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See detailA METHODOLOGY FOR THE CALCULATION OF POLLUTANT LOADS IN AN ESTUARY - APPLICATION TO THE WESTERN ESCAUT ESTUARY
Ronday, François ULg; Mouchet, Anne ULg

in Nival, P; Saliot, A (Eds.) FATE OF CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS (1992)

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See detailMethodology for the characterization of the microstructure of nanocomposite polymeric foams using X-ray microtomography
Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Micro-CT User Meeting Abstract Book (2011, April 13)

Polymeric foams used in electromagnetic shielding applications are characterized using X-ray microtomography. These foams contain a conductive nanometric reinforcement, carbon nanotubes, but the scale of ... [more ▼]

Polymeric foams used in electromagnetic shielding applications are characterized using X-ray microtomography. These foams contain a conductive nanometric reinforcement, carbon nanotubes, but the scale of characterization described here is that of the microscopic cells. Although nanotube dispersion is important for the final properties of the material, the structure and distribution of the porosity also play a role in terms of dielectric constant and conductivity. Unfortunately, cell wall thinness and limited resolution of laboratory microtomographs makes poper cell identification difficult. Therefore we present a new statistical method based on the 3D autocorrelation function, that allows to some extent to measure mean cell size and structure anisotropy. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology for the development of a transportation plan
Marchal, Jean ULg

Learning material (1995)

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See detailMethodology for the development of a transportation plan.
Marchal, Jean ULg

Learning material (1994)

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See detailMethodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in Wallon egion (Belgium): calcareous grasslands in the Lesse and Lomme area.
Bottin, G.; Etienne, M.; Verté, P. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2005), 9

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See detailMethodology for the integration of process studies and development of a decision support tool (FRAC-WECO Project Deliverable D1.2)
Brouyère, Serge ULg; Hérivaux, Cécile; Haberman, Michaël et al

Report (2007)

This deliverable allows one to clarify the objectives of the different partners involved in the FRAC-WECO project and how they are going to interact, to exchange data, research results and knowledge in ... [more ▼]

This deliverable allows one to clarify the objectives of the different partners involved in the FRAC-WECO project and how they are going to interact, to exchange data, research results and knowledge in order to meet the ambitious objectives of the project. Particularly, the complex interactions between researches dealing with physical processes and with socio-economic aspects have been described in details. The modelling applications will constitute the key interacting tools as they are going to integrate all the information on water and contaminant mass fluxes and on biogeochemical processes affecting the fate of contaminant in the field and they are also going to be used to produce all data required for risk assessment and for the socio-economic analysis which are two of the most important expected outcomes of the project. The deliverable also clarifies the use of flux-based concepts through the definition of risk assessment indicators in the form of contaminant mass fluxes and discharge at the various considered receptors. Finally, this document has also allowed one to clarify the scope and the limits of the researches foreseen in the FRAC-WECO project that will focus on the risk of contaminant leaching to groundwater, of contaminant dispersion through groundwater and on the impact of contaminant on groundwater and surface water as affected by groundwater discharge and on the impact on aquatic ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology for the Validation of Analytical Methods involved in Uniformity of Dosage Units tests
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2013), 760

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving ... [more ▼]

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a Near Infra-Red Spectrophotometric method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Updating Large Scale Ortho-Photomaps by Means of VHR Satellite imagery
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg; Seba, Gautier; de Béthune, Stanislas et al

in Maktav, Derya; Jürgens, Carsten; Erber Sunar, Filiz (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3d International Symposium of Remote Sensing of Urban Areas (2002)

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1 ... [more ▼]

