Murdering the Text: Genre and Gender Issues in Margaret Atwood's Recent Short Short Fiction
in Ledent, Bénédicte (Ed.) The Contact and the Culmination: Essays in Honour of Hena Maes-Jelinek (1997)Detailed reference viewed: 156 (3 ULg)
Murid herpesvirus 4 infection protects mice from the development of an anti-pneumovirus vaccine-induced TH2 immunopathology
Dourcy, Mickael ; Machiels, Bénédicte ; Zeippen, Caroline et al
Poster (2014, December 12)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg)
The murid herpesvirus-4 gH/gL binds to glycosaminoglycans.
Gillet, Laurent ; ;
in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(2), 1669
The first contact a virus makes with cells is an important determinant of its tropism. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is highly dependent on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) for cell binding. Its first contact is ... [more ▼]
The first contact a virus makes with cells is an important determinant of its tropism. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is highly dependent on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) for cell binding. Its first contact is therefore likely to involve a GAG-binding virion glycoprotein. We have previously identified two such proteins, gp70 and gp150. Gp70 binds strongly to GAGs. However, deleting it makes little difference to MuHV-4 cell binding or GAG-dependence. Deleting gp150, by contrast, frees MuHV-4 from GAG dependence. This implies that GAGs normally displace gp150 to allow GAG-independent cell binding. But the gp150 GAG interaction is weak, and so would seem unlikely to make an effective first contact. Since neither gp70 nor gp150 matches the expected profile of a first contact glycoprotein, our understanding of MuHV-4 GAG interactions must be incomplete. Here we relate the seemingly disconnected gp70 and gp150 GAG interactions by showing that the MuHV-4 gH/gL also binds to GAGs. gH/gL-blocking and gp70-blocking antibodies individually had little effect on cell binding, but together were strongly inhibitory. Thus, there was redundancy in GAG binding between gp70 and gH/gL. Gp150-deficient MuHV-4 largely resisted blocks to gp70 and gH/gL binding, consistent with its GAG independence. The failure of wild-type MuHV-4 to do the same argues that gp150 is normally engaged only down-stream of gp70 or gH/gL. MuHV-4 GAG dependence is consequently two-fold: gp70 or gH/gL binding provides virions with a vital first foothold, and gp150 is then engaged to reveal GAG-independent binding. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (15 ULg)
The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gL regulates an entry-associated conformation change in gH.
Gillet, Laurent ; ;
in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(7), 2811
The glycoprotein H (gH)/gL heterodimer is crucial for herpesvirus membrane fusion. Yet how it functions is not well understood. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gH, like that of other herpesviruses, adopts its ... [more ▼]
The glycoprotein H (gH)/gL heterodimer is crucial for herpesvirus membrane fusion. Yet how it functions is not well understood. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gH, like that of other herpesviruses, adopts its normal virion conformation by associating with gL. However, gH switched back to a gL-independent conformation after virion endocytosis. This switch coincided with a conformation switch in gB and with capsid release. Virions lacking gL constitutively expressed the down-stream form of gH, prematurely switched gB to its down-stream form, and showed premature capsid release with poor infectivity. These data argue that gL plays a key role in regulating a gH and gB functional switch from cell binding to membrane fusion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Murine 5T multiple myeloma cells induce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
; ; et al
in British Journal of Cancer (2002), 86(5), 796-802
Multiple myeloma is a B cell malignancy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow samples of patients with multiple myeloma display an enhanced angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved seem to be ... [more ▼]
Multiple myeloma is a B cell malignancy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow samples of patients with multiple myeloma display an enhanced angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved seem to be multiple and complex. We here demonstrate that the murine 5T multiple myeloma models are able to induce angiogenesis in vitro by using a rat aortic ring assay and in vivo by determining the microvessel density. The rat aortic rings cultured in 5T multiple myeloma conditioned medium exhibit a higher number of longer and more branched microvessels than the rings cultured in control medium. In bone marrow samples from 5T multiple myeloma diseased mice, a statistically significant increase of the microvessel density was observed when compared to bone marrow samples from age-matched controls. The angiogenic phenotype of both 5T multiple myeloma cells could be related, at least in part, to their capacity to produce vascular endothelial growth factor. These data clearly demonstrate that the 5T multiple myeloma models are good models to study angiogenesis in multiple myeloma and will allow to unravel the mechanisms of neovascularisation, as well as to test new putative inhibitors of angiogenesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
Murine bone marrow stromal cells sustain in vivo the survival of hematopoietic stem cells and the granulopoietic differentiation of more mature progenitors.
