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See detailNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Monitoring Changes of Sponge Cakes During Storage at 20 °C and 65 % Relative Humidity
Botosoa, Eliot Patrick; Chèné, Christine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2015), 8

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from NMR showed that the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), measured on the crumb part, decreased from day 1 to day 16 while the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) increased throughout the whole storage time (i.e. 1 to 20 day(s)). Based on the analysis of the state of water, TGA allowed to establishing a kinetic profile of retrogradation degree of starch contained in sponge cakes. This approach evidenced that the evolution of the sponge cakes freshness and staling closely depends on the dynamic of the water in the crumb during ageing. These results were supported by DSC thermograms exhibiting a variation of three main endotherms detected in sponge cakes at −15, +5 and +45 °C throughout ageing. The enthalpy changes of these endotherms reflected the evolution of chemical and physical reactions occurring in the sponge cakes during storage. The analysis of the endotherm enthalpy change at 45 °C allowed to determine the time τ (i.e. τ≈9 days) corresponding to the apparition of amylopectin crystallites that could be considered as a reference time to separate fresh sponge cakes from the aged ones. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear materials I
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

Learning material (2003)

*Brief review of most important mechanical properties of materials - stress-strain relationship - ductile and brittle fracture; ductile-brittle transition - fatigue failure - creep * Stress analysis ... [more ▼]

*Brief review of most important mechanical properties of materials - stress-strain relationship - ductile and brittle fracture; ductile-brittle transition - fatigue failure - creep * Stress analysis: stress intensity, thermal stresses * Functional requirements of materials in a nuclear environment - "nuclear" materials: fuel, fuel cladding, moderator/reflector, coolant - structural materials: reactor internals and vessel, piping, valves * Degradation mechanisms of materials in a nuclear environment - radiation effects: general principles, atomic displacements, embrittlement, swelling fatigue: due to thermal stresses and stratification - corrosion: p.m. (to be developed in course "Nuclear Materials II" * Detailed treatment of important materials in a nuclear environment (especially nuclear- mechanical interactions and relationships) - fuel and cladding - moderator/reflector - structural materials (incl reactor internals, reactor vessel) [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear medicine imaging
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Withofs, Nadia ULg

in Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Van't Veer, Laura; Vermorken, Jan (Eds.) et al ESMO Handbook of Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Evaluation (2009)

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See detailThe nuclear phenotypic plasticity observed in fish during rRNA regulation entails Cajal bodies dynamics.
Alvarez, Marco; Nardocci, Gino; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2007), 360(1), 40-5

Cajal bodies (CBs) are small mobile organelles found throughout the nucleoplasm of animal and plant cells. The dynamics of these organelles involves interactions with the nucleolus. The later has been ... [more ▼]

Cajal bodies (CBs) are small mobile organelles found throughout the nucleoplasm of animal and plant cells. The dynamics of these organelles involves interactions with the nucleolus. The later has been found to play a substantial role in the compensatory response that evolved in eurythermal fish to adapt to the cyclic seasonal habitat changes, i.e., temperature and photoperiod. Contrary to being constitutive, rRNA synthesis is dramatically regulated between summer and winter, thus affecting ribosomal biogenesis which plays a central role in the acclimatization process. To examine whether CBs, up to now, never described in fish, were also sustaining the phenotypic plasticity observed in nuclei of fish undergoing seasonal acclimatization, we identified these organelles both, by transmission electronic microscopy and immunodetection with the marker protein p80-coilin. We found transcripts in all tissues analyzed. Furthermore we assessed that p80-coilin gene expression was always higher in summer-acclimatized fish when compared to that adapted to the cold season, indicating that p80-coilin expression is modulated upon seasonal acclimatization. Concurrently, CBs were more frequently found in summer-acclimatized carp which suggests that the organization of CBs is involved in adaptive processes and contribute to the phenotypic plasticity of fish cell nuclei observed concomitantly with profound reprogramming of nucleolar components and regulation of ribosomal rRNAs. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Physics as a relativistic theory
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Mahaux, Claude ULg

in Noble, J. V.; Whitney, R. R. (Eds.) New Horizons in Electromagnetic Physics (1983)

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See detailThe nuclear physics of OHe
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Khlopov, Maxim; Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Mankoc (Ed.) Proceedings of the 15th Bled Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models" (2012, November 24)

A recent composite-dark-matter scenario assumes that the dominant fraction of dark matter consists of O-helium (OHe) dark atoms, in which a lepton-like doubly charged particle O is bound with a primordial ... [more ▼]

