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See detailMain Street and the Problem of Emancipation in Sinclair Lewis's Novels
Maes-Jelinek, Hena ULg

Master's dissertation (1957)

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See detailMain virulence factors and pathogenesis of enteric and urinary tract pathogenic Escherichia coli
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January)

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See detailla main-d'oeuvre étrangère en Belgique
Feld, Serge ULg

Book published by Bruylant-Academia (2010)

179 !"#$% &%' ("!)e+%' SOMMAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INTRODUCTION GÉNÉRALE ... [more ▼]

179 !"#$% &%' ("!)e+%' SOMMAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INTRODUCTION GÉNÉRALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Une première en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Les apports du recensement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Immigrants et communautés étrangères . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Une population hétérogène . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Un marché du travail très spécifique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 La variable « nationalité » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 La main-d’oeuvre étrangère et le système éducatif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Activité, emploi, chômage : des réalités contrastées . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Le rôle économique du travail étranger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Des différences régionales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 La sous-utilisation des compétences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 De nouvelles perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Un marché du travail très défavorable à la main-d’oeuvre étrangère. . . . 20 CHAPITRE I – Éducation et formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section 1 : le niveau d’éducation des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . 25 1. Aperçu global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. Les niveaux d’éducation selon la nationalité et le sexe . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3. Les indices comparatifs des niveaux d’éducation des étrangers et des Belges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4. Les différences d’éducation entre les trois régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5. Les niveaux d’éducation selon le pays de naissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. Les niveaux d’éducation et l’âge d’arrivée en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:179 4/06/10 11:05:43 La main-d’oeuvre étrangère en Belgique 180 Section 2 : le choix des filières et les retards scolaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1. Répartition de la population diplômée selon l’orientation du diplôme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.2. Standardisation de la répartition des étrangers par filières d’études. . 42 1.3. Le choix des filières selon le sexe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.4. La répartition entre filières dans les trois régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2. Estimation des retards scolaires des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . 49 2.1. Questions de méthode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.2. Aperçu général des retards des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.3. L’impact du lieu de naissance sur les retards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.4. L’ampleur des retards est-elle influencée par le sexe ? . . . . . . . . . . . 55 2.5. Les différences régionales de retard dans le cursus scolaire . . . . . . . 56 Section 3 : la formation professionnelle des Belges et des étrangers . . . . 58 1. Panorama général . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2. La filière de formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 CHAPITRE II – L’activité et l’emploi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Section 1 : l’activité des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1. Évaluation générale de la population en âge de travailler . . . . . . . . . 70 2. La mesure des niveaux d’activité des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . 73 2.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.2. Analyse des courbes d’activité par âge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Section 2 : le chômage des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 1. Le chômage en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 2. Les taux de chômage dans les régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3. Le chômage par âge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. Le chômage des jeunes à la recherche d’un premier emploi . . . . . . . . 86 5. Le chômage et le niveau d’éducation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1. Aperçu général . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.2. Le taux de chômage des principales nationalités . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Section 3 : le niveau de l’emploi des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . . . 93 1. Les taux d’emploi de la Belgique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 2. Les taux d’emploi par région. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Annexe du chapitre II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:180 4/06/10 11:05:43 Table des matières CHAPITRE III – Le marché du travail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Section 1 : le statut, la nature du contrat et la durée de travail . . . . . . 104 1. Les types de contrat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 1.1. Le statut des Belges et des étrangers sur le marché du travail : Présentation générale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 1.2. Le statut d’activité selon le sexe et la nationalité . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 1.3. Le statut d’activité et le niveau de qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 1.4. Le statut d’activité dans les trois régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2. Le type de contrat et la durée du travail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2.2. Le type de contrat selon le sexe et la nationalité . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 2.3. Le type de contrat et le niveau de qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 2.4. Le type de contrat et le statut professionnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Section 2 : analyse des secteurs d’activité . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 1. Présentation de la répartition des actifs belges et étrangers entre les secteurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 2. Les secteurs et le pays de naissance des actifs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 3. La concentration sectorielle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 3.1. La concentration sectorielle de l’ensemble de la main-d’oeuvre étrangère par rapport aux Belges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3.2. La concentration sectorielle des principales nationalités par rapport aux Belges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3.3. La concentration sectorielle des principales nationalités par rapport à l’ensemble de la main-d’oeuvre étrangère . . . . . . . . 142 3.4. Les principaux secteurs d’activité et les régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 3.5. Le chômage sectoriel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 CHAPITRE IV – Les professions des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . 153 Section 1 : de l’analyse des secteurs à celle des professions et des métiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 1. Présentation générale de la répartition professionnelle des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 2. Les professions des étrangers et les régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Section 2 : la main-d’oeuvre étrangère est-elle surqualifiée ou sous-qualifiée ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 RÉFÉRENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 INDEX DES TABLEAUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 INDEX DES FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:181 4/06/10 11:05:43 [less ▲]

