Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium
Latte, Nicolas ; Perin, Jérôme ; et al
in Forests (2016), 7(174),
Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth ... [more ▼]
Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate), mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity), mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1) before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition); and (2) since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg)
Major clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study.
; ; et al
in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197(8), 1133-44
BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation [DC] group) versus continuous ART (the viral suppression [VS] group). In the DC group, participants started ART when the CD4+ cell count was <250 cells/microL. Clinical outcomes in participants not receiving ART at entry inform the early use of ART. METHODS: Patients who were either ART naive (n=249) or who had not been receiving ART for >or= 6 months (n=228) were analyzed. The following clinical outcomes were assessed: (i) opportunistic disease (OD) or death from any cause (OD/death); (ii) OD (fatal or nonfatal); (iii) serious non-AIDS events (cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic disease plus non-AIDS-defining cancers) and non-OD deaths; and (iv) the composite of outcomes (ii) and (iii). RESULTS: A total of 477 participants (228 in the DC group and 249 in the VS group) were followed (mean, 18 months). For outcome (iv), 21 and 6 events occurred in the DC (7 in ART-naive participants and 14 in those who had not received ART for >or= 6 months) and VS (2 in ART-naive participants and 4 in those who had not received ART for 6 months) groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for DC vs. VS by outcome category were as follows: outcome (i), 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-9.56; p=.02); outcome (ii), 3.26 (95% CI, 1.04-10.25; p=.04); outcome (iii), 7.02 (95% CI, 1.57-31.38; p=.01); and outcome (iv), 4.19 (95% CI, 1.69-10.39; p=.002 ). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of ART at CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL compared with <250 cells/microL may reduce both OD and serious non-AIDS events. These findings require validation in a large, randomized clinical trial. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 202 (1 ULg)
Major Decrease in the Incidence of Trisomy 21 at Birth in South Belgium: Mass Impact of Triple Test?
Verloes, Alain ; ; Van Maldergem, Lionel et al
in European Journal of Human Genetics (2001), 9(1), 1-4
In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not ... [more ▼]
In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not regulated and can be freely performed by any biomedical lab, making epidemiological data unavailable. By contrast, cytogenetic investigations are limited to a few genetic centres, and accurate statistics can be easily built from their files. During the period 1984-1989, a total of 244 trisomy 21 (1/876 pregnancies) were diagnosed in the Genetic Centres of Liege and Loverval, 42 (17%) of them prenatally. During the period 1993-1998, 294 trisomy 21 (1/704 pregnancies) were observed, 165 (56%) of which prenatally, and more than 90% of affected pregnancies were terminated. Even after correction for late foetal loss of trisomic foetuses, the difference is highly significant, and corresponds to a theoretical shift in the incidence of trisomy 21 at birth from 1/794 to 1/1606. As no remarkable progress occurred in other non-invasive prenatal screening procedures or general health care policies in Belgium, the most reasonable explanation is the use on a large scale of triple test by pregnant women, and the election of termination for most affected pregnancies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg)
Major effects of dopamine are mediated by noradrenergic receptors in the quail preoptic area
Conference (2002, November 16)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Major element geochemistry of cumulates from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (Norway)
Duchesne, Jean-Clair ; Charlier, Bernard
in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2004, June), 68(11, Suppl. S), 647Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Major fluctuations as the principal cause of impairment in daily living activities in a case of probable Lewy body dementia
; Wojtasik, Vinciane ; Adam, Stéphane et al
in Brain Aging (2002), 2Detailed reference viewed: 65 (1 ULg)
Major histocompatibility complex class II expression by activated microglia caudal to lesions of descending tracts in the human spinal cord is not associated with a T cell response.
; ; et al
in Acta Neuropathologica (2000), 100(5), 528-36
Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction ... [more ▼]
Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction. Caudal to the spinal cord injury or brain infarction, a strong increase in the number of activated microglial cells was observed within the denervated intermediate grey matter and ventral horn of patients who died shortly after the insult (4-14 days). These cells were positive for the leucocyte common antigen (LCA) and for the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC II), with only a small proportion staining for the CD68 antigen. After longer survival times (1-4 months), MHC II-immunoreactivity (MHC II-IR) was clearly reduced in the grey matter but abundant in the white matter, specifically within the degenerating corticospinal tract, co-localising with CD68. In this fibre tract, elevated MHC II-IR and CD68-IR were still detectable 1 year after trauma or stroke. It is likely that the subsequent expression of CD68 on MHC II-positive microglia reflects the conversion to a macrophage phenotype, when cells are phagocytosing degenerating presynaptic terminals in grey matter target regions at early survival times and removing axonal and myelin debris in descending tracts at later survival times. No T or B cell invasion or involvement of co-stimulatory B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) was observed. It is possible that the up-regulation of MHC II on microglia that lack the expression of B7 molecules may be responsible for the prevention of a T cell response, thus protecting the spinal cord from secondary tissue damage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 ULg)
The Major Homology Region Of Bovine Leukaemia Virus P24(Gag) Is Required For Virus Infectivity In Vivo
Willems, Luc ; ; et al
in Journal of General Virology (1997), 78Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Major impairments of glutamatergic transmission and long term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of mice lacking the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1
; Adamantidis, Antoine ; et al
in Journal of Neurophysiology (2010), 104Detailed reference viewed: 39 (9 ULg)
The major portal of entry of koi herpesvirus in cyprinus carpio is the skin.
Costes, Bérénice ; ; Michel, Benjamin et al
in Journal of Virology (2009)
Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated in the species Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of ... [more ▼]
Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated in the species Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp using bioluminescence imaging. Taking profit of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid encoding a firefly luciferase (LUC) expression cassette inserted in the intergenic region between ORF 136 and ORF 137. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid: the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain encoding a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. In vitro, the two recombinant strains replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain was shown in vitro to induce a bioluminescent signal allowing the detection of single positive cells as early as 24 hours post-infection; while in vivo, it induced KHV infection in carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental FL strain. To identify the KHV portal of entry, carp were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging at different time post-infection with the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain. These analyses demonstrated that the skin of the fish, covering the fins and also the body, is the major portal of entry of KHV in carp. Finally, to further demonstrate the role of the skin as the KHV portal of entry, we constructed an original system nicknamed "U-tube" to perform per-cutaneous infection restricted to the posterior part of the fish. All the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that the skin and not the gills is the major portal of entry of KHV in carp. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (18 ULg)
A major quantitative trait locus for cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis halleri colocalizes with HMA4, a gene encoding a heavy metal ATPase
; ; Motte, Patrick et al
in Plant Physiology (2007), 144(2), 1052-1065
Cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Arabidopsis halleri sp. halleri. Therefore, an interspecific cross was made between A. halleri and its closest nontolerant ... [more ▼]
Cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Arabidopsis halleri sp. halleri. Therefore, an interspecific cross was made between A. halleri and its closest nontolerant interfertile relative, Arabidopsis lyrata sp. petraea, and a first-generation backcross population (BC1) was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Cd tolerance. Three QTL were identified, which explained 43%, 24%, and 16% of the phenotypic variation in the mapping population. Heavy metal transporting ATPases4 (HMA4), encoding a predicted heavy metal ATPase, colocalized with the peak of the major QTL Cdtol-1 and was consequently further studied. HMA4 transcripts levels were higher in the roots and the shoots of A. halleri than in A. lyrata sp. petraea. Furthermore, HMA4 was also more highly expressed in all BC1 genotypes harboring the HMA4 A. halleri allele at the QTL Cdtol-1, independently of the presence of an A. halleri allele at the two other QTL. Overexpression of AhHMA4 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supported a role of HMA4 in zinc (Zn) and Cd transport by reducing the Cd and Zn contents of the yeast cells. In epidermal tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, AhHMA4:green fluorescent protein was clearly localized in the plasma membrane. Taken together, all available data point to the elevated expression of HMA4P(1B)-type ATPase as an efficient mechanism for improving Cd/ Zn tolerance in plants under conditions of Cd/ Zn excess by maintaining low cellular Cd2+ and Zn2+ concentrations in the cytoplasm. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Majoration de loyer et bail de logement social: "Ceci n'est pas une clause pénale"
in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 48 (11 ULg)
La majoration des quotités insaisissables pour enfant à charge
in Actualités du Droit (2003)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg)
La majorité des sièges sans la majorité de voix : une aubaine pour les indépendantistes flamands?
Article for general public (2011)
The Belgian electoral system leads to the overrepresentation of the larger political parties. With 39% of the votes, the N-VA could obtain 41 seats on 87.Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 ULg)
La majorité politique : Étude des débats parlementaires sur la fixation d'un seuil
Fournier, Bernard ;
in Percheron, Annick; Rémond, René (Eds.) Age et politique (1991)
Depuis la Révolution française, les seuils électoraux et les seuils d'éligibilité ont beaucoup varié en France. Par l'analyse des débats parlementaires, cet article retrace les raisons évoquées pour ... [more ▼]
Depuis la Révolution française, les seuils électoraux et les seuils d'éligibilité ont beaucoup varié en France. Par l'analyse des débats parlementaires, cet article retrace les raisons évoquées pour justifier ces changements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (4 ULg)
Make them real: exploring belief in occurrence of past and future personal events.
Ernst, Alexandra ; D'Argembeau, Arnaud
Conference (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
Making a Case for Case Reports: The ECCO-CONFER Viewpoint on Investigating Rare Events in a Medical World Reigned by Group-comparative Statistics.
; ; et al
in Journal of Crohn's and Colitis [=JCC] (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)