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See detailOptimal redistribution with unobservable disability:Welfarist versus non-welfarist social objectives
Racionero, María; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in European Economic Review (2009), (53), 636-644

This paper examines the optimal non-linear income and commodity tax when the same labor disutility can receive two alternative interpretations, taste for leisure or disability, but the disability is not ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the optimal non-linear income and commodity tax when the same labor disutility can receive two alternative interpretations, taste for leisure or disability, but the disability is not readily observable. We compare the optimal policy under alternative social objectives, welfarist and non-welfarist, and conclude that the nonwelfarist objective, in which the planner gives a higher weight to the disutility of labor of the disabled individuals, is the only reasonable specification. It has some foundation in the theory of responsibility; further, unlike the other specifications it yields an optimal solution that may involve a lower labor supply requirement from disabled individuals [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal sample selection for batch-mode reinforcement learning
Rachelson, Emmanuel ULg; Schnitzler, François ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2011) (2011)

We introduce the Optimal Sample Selection (OSS) meta-algorithm for solving discrete-time Optimal Control problems. This meta-algorithm maps the problem of finding a near-optimal closed-loop policy to the ... [more ▼]

We introduce the Optimal Sample Selection (OSS) meta-algorithm for solving discrete-time Optimal Control problems. This meta-algorithm maps the problem of finding a near-optimal closed-loop policy to the identification of a small set of one-step system transitions, leading to high-quality policies when used as input of a batch-mode Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm. We detail a particular instance of this OSS metaalgorithm that uses tree-based Fitted Q-Iteration as a batch-mode RL algorithm and Cross Entropy search as a method for navigating efficiently in the space of sample sets. The results show that this particular instance of OSS algorithms is able to identify rapidly small sample sets leading to high-quality policies [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal selection of a portfolio of options under Value-at-Risk constraints: a scenario approach
Schyns, Michael ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Annals of Operations Research (2010), 181

This paper introduces a multiperiod model for the optimal selection of a financial portfolio of options linked to a single index. The objective of the model is to maximize the expected return of the ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a multiperiod model for the optimal selection of a financial portfolio of options linked to a single index. The objective of the model is to maximize the expected return of the portfolio under constraints limiting its Value-at-Risk. We rely on scenarios to represent future security prices. The model contains several interesting features, like the consideration of transaction costs, bid-ask spreads, arbitrage-free option pricing, and the possibility to rebalance the portfolio with options introduced at the start of each period. The resulting mixed integer programming model is applied to realistic test instances involving options on the S&P500 index. In spite of the large size and of the numerical difficulty of this model, near-optimal solutions can be computed by a standard branch-and-cut solver or by a specialized heuristic. The structure and the financial features of the selected portfolios are also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal synthesis of mechanisms using time-varying dimensions and natural coordinates
Collard, Jean-François; Fisette, Paul; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Herskowitz, José (Ed.) Proceedings of the 6th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (WCSMO6) (2005, June)

This paper presents a simple approach to optimize the dimensions and the positions of 2D mechanisms for path or function-generator synthesis. The proposed method is particularly adapted to assembled ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a simple approach to optimize the dimensions and the positions of 2D mechanisms for path or function-generator synthesis. The proposed method is particularly adapted to assembled mechanisms since time-varying dimensions always satisfy the assembly conditions which may represent a real difficulty when dealing with closed-loop mechanisms. The objective is to minimize the strain energy of the bars - considered as flexible - of the mechanism when this one follows perfectly the desired path. Two optimization strategies are developed and criticized. The first one is based on separated optimizations of design parameters and point coordinates. The second one is more global and is performed in two stages : multiple local synthesis are needed first to find the initial point coordinates, and then a global synthesis stage is undertaken to find both the best dimensions and coordinates. The use of natural coordinates is also particularly interesting since the only non linear functions to optimize are distance functions, and the objective function is rather well-conditioned for a gradient-based optimizer. The question of finding the global optimum is addressed and discussed. Since a standard genetic algorithm may fail to find it, a different approach is proposed: exploring the design space to find several local optima among which the designer will choose the most relevant one taking other design constraints into account. A simple technique is applied which consists in running multiple optimization processes starting from uniformly-distributed initial dimensions (full-factorial design of experiments) across the parameter space. Three applications are presented: a simple four-bar path synthesis to illustrate the optimization strategies, a four-bar steering linkage synthesis for function generation – Ackermann relation to highlight the limits of both strategies, and eventually a six-bar steering mechanism to explore the design space and find different local optima. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal synthesis of planar mechanisms via an extensible-link approach
Collard, Jean-François; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Fisette, Paul

(2006, September)

