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See detailNew insight in the Lymnaeids intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Belgium
Caron, Yannick ULg

Conference (2011)

The present work was carried out in the frame of a Belgian Science Policy project (PONDSCAPE -“Towards a sustainable management of pond diversity at the landscape level”). During the summer 2008, 7103 ... [more ▼]

The present work was carried out in the frame of a Belgian Science Policy project (PONDSCAPE -“Towards a sustainable management of pond diversity at the landscape level”). During the summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeids snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters of 25 ponds each. Each cluster was located in a different geological region of Belgium. These snails belonged to the following species or genus: 2474 Galba truncatula (the main intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Belgium) and 4629 Radix sp. Moreover, several biological (presence of trampling and dungs, snail size …) and non biological factors (pH, depth, fences …) were also registered from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted based on Chelex® technique. Then the snail DNAs were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies the lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence (500-600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp Fasciola sp. sequence. Lymnaeid snails were found in 93 biotopes (66%). Thirty Galba truncatula (1.31%) and 7 Radix sp. (0.16%) were found positive for Fasciola sp. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was performed in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and relationships among the different recorded factors. For example, the geographic localization is one of the best explanatory variables for the abundance of the different snail species and the presence/absence of faecal material is the best explanatory variable for the presence of specific F. hepatica DNA material in the different screened snails. [less ▲]

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See detailA new insight in the structure, composition and functioning of central African moist forests
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Picard, Nicolas; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014), (329), 195-205

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this ... [more ▼]

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this paper, we aimed to identify large-scale variations in the structure, composition and functioning of African moist forests that could serve as a baseline for both management and conservation purposes. Commercial forest inventory data were assembled for 49,711 0.5-ha plots, covering an area of more than six million hectares, crossing the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo. Floristic composition was analyzed for a subset of 176 genera reliably identified in the field. Three key functional traits of tropical trees: regeneration guild, leaf phenology, and wood specific gravity, were collected at the species level from various sources, and assigned at the genus level. We first investigated the main variations in forest structure and composition, and identified seven forest types based on these variations. Differences in the percentage of pioneer and deciduous stems, and mean wood specific gravity were tested between forest types. Most of the study area was composed of a mosaic of the structural variations of the forests characterized by the occurrence of Celtis (Ulmaceae) species, which are mostly composed of frequent and abundant genera that formed the common floristic pool of the region. Secondary Musanga (Moraceae) forest is located in repeatedly disturbed areas, along roads and around main cities; mixed Manilkara (Sapotaceae) forest covers a huge area in the southern Central African Republic and in the northern Republic of Congo; and monodominant Gilbertiodendron (Fabaceae) forest is sparsely distributed along rivers. The contrasted structure, composition, and functioning of the forest types imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for adapted management and conservation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insight into the concept of ferroelectric correlation volume
Geneste, Gregory; Bousquet, Eric ULg; Ghosez, Philippe ULg

in Journal Of Computational And Theoretical Nanoscience (2008), 5(4), 517-520

Using an effective Hamiltonian derived from first-principles calculations, we discuss the concept of "ferroelectric correlation volume" and show that it cannot be uniquely defined: it is not the size but ... [more ▼]

Using an effective Hamiltonian derived from first-principles calculations, we discuss the concept of "ferroelectric correlation volume" and show that it cannot be uniquely defined: it is not the size but the anisotropic shape of the polar region that is crucial for stabilizing a ferroelectric distortion into a ferroelectric materials. To provide basic understanding of this result, the stability of a polar region is analyzed in term of intra-chain and inter-chain interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights for an old topic: seagrasses as bioindicators of coastal trace element pollution
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in ARGYRO ZENETOS, ZENETOS (Ed.) Mediterranean Marine Science (2014, March)

The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast ... [more ▼]

