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See detailAssessment of nuclear totipotency of fetal bovine diploid germ cells by nuclear transfer.
Moens, A.; Chesne, P.; Delhaise, F. et al

in Theriogenology (1996), 46(5), 871-80

Nuclear transfer was used to study nuclear reprogramming of fetal diploid bovine germ cells collected at two stages of the fetal development. In the first case, germ cells of both sexes were collected ... [more ▼]

Nuclear transfer was used to study nuclear reprogramming of fetal diploid bovine germ cells collected at two stages of the fetal development. In the first case, germ cells of both sexes were collected during their period of intragonadal mitotic multiplication at 48 days post coitum (d.p.c.). In the second case, only male germ cells were collected after this period, between 105 and 185 d.p.c. Isolated germ cells were fused with enucleated oocytes. Reconstituted embryos were cultured in vitro and those reaching the compacted morula or blastocyst stage were transferred into synchronous recipient heifers. Of 511 reconstituted embryos with 48 d.p.c. germ cells (309 males and 202 females), 48% (247/511 ) cleaved; 2.7% (14/511 ) reached the compacted morula stage and 8 of them the blastocyst stage (1.6%). No difference was observed between sexes. All 14 compacted morulae/blastocysts were transferred into 6 recipients and one pregnancy was initiated. This recipient was slaughtered at Day 35 and an abnormal conceptus (extended trophectoderm and degenerated embryo) was collected. Its male sex, genetically determined, corresponded to that of donor fetus. Of 380 reconstituted embryos with male 105 to 185 d.p.c. germ cells, 72.1% (274/380 ) cleaved, 2.1% (8 380 ) reached the compact morula stage and 7 of these the blastocyst stage (1.8%). Three blastocysts and one morula were transferred into 4 recipients. Two became pregnant at Day 21 but only one at Day 35 which aborted around Day 40. Our results show that the nucleus of diploid bovine germ cells of both sexes can be reprogrammed. However, in the absence of further development of these reconstituted embryos, nuclear totipotency of bovine diploid germ cells remains to be evidenced. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of nutrition related knowledge, skills ans attitudes
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Schürch, B. (Ed.) Evaluation of nutrition education in third world communities (1983)

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See detailAssessment of olfactory function in male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice
Pierman, S.; Douhard, Quentin ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 99

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See detailAssessment of osteoporosis disease burden in countries currently lacking such studies
Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Radican, L et al

in BONE (1998), 23(S5), 306

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See detailAssessment of osteoporosis in daily clinical practice
Bosio-Le Goux, B.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Tancredi, Annalisa ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 86

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See detailAssessment of oviposition site quality by aphidophagous hoverflies: reaction to conspecific larvae
Almohamad, Raki; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Animal Behaviour (2010), 79

Aphidophagous predators adapt their foraging behaviour to the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae. We studied the effect of the presence of conspecific larvae and their tracks on the ... [more ▼]

Aphidophagous predators adapt their foraging behaviour to the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae. We studied the effect of the presence of conspecific larvae and their tracks on the oviposition site selection of an aphid-specific predator, Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae), in two-choice experiments using a leaf disc bioassay. Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the volatile chemicals released from odour extracts of E. balteatus larval tracks. The behavioural effects of these volatile substances on hoverfly females were also evaluated. Our experiments demonstrated that E. balteatus females were deterred from ovipositing when presented with a Vicia faba leaf with aphids and conspecific larvae. The oviposition-deterring stimulus was also active when females were presented with a leaf that contained conspecific larval tracks. A mixture of chemical compounds was found in the volatile pattern of odour extracts of larval tracks. The main volatile chemicals were 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, 3-hydroxy- 2-butanone, hexanoic acid and phenol. Females also laid significantly fewer eggs in response to odorant volatiles emitted from larval extracts. These results highlight that predatory hoverfly females avoid ovipositing in aphid colonies in which conspecific larvae or their tracks are already present, suggesting that this behaviour constitutes a strategy that enables females to optimize their oviposition site and reduce competition suffered by their offspring. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pain in herpes zoster: lessons learned from antiviral trials
Dworkin, R. H.; Carrington, D.; Cunningham, A. et al

in Antiviral Research (1997), 33(2), 73-85

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but ... [more ▼]