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See detailOptimal T2 control chart with double sampling scheme - an alternative to the MEWMA chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Saniga, Erwin

in Quality and Reliability Engineering International (2012), 28(7), 751-760

Recent studies have shown that the double sampling (DS) scheme yields rapid detection of out of control situations, but the economic consequences of applying the proposed method are not discussed in the ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that the double sampling (DS) scheme yields rapid detection of out of control situations, but the economic consequences of applying the proposed method are not discussed in the literature yet. In this paper, the economic statistical design of the DS T2 control chart is designed to address this issue. In this regard, upon the Lorenzen and Vance (1986)’s economic model, the problem is formulized and then the cost function is minimized using the genetic algorithm search method to obtain the optimal design parameters. Besides, we assumed that the length of the time that process remains in control is exponentially distributed. Through an illustrative example we show that by applying the proposed method relatively large benefits can be achieved in a comparison with the classical T2 and the statistical DS T2 charts. Furthermore the performance of the ESD DS T2 charts is compared to the MEWMA and other variable ratio sampling (VRS) T2 control charts in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal timing of elective caesarean section in Belgian White and Blue breed of cattle: The calf's point of view
Uystepruyst, Christophe; Coghe, Joost; Dorts, Thierry et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163(3), 267-282

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the timing of elective caesarean section (ECS) during parturition affects pulmonary and metabolic adaptation to extra-uterine life in healthy Belgian ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the timing of elective caesarean section (ECS) during parturition affects pulmonary and metabolic adaptation to extra-uterine life in healthy Belgian White and Blue (BWB) calves delivered at term. Vaginal palpation was performed and deliveries divided into six categories of timing for ECS: cervix closed (TECS 1) passive and active cervical dilatation (TECS 2 and TECS 3); full cervical dilatation (TECS 4); spontaneous rupture of allantoic (TECS 5) and amniotic (TECS 6) membranes. One hundred and eighteen BWB calves were examined at birth, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after birth using the following measurements: physical examination (time between birth and sternal recumbency [T-SR]) heart rate (mHR); arterial blood gas analyses (arterial partial pressure in oxygen [PaO2], in carbon dioxide [PaCO2], arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation [SaO(2)], alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen [AaDO(2)]); pulmonary function tests using the oesophageal balloon catheter technique (respiratory rate [RR], total pulmonary resistance [R-I], dynamic lung compliance [C-Ldyn], tidal volume [V-T] and minute Volume [V-E]; arterial and venous blood acid-base balance analyses (arterial and venous pH [pHa and pHv], bicarbonate concentration [HCO(3)a and HCO(3)v], base excess [BEa and BEv]); rectal temperature (RT); jugular venous blood sampling for, determination of metabolic variables (blood glucose [G], plasma lactate [L], serum cortisol [C], plasma noradrenaline [NA] and adrenaline [A] concentrations); haematological variables (red blood cell count [RBC], total haemoglobin concentration [Hb], Packed Cell Volume [PCV]) and passive immune transfer variables (total serum protein [TP] and beta(2)gammaglobulin [beta(2)gamma] concentrations). TECS significantly (Pless than or equal to0.05) influenced PaO2, SaO(2), AaDO(2), RR, V-T, V-E, C-Ldyn, RT, G, NA, A, RBC, Hb and TP: compared to TECSgreater than or equal to4 calves, TECSless than or equal to3 calves showed lower PaO2, SaO(2), V-T, C-Ldyn, RT, G, NA, A, RBC, Hb and TP and higher AaDO(2), RR, V-E. TECS differences progressively decreased and disappeared between 6 and 12 h after birth in TECS 2 and 3 calves but remained tip to 24 h in TECS 1 calves. Improved postnatal respiratory and metabolic adaptation in TECSgreater than or equal to4 calves were mainly related to differences in exposure to labour and subsequent hormonal surge: catecholamines, particularly A, enabled more effective removal of lung liquid and/or release of surfactant which contribute to better gas exchanges and induced greater energy mobilization to maintain adequate body temperature. It was concluded waiting for full cervical dilatation before performing CS should be encouraged because it promotes postnatal respiratory and metabolic adaptation in full-term BWB calves. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimale experimentele studies voor functionele MRI
Maus, Bärbel ULg; van Breukelen, G. J. P.

in STAtOR (2012), 13(1), 23-26

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See detailOptimalisation d'un séjour linguistique par la pédagogie par projet. Description et commentaire d'une expérience réalisée en Promotion sociale.
Simons, Germain ULg

in Education-Formation (1992), 226

Cet article décrit et commente une expérience réalisée dans le cadre d'un cours d'anglais (3e CTSS) en Promotion sociale à l'IPSCF de Waremme. Il s'agit d'INTEGRER un séjour linguistique (York) au cours d ... [more ▼]

