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See detailPrediction of mean skin temperature in warm environments
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Malchaire, J.; Candas, V.

in European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology (1987), 56(6), 686-92

The data collected by the authors in four experimental series have been analysed together with data from the literature, to study the relationship between mean skin temperature and climatic parameters ... [more ▼]

The data collected by the authors in four experimental series have been analysed together with data from the literature, to study the relationship between mean skin temperature and climatic parameters, subject metabolic rate and clothing insulation. The subjects involved in the various studies were young male subjects, unacclimatized to heat. The range of conditions examined involved mean skin temperatures between 33 degrees C and 38 degrees C, air temperatures (Ta) between 23 degrees C and 50 degrees C, ambient water vapour pressures (Pa) between 1 and 4.8 kPa, air velocities (Va) between 0.2 and 0.9 m.s-1, metabolic rates (M) between 50 and 270 W.m-2, and Clo values between 0.1 and 0.6. In 95% of the data, mean radiant temperature was within +/- 3 degrees C of air temperature. Based on 190 data averaged over individual values, the following equation was derived by a multiple linear regression technique: Tsk = 30.0 + 0.138 Ta + 0.254 Pa-0.57 Va + 1.28.10(-3) M-0.553 Clo. This equation was used to predict mean skin temperature from 629 individual data. The difference between observed and predicted values was within +/- 0.6 degrees C in 70% of the cases and within +/- 1 degrees C in 90% of the cases. It is concluded that the proposed formula may be used to predict mean skin temperature with satisfactory accuracy in nude to lightly clad subjects exposed to warm ambient conditions with no significant radiant heat load. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction Of Membrane Protein Orientation In Lipid Bilayers: A Theoretical Approach
Basyn, F.; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling (2001), 20(3), 235-44

Over the past few years, several three-dimensional (3-D) structures of membrane proteins have been described with increasing accuracy, but their relationship with membranes are still not well understood ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, several three-dimensional (3-D) structures of membrane proteins have been described with increasing accuracy, but their relationship with membranes are still not well understood. Recently, we have developed an empirical method, Integral Membrane Protein and Lipid Association (IMPALA), to predict the insertion of molecules (lipids, drugs) into lipid bilayers (Proteins 30 (1998) 357). The IMPALA uses a Monte Carlo minimisation procedure to calculate the depth and the angle of insertion of membrane-interacting molecules taking into account the restraints dictated by a lipid bilayer. In this paper, we use IMPALA to test the insertion of 23 integral membranous proteins (IMPs) and 2 soluble proteins into membranes. Four IMP are studied in detail: OmpA, maltoporin, MsCl channel and bacteriorhodopsin. The 3-D structures of the proteins are kept constant and the insertion into membrane is monitored by minimising the value of the restraint representing the sum of two terms, one for lipid perturbation and the other for hydrophobicity. The two soluble proteins are rejected from the membrane whereas, under the same conditions, all the membrane proteins remain inside, if the solvent accessible surface of the amino acids located inside the pore of porins is ignored. The results give the tilt angle of the IMP helices or strands with respect to the membrane surface and the depth of the protein mass centre insertion. We conclude that the restraint terms of IMPALA could be used to study the insertion of model structures or complexes of proteins within membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of membrane protein structures and TM interactions Rosetta and molecular dynamic studies
Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Dony, Nicolas ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2013, February 26)

The structures of membrane domains of the Divisome proteins and BlaR are not known and there is no homolog proteins of known structure to build homolgy models. Although the structure prediction of ... [more ▼]

The structures of membrane domains of the Divisome proteins and BlaR are not known and there is no homolog proteins of known structure to build homolgy models. Although the structure prediction of membrane proteins seems easier than for globular proteins, their ab initio prediction remains a difficult task. Only few methods have been used and validated on experimental pdb structures. By using the MARTINI or Bond coarse grain representation, the multimerization of transmembrane helices has been carried out by molecular dynamics, and the structure of several membrane proteins has been predicted by a tool of the Rosetta package. These methods are used here to predict the structure of the membrane embedded part of the politopic proteins from the divisome (FtsW, FtsK, FtsX and MraY) and BlaR. In a following part the MARTINI force field can be used to predict the TM helices interactions between the Divisome protein members. [less ▲]