A recent composite-dark-matter scenario assumes that the dominant fraction of dark matter consists of O-helium (OHe) dark atoms, in which a lepton-like doubly charged particle O is bound with a primordial helium nucleus. It liberates the physics of dark matter from unknown features of new physics, but it demands a deep understanding of the details of known nuclear and atomic physics, which are still unclear. Here, we consider in detail the physics of the binding of OHe to various nuclei of interest for direct dark matter searches. We show that standard quantum mechanics leads to bound states in the keV region, but does not seem to provide a simple mechanism that stabilizes them. The crucial role of a barrier in the OHe-nucleus potential is confirmed for such a stabilization. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear probes for battery materials investigations: Mössbauer spectroscopy, nuclear scattering, and neutron scattering
Hermann, Raphaël ULg; Mahmoud, A.; Brisbois, Magali ULg et al

in Proceedings of 2014 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference, IRSEC 2014 (2014)

Selected examples of application of Mössbauer spectroscopy, nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, and neutron scattering to battery and related materials research are presented. The ... [more ▼]

Selected examples of application of Mössbauer spectroscopy, nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, and neutron scattering to battery and related materials research are presented. The charms of Mössbauer spectroscopy as a technique for screening materials, for detailed structure investigations, and for in situ measurements are illustrated. New developments of nuclear resonance scattering for isotopes with 30-90 keV resonant energy are presented. Structural, diffusive and dynamic studies utilizing neutron scattering are exemplified. © 2014 IEEE. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear spin temperature of ammonia in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the Deep Impact event
Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Icarus (2007), 187

The Deep Impact mission succeeded in excavating inner materials from the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 2005 July 04 (at 05:52 UT). Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is one of Jupiter family short period comets, which ... [more ▼]

The Deep Impact mission succeeded in excavating inner materials from the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 2005 July 04 (at 05:52 UT). Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is one of Jupiter family short period comets, which might originate in the Kuiper belt region in the solar nebula. In order to characterize the comet and to support the mission from the ground-based observatory, optical high-dispersion spectroscopic observations were carried out with the echelle spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the 8-m telescope VLT (UT2) before and after the Deep Impact event. Ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of cometary ammonia were determined from the NH[SUB]2[/SUB] emission spectra. The OPRs of ammonia on July 3.996 UT and 4.997 UT were derived to be 1.28±0.07 (nuclear spin temperature: T[SUB][/SUB]=24±2 K) and 1.26±0.08 (T[SUB][/SUB]=25±2 K), respectively. There is no significant change between before and after the impact. Actually, most materials ejected from the impact site could have moved away from the nucleus on July 4.997 UT, about 17 h after the impact. However, a small fraction of the ejected materials might remain in the slit of UVES instrument at that time because an excess of about 20% in the NH[SUB]2[/SUB] emission flux is observed above the normal activity level was found [Manfroid, J., Hutsemékers, D., Jehin, E., Cochran, A.L., Arpigny, C., Jackson, W.M., Meech, K.J., Schulz, R., Zucconi, J.-M., 2007. Icarus. This issue]. If the excess of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] on July 04.997 UT was produced from icy materials excavated by the Deep Impact, then an upper-limit of the ammonia OPR would be 1.75 (T[SUB][/SUB]>17 K) for those materials. On the other hand, the OPR of ammonia produced from the quiescent sources was similar to that of the Oort cloud comets observed so far. This fact may imply that physical conditions where cometary ices formed were similar between Comet 9P/Tempel 1 and the Oort cloud comets. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear spin temperature of ammonia in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the Deep Impact event
Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2007), 191

The Deep Impact mission succeeded in excavating inner materials from the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 2005 July 04 (at 05:52 UT). Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is one of Jupiter family short period comets, which ... [more ▼]