Cet article décrit et commente une expérience réalisée dans le cadre d'un cours d'anglais (3e CTSS) en Promotion sociale à l'IPSCF de Waremme. Il s'agit d'INTEGRER un séjour linguistique (York) au cours d'anglais/langue étrangère depuis le choix du projet jusqu'à son exploitation et évaluation en passant par la planification et la réalisation du séjour. Ce type d'approche pédagogique, qui met l'apprenant en contact direct avec la langue-cible et sa culture, présente un intérêt évident pour un apprentissage communicatif de la langue étrangère. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation d’une RT-PCR en temps réel pour la détection du virus de l’hépatite A
Zonta, William ULg; Denayer, Sarah; Thiry, Etienne ULg et al

Poster (2012, March)

En Belgique, l’incidence de l’hépatite A (HAV) est de 1,2 cas pour 100000 habitants. La population présente une faible immunité contre le HAV puisque seulement 50 % de la population possèdent des ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, l’incidence de l’hépatite A (HAV) est de 1,2 cas pour 100000 habitants. La population présente une faible immunité contre le HAV puisque seulement 50 % de la population possèdent des anticorps anti-HAV après l’âge de 30 ans. Ainsi un grand nombre d’individus reste susceptible de contracter une infection par le HAV. Les sources de contamination sont principalement le contact de personne à personne mais aussi la consommation d’aliments (crus ou « ready-to-eat) contaminés. Cette contamination peut provenir de l’eau d’irrigation pour les fruits et légumes, de l’eau de mer pour les mollusques bivalves ou de la manipulation de l’homme lors des différentes étapes entre la récolte et la vente du produit. Dans ce projet, une nouvelle RT-PCR spécifique pour la détection du HAV est développée et évaluée. Pour choisir de nouvelles amorces et sondes, des alignements sont réalisés avec les séquences de 19 souches de HAV (DNASTAR Lasergene) afin de cibler les régions les plus conservées du génome du HAV. Cinq nouveaux couples d’amorces ciblant plusieurs régions hautement conservées du génome de HAV ont été sélectionnés et testés à différentes températures d’hybridation et différentes concentrations en utilisant un agent se liant à l’ADN double brin (SYBR Green). Une sonde fluorescente, de type FAM, spécifique de l’amplicon délimité par le couple d’amorces fournissant les meilleurs résultats a été dessinée et utilisée avec la technologie d’hydrolyse de sonde à deux concentrations différentes. Des dilutions d’un facteur 10 de la suspension de la souche HM175 (HAV) ont été testées par le couple d’amorces et la sonde choisit pour établir ainsi une limite de détection. La spécificité du couple d’amorce choisit a été testé en présence de différents picornavirus et virus entériques et de 3 génotypes de HAV (IA, IB et IIIA). Le plasmide Sybricon019 et ses amorces spécifiques ont été utilisés comme contrôle interne d’amplification (IAC). Un contrôle positif a aussi été créé afin de s’assurer du fonctionnement correct de la PCR en temps réel. Parmi les 5 couples d’amorces sélectionnés, le couple HAV-F2/HAV-R2 permet d’obtenir les valeurs de Ct les plus faibles avec une concentration optimale de 300nM pour les amorces sens et anti-sens. Ce couple d’amorces cible la région VP1/VP3 du génome du HAV. Différentes températures d’hybridation ont été testées et la température la plus élevée (60°C) a été sélectionnée pour limiter le risque d’amplification aspécifique. Pour augmenter la spécificité, une sonde, HAV P2, spécifique de l’amplicon délimité par les amorces HAV-F2 et HAV-R2, est utilisée à la concentration de 250nM. Des dilutions d’un facteur 10 d’une suspension de HAV, 107 à 101 particules infectieuses par ml (déterminées par TCID50), donnent respectivement des valeurs de Ct de 19,2 à 38,4 et les dilutions de 100 à 10-2 particules infectieuses par ml ne donnent aucune amplification. La limite de détection est donc de 10 particules infectieuses par ml. La spécificité des amorces et de la sonde pour la détection du HAV est correcte puisque les trois génotypes de HAV, IA, IB et IIIA, ont été détectés alors que les différents picornavirus et virus entériques n’ont donné aucun signal fluorescent d’amplification. L’optimalisation d’un nouveau couple d’amorce et d’une sonde (HAV-F2, -R2 et -P2) ciblant une région hautement conservée du génome permet de détecter le virus HAV par RT-PCR. La région ciblée (VP1/VP3) diffère de la plupart des méthodes de détection de HAV par PCR en temps réelle décrites à ce jour. La seconde étape consiste à réaliser une série de tests dans différentes matrices alimentaires à risque (fruits de mer, fruits et légumes crus) dans le but de détecter des échantillons naturellement contaminés par le HAV. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation de l'expression orale en langue étrangère. Formation pour l'I.F.A.P.M.E.
Simons, Germain ULg; Pagnoul, Pierre ULg