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See detailPREDICTION OF MISSING MARKERS WITH LOW DENSITY MARKER PANELS IN DAIRY CATTLE
Zhang, Zhiyan; Georges, Michel ULg; Druet, Tom ULg

in Proceedings of the 9th World Congress oN Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2010)

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See detailPrediction of mortality after myocardial infarction by simple clinical variables recorded during hospitalization.
PIERARD, Luc ULg; DUBOIS, Christophe ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Clinical Cardiology : International Journal for Cardiovascular Diseases (1989), 12(9), 500-4

Simple clinical variables obtainable in any coronary care unit and in any patient were recorded in 769 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and who were discharged ... [more ▼]

Simple clinical variables obtainable in any coronary care unit and in any patient were recorded in 769 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and who were discharged from the hospital and followed for up to 3 years. To identify the patients at highest and lowest risk of posthospital mortality, a prognostic index was established from a stepwise logistic discriminant analysis of variables obtained in a consecutive series of 418 patients discharged alive from one of two coronary care units admitting new patients on alternate days. This prognostic index was validated by applying it to a comparison group of 351 consecutive control patients discharged from the other coronary care unit. In the training group, 59 of the 418 patients (14%) died during the first year after hospital discharge and 34 (8%) died during the second or third year. The stepwise logistic discriminant analysis made it possible to distinguish between 1-year survivors and nonsurvivors, but not between the patients who died during the second and third years and the 3-year survivors. Four variables were selected for obtaining a 1-year prognostic index: the maximum grade of left ventricular function during hospitalization (0 to 4), history of previous AMI (1 or 0), predischarge cardiothoracic ratio (0 to 0.99), and complete bundle branch block (1 or 0). Prognostic index = 7.0196-0.6515 function - 1.6623 previous AMI - 0.0729 cardiothoracic ratio - 1.0813 bundle branch block. This index was validated in the comparison group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of non-linear time-variant dynamic crop model using bayesian methods
Mansouri, Majdi ULg; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in John Stafford (Ed.) Precision agriculture '13 (2013, July)

This work addresses the problem of predicting a non-linear time-variant leaf area index and soil moisture model (LSM) using state estimation. These techniques include the extended Kalman filter (EKF ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the problem of predicting a non-linear time-variant leaf area index and soil moisture model (LSM) using state estimation. These techniques include the extended Kalman filter (EKF), particle filter (PF) and the more recently developed technique, variational filter (VF). In the comparative study, the state variables (the leaf-area index LAI, the volumetric water content of the layer 1, HUR1 and the volumetric water content of the layer 2, HUR2) are estimated from noisy measurements of these variables, and the various estimation techniques are compared by computing the estimation root mean square error with respect to the noise-free data. The results show that VF provides a significant improvement over EKF and PF. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of organoleptic and technological characteristics of pork meat by near infrared spectroscopy
Meulemans, A.; Dotreppe, Olivier ULg; Leroy, Bernadette ULg et al

in Sciences des Aliments (2003), 23(1), 159-162

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See detailPrediction of organoleptic and technological characteristics of pork meat by near infrared spectroscopy
Meulemans, Alexandra; Dotreppe, Olivier ULg; Leroy, Bernadette ULg et al

in Viandes & Produits Carnés - Hors Série 9èmes Journées Sciences du Muscle et Technologies des Viandes (2002, October)

Cette étude met en évidence les potentialités des appareils SPIR pour la prédiction de plusieurs paramètres liés à la qualité de la viande porcine, en particulier les pertes de jus par écoulement. Par ... [more ▼]