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See detailLa mainmise administrative sur les systèmes d'information hospitaliers
Albert, Adelin ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1993), 48(8), 465-72

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See detailLes mains de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte. Reconnecter le littéraire au documentaire
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 29)

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus ... [more ▼]

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus de ce texte majeur de la 20e dynastie. Cette approche permet d'aboutir à trois conclusions principales. (1) Il n'est pas possible de montrer l'existence d'une véritable "école de mains" qui imiteraient celle du scribe de la Tombe Amennakhte (e.g. Eyre 1979 : 87). (2) Il est possible d'attribuer différents témoins du texte de l'Enseignement à une même main. (3) On peut établir le lien ferme entre des mains ayant copiés l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte et des mains documentaires connues de la première moitié de la 20e dynastie. Ce dernier point permet de revenir sur le mythe égyptologique d'une césure significative entre mains littéraires et mains documentaires : malgré certaines différences, la possibilité de suivre la main d'un scribe entre textes littéraires et documentaires est réelle. Cela n'est évidemment pas sans conséquences pour l'histoire culturelle de la Communauté de Deir el-Médineh. [less ▲]

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See detailMainstreaming de l’intégration dans les politiques publiques, Colloque: Pas-de-deux.
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (2008, November 26)

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See detailMaintaining national culture abroad. Countries of origin, culture and diaspora
Gsir, Sonia ULg; Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Report (2015)

Within the framework of the INTERACT project, this paper aims to shed light onto a specific facet of the role of sending countries in migrants' integration processes: culture. Culture is analysed as one ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of the INTERACT project, this paper aims to shed light onto a specific facet of the role of sending countries in migrants' integration processes: culture. Culture is analysed as one of the tools that both migrants and countries of origin resort to in order to maintain reciprocal ties after migration. Following a brief presentation of the anthropological and sociological definitions of culture and the consequent notion of 'cultural identity' on which the analysis builds, we study the concrete implementation of these dynamics. In particular, our attention is deployed at three levels: the level of migrants' everyday practices (including the use of the origin language); the policy level (pertaining to both diaspora and integration); and the association level (cultural centres in particular). Through the study of several transversal examples, we consider the broader issue at stake in this paper: the possible connection between migrants' performance in the culture of their country of origin and integration processes. We take into account the European legal framework within which both migrants and national governments function, and the influence it has on discourses and national and international policies addressing integration issues. We reach the conclusion that no causal or univocal link can be established between cultural practices and integration, for several reasons: a variety of factors are at play in integration processes within multi-cultural urban spaces, including socio-economic issues and power relations, which are crucial; culture itself is a changing and combined set of behaviours which determine dynamic and multiple belongings and which need a comprehensive approach; and identities shape the interaction among cultures - which is why we finally state the usefulness of the notion of 'ethnicity'. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining people with multiple sclerosis at work: Validation of a questionnaire identifying their professional difficulties
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Monisse, Aurélie; Berkail, Radia et al

Poster (2014, May 27)