Learning material (2008)

Cette formation destinée aux formateurs de langues étrangères de l'IFAPME portait sur l'optimalisation de l'expression orale en langues étrangères. Quatre grands volets constituaient cette communication ... [more ▼]

Cette formation destinée aux formateurs de langues étrangères de l'IFAPME portait sur l'optimalisation de l'expression orale en langues étrangères. Quatre grands volets constituaient cette communication. Dans les deux premiers volets, nous avons établi une distinction entre l'expression et l'interaction orales, puis avons présenté la typologie des productions langagières (descriptif/informatif ; injonctif/incitatif ; argumentatif ; narratif) proposée dans le document "Familles de tâches en langues modernes" (CFB). Dans le troisième volet, nous avons travaillé sur le genre textuel "débat". A partir d'un exemple concret proposé aux participants, nous avons montré ce que cette production textuelle à dominante argumentative mobilise comme savoirs au niveau du lexique, des fonctions langagières et de la grammaire, ainsi que sur le plan des stratégies de communication. Un mode particulier d'organisation de la classe - "l'aquarium"- a été présenté, puis testé par les participants. Enfin, dans le quatrième volet, nous avons montré comment ce débat pouvait être inséré dans le canevas didactique "traditionnel" et dans le canevas par "situation-problème". [less ▲]

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See detailL'optimalisation de la gestion de l'eau en entreprise.
Thonart, Philippe ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Taillieu, Xavier et al

in Nouvelles de la Science et des Technologies (1995), 13(1), 277-284

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See detailOptimalisation de la prise en charge du patient diabetique de type 2: resultats de l'etude DREAM" en medecine generale."
Scheen, André ULg; Bruwier, Geneviève ULg; Schmitt, H.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(3), 139-46

This paper reports the results of the "DREAM" ("Diabetes REinforcement of Adequate Management") study performed among 42 general practitioners. A treatment algorithm was proposed to intensify the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports the results of the "DREAM" ("Diabetes REinforcement of Adequate Management") study performed among 42 general practitioners. A treatment algorithm was proposed to intensify the management of type 2 diabetic patients in case of poor control (HbA1C > 7.5% and fasting blood glucose > 140 mg/dl) before asking for an advice from a diabetologist. A total of 163 patients participated in the study: 84 men and 79 women, 59 +/- 10 years old; 5.2 +/- 6.1 years of known duration of diabetes; BMI: 30.7 +/- 5.8 kg/m2. Almost two thirds of patients received an antihypertensive agent, one third a lipid-lowering drug, and three quarters at least one antidiabetic agent: 22% a sulfonylurea, 18% metformin, 25% a combined oral therapy, 10% insulin (alone or in combination). At baseline, mean HbA1C averaged 7.1 +/- 2.2% (N: 4-6%), and 34% of patients had HbA1C > 7.5%. From these 163 patients, 100 were evaluated after 12 months, 57% being well controlled vs 36% at baseline. Among the 32 patients whose hypoglycaemic treatment was intensified, HbA1C level significantly decreased by almost 0.8% (p < 0.05). Despite precise guidelines, 55% of patients with HbA1C > 7.5% had no treatment adjustment, essentially in the group already on oral bitherapy or on insulin. Among the 65 patients evaluated after 24 months, the percentage of well controlled patients decreased to 44% (vs 51% after 12 months). The decision of switching to insulin was often delayed (no patient after 1 year and 2 patients only after 2 years). In conclusion, the "DREAM" study demonstrates the feasibility, but also the difficulty, of optimising the management of type 2 diabetic patients in general practice. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation de la radiosynthèse et production au niveau de la curie d'acides aminés aromatiques marqués au fluor-18
Libert, Lionel ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine (FTYR) are useful radiopharmaceuticals for evaluation by positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic function and oncological studies ... [more ▼]