Cette étude met en évidence les potentialités des appareils SPIR pour la prédiction de plusieurs paramètres liés à la qualité de la viande porcine, en particulier les pertes de jus par écoulement. Par ailleurs, cette étude souligne que la validation de la technique, au moyen d’ une série d’ échantillons indépendants, est nécessaire afin de contrôler la capacité réelle des modèles à prédire les différents paramètres. Ces modèles pourraient être améliorés en utilisant un nombre plus élevé d’ échantillons afin d’ augmenter la variabilité dans la base de données et en maîtrisant tous les facteurs pouvant influencer les valeurs spectrales. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction Of Peptide Structure: How Far Are We?
Thomas, Annick ULg; Deshayes, S.; Decaffmeyer, Marc ULg et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Bioinformatics (2006), 65(4), 889-97

Rational design of peptides is a challenge, which would benefit from a better knowledge of the rules of sequence-structure-function relationships. Peptide structures can be approached by spectroscopy and ... [more ▼]

Rational design of peptides is a challenge, which would benefit from a better knowledge of the rules of sequence-structure-function relationships. Peptide structures can be approached by spectroscopy and NMR techniques but data from these approaches too frequently diverge. Structures can also be calculated in silico from primary sequence information using three algorithms: Pepstr, Robetta, and PepLook. The most recent algorithm, PepLook introduces indexes for evaluating structural polymorphism and stability. For peptides with converging experimental data, calculated structures from PepLook and, to a lesser extent from Pepstr, are close to NMR models. The PepLook index for polymorphism is low and the index for stability points out possible binding sites. For peptides with divergent experimental data, calculated and NMR structures can be similar or, can be different. These differences are apparently due to polymorphism and to different conditions of structure assays and calculations. The PepLook index for polymorphism maps the fragments encoding disorder. This should provide new means for the rational design of peptides. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of permeability of regular scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering: a combined computational and experimental study.
Truscello, S.; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg; Van Bael, S. et al

in Acta biomaterialia (2012), 8(4), 1648-58

Scaffold permeability is a key parameter combining geometrical features such as pore shape, size and interconnectivity, porosity and specific surface area. It can influence the success of bone tissue ... [more ▼]

Scaffold permeability is a key parameter combining geometrical features such as pore shape, size and interconnectivity, porosity and specific surface area. It can influence the success of bone tissue engineering scaffolds, by affecting oxygen and nutrient transport, cell seeding efficiency, in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and, ultimately, the amount of bone formation. An accurate and efficient prediction of scaffold permeability would be highly useful as part of a scaffold design process. The aim of this study was (i) to determine the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for prediction of the permeability coefficient of three different regular Ti6Al4V scaffolds (each having a different porosity) by comparison with experimentally measured values and (ii) to verify the validity of the semi-empirical Kozeny equation to calculate the permeability analytically. To do so, five CFD geometrical models per scaffold porosity were built, based on different geometrical inputs: either based on the scaffold's computer-aided design (CAD) or derived from 3D microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) data of the additive manufactured (AM) scaffolds. For the latter the influence of the spatial image resolution and the image analysis algorithm used to determine the scaffold's architectural features on the predicted permeability was analysed. CFD models based on high-resolution micro-CT images could predict the permeability coefficients of the studied scaffolds: depending on scaffold porosity and image analysis algorithm, relative differences between measured and predicted permeability values were between 2% and 27%. Finally, the analytical Kozeny equation was found to be valid. A linear correlation between the ratio Phi(3)/S(s)(2) and the permeability coefficient k was found for the predicted (by means of CFD) as well as measured values (relative difference of 16.4% between respective Kozeny coefficients), thus resulting in accurate and efficient calculation of the permeability of regular AM scaffolds. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of plagioclase-melt equilibria in anhydrous silicate melts at 1 atm
Namur, Olivier ULg; Charlier, Bernard ULg; Toplis, Michael et al

in Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology (2012), 163

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See detailThe prediction of preeclampsia: Reassessment of clinical value of increased plasma levels of fibronectin
Dreyfus, M.; Baldauf, J. J.; Ritter, J. et al

in European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (1998), 78

Objective: To determine whether assessment of plasma fibronectin in primigravidae could predict the pregnant women expected to become preeclamptic. Methods: We performed a prospective blinded analysis of ... [more ▼]