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but different methods have been used to analyze pain in recent published trials. These reports are reviewed and their methodological strengths and weaknesses examined. Based on this review, recommendations for the design and analysis of future trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster are proposed. The principal recommendation is that antiviral efficacy should be evaluated both by distinguishing post-herpetic neuralgia from acute pain and by considering pain as a continuum. The primary endpoint should address both the prevalence and duration of post-herpetic neuralgia and should be examined in those patients who have post-herpetic neuralgia. Adopting the proposed recommendations in design and analysis of future trials should facilitate comparison across trials of the efficacy of antiviral agents in the treatment of herpes zoster. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Patient Comfort During Palliative Sedation: Is it always Reliable?
Deschepper, R; Bilsen, J; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (2014)

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and ... [more ▼]

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and resuscitation. Notwithstanding the technological progress made in intensive and emergency medicine, a substantial number of the patients admitted to the ICU cannot be saved. In these cases, it is important to make a timely shift from curative efforts to palliative care, so that futile and burdensome interventions can be avoided. When death becomes imminent, a major concern of the family members and caregivers is to assure maximal comfort during the dying process. A central aspect of good end-of-life care is to keep the patient, as much as possible, free of pain and other kinds of distress. However, many critically ill patients often suffer from symptoms such as pain and delirium. More than 50 % of critically ill patients in the ICU experience moderate to severe pain and pain in critically ill patients often remains untreated [1]. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of periodic homogenisation-based multi-scale computational schemes for quasi-brittle structural failure
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, T. J.

in Computational Plasticity X - Fundamentals and Applications (2009)

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See detailAssessment of periodic homogenization-based multiscale computational schemes for quasi-brittle structural failure
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, T. J.

in International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering (2009), 7(2), 153-170

New methods for the modeling of structural failure by means of multiscale approaches were recently proposed, in which the structural description involves coarse-scale discontinuities, the behavior of ... [more ▼]

New methods for the modeling of structural failure by means of multiscale approaches were recently proposed, in which the structural description involves coarse-scale discontinuities, the behavior of which is fed by representative volume element (RVE) computations. Their main asset consists in identifying the material response, including the failure behavior of the material, from fine-scale material parameters and computations. One of the distinctions between the available approaches relates to the boundary conditions applied on the RVE. The methods based on classical computational homogenization usually make use of periodic boundary conditions. This assumption remains a priori debatable for the localized behavior of quasi-brittle materials. For the particular case of periodic materials (masonry), the level of approximation induced by the periodic assumption is scrutinized here. A new displacement discontinuity-enhanced-scale transition is therefore outlined based on energetic consistency requirements. The corresponding multiscale framework results are compared to complete fine-scale modeling results used as a reference, showing a good agreement in terms of limit load, and in terms of failure mechanisms both at the fine-scale and at the overall structural level. © 2008 by Begell House, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pesticide application method efficiency by high-speed image analysis
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Denis, Thierry; Perriot, Benjamin et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method efficiency. Retention on blackgrass leaves was assessed by an image analysis method. The setup consists of a high-speed camera shooting drop impact on horizontal leaf target. An herbicide (Archipel® [125 g/ha] + Actirob® [1 l/ha]) was sprayed at the usual volume of 150 l/ha and at a reduced volume of 65 l/ha. Adjuvants use (Epsotop® [1%] + Heliosol® [0.5%]) was also evaluated at 65 l/ha to highlight the effect of mixture surface tension modification. Drop properties before impact were extracted by image analysis and a phase diagram derived. Volumetric proportions of impact types are determined inside 11 energy classes to assess the effect of formulation and application method. The volume median diameter (VMD) before impact was slightly decreased by the reduction to 65 l/ha because of nozzle and pressure changes and also by the use of the adjuvants leading to the reduction of surface tension. Without adjuvants the reduction to 65l/ha increased the proportion of adhesion while rebound remained unchanged and fragmentation decreased. With adjuvants, drop fragmentation occurs for a lower energy class but the proportion of fragmentation also decreases with because of reduced VMD. A slight effect on the transitions between impact classes was observed because of formulation concentration change at reduced volume/hectare. A major effect of adjuvants on retention was highlighted as bouncing disappeared. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes eight years after chloroquine withdrawal in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mvumbi, Dieudonné; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg et al