6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine (FTYR) are useful radiopharmaceuticals for evaluation by positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic function and oncological studies, respectively. In comparison to electrophilic synthesis, the no-carrier-added (nca) nucleophilic preparation of these 2 radiopharmaceuticals, described in 2004 by Lemaire et al, has several advantages such a high batch yield and high specific activity. However, this nca enantioselective synthesis using a chiral phase-transfer catalyst requires some chemicals (i.e. corrosive HBr gas) arduous to handle and store and reactions at low and high temperature (0°C, 200°C) difficult to implement into a commercially available synthesizer. Important chemical improvements, realized during this PhD thesis, having resulted in straightforward automation of FDOPA and FTYR synthesis, in a commercially available FASTLab module (GE healthcare) are presented. The first significant improvement to the synthesis has consisted in the development of a fast and reliable method suitable for the preparation of (substituted) [18F]fluorobenzyl halides from several [18F]fluorobenzaldehydes. Aromatic nucleophilic substitution of trimethylammonium benzaldehyde triflate and nitro precursors were realized with nca [18F]fluoride. After labeling, [18F]fluorobenzaldehydes were trapped on a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) cartridge and the subsequent conversion (reduction and halogenation) into benzyl halides was directly realized, on-line, on the support. Reduction of the aldehydes and the following halogenation step were performed with an aqueous solution of NaBH4 and aqueous solutions of concentrated acid (HI, HBr, HCl), respectively. These two near-quantitative reactions proceed at room temperature within 2 minutes at high yields. The second improvement of the nca synthesis of FDOPA and FTYR has consisted in the enantioselective formation of a new carbon-carbon bond by phase-transfer catalysis in presence of a chiral phase-transfer catalyst (PTC) at RT rather than at 0°C. Seven chiral phase-transfer catalysts with a potential high enantioselectivity, at room temperature, for the asymmetric alkylation of a N-(diphenylmethylene)glycine tert-butyl ester have been prepared. Two of these catalysts affords high enantiomeric excess in FDOPA and FTYR (e.e. ≥ 95%) at room temperature and even at 75°C (e.e. ≥ 90%). One is readily available from a cinchona alkaloid and the other one from a biphenyl substrate. The third improvement concerned the hydrolysis step (200°C, 20 min). Different starting precursors with more labile protective groups than the methoxy were synthesized and evaluated. Among these compounds, the isopropyl ether protective group seems the more advantageous. By exploiting the advantages of the improvements to the chemistry described in this work and the potential of the nca approach, the synthesis of FDOPA and FTYR was automated in a FASTlab module with GMP single use cassettes. After 100 min of bombardment (167 GBq) and 63 min of synthesis, more than 50 GBq (1,35 Ci) of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa (e.e. ≥ 96,3%) with a specific activity in excess of 0.75 TBq/µmol are routinely produced. For FTYR, slightly higher yield was obtained. With such reliable production, 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine are now available for clinical investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation de la valeur nutritionnelle de la graine de lupin pour les bovins
Froidmont, Eric; Bonnet, Maxime; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in CRA-W; FUSAGx (Eds.) 12ème Carrefour des productions animales, "Le marché de la viande bovine : enjeux et perspectives" (2007, January 24)

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See detailOptimalisation des apports en acides aminés pour des taurillons BBB en complément à une ration fermière
Beckers, Yves ULg; Froidmont, Eric

Conference (2001, December 12)

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See detailOptimalisation des opérations de tournage : la méthode de la puissance disponible
Debongnie, Jean-François ULg

Report (1993)

Tailor's results on machining optimization always assume that the power of the machine tool is not a limitation. However, this not necessarily true, specially in the case of rough machining, where ... [more ▼]

Tailor's results on machining optimization always assume that the power of the machine tool is not a limitation. However, this not necessarily true, specially in the case of rough machining, where Taylorian optima are out of the power range of the machine. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed, where the machine capacity is the first consideration. The obtained result is then corrected in view of the tool life. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation des techniques prothetiques de rehabilitation orale grace a l'orthodontie: analyse d'un cas clinique.
Lies, Céline ULg; Fernandez, S.; Limme, Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(10), 609-14

This clinical case underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, prosthetic and orthodontic, for the achievement of an oral rehabilitation treatment plan. Preliminary orthodontic treatment ... [more ▼]

This clinical case underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, prosthetic and orthodontic, for the achievement of an oral rehabilitation treatment plan. Preliminary orthodontic treatment has significantly improved, the position of some natural teeth, which can serve or not as a prosthetic abutment. This has produced a direct prosthetic benefit by limiting tissue reduction for preparation and by giving a better biomechanical and functional context to the restoration.Thus, after an orthodontic treatment step, lasting a year and a half, using both removable appliance and fixed appliance, prosthetic rehabilitation was possible. This included a fixed prosthesis and a removable prosthesis that gave a very satisfying an esthetic result and good masticatory function. [less ▲]

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