The Deep Impact mission succeeded in excavating inner materials from the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 2005 July 04 (at 05:52 UT). Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is one of Jupiter family short period comets, which might originate in the Kuiper belt region in the solar nebula. In order to characterize the comet and to support the mission from the ground-based observatory, optical high-dispersion spectroscopic observations were carried out with the echelle spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the 8-m telescope VLT (UT2) before and after the Deep Impact event. Ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of cometary ammonia were determined from the NH[SUB]2[/SUB] emission spectra. The OPRs of ammonia on July 3.996 UT and 4.997 UT were derived to be 1.28±0.07 (nuclear spin temperature: T[SUB][/SUB]=24±2 K) and 1.26±0.08 (T[SUB][/SUB]=25±2 K), respectively. There is no significant change between before and after the impact. Actually, most materials ejected from the impact site could have moved away from the nucleus on July 4.997 UT, about 17 h after the impact. However, a small fraction of the ejected materials might remain in the slit of UVES instrument at that time because an excess of about 20% in the NH[SUB]2[/SUB] emission flux is observed above the normal activity level was found [Manfroid, J., Hutsemékers, D., Jehin, E., Cochran, A.L., Arpigny, C., Jackson, W.M., Meech, K.J., Schulz, R., Zucconi, J.-M., 2007. Icarus. This issue]. If the excess of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] on July 04.997 UT was produced from icy materials excavated by the Deep Impact, then an upper-limit of the ammonia OPR would be 1.75 (T[SUB][/SUB]>17 K) for those materials. On the other hand, the OPR of ammonia produced from the quiescent sources was similar to that of the Oort cloud comets observed so far. This fact may imply that physical conditions where cometary ices formed were similar between Comet 9P/Tempel 1 and the Oort cloud comets. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Trade Regulation in the European Union
Michel, Quentin ULg

Learning material (2012)

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See detailNuclear transplantation using bovine primordial germ cells from male fetuses.
Delhaise, F.; Ectors, Fabien ULg; de Roover, R. et al

in Reproduction, Fertility and Development (1995), 7(5), 1217-9

The developmental potential of nuclei of bovine gonial cells was investigated by nuclear transfer. Gonial cells were collected from male fetuses at about 175 days post coitum (p.c.). They were fused with ... [more ▼]

The developmental potential of nuclei of bovine gonial cells was investigated by nuclear transfer. Gonial cells were collected from male fetuses at about 175 days post coitum (p.c.). They were fused with enucleated oocytes; reconstituted embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days. Embryos reaching the compacted morula or blastocyst stage were either fixed for cell counting or transferred into recipients. Out of 115 oocyte-gonia fusions, 101 (87.8%) gave rise to cleaved embryos at Day 3 and 26 (22.6%) had reached the 8-cell stage. At Day 7, 1 (1%) developed to the morula stage and 5 (4%) reached the blastocyst stage. Three blastocysts were fixed and showed normal cell numbers (135; 90; 76 cells). Three blastocysts and one morula were transferred in four recipients; two recipients were pregnant at Day 21 but only one was positive at Day 35 p.c.; this last one aborted around Day 40 p.c. No conceptus was collected. These results indicate that gonial cell nuclei can be partially reprogrammed; they are able to develop into blastocysts and to initiate gestation. However, more experiments will be necessary to prove the nuclear totipotency of bovine gonial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Waste Management in Belgium: the place(less) of public participation
Parotte, Céline ULg

Conference (2014, September 17)

This presentation highlights the last reflections of the author on NWM in Belgium. It focuses on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management (NWM) from its ‘participatory turn’ in the ... [more ▼]

This presentation highlights the last reflections of the author on NWM in Belgium. It focuses on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management (NWM) from its ‘participatory turn’ in the late 1990s. Rather than praising (or rejecting) participation versus expert analysis, we make use of a theoretical and analytical framework in which the important dynamics for the analysis are ‘opening up’ and ‘closing down’ technological appraisals and commitments. Even though NWM agencies often plea for an integrative approach between experts analysis and participation, in practice this reveals itself rather complicated as both exercises are often kept separate. We address this separation and its consequences and we find that societal concerns remain subsumed in the technical options which have long been favoured by the Belgian agency. This taming of uncertainty may come at a high price, if it systematically reduces the scope of alternative options for governance intervention or if societal consultations ultimately appear like an instrument of legitimation of already-taken decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Weapons and European Defence Identity
Dumoulin, André ULg

Report (1996)

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See detailNucleation of superconductivity and vortex matter in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids
Aladyshkin, A Yu; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Gillijns, W. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2009), 22(5),

The theoretical and experimental results concerning the thermodynamical and low-frequency transport properties of hybrid structures, consisting of spatially separated conventional low-temperature ... [more ▼]