; Humblet, Chantal ; Belaid, Zakia et al
in Stem Cells (2005), 23(10), 1626-33
The study of the human hematopoietic system would be facilitated by availability of a relevant animal model. Because the medullar microenvironment is made of different types of cells, interactions between ... [more ▼]
The study of the human hematopoietic system would be facilitated by availability of a relevant animal model. Because the medullar microenvironment is made of different types of cells, interactions between hematopoietic cells and stromal cells are difficult to analyze in detail. As an approach for establishing an in vivo model to dissect these interactions, we grafted murine bone marrow fibroblastic cells (MS-5 cell line) with hematopoietic cells into the kidney capsule of syngenic mice. To identify the origin of cells present in the graft, we used green fluorescent protein-stable transfected MS-5 cells for the transplantation. To analyze the evolution of stromal cells and identify hematopoietic cells able to develop in these conditions, we performed morphology, histochemistry, and immunohistology on tissue sections at different times after transplantation. When injected alone, MS-5 cells differentiate into adipocytes. When injected with a bone marrow suspension or with isolated CD45+ cells (leukocytes), the stromal cells keep their fibroblastic morphology and their alkaline phosphatase expression and sustain granulopoiesis. When injected with hematopoietic stem cells called c-kit+ Sca-1+ Lin- suspension, clusters of hematopoietic cells are also observed: They do not present any granulopoietic activity and do not belong to B or T population nor to erythroid lineage. They are quiescent, induce bone marrow recovery and survival of lethally irradiated recipients, are able to form macroscopic colonies in the spleen, and are able to form very few colonies in vitro, suggesting that they are hematopoietic stem cells. In conclusion, our results show that reticular fibroblastic stromal cells MS-5 sustain the survival of stem cells and are not able to induce their differentiation. However, they can control differentiation, proliferation, and/or survival of hematopoietic cells engaged in myeloid lineage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (6 ULg)
Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 glycoprotein B presents a difficult neutralization target to monoclonal antibodies derived from infected mice.
Gillet, Laurent ; ; et al
in Journal of General Virology (The) (2006), 87(Pt 12), 3515-27
Persistent viruses disseminate from immune hosts. They must therefore resist neutralization by antibody. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) represents an accessible model with which to address how ... [more ▼]
Persistent viruses disseminate from immune hosts. They must therefore resist neutralization by antibody. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) represents an accessible model with which to address how resistance to neutralization is achieved and how overcoming it might improve infection control. The MHV-68 glycoprotein B (gB), like that of other herpesviruses, is a virion protein that is essential for infectivity. As such, it presents a potential neutralization target. In order to test whether virus-induced antibodies reduce virion infectivity by binding to gB, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from MHV-68-infected mice. gB-specific mAbs were common, but only an IgM specific for the gB N terminus reduced virion infectivity significantly. It inhibited MHV-68 entry into BHK-21 cells at a post-binding step that was linked closely to membrane fusion. Reducing the mAb to IgM monomers compromised neutralization severely, suggesting that a pentameric structure was crucial to its function. Antibody treatment never blocked BHK-21 cell infection completely and blocked the infection of NMuMG epithelial cells hardly at all. Virions saturated with antibody also remained infectious to mice. Thus, the MHV-68 gB presents at best a very difficult target for antibody-mediated neutralization. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 glycoprotein H-glycoprotein L complex is a major target for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.