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1:4000). These are made of very high-resolution digital ortho-rectified aerial photos presented as raster files. Those rasters are grouped by corresponding administrative boundaries and distributed to the local authorities in order to be used for various land and urban planning purposes. One goal of the DGPL is to provide the local administrations with up to date image data, within the limits of some obvious financial constraints. Because significant changes in the landscape appear at different rates over the time and space, it was suggested to devise a methodology to find out these changes would require a rapid update of the imagery. In regard to this situation, a pilot project has been set up in the year 2000 aiming at detecting the location, the extent and the nature of landscape changes in contrasted areas - urban, suburban, rural - from adequately processed very high resolution (VHR) satellite images - typically Ikonos multi-spectral (4m) and panchromatic (1m) images. Hence, this project had to cope with various issues related to multi-source analysis, geometric and radiometric aspects of the processing VHR data, diachronic analysis, in order to provide the administration with the basic knowledge and the appropriate tools to carry out the proposed task. This communication presents the proposed operational methodology for change detection including all processing steps from the digital image processing (image fusion technique, ortho-rectification analysis, change detection schemes). Along the way it also introduces an assessment of the possible complementarities and convergence of VHR satellite imagery and aerial photography. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology manual for European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines.
Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Head, Stuart J.; Thielmann, Matthias et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2015), 48(6), 809-16

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and ... [more ▼]

The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and independence. Based on the revision of manuals by other scientific cardiothoracic organizations, this document provides instructions for the development of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines and other types of evidence-based documents. Four key areas have been addressed: (i) selection of taskforce members and transparency of relations with the industry, (ii) methods for critical appraisal of medical evidence, (iii) rules for writing recommendations and (iv) review process. It is hoped that, by adopting this methodology, clinical guidelines produced by the EACTS will be well balanced, objective and, importantly, trusted by physicians and patients who benefit from their implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailMETHODOLOGY OF ANNOTATING VIDEOS AND STILL IMAGES AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOFTWARE COVER
Guillaumont, Brigitte; Carré, Cyril ULg; van den Beld, Inge et al

Conference (2011, June)

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See detailMethodology of Comparative Law
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

Scientific conference (2014, November)

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See detailMethodology of high speed railway network planning
Marchal, Jean ULg; Han, Baoming

in Proceedings of the Second Conference of Hongkong Society for Transportation Studies HKSTS (1997)

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See detailMethodology of the biological risk classification of animal pathogens in Belgium
Van Vaerenbergh, B.; Koenen, Frank; Pauwels, K. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique / Office International des Epizooties = Revista Cientifica y Tecnica / Officina Internacional de Epizootias = Scientific and Technical Review / International Office of Epizootics (2010), 29(3), 513-522

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by ... [more ▼]

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by the World Health Organization, considering the severity of the disease the micro-organism might cause, its ability to spread and the availability of prophylaxis or efficient treatment. Animal pathogens are classified according to the definitions of the World Organization of Animal Health whereby also economic aspects are considered. In Europe, classification is often directly linked to containment measures. The Belgian classification however, considers only the inherent characteristics of the micro-organism, not its use, making it independent of containment measures. Also a common list for human and animal pathogens is elaborated, allowing a comprehensive approach. Evolution of scientific knowledge requires regular updating of classification lists. This paper describes the particularities of the Belgian classification and the methodology that was used for its peer-reviewed revision, hereby focusing on animal pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodology to assess the exactness of Stream Network modeling process on agricultural watersheds
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011)

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled ... [more ▼]