The theoretical and experimental results concerning the thermodynamical and low-frequency transport properties of hybrid structures, consisting of spatially separated conventional low-temperature superconductors (S) and ferromagnets (F), are reviewed. Since the superconducting and ferromagnetic parts are assumed to be electrically insulated, no proximity effect is present and thus the interaction between both subsystems is through their respective magnetic stray fields. Depending on the temperature range and the value of the external field H(ext), different behavior of such S/F hybrids is anticipated. Rather close to the superconducting phase transition line, when the superconducting state is only weakly developed, the magnetization of the ferromagnet is solely determined by the magnetic history of the system and it is not influenced by the field generated by the supercurrents. In contrast to that, the nonuniform magnetic field pattern, induced by the ferromagnet, strongly affects the nucleation of superconductivity, leading to an exotic dependence of the critical temperature T(c) on H(ext). Deeper in the superconducting state the effect of the screening currents cannot be neglected anymore. In this region of the phase diagram T-H(ext) various aspects of the interaction between vortices and magnetic inhomogeneities are discussed. In the last section we briefly summarize the physics of S/F hybrids when the magnetization of the ferromagnet is no longer fixed but can change under the influence of the superconducting currents. As a consequence, the superconductor and ferromagnet become truly coupled and the equilibrium configuration of this 'soft' S/F hybrid requires rearrangements of both superconducting and ferromagnetic characteristics, as compared with 'hard' S/F structures. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleation phenomenon in silica xerogels and Pd/SiO2, Ag/SiO2, Cu/SiO2 cogelled catalysts
Alié, Christelle ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2003), 26(1-3), 827-830

Pd/SiO2, Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 xerogel catalysts have been synthesized by cogelation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and chelates of Pd, Ag and Cu with 3-(2-aminoethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS). It ... [more ▼]

Pd/SiO2, Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 xerogel catalysts have been synthesized by cogelation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and chelates of Pd, Ag and Cu with 3-(2-aminoethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS). It appears that, in cogelled samples, the metal complex acts as a nucleation agent in the formation of silica particles. The resulting catalysts are then composed of completely accessible metallic crystallites with a diameter of about 3 nm located inside silica porous particles with a monodisperse microporous distribution. Xerogels without metal synthesized with EDAS and TEOS (C. Alie, R. Pirard, A. J. Lecloux, and J.-P. Pirard, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 289, 88 (2001)) verify this hypothesis of nucleation by EDAS. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleic acid compartmentalization within the cell nucleus by in situ transferase-immunogold techniques.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in Microscopy Research and Technique (1995), 31(1), 4-21

In the present review, we report on recent results obtained by in situ transferase-immunogold techniques as to the ultrastructural distribution of DNA and RNA within the cell nucleus. Special emphasis is ... [more ▼]

In the present review, we report on recent results obtained by in situ transferase-immunogold techniques as to the ultrastructural distribution of DNA and RNA within the cell nucleus. Special emphasis is placed on the various nucleolar components and the various enigmatic structures of the extranucleolar region: interchromatin granules, coiled bodies, and simple nuclear bodies. These data are discussed in the light of our current understanding of the functional organization of the cell nucleus. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleic acid detection by in situ molecular immunogold labeling procedures.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in Scanning Microscopy. Supplement (1996), 10

We have recently combined immunogold labeling procedures with molecular biology methods to pinpoint the precise locations of nucleic acids in biological material at the ultrastructural level. These new ... [more ▼]

We have recently combined immunogold labeling procedures with molecular biology methods to pinpoint the precise locations of nucleic acids in biological material at the ultrastructural level. These new immunocytological approaches involve the incorporation of labeled nucleotides in the nucleic acids present at the surface of ultrathin sections prior to immunogold labeling. The antibodies used recognize a nucleoside analogue (bromodeoxyuridine) or a hapten (biotin) employed to label nucleotides. Examples of high-resolution detection include DNA or RNA present in different substructures of cell nuclei, and in particular, in adenovirus-induced intranuclear regions of HeLa cells. In addition to being highly sensitive and specific, these new methods offer the possibility of studying the spatial distribution of nucleic acids in very well preserved, readily recognizable structures. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleic acid sensing at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity in vaccination
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Ishii, Ken J.

in Nature Reviews. Immunology (2012), 12(7), 479-491

The demand is currently high for new vaccination strategies, particularly to help combat problematic intracellular pathogens, such as HIV and malarial parasites. In the past decade, the identification of ... [more ▼]

The demand is currently high for new vaccination strategies, particularly to help combat problematic intracellular pathogens, such as HIV and malarial parasites. In the past decade, the identification of host receptors that recognize pathogen-derived nucleic acids has revealed an essential role for nucleic acid sensing in the triggering of immunity to intracellular pathogens. This Review first addresses our current understanding of the nucleic acid-sensing immune machinery. We then explain how the study of nucleic acid-sensing mechanisms not only has revealed their central role in driving the responses mediated by many current vaccines, but is also revealing how they could be harnessed for the design of new vaccines. [less ▲]

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