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction and validation of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction and validation of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis patients (MS). At the moment, only few very recent questionnaires (in English) are constructed in order to highlight the link between the patients’ cognitive deficits with their professional situation (Doogan & Playford, 2014; Honan et al., 2012; McFadden et al., 2012). This lack of accurate assessment is detrimental to the patients’ job retention. Our questionnaire was constructed from review of literature and interviews of patients and experts. In order to validate our questionnaire and to test its specificity to MS patients, three groups of participants answered the questionnaire: MS patients, diabetic patients (diabetes is also a chronic illness but without any cognitive deficits contrary to MS) and a control group. We controlled the effect of anxiety and depression and we conducted a factorial analysis that showed the existence of 3 factors: the ergonomic factor (that includes cognitive difficulties and resources and adaptation process), the description of work situation and the social support. The three groups of participants obtained similar results for the work description and the social support while the group of patients with MS obtained a higher score than the other 2 groups for the ergonomic factor. These results suggest that our questionnaire is specific to the MS population and to the difficulties they specifically meet in their work situations. These results highlight new research opportunities and specific ways to increase job retention in MS population. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining the coexistence of forest species of different shade tolerances with close-to-nature forestry
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Philippe, Balandier

Conference (2014, December 12)

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade ... [more ▼]

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade tolerances appears arduous with such a silvicultural system. Successfully managing irregular and mixed forests, relying on natural processes, requires a strong knowledge of the ecology of natural regeneration. In theory, regeneration dynamics depends upon the amount of transmitted radiation: shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under closed canopies whereas less shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under partially open canopies. Nevertheless, it explains hardly the difficulties faced by forest managers to maintain the coexistence of species of different shade tolerances. The purpose of this research is to define light requirements of two species with contrasting shade tolerances (Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and, next, determining how understory light can be controlled by forest managers. We find that, contrary to our expectations, the shade-tolerant species outgrow the less shade-tolerant species in all light conditions. We next examine the effects of canopy structure and composition on understory light availability with a model of light interception by heterogeneous canopies. Various silvicultural treatments are tested in order to provide favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration. The results underline that creating favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration can be achieved with various regeneration treatments. However, the adequate reduction of stand density depends upon the chosen silvicultural strategies. The outcomes of this study highlight that the control of understory light can be insufficient to maintain the coexistence of species of contrasting shade tolerance, and provide guidelines for the management of understory light in heterogeneous forests. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining the coexistence of tree species of different shade tolerances with uneven-aged silviculture
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

Conference (2016)

Maintaining the coexistence of multiple tree species is one of the greatest issues of uneven-aged silviculture as it is of great interest, for example, to maintain biodiversity or increase resilience to ... [more ▼]

Maintaining the coexistence of multiple tree species is one of the greatest issues of uneven-aged silviculture as it is of great interest, for example, to maintain biodiversity or increase resilience to global changes. In many places, while forest managers have successfully maintained complex stand structure with uneven-aged silviculture, they have often faced difficulties in maintaining some desired species mixtures. Naturally, the composition of uneven-aged forests evolves so that a few species successfully regenerate and suppress the others. Since a continuous canopy cover is usually maintained by uneven-aged silviculture, when nutrients and moisture are not limiting, the availability of light in the understory is the driving factor of natural regeneration dynamics. The amount of transmitted radiation determines, at least partly, the composition of the regeneration layer because of interspecific differences in growth and survival in shade. In theory, shade-tolerant species generally dominate the regeneration under closed canopies whereas less shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under partially open canopies. We hypothesize that, along a gradient of light availability, shade-tolerant species suppress less shade-tolerant species in understory with low availability of light whereas the opposite situation occurs in understory with high availability of light. In addition, we expect that forest managers can effectively control understory light with appropriate modifications of forest structure and density. We examined mixtures of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the Belgian Ardennes. We selected 23 sites with favorable water and nutrient supply. Regeneration areas (100-6500m²) were fenced off to protect them from browsing by deer. Saplings were sampled in 241 subplots and their height growth was annually monitored during two years. Understory light transmittance was measured in each subplot using hemispherical photography. The height growth of beech and oak saplings was modeled with mixed non-linear models. In order to simulate various silvicultural treatments, we used a model of light interception by heterogeneous canopies (SAMSARALIGHT). We simulated selective thinnings of 5 different types: harvesting preferentially small trees, large trees, or trees of shade-tolerant species or creating circular gaps. Understory light was found to be a key parameter in the dynamics of uneven-aged stands, as it affects regeneration growth and composition. There were interspecific differences in growth response to light availability. The optimum height growth of beech and oak regenerations were reached at 10% and 20% of transmittance, respectively. Our simulations highlighted that various silvicultural treatments can effectively be used to control understory light as long as harvest intensity is adapted to the chosen strategy (Figure 1). The results of this study also underscore the problem that even under good light conditions (transmittance > 20 %), regeneration of less shade-tolerant species might not overcome the regeneration of shade-tolerant species. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no rank reversal of the height growth of the two study species along a wide light gradient. Consequently, maintaining less shade-tolerant species in stands with shade-tolerant species might require silvicultural interventions jointly in the overstory and regeneration layers. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining the communication and information tool of the Belgian anesthesiology community
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2011), 62(4), 173-174