; Gillet, Laurent ; et al
in Journal of General Virology (The) (2006), 87(Pt 6), 1465-75
Herpesviruses characteristically persist in immune hosts as latent genomes, but to transmit infection they must reactivate and replicate lytically. The interaction between newly formed virions and pre ... [more ▼]
Herpesviruses characteristically persist in immune hosts as latent genomes, but to transmit infection they must reactivate and replicate lytically. The interaction between newly formed virions and pre-existing antibody is therefore likely to be a crucial determinant of viral fitness. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) behaves as a natural pathogen of conventional, inbred mice and consequently allows such interactions to be analysed experimentally in a relatively realistic setting. Here, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from MHV-68-infected mice and all those recognizing infected-cell surfaces were tested for their capacity to neutralize MHV-68 virions. All of the neutralizing mAbs identified were specific for the viral glycoprotein H (gH)-gL heterodimer and required both gH and gL to reproduce their cognate epitopes. Based on antibody interference, there appeared to be two major neutralization epitopes on gH-gL. Analysis of a representative mAb indicated that it blocked infection at a post-binding step--either virion endocytosis or membrane fusion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULg)
The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 acts as an immunogenic decoy to limit virion neutralization.
Gillet, Laurent ; ; et al
in PLoS ONE (2007), 2(1), 705
Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of ... [more ▼]
Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but fail to block and even enhance its infection of IgG Fc receptor-bearing cells, suggesting that the antibody response to infection is actually poor at ablating virion infectivity completely. Here we analyzed this effect further by quantitating the glycoprotein-specific antibody response of MHV-68 carrier mice. Gp150 was much the commonest glycoprotein target and played a predominant role in driving Fc receptor-dependent infection: when gp150-specific antibodies were boosted, Fc receptor-dependent infection increased; and when gp150-specific antibodies were removed, Fc receptor-dependent infection was largely lost. Neither gp150-specific monoclonal antibodies nor gp150-specific polyclonal sera gave significant virion neutralization. Gp150 therefore acts as an immunogenic decoy, distorting the MHV-68-specific antibody response to promote Fc receptor-dependent infection and so compromise virion neutralization. This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
Murine Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Gene. 5'-Upstream Region Contains Cis-Acting Elements for Expression in Osteoclasts and Migrating Keratinocytes in Transgenic Mice
Munaut, Carine ; ; et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(9), 5588-96
Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown ... [more ▼]
Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown to contain 13 exons, and the 2.8-kilobase pair upstream region was found to contain several common promoter elements including a TATA box-like motif, three GC boxes, four AP-1-like binding sites, an AP-2 site, and three PEA3 consensus sequences that may be important for basic activity of the gene. In order to identify cell-specific regulatory elements, constructs containing varying lengths of the upstream region in front of a LacZ reporter gene were made and studied for expression in transgenic mice generated by microinjection into fertilized oocytes. Analyses of the mice revealed that the presence of sequences between -2722 and -7745 allowed for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes, i. e. cells that have been shown to normally express the enzyme in vivo. The results represent the first in vivo demonstration of the location of cell-specific control elements in a matrix metalloproteinase gene and show that element(s) regulating most cell-specific activities of 92-kDa type collagenase are located in the -2722 to -7745 base pair region. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Murine models of persistent infection of the nervous system by varicella-zoster virus
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ; ; Piette, Jacques et al
Poster (1996)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Murmurs of thought: phenomenology of hallucinatory consciousness in impending psychosis
; Laroi, Frank
in Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches (2011), 3Detailed reference viewed: 59 (4 ULg)
Murray Bail's Eucalyptus: An Australian Fairy-Tale?
Scientific conference (2008)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Murray Bail's Eucalyptus: An Australian Fairy-Tale?
in Collier, Gordon; Davis, Geoff; Delrez, Marc (Eds.) et al The Invention of Legacy: Essays in Memory of Hena Maes-Jelinek (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Murs et barbelés. Lectures croisées de Wendy Brown et Olivier Razac
Scientific conference (2010, February 23)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Le murus gallicus de Pont-de-Bonne (Modave, province de Liège). Campagne de fouilles 2005-2006
in Lunula Archaeologia Protohistorica (2007), XVDetailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Le murus gallicus de Pont-de-Bonne. Campagnes de fouilles 2005-2006
in Bulletin de l'Association scientifique liégeoise pour la recherche archéologique (2008), 26Detailed reference viewed: 57 (7 ULg)