Objective: To determine whether assessment of plasma fibronectin in primigravidae could predict the pregnant women expected to become preeclamptic. Methods: We performed a prospective blinded analysis of 156 apparently normotensive primigravidae in an outpatient clinic. Blood samples were taken at 6 week intervals from the 18th week and immediately after delivery or at the onset of preeclampsia. Plasma fibronectin was evaluated by ELISA. Evolution with gestational age was studied using regression curves. Results: We had 148 normal primigravidae (592 determinations). In three women, increased fibronectin anticipated preeclampsia by 3–4 weeks. Five women showed high levels only at the onset of preeclampsia. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of increased fibronectin levels were 37.5% (95% CI53.3–71.7), 96.6% (95% CI593.7–99.6), 37.5% (95% CI53.3–71.7) and 96.6% (95% CI593.7–99.6), respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that plasma fibronectin levels could represent a specific marker for preeclampsia. Its sensitivity has to be improved but its high negative predictive value strongly argues against the development of preeclampsia within the next 4 weeks after the blood sampling. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of protein digestibility in dog food by a multi-enzymatic method: a useful technique to develop.
Tonglet, Catherine; Jeusette, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2001), 85(7-8), 189-94

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and ... [more ▼]

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and beef meat, which were used as references. The quantity of sodium hydroxide added to the enzymatic solution was measured after incubation times of 2, 5 and 10 min and the best prediction of the apparent protein digestibility was obtained with an incubation time fixed at 2 min. The volume of sodium hydroxide 0.1 N constantly added to maintain the pH of the solution at 8 was correlated to the value of in vivo digestibility of the protein measured in the dog. The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.90 with a standard error of the regression of 1.9 for all samples. The correlation coefficients calculated for incubation times of 5 and 10 min were lower than that at 2 min; thus an incubation period of 2 min provided the highest correlation coefficient for this multi-enzymatic method at constant pH. However, considering the lack of samples with an apparent protein digestibility ranging between 85 and 95%, the slope of the regression line and the correlation coefficient were strongly influenced by the ingredients, such that when the correlation coefficient was calculated for 17 dog foods without the reference ingredients, a coefficient of 0.71 (+/- 1.9) was obtained. These tests of in vitro digestibility are valuable to predict the apparent digestibility of the protein in the dog, but, it is essential to confirm the results by an in vivo test. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of residual stresses by FE simulations on bimetallic work rolls during cooling
Neira Torres, Ingrid ULg; Gilles, Gaëtan ULg; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Materials Science (2013), 13(1), 84-91

Bimetallic rolls used in the roughing stands of the Hot Strip Mill require mixed properties as a high wear resistance for the shell material and an enhanced toughness for the core material. The bimetallic ... [more ▼]

Bimetallic rolls used in the roughing stands of the Hot Strip Mill require mixed properties as a high wear resistance for the shell material and an enhanced toughness for the core material. The bimetallic roll studied in this paper is obtained from a vertical spin casting process followed by cooling and subsequent heat treatments. Failure of the compound roll sometimes occurs during the cooling stage of the casting route or later during the thermal treatments. It requires to deeply investigate the thermo mechanical metallurgical interactions generated during cooling and heat treatment in order to find the origin of cracks. For this purpose, a thermo metallurgic mechanical finite element model is used. However these numerical simulations require a high amount of mechanical, thermal and metallurgical parameters. In order to determinate these parameters, a study of available data for estimation of mechanical parameters was performed. Thermo physical parameters were obtained by DTA and DSC methods. Metallurgical characterization by inverse numerical method based on available CCT diagrams was performed to determine the TTT diagrams. First cooling numerical simulations are presented, allowing a rough estimate of residual stresses values and the identification of key parameters for predicting accurate residual stresses by sensitivity analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of response and other improvements on the limitations of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in anemic cancer patients.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (2002), 87(11), 1209-21