in Malaria Journal (2013), 12

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies had become ineffective in many parts of the world. As a result, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) withdrew chloroquine (CQ) from its malaria treatment policy in 2002 and an artesunate (AS)-amodiaquine (AQ) combination became the ACT of choice in DRC in 2005. AQ-resistance (AQR) has been reported in several parts of the world and mutations in codons 72-76 of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene have been strongly correlated with resistance, especially mutations encoding the SVMNT haplotype. This haplotype was first identified in Southeast Asia and South America but was recently reported in two African countries neighbouring DRC. These facts raised two questions: the first about the evolution of CQ resistance (CQR) in DRC and the second about the presence of the SVMNT haplotype, which would compromise the use of AQ as a partner drug for ACT. METHODS: A total of 213 thick blood films were randomly collected in 2010 from a paediatric clinic in Kinshasa, DRC. Microscopy controls and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for Plasmodium species identification. Haplotypes of the pfcrt gene were determined by sequencing. RESULTS: The K76T mutation was detected in 145 out of 198 P. falciparum-positive samples (73.2%).In these 145 resistant strains, only the CVIET haplotype was detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess the molecular markers of resistance to CQ and AQ after the introduction of ACT in DRC. The results suggest first that CQR is decreasing, as wild-type pfcrt haplotypes were found in only 26.8% of the samples and secondly that the SVMNT haplotype is not yet present in Kinshasa, suggesting that AQ remains valid as a partner drug for ACT in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment Of Pichia Anomala (Strain K) Efficacy Against Blue Mould Of Apples When Applied Pre- Or Post-Harvest Under Laboratory Conditions And In Orchard Trials
Lahlali, R.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; De Clercq, D. et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2009), 123(1), 37-45

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See detailASSESSMENT OF PLANT LEAF AREA MEASUREMENT BY USING STEREO- VISION
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in 2013 International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) - Proceedings (2013, December)

The aim of this study is to develop an alternative measurement for the leaf area index (LAI), an important agronomic parameter for plant growth assessment. A 3D stereo-vision technique was developed to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to develop an alternative measurement for the leaf area index (LAI), an important agronomic parameter for plant growth assessment. A 3D stereo-vision technique was developed to measure both leaf area and corresponding ground area. The leaf area was based on pixel related measurements while the ground area was based on the mean distance from the leaves to the camera. Laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to estimate the accuracy and the precision of the technique. Result showed that, though the leaves-camera distance had to be estimated precisely in order to have accurate measurement, the precision of the LAI evaluation, after regression, was equivalent to the reference measurements, that is to say around 10% of the estimated value. This shows the potential of the 3D measurements compared with tedious reference measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of plasma profile of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in sheep with a heterologous (anti-caPAG(55+59)) RIA diagnosing and its potential for pregnancy
Ledezma-Torres, R. A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Holtz, W.

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(4), 906-912

The purpose of the present investigation was to generate pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)-profiles throughout pregnancy in a heterogenous sample of sheep using a radioimmunoassay with a ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present investigation was to generate pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)-profiles throughout pregnancy in a heterogenous sample of sheep using a radioimmunoassay with a heterologous antibody (anti-caPAG55,59, #708) and utilize them for the purpose of pregnancy detection. From 2 weeks after the introduction of males into the breeding herd until 4 weeks after parturition, weekly blood samples were collected from 66 pregnant and 25 non-pregnant ewes of various breeds. Between 3 and 5 weeks after conception, plasma PAG levels increased, remained almost stable until week 17, then continued to increase, culminating in a drastic surge during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. By 4 weeks of gestation, the plasma PAG level exceeded the level typical for non-pregnant ewes by five standard deviations, permitting a reliable pregnancy diagnosis. Plasma PAG levels were higher in twin-bearing ewes than in ewes carrying a single lamb, differences getting more evident as pregnancy proceeded. Neither breed and parity of the mother nor sex and weight of lambs home exerted a significant effect. The heterologous assay system utilizing a caprine antibody proved to deliver results that are more consistent and less depending on various variables than those used in other studies. It may be concluded that, at the present state of development, the assay provides a reliable means of diagnosing pregnancy in sheep from the 4th week after they have been bred onward. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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