastly the hyperpnea after a light treadmill exercise was the longer in duration and intermediate between the preceding methods in intensity [less ▲]

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See detailLocal acceptance of windmills and lessons learned for nuclear projects
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Schröder, Jantinne

Conference (2013, May 31)

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See detailLocal administration of nicotinamide enhances neutrophil apoptosis and decreases mice endotoxin-induced airway inflammation
Fernandes, C. A.; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Ucakar, B. et al

in Société Belge de Sciences Pharmaceutiques (2009)

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See detailLocal administration of nuclear factor-kB decoy oligodeoxinucleotides prevents allergic airway inflammation
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Gosset, P.; Desmet, Christophe ULg et al

in 12th European Respiratory Society Annual Congress (2002)

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See detailLocal and Global Constraints in Finite Element Modeling and the Benefits of Nodal and Edge Elements Coupling
Dular, Patrick ULg

in International Compumag Society Newsletter (2000), 7(2), 4-7

Various constraints can be encountered in partial differential problems. On the one hand, there are local constraints, which locally act on fields. These are usually boundary conditions, fixing components ... [more ▼]

Various constraints can be encountered in partial differential problems. On the one hand, there are local constraints, which locally act on fields. These are usually boundary conditions, fixing components of fields, as well as interface conditions, connecting such components. On the other hand, global behaviors of fields can be constrained, leading to define global constraints. It is the case when vector field fluxes and circulations have to be defined, again in order to be either fixed or connected. A finite element model of a partial differential problem, through weak formulations, then leads to split up the considered constraints in two families, known as essential and natural constraints. This means that some constraints are strongly satisfied while others are only weakly satisfied. It is the aim of this paper to make a survey of local and global constraints encountered in finite element models of electromagnetic systems. It particularly points out the benefits of using both nodal and edge finite elements to achieve their consistent discrete definitions. There are indeed properties that are worth to be kept from the continuous to the discrete level. The constraints are defined in the frame of dual formulations in order to point out their dual, or complementary, natures. Systematic explicit characterizations of constrained function spaces are shown to be quite convenient. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal and global ship vibrations
Constantinescu, A.; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Chirica, I. et al

in IMPROVE Workshop (EU Project FP6 n°031382), DUBROVNIK 17-18 Sept. 2009, Croatia, Editor V. Zanic – Univ. of Zagreb, pp41-45 (Vol I) + Powerpoint (Vol II) (2009, September)

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See detailLocal and interactive post-buckling of RHS thin-walled members - Comparing a new special beam finite element with shell FE models
Degée, Hervé ULg; Boissonnade, Nicolas; Rossi, Barbara ULg

in International Journal of Structural Stability & Dynamics (2007), 7(2), 213-241

This paper presents a special thin-walled plane beam. nite element that accounts for the in-plane cross-section local deformation. The element is based on the superposition of a classical beam ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a special thin-walled plane beam. nite element that accounts for the in-plane cross-section local deformation. The element is based on the superposition of a classical beam displacement field and of an additional field describing local e. ects, with an approximation on the local second-order membrane stress. eld. The theoretical formulation is summarized and an application of the resulting numerical tool to the post-buckling analysis of RHS thin-walled members with moderate local and global slenderness susceptible to both global and local buckling is then performed. Different types of analyses are presented (computation of critical bifurcation loads, geometrically non-linear analysis, geometrically and materially non-linear analysis). The results obtained with the proposed beam. nite element are compared to values provided by shell FE models. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal and systemic cellular inflammation and cytokine release in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Moermans, Catherine ULg; HEINEN, Vincent ULg; NGUYEN DANG, Delphine ULg et al

in Cytokine (2011), 56(2), 298-304

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease caused by repeated exposure to noxious gases or particles. It is now recognized that the disease also ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease caused by repeated exposure to noxious gases or particles. It is now recognized that the disease also features systemic inflammation. The purpose of our study was to compare airway and systemic inflammation in COPD to that seen in healthy subjects and to relate the inflammation with the disease severity. METHODS: Ninety-five COPD patients, encompassing the whole severity spectrum of the disease, were recruited from our outpatient clinic and rehabilitation center and compared to 33 healthy subjects. Induced sputum and blood samples were obtained for measurement of inflammatory cell count. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma produced by 24h sputum and blood cell cultures were measured. RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, COPD exhibited a prominent airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with a marked IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha release deficiency that contrasted with a raised IFN-gamma production. Neutrophilic inflammation was also prominent at blood level together with raised production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, sputum neutrophilia correlated with disease severity assessed by GOLD stages. Likewise the extent of TNF-alpha release from blood cells also positively correlated with the disease severity but negatively with that of sputum cell culture. Blood release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 negatively correlated with body mass index. Altogether, our results showed a significant relationship between cellular marker in blood and sputum but poor relationship between local and systemic release of cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: COPD is characterized by prominent neutrophilic inflammation and raised IFN-gamma production at both bronchial and systemic level. Overproduction of TNF-alpha at systemic level correlates with disease severity and inversely with body mass index. [less ▲]

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