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[more ▼]In this paper, we present a unique data set of more than one year's worth of regular observations of comet C/2013 A1(Siding Spring) with TRAPPIST in Chile, along with low-resolution spectra obtained with the ESO/VLT FORS 2 instrument. The comet made a close approach to Mars on October 19, 2014 and was then observed by many space and ground-based telescopes. We followed the evolution of the OH, NH, CN, $\mathrm{C_3}$, and $\mathrm{C_2}$ production rates as well as the $Af\rho$ parameter as a proxy for the dust production. We detected an outburst two weeks after perihelion, with gas and dust production rates being multiplied by a factor five within a few days. By modelling the shape of the CN and $\mathrm{C_2}$ radial profiles, we determined that the outburst happened around on November 10 around 15:30 UT ($\pm$ 5h) and measured a gas ejection velocity of $1.1\pm0.2$ km/s. We used a thermal evolution model to reproduce the activity pattern and outburst. Our results are consistent with the progressive formation of a dust mantle explaining the shallow dependence of gas production rates, which may be partially blown off during the outburst. We studied the evolution of gas composition, using various ratios such as CN/OH, $\mathrm{C_2}$/OH, or $\mathrm{C_3}$/OH, which showed little or no variation with heliocentric distance including at the time of the outburst. This indicates a relative level of homogeneity of the nucleus composition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (10 ULg) Long-term analysis of rainfall and temperature data in Burkina Faso (1950–2013)De Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Kindo, Issa et alin International Journal of Climatology (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 74 (14 ULg) Long-term bedload mobility in gravel-bed rivers using iron slag as a tracerHoubrechts, Geoffrey ; Levecq, Yannick ; Vanderheyden, Vincent et alin Geomorphology (2011), 126Bedload dispersion is evaluated in gravel-bed rivers using slag elements from ironworks established along rivers in the Ardenne region, between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries. Large ... [more ▼]Bedload dispersion is evaluated in gravel-bed rivers using slag elements from ironworks established along rivers in the Ardenne region, between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries. Large quantities of slag were dumped close to these rivers or even directly into the channels. For centuries, slag elements were dispersed in the bedload and transported by floods of varying importance. Consequently, slag may be considered as a reliable tracer to analyze bedload dispersion over several centuries. The size of slag elements was studied along 16 Ardenne rivers. The longitudinal size trend of the largest slag particles allows the effective competence of these rivers to be determined (between 19 and 129 mm for rivers where specific stream power for the bankfull discharge ranges between 20 and 134 W/m²). A direct relationship doesn’t exist between these two parameters as the size of slag elements must be considered with regard to the D50 of the bed. Selective transport was analyzed directly downstream of the input sites. The sorting distance varies from river to river and depends on the velocity of the coarse elements introduced into the river since the inception of the iron industry. Downstream of two metallurgic sites, the slag propagation fronts were located. As the periods of activity at these sites are known from historical studies, the virtual velocity of bedload movement in these rivers was estimated to be 2-4 km/century. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 261 (36 ULg) Long-term behavior and quality of life after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect.Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; Konrad, K.; Skorzenski, D. et alin Pediatric Cardiology (2007), 28(5), 346-354The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior and quality of life in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy. Twenty cyanotic (tetralogy of Fallot) and 20 acyanotic children ... [more ▼]The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior and quality of life in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy. Twenty cyanotic (tetralogy of Fallot) and 20 acyanotic children (ventricular septal defect), operated at a mean age of 0.7 years with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were assessed at a mean age of 7.4 years by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the German KINDL. Test results were related to perioperative and neurodevelopmental outcome. Compared to healthy children and not significantly different between the groups, internalizing and externalizing problems were elevated, school performance and total competence were reduced, and self- and parent-reported quality of life was not reduced. Parent-reported problems and reduced physical status were correlated with longer durations of DHCA and CPB. Internalizing and externalizing problems, reduced school competence, and reduced self-esteem were associated with reduced endurance capacity. Externalizing problems were related to reduced gross motor function. Poor school competence was related to reduced intelligence and academic achievement. Children with preoperative hypoxemia in infancy due to cyanotic cardiac defects are not at significantly higher risk for behavioral problems and reduced quality of life than those with acyanotic heart defects. The risk of long-term psychosocial maladjustment after corrective surgery in infancy is increased compared to that for normal children and related to the presence of neurodevelopmental dysfunction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) Long-term biogeochemical effects of adding alkalinity into the oceanIlyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy et alConference (2011, June 20)Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been ... [more ▼]Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and ocean acidification. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone, olivine) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) to the upper ocean. The net effect of these two approaches is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to take up and store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases initially only alters alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturbs both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for the marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC which also includes marine sediments. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the long-term effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (1 ULg) Long-term biogeochemical impacts of liming the oceanIlyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy et alConference (2011, December 08)Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate ... [more ▼]Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate impacts of CO2 emissions and resulting ocean acidification that are based on this property. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) in the upper ocean and is termed as liming the oceans. The net effect of this approach is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases only alter alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturb both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in the amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the longterm effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 162 (6 ULg) Long-term Brightness Variations of the Io UV FootprintBonfond, Bertrand ; Grodent, Denis ; Gérard, Jean-Claude et alConference (2008, December 01)Since the finding of the UV Io footprint in 1996, the successive UV instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allowed us to considerably improve the understanding of the Io-Jupiter electro ... [more ▼]Since the finding of the UV Io footprint in 1996, the successive UV instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allowed us to considerably improve the understanding of the Io-Jupiter electro-magnetic interaction and its auroral counterpart. It has been shown that the Io footprint is generally formed by one bright spot preceded or followed by secondary spots whose relative positions are linked to the location of Io in the plasma torus. We also know that these spots experience brightness variations from minutes to hours. The Io footprint brightness varies over hours with the longitude of Io in the Jovian magnetic field (System III longitude) but until recently, huge gaps existed in the longitude coverage. Part of these gaps has now been filled during the latest HST imaging campaign and a more complete spot brightness versus Io System III longitude diagram emerges. Additionally, we compare spot brightness between images obtained a few minutes apart but from opposite hemispheres. Based on images gathered from 1997 to 2007 with the STIS and the ACS cameras, we also show that the footprint morphology and the spots brightness, including their relative brightness, can vary significantly from one year to another. Finally, we discuss the brightness variations from hours to years in terms of plasma torus density and position of Io in the plasma torus as well as in Jovian magnetic field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (5 ULg) Long-Term Care and Myopic CouplesKlimaviciute, Justina Conference (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (9 ULg) Long-Term Care and Myopic CouplesKlimaviciute, Justina Conference (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULg) Long-Term Care Insurance and FamilyPestieau, Pierre ; Canta, Chiarain B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 49 (2 ULg) Long-Term Care Insurance and Family NormsPestieau, Pierre ; Canta, Chiarain The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (2013), 14(1), 1-28Detailed reference viewed: 55 (3 ULg) Long-term care insurance and optimal taxation for altruistic childrenJousten, Alain ; Lipszyc, B.; Marchand, Maurice et alin Finanzarchiv (2005), 61(1), 1-18We model long-term care insurance in an optimal taxation framework. Every adult decides upon the amount and type of care he purchases for his dependent parent. We consider two alternatives: nursing-home ... [more ▼]We model long-term care insurance in an optimal taxation framework. Every adult decides upon the amount and type of care he purchases for his dependent parent. We consider two alternatives: nursing-home care provided by the government, and home care paid by the child with some lump-sum subsidy by the government. The only source of information asymmetry is the government's inability to observe the degree of altruism of the adult child for his/her parent. Further tax collection entails some social costs. In such a second-best setting, we show that the quality of institutional care has to be kept relatively low and that compared to altruistic children, nonaltruistic ones enjoy a high level of consumption. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (4 ULg) Long-term care social insurance. How to avoid big losses?Klimaviciute, Justina ; Pestieau, Pierre Scientific conference (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 43 (12 ULg) Long-Term Care: the State, the Market and the FamilyMotohiro, Sato; Pestieau, Pierre in Economica (2008), (75), 435-454In this paper we study the optimal design of a long term care policy in a setting that includes three types of care to dependent parents: public nursing, private nursing and assistance in time by children ... [more ▼]In this paper we study the optimal design of a long term care policy in a setting that includes three types of care to dependent parents: public nursing, private nursing and assistance in time by children. Private nursing can be financed either by financial aid from children or by private insurance. The social planner can use a number of instruments: public nursing, subsidy to aiding children, subsidy to private insurance premiums, all financed by a flat tax on earnings. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg) Long-term climate commitments projected with climate-carbon cycle modelsPlattner, G. K.; Knutti, R.; Joos, F. et alin Journal of Climate (2008), 21(12), 2721-2751Eight earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) are used to project climate change commitments for the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) Fourth Assessment Report ... [more ▼]Eight earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) are used to project climate change commitments for the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Simulations are run until the year 3000 A. D. and extend substantially farther into the future than conceptually similar simulations with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) coupled to carbon cycle models. In this paper the following are investigated: 1) the climate change commitment in response to stabilized greenhouse gases and stabilized total radiative forcing, 2) the climate change commitment in response to earlier CO2 emissions, and 3) emission trajectories for profiles leading to the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 and their uncertainties due to carbon cycle processes. Results over the twenty-first century compare reasonably well with results from AOGCMs, and the suite of EMICs proves well suited to complement more complex models. Substantial climate change commitments for sea level rise and global mean surface temperature increase after a stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases and radiative forcing in the year 2100 are identified. The additional warming by the year 3000 is 0.6-1.6 K for the low-CO2 IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B1 scenario and 1.3-2.2 K for the high-CO2 SRES A2 scenario. Correspondingly, the post-2100 thermal expansion commitment is 0.3-1.1 m for SRES B1 and 0.5-2.2 m for SRES A2. Sea level continues to rise due to thermal expansion for several centuries after CO2 stabilization. In contrast, surface temperature changes slow down after a century. The meridional overturning circulation is weakened in all EMICs, but recovers to nearly initial values in all but one of the models after centuries for the scenarios considered. Emissions during the twenty-first century continue to impact atmospheric CO2 and climate even at year 3000. All models find that most of the anthropogenic carbon emissions are eventually taken up by the ocean (49%-62%) in year 3000, and that a substantial fraction (15%-28%) is still airborne even 900 yr after carbon emissions have ceased. Future stabilization of atmospheric CO2 and climate change requires a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions below present levels in all EMICs. This reduction needs to be substantially larger if carbon cycle-climate feedbacks are accounted for or if terrestrial CO2 fertilization is not operating. Large differences among EMICs are identified in both the response to increasing atmospheric CO2 and the response to climate change. This highlights the need for improved representations of carbon cycle processes in these models apart from the sensitivity to climate change. Sensitivity simulations with one single EMIC indicate that both carbon cycle and climate sensitivity related uncertainties on projected allowable emissions are substantial. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (6 ULg) Long-term cold therapy to treat knee osteoarthritis: proof-of-concept.Henrotin, Yves in Hospital Health Care (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) The long-term cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is Esp-dependent but intimin-independentNougayrède, J. P.; Marchès, O.; Boury, M. et alin Molecular Microbiology (1999), 31Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Long-term denosuamab treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis : results from the first two years of the FREEDOM trial extensionBone, H.; Chapurlat, R.; Brandi, M. et alin Osteoporosis International (2011), 22(S4), 527-528Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg) Long-term denosumab treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results from the first year extension study of the FREEDOM trialChapurlat, R.; Papapoulos, Socrates; Bone, Henry G et alin Arthritis and Rheumatism (2010, October), 62(10), 903Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 ULg) Long-term depression of trigeminal nociceptive evoked potentials by supraorbital 1Hz electrical stimulations is deficient in migraineurs but not in tension-type headache patientsMagis, Delphine ; Bolla, M.; De Pasqua, Victor et alin Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2006, November), 26(11), 1386Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)