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates to this treatment are variable and in some trials a large proportion of patients (30 50%) did not respond. This failure may be due to factors related to the underlying disease, the chemotherapy given or functional iron deficiency. An accurate means of predicting response to rHuEPO would be beneficial to both healthcare providers and patients. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: Data were identified by searches of the published literature, including PubMed, references from relevant reviews, and abstracts presented at recent international oncology and hematology meetings. Only papers in English published between 1990 and 2002 were included. References were selected according to direct relevance to the topic discussed and availability. STATE OF THE ART: The best algorithms for predicting response appear to be those combining an assessment of the adequacy of endogenous erythropoietin production together with some early indicators of erythropoietic marrow response. Further characterization of the dose-response relationship of erythropoietic agents may allow better understanding of ways in which response may be enhanced. Adequate iron availability could also contribute to better response rates. PERSPECTIVES: Further characterization of the predictors of response for current and upcoming erythropoietic agents may enhance the management of anemia associated with cancer, and provide more convenient, effective, and flexible therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of response to optimize outcome of treatment with erythropoietin.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Seminars in Oncology (1998), 25(3 Suppl 7), 27-34

Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO; epoetin) has been shown to be effective in improving anemia in a proportion of cancer patients. The response rate is approximately 60%, but varies considerably ... [more ▼]

Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO; epoetin) has been shown to be effective in improving anemia in a proportion of cancer patients. The response rate is approximately 60%, but varies considerably according to baseline hematocrit and transfusion needs, as well as the response criteria used. Response is not greatly influenced by the type of tumor, except in situations of major marrow involvement and limited residual hematopoiesis, or in the presence of specific mechanisms of anemia, such as hemolysis, splenomegaly, bleeding, hemodilution, or ineffective erythropoiesis. Stem cell damage by previous therapy as well as marrow suppression by current intensive chemotherapy can impair response. Besides its intensity, the type of chemotherapy may not be critical, although patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy may respond faster than those receiving non-platinum regimens. Complications, such as infections, bleeding, or nutritional deficiencies, may have a major negative impact on outcome. An important response-limiting factor is functional iron deficiency (ie, an imbalance between iron needs in the erythropoietic marrow and iron supply), which depends on the level of iron stores and its rate of mobilization. Functional iron deficiency is best monitored by the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells, and oral or intravenous iron supplements should be given when this percentage increases above 10%. All these factors explain why the response rate to epoetin is only approximately 60%. Therefore, it would be interesting to develop models that could help predict response to epoetin to help select the most appropriate cancer patients for this therapy. Few baseline parameters have been shown to be highly predictive of response in patients with solid tumors, although most studies in patients with myeloma or lymphoma have indicated that patients with a low baseline serum EPO level will respond better. Early changes after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment are also of great interest. Among these early changes, increments of soluble transferrin receptor, reticulocytes, and hemoglobin, as well as the persistence of elevated ferritin or EPO levels, have all shown some predictive value. Combination of baseline serum EPO and the 2-week increment of soluble transferrin receptor or hemoglobin may provide the best prediction of response. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in anemia of malignancy.
Cazzola, M.; Ponchio, L.; Pedrotti, C. et al