The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast, other trace elements (TEs) like As, V, Ag, Be, Al, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi, many of them categorized as TEs of environmental emerging concern, have been subject to nearly no ecotoxicological survey with that species. It has been shown that the French Mediterranean littoral was submitted to local, diffuse and/or chronic contaminations both by TEs broadly or little biomonitored with P. oceanica; high TE levels could further be linked to specific anthropic activities such as agriculture (Mo), mining (Cr, Sb, Zn), industries (As), storage and refinement of oil products (V, Pb) or presence of major ports and urban centres (Sn, Bi, Ag). It seems therefore necessary to expand the short list of the seven metals commonly monitored to other TEs, what is today easily achievable as current analytical methods allow the simultaneous determination of all a series of TEs within the same sample. Furthermore, only a multielement analysis in appropriate bioindicator species allow to correctly intercompare the pollution status of numerous sampling sites. To do this, we have calculated proper environmental indices, the trace element pollution index TEPI and the trace element spatial variation index TESVI. The TEPI is an index of the global contamination of a site, giving the same weight to each TE after mean normalization of their environmental concentrations. The TESVI estimates the global spatial variability of environmental concentrations of each TE levels, taking into account both punctual contaminations in impacted sites and the overall coastal spatial heterogeneity between all monitored sites.These two indices were successfully applied both at large (French Mediterranean littoral) and small (a Bay) spatial scales. Furthermore, they can be used in the framework of an intercomparative study compiling data from any previous monitoring surveys. We also highlighted that the ecophysiology and surrounding levels of TEs influenced in an equivalent manner the bioaccumulation process of TEs in P. oceanica. Consequently, this natural cyclic evolution of TE concentrations should be systematically quantified in regional reference sites. Finally, the rapid and proportionnal accumulation of TEs in P. oceanica traps huge amounts of contaminants and can stock them for longer periods of time in their bellow grounds tissues. P. oceanica meadows therefore play an efficient role of natural filter of TE coastal pollutions. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights from metallic tracers on the feeding ecology of common dolphins in European waters
Lahaye, V.; Bustamante, Paco; Dabin, W. et al

Conference (2005)

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See detailNew insights in auditory organ development: the inner pillar cell goes it own way
Thelen, Nicolas; Malgrange, B; Thiry, Marc ULg

Poster (2008)

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See detailNew insights in mammalian auditory organ development
Thelen, Nicolas ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc

Conference (2008, October 30)

Although the structure of the auditory organ in mature mammals, the organ of Corti, is clearly established, its development is far from being elucidated. Using cytochemical and immunohistochemical methods ... [more ▼]

Although the structure of the auditory organ in mature mammals, the organ of Corti, is clearly established, its development is far from being elucidated. Using cytochemical and immunohistochemical methods at the light and electron microscope levels, we examined its spatiotemporal development in rats from embryonic day 16 (E16) to E19. At E16, whatever the region of the cochlear studied (base, middle, apex), the organ of Corti was not present. We demonstrate that the organ of Corti develops from a non-proliferative cell zone that is located in the junctional region between the greater epithelial ridge and the lesser epithelial ridge of the cochlear duct and that is characterized by the presence of numerous microvilli. Using the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate method, we revealed that the first cells to develop in this zone are the inner pillar cells, a particular type of nonsensory supporting cells. They arise in the base of the cochlear duct at the boundary between the two ridges at E16. The cell differentiation in this prosensory region continues according to a base-to-apex gradient, the inner hair cells appearing in the greater epithelial ridge at E17 and the outer hair cells in the lesser epithelial ridge at E18. At E19, all the different cell types of the organ of Corti are well in place. We also showed that the development of the inner pillar cells within the prosensory region does not involve Notch1 signaling. These results highlight the central role that the inner pillar cells could play in the development of the organ of Corti. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights in the History of the First International Congress of Geography (Antwerp, 1871).
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2004, August)

The internationalisation of geography gained its full strength after World War I. But this phenomenon originated in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, encouraged by the public attention for ... [more ▼]

The internationalisation of geography gained its full strength after World War I. But this phenomenon originated in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, encouraged by the public attention for exploration, the gradual professionalisation of geography at universities, and the organisation of international congresses. The first congres of this type was organised in Antwerp, Belgium, in 1871. The meeting set standards for all other pre-War international congresses of geography. In this contribution we give new insights in the realization of the Antwerp Congress. We focuss on the initiators Charles Ruelens, Jan-Hubert Van Raemdonck and Pierre Génard, their motives for action, the challenges and difficulties they found on their way. We discuss the collaboration between the Belgian organising committee and the European geographical societies, in particular the “Société de Géographie de Paris”. We discover how the first programme was drawn up en give a detailed image of the participants, paying attention to their origins and fields of interests. Finally we show the results of their debates and try to evaluate the lasting results of the encounter. This paper is based on the recently discovered archives of the first Congress in the City Archives of Antwerp. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights in the thermomechanical modelling of soils
Laloui, Lyesse; François, Bertrand ULg

Conference (2007)

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See detailNew insights in the toxicology and health status of marine marine mammals: Use of free-ranging harbour seals from the Wadden Sea
Das, Krishna ULg; Seibel, Henrike; Hasseilmeier, Ilka et al

Conference (2011, March 20)

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See detailNew insights in toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome): clinical considerations, pathobiology and targeted treatments revisited.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Drug Safety : An International Journal of Medical Toxicology & Drug Experience (2010), 33(3), 189-212

Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a life-threatening drug reaction characterized by extensive destruction of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia. The eyes ... [more ▼]

Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a life-threatening drug reaction characterized by extensive destruction of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia. The eyes are typically involved in TEN. At present, the disease has a high mortality rate. Conceptually, TEN and the Stevens-Johnson syndrome are closely related, although their severity and outcome are different. Distinguishing TEN from severe forms of erythema multiforme relies on consideration of aetiological, clinical and histological characteristics. The current understanding of the pathomechanism of TEN suggests that keratinocytes are key initiator cells. It is probable that the combined deleterious effects on keratinocytes of both the cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and oxidative stress induce a combination of apoptotic and necrotic events. As yet, there is no evidence indicating the superiority of monotherapy with corticosteroids, ciclosporin (cyclosporine) or intravenous immunoglobulins over supportive care only for patients with TEN. However, the current theory of TEN pathogenesis supports the administration of a combination of antiapoptotic/antinecrotic drugs (e.g. anti-TNF-alpha antibodies plus N-acetylcysteine) targeting different levels of the keratinocyte failure machinery. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights Into Aortic Diseases A Report From the Third International Meeting on Aortic Diseases (IMAD3)
KUIVANIEMI, Helena; SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; LEDERLE, Franck et al

in AORTA (2013), 1

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See detailNew insights into aphid isoprenoid pathway
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Cusson, Michel; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2010, August)

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See detailNew Insights into Iron-Based Photosynthesis
Thompson, K; Lliros, M; Borrego, C et al

Conference (2014)

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See detailNew insights into peripherin expression in cochlear neurons
Lallemend, François; Vandenbosch, Renaud ULg; Hadjab, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2007), 150(1), 212-222

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation ... [more ▼]

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation marker by preferentially labeling the type II neuronal population at adulthood, but yet without knowing its function. Since the expression of peripherin has been associated in time with the process of axonal extension and during regeneration of nerve fibers in other systems, it was of interest to determine whether peripherin expression in cochlear neurons was a static phenotypic trait or rather prone to modifications following nerve injury. In the present study, we first compared the expression pattern of peripherin and beta III-tubulin from late embryonic stages to the adult in rat cochlea. The staining for both proteins was seen before birth within all cochlear neurons. By birth, and for 2 or 3 days, peripherin expression was gradually restricted to the type II neuronal population and their projections. In contrast, from postnatal day (P) 10 onwards, while the expression of beta III-tubulin was still found in projections of all cochlear neurons, only the type I population had beta III-tubulin immunoreactivity in their cell bodies. We next investigated the expression of peripherin in axotomized cochlear neurons using an organotypic explant model. Peripherin expression was surprisingly re-expressed in a vast majority of neurons after axotomy. In parallel, the expression and localization of beta III-tubulin and peripherin in dissociated cultures of cochlear neurons were studied. Both proteins were distributed along the entire neuronal length but exhibited complementary distribution, especially within the projections. Moreover, peripherin immunoreactivity was still abundant in the growth cone, whereas that of beta III-tubulin was decreasing at this compartment. Our findings are consistent with a model in which peripherin plays an important structural role in cochlear neurons and their projections during both development and regenerative processes and which is compatible with the assumption that frequently developmentally regulated factors are reactivated during neuronal regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into Pervaporation Mass Transport under Increasing Downstream Pressure Conditions: Critical Role of Inert Gas Entrance.
Vallières, Cécile; Favre, Eric; Roizard, Denis et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2001), 40

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments ... [more ▼]

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments in favor of either the solution−diffusion model or the newly proposed pore-flow model are alternatively reported on different systems. To critically reexamine this debate, an experimental study under controlled downstream conditions has been performed for pure methanol and pure 2-propanol pervaporation through a poly(dimethylsiloxane) film, the latter having been previously reported to follow pore-flow model predictions. It is shown that a rational analysis of the effects of the downstream pressure on the results can be achieved according to the classical solution−diffusion model, provided that the influence of air leaks in the installation is properly taken into account. Based on this observation, the implications of an inert gas contribution, generally speaking, on pervaporation operation are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into short-chain prenyltransferases: structural features, evolutionary history and potential for selective inhibition.
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Cusson, M.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2009), 66

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate ... [more ▼]

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) with an allylic acceptor, the first of which is dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)). The reactions leading to the production of geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)), which are the precursors of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes, respectively, are catalyzed by a group of highly conserved enzymes known as short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, or prenyltransferases. In recent years, the sequences of many new prenyltransferases have become available, including those of several plant and animal geranyl diphosphate synthases, revealing novel mechanisms of product chain-length selectivity and an intricate evolutionary path from a putative common ancestor. Finally, there is considerable interest in designing inhibitors specific to short-chain prenyltransferases, for the purpose of developing new drugs or pesticides that target the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. [less ▲]

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