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See detailMaintenance and modernization works in the Belgian waterways network
Lejeune, André ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg

in Internationales Wasserbausymposium Aachen 2000: Verkehrswasserbau (2000)

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See detailMaintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kaufman, J. M.; Devogelaer, J. P. et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2011), 63(S10), 436

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See detailMaintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kaufman, J. M.; Goemaere, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012), 23

In an open-label extension study, BMD increased continuously with strontium ranelate over 10 years in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01). Vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence was lower between 5 and ... [more ▼]

In an open-label extension study, BMD increased continuously with strontium ranelate over 10 years in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01). Vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence was lower between 5 and 10 years than in a matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05). Strontium ranelate's antifracture efficacy appears to be maintained long term. INTRODUCTION: Strontium ranelate has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, including hip, over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis. We explored long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate over 10 years. METHODS: Postmenopausal osteoporotic women participating in the double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 studies SOTI and TROPOS to 5 years were invited to enter a 5-year open-label extension, during which they received strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 237, 10-year population). Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence were recorded, and FRAX(R) scores were calculated. The effect of strontium ranelate on fracture incidence was evaluated by comparison with a FRAX(R)-matched placebo group identified in the TROPOS placebo arm. RESULTS: The patients in the 10-year population had baseline characteristics comparable to those of the total SOTI/TROPOS population. Over 10 years, lumbar BMD increased continuously and significantly (P < 0.01 versus previous year) with 34.5 +/- 20.2% relative change from baseline to 10 years. The incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture with strontium ranelate in the 10-year population in years 6 to 10 was comparable to the incidence between years 0 and 5, but was significantly lower than the incidence observed in the FRAX(R)-matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05); relative risk reductions for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were 35% and 38%, respectively. Strontium ranelate was safe and well tolerated over 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate is associated with sustained increases in BMD over 10 years, with a good safety profile. Our results also support the maintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance of functional human cancellous bone and human hematopoiesis in NOD/SCID mice
Hubin, F.; Humblet, Chantal ULg; Belaid, Zakia ULg et al

in Cell Transplantation (2004), 13(7-8), 823-831

Attempts were made to establish models to study interactions between marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo. The approach was to create a NOD-SCID-hu murine model of long-term human ... [more ▼]

Attempts were made to establish models to study interactions between marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo. The approach was to create a NOD-SCID-hu murine model of long-term human hematopoiesis by implantation of a human adult bone fragment. Nine to 12 weeks posuransplantation, human CD45(+) cells were detected in the blood and the spleen of some mice. The histology of the human transplant showed that human bone fragment was viable at 9 weeks. Moreover, vessels of human origin, as assessed by immunohistochemical detection of human beta(2)-microglobulin, were observed in the mouse tissue surrounding the transplanted human fragment. [less ▲]

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