in Haematologica (1996), 81(5), 434-41

BACKGROUND: Since only a portion of anemic patients outside the uremia setting benefit from erythropoietin treatment, a reliable means of predicting potential responders and nonresponders would be very ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since only a portion of anemic patients outside the uremia setting benefit from erythropoietin treatment, a reliable means of predicting potential responders and nonresponders would be very useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 58 patients with refractory anemia associated with various malignant disorders who had been treated with subcutaneous rHuEpo. The starting rHuEpo dose was 375 U/kg/week for 4 weeks, and was increased to 750 U/kg/week for another 4 weeks if no response was observed. Response was defined as a Hb increase > or = 2 g/dL with no need for blood transfusion. We examined the value of various laboratory parameters (baseline levels, 2-week and 4-week changes) as predictors of response. Endogenous erythropoietin production was evaluated by its serum level and erythroid activity was assessed through reticulocyte count and circulating transferrin receptor. RESULTS: Forty-eight individuals were evaluable, 58% of whom responded to rHuEpo within 8 weeks. Multiple regression analysis showed that 53% of the variation in the 8-week Hb concentration was explained by variations in baseline serum erythropoietin and the 2-week change in serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.001). Based on these two parameters, response prediction in individual patients would have resulted in a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 79% and an overall accuracy of 88%. In addition, 58% of the variation in the 8-week Hb was explained by variations in the 4-week changes in Hb and reticulocyte count (p < 0.001). Utilizing these latter parameters and baseline serum erythropoietin, response prediction in individual patients would have resulted in a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 82% and an overall accuracy of 88%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis suggests that response to rHuEpo can be reasonably predicted by pretreatment serum erythropoietin together with early changes in simple laboratory parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of response to recombinant human erythropoietin in the anemia of cancer
Beguin, Yves ULg; Vanstraelen, Gaetan

in Nowrousian, M. R. (Ed.) Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in clinical oncology (2nd Ed.) (2008)

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See detailPrediction of response to rHuEpo
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Bokemeyer, C.; Ludwig, H. (Eds.) ESO Scientific Upadtes, Vol. 6 Anaemia in cancer (2001)

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See detailPrediction of response to treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin in anaemia associated with cancer.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Medical Oncology (Northwood, London, England) (1998), 15 Suppl 1

The anaemia associated with cancer can be effectively treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in about 60% of the patients. However, the response rate varies according to treatment ... [more ▼]

The anaemia associated with cancer can be effectively treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in about 60% of the patients. However, the response rate varies according to treatment modalities as well as the response criteria used. A number of disease- or chemotherapy-related factors determines the probability of response. Several specific mechanisms of anaemia, such as haemolysis, splenomegaly, bleeding, haemodilution, or ineffective erythropoiesis can seriously interfere with response. However, the type of tumor, in particular haematologic versus non-haematologic, is not critical, except in situations of major marrow involvement and limited residual haematopoiesis. Stem cell damage by previous therapy, reflected by low platelet counts or high transfusion needs, will impair response. In addition, marrow suppression by current intensive chemotherapy will also have a negative impact. Besides its intensity, the type of chemotherapy may not be critical, although patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy may respond faster than those receiving non-platinum regimens. Complications such as infections, bleeding or nutritional deficiencies may have a major negative impact on outcome. An important response-limiting factor is functional iron deficiency, i.e. an imbalance between iron needs in the erythropoietic marrow and iron supply, which depends on the level of iron stores and its rate of mobilisation. Therefore, oral or preferably intravenous iron supplements should be given when serum ferritin is below 40-100 micrograms/l, reflecting the absence of iron stores, or when the percentage of hypochromic red cells rises above 10%, indicating functional iron deficiency even in the presence of adequate storage iron. Because up to 40% of the patients will not respond to rHuEpo, it is of utmost importance to develop models that could help predict response to rHuEpo and thus select the most appropriate cancer patients for this therapy. Most studies of patients with myeloma or lymphoma have indicated that patients with a low baseline serum Epo level will respond better, but this is not true of patients with solid tumors. Also of considerable interest are early changes of erythropoietic parameters after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment, including increments of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), reticulocytes and haemoglobin, as well as the persistence of elevated ferritin or Epo levels. Combination of baseline serum Epo and the 2-week increment of sTfR or haemoglobin may provide the best prediction of response. [less ▲]

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