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled. According to the standard ISO-7078 (ISO-7078, 1985) of the Inernational Organization of Standardization, the exactness of a measurement process or a modeled process can be defined as the difference between results obtained from the measurement process and a reference accepted as the «true value». A small watershed of a dozen hectares size has been surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) scanner and photogrammetrical techniques to produce a row data of 30 cm resolution. Three interpolation techniques i.e. natural neighbourg, multiquadratic radial basis function and inverse distance weighted have been applied on the original data to create original digital elevation models (DEM) of 1 m resolution. RTK (Real Time Kinematics) GPS (Global Positionning System) ground control points have been surveyed on the watershed to evaluate DEM errors and fit a variogram that is used by a conditional sequencial gaussian simulation model to generate error maps. However, ground control point’s elevations accuracy is depending on the microtopography of parcels in an agricultural watershed. Depending on the crop that is planned by the farmer, the soil tillage will be different, and soil structure and roughness can considerably influence ground control point’s elevation. Analysis of variance and geostatistical methods have been applied on total station and RTK GPS data to estimate intervals in which, ground control points elevations vary. These intervals have been estimated for two parcels that soils are tilled in different ways. These errors are added to the generated errors maps to create final error maps. The final errors maps are added to the original DEM to create likely DEM realizations for the watershed (Temme and al., 2007). Then, two spurious sinks filtering methods (Colson 2006; Lindsay and Creed, 2005) and one flat area treatment method (Jenson and Domingue, 1988) are applied on each DEM realization for preprocessing. Finally, the three common flow direction extraction methods (D8, D-infity and Multiple Flow Direction) are applied on each preprocessed DEM to extract stream Network. The extracted stream network is overlapped with RTK GPS field positioned stream network i.e. a polyline format data. To estimate the exactness of the stream extraction methods, the polyline format is converted in raster format. That allows to compute for each pixel of the observed stream network, the distance to the extracted stream network. Then, for each pixel the mean distance can be calculated, and can be represented through the stream network. LiDAR technology is becoming useful for environment modeling because of his accuracy. Such quantity of data is not free of errors. This research will allow us to estimate the uncertainty of stream network modeled from agricultural watersheds by considering the main sources of errors that are propagated through computing processes. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to characterize a residential building stock using a bottom-up approach: a case study applied to Belgium
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Georges, Emeline ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management (2014)

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See detailA Methodology to Improve the Robustness of Gas Turbine Engine Performance Monitoring Against Sensor Faults
Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Borguet, Sébastien ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (2013), 135(5),

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service ... [more ▼]

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service. Doing so, the simulation model is adapted through a set of so-called health parameters whose values are intended to represent a faithful image of the actual health condition of the engine. For sake of low computational burden, the problem of random errors contaminating the measurements is often considered to be zero-mean, white and Gaussian random variables. However, when a sensor fault occurs, the measurement errors no longer satisfy the Gaussian assumption and the results given by the system identification rapidly become unreliable. The present contribution is dedicated to the development of a diagnosis tool based on a Kalman filter whose structure is slightly modified in order to accommodate sensor malfunctions. The benefit in terms of the diagnostic reliability of the resulting tool is illustrated on several sensor faults that may be encountered on a current turbofan layout. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to model the energy vulnerability of households in Europe based on the current mapping of fuel poverty and transport poverty and its likely evolution until 2040
Pierson, Charlotte; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the Urban Transition Global Summit 2016 (2016)

Fuel poverty refers to a situation in which an individual or household is not able to meet their basic energy needs. Fuel poverty is currently growing in the European Union. Research in this field is ... [more ▼]

Fuel poverty refers to a situation in which an individual or household is not able to meet their basic energy needs. Fuel poverty is currently growing in the European Union. Research in this field is often limited to the assessment of the current risk of fuel poverty based on energy consumptions due to housing. Urban sprawl generates a significant increase in energy consumption related to daily mobility, which generates energy poverty related to transportation needs. This article presents a methodology for modeling the current and future energy poverty of households in Europe on the basis of energy consumptions due to housing, to daily mobility and their combination. Indicators for fuel poverty and transport poverty will be based on Hills’ method, which is widely recognized internationally for fuel poverty assessment and which takes into account two thresholds: energy expenses of households and their available residual income. This article will outline the spatial modeling process of energy costs due to dwellings and mobility thanks to the coupling of a GIS tool, cadastral datasets, existing methods for the assessment of buildings and transport energy consumptions and updated databases (EPB certificates, detailed mobility surveys, data from smart meters, mobile phones and GPS). Different scenarios will be selected to predict the evolution of fuel and transport poverty until 2040 on the basis of national and European prospective studies or, alternatively, based on the historical evaluation of some key parameters and their extrapolation. The evolution of built-up areas will be model thanks to the multinomial logistic regression model (MLR) that enables to visualize the consequence of different urban densities expansion. The different parameters that will influence the evolution of fuel and transport poverty until 2040 will be highlighted (climate change, urban expansion, fuel prices, energy performance of buildings and vehicles, etc.). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULg)