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See detailOpen Flux Estimates and Reconnection Rates in Saturn's Magnetosphere, Derived Using HST and Cassini Data
Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T. et al

Conference (2005, December 01)

During January 2004, a sequence of 68 UV images of Saturn's southern aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), coordinated with measurements of the upstream interplanetary conditions made ... [more ▼]

During January 2004, a sequence of 68 UV images of Saturn's southern aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), coordinated with measurements of the upstream interplanetary conditions made by the Cassini spacecraft. Using the poleward edge of the observed aurora as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, the open flux content of the southern polar region has been estimated. It is found to range from 15 to 50 GWb during the interval, such a large variation providing evidence of a significant magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind, in particular with structures associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Cassini measurements of the upstream interplanetary conditions have been used to estimate the rate of open flux production at the magnetopause. By comparison with the open flux values obtained from the images, the rate of open flux closure in Saturn's magnetotail is also estimated. We find that the rate of open flux production is high (200 kV) in the high-field strength intervals following the onset of CIR-related compressions, and elevated (30-40 kV) in an intermediate-field strength rarefaction region. High flux closure rates (100-200 kV) are estimated in association with the onset of solar wind compressions and are intermittently increased (30-60 kV) during a weak-field rarefaction region. The disturbed auroral forms seen in the images are discussed in relation to the estimated reconnection rates. Recent studies have suggested that Saturn Kilometric Radiation emissions are also disturbed by the onset of CIR compressions at Saturn. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen flux estimates in Saturn's magnetosphere during the January 2004 Cassini-HST campaign, and implications for reconnection rates
Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T. et al

Conference (2005, August 07)

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See detailOpen flux estimates in Saturn's magnetosphere during the January 2004 Cassini-HST campaign, and implications for reconnection rates
Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2005), 110(A11),

During 8-30 January 2004, a sequence of 68 UV images of Saturn's southern aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), coordinated for the first time with measurements of the upstream ... [more ▼]

During 8-30 January 2004, a sequence of 68 UV images of Saturn's southern aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), coordinated for the first time with measurements of the upstream interplanetary conditions made by the Cassini spacecraft. Using the poleward edge of the observed aurora as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, the open flux content of the southern polar region has been estimated. It is found to range from similar to 15 to similar to 50 GWb during the interval, such a large variation providing evidence of a significant magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind, in particular with the interplanetary structures associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The open flux is found to decline slowly during a rarefaction region in which the interplanetary magnetic field remained very weak, while decreasing sharply in association with the onset of CIR-related solar wind compressions. Such decreases are indicative of the dominating role of open flux closure in Saturn's tail during these intervals. Increases in open flux are found to occur in the higher-field compression regions after the onsets, and in a following rarefaction region of intermediate field strength. These increases are indicative of the dominating role of open flux production at Saturn's magnetopause during these intervals. The rate of open flux production has been estimated from the upstream interplanetary data using an empirical formula based on experience at Earth, with typical values varying from similar to 10 kV during the weak-field rarefaction region, to similar to 200 kV during the strong-field compression. These values have been integrated over time between individual HST image sets to estimate the total open flux produced during these intervals. Comparison with the changes in open flux obtained from the auroral images then allows us to estimate the amount of open flux closed during these intervals, and hence the averaged tail reconnection rates. Intermittent intervals of tail reconnection at rates of similar to 30-60 kV are inferred in rarefaction regions, while compression regions are characterised by rates of similar to 100-200 kV, these values representing averages over the similar to 2-day intervals between HST image sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen Linking et OpenURL
Mottet, Philippe ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2005), 59(2), 35-47

Les notions d’Open Linking, d’OpenURL, de sensibilité au contexte ou de copie appropriée sont largement répandues désormais dans le monde de l’information scientifique, même si on ne sait pas toujours ... [more ▼]

Les notions d’Open Linking, d’OpenURL, de sensibilité au contexte ou de copie appropriée sont largement répandues désormais dans le monde de l’information scientifique, même si on ne sait pas toujours précisément ce qui se cache sous cette terminologie un peu mystérieuse. Un système d’Open Linking permet, sur Internet et dans un cadre documentaire, de relier entre elles toutes les informations relatives à un sujet particulier grâce à des adresses URL/URI qui portent le nom d’OpenURL. Ces liens OpenURL sont créés dynamiquement à la suite de re-cherches bibliographiques et permettent de rebondir vers d’autres ressources électroniques proposant des in-formations complémentaires liées à la référence de départ et dont l’accès est autorisé pour l’utilisateur. La norme ANSI/NISO Z39.88 définit la syntaxe des liens OpenURL ainsi que les métadonnées, identifiants et protocoles d’échange de communication qui peuvent y être incorporés. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen magnetic flux and magnetic flux closure during sawtooth events
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Milan, S. E.; Grocott, A. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2008), 35

We use IMAGE-FUV observations of the polar aurora and measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN radar network to study several sawtooth events previously reported in the literature. We ... [more ▼]

We use IMAGE-FUV observations of the polar aurora and measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN radar network to study several sawtooth events previously reported in the literature. We estimate the amount of open magnetic flux in the Earth magnetosphere during a significant part of these sawtooth intervals as well as the magnetic flux opening and closure rates, that is, the dayside and nightside reconnection rates. We find that during the sawtooth intervals the magnetosphere is highly loaded with open flux as a result of the strongly southward IMF carried by the solar wind during these intervals. The magnetosphere tries to relax to a less loaded configuration through a sequence of substorm expansions. However, these substorms do not necessarily evolve to their end before reintensification of nightside reconnection occurs in response to continued loading of the magnetosphere on the dayside. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy: feasibility and initial experiences
LAKOSI, Ferenc ULg; Gergely Antal; Csaba Vandulek et al

in Pathology Oncology Research (2011), 17(2), 315-24

The aim of our pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and dosimetric quality of MR-guided HDR prostate brachytherapy in a low-field 0.35T open MRI scanner and to present our initial clinical ... [more ▼]

The aim of our pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and dosimetric quality of MR-guided HDR prostate brachytherapy in a low-field 0.35T open MRI scanner and to present our initial clinical experiences. 16 patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with 46-60 Gy of external beam radiotherapy preceded and/or followed by an 8 Gy MR-guided HDR boost. For interventions an MR compatible custom-made system, coaxial needles and plastic catheters were used. Template reconstruction, trajectory planning, image guidance, contouring and treatment planning were exclusively based on MR images. For treatment planning, dose-point- and anatomy-based inverse planning optimization was used. Image quality was found to be good to excellent in almost all cases. The mean catheter placement accuracy modeled by Rayleigh distribution was 2.9 mm with a sigma value of 2.3 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the dosimetric results for the target volume were the following: V100: 94.2 ± 4.3%, V150: 43.9 ± 6.8%, V200: 18.5 ± 5.9%. The mean D(0.1), D(1) and D1 values for the intraprostatic urethra were 117.6 ± 12.5%, 98.5 ± 19.9% and 122.3 ± 16.4%, respectively. Regarding the rectal wall the mean D(0.1), D(1) and D(2) values were 77.3 ± 7.2%, 64.8 ± 7.5%, and 53.2 ± 9.1%, respectively. The mean maximum dose for the inner rectal surface was 53.5 ± 9.2%. No RTOG Grade 3 or worse acute toxicities were observed. Our method seems to be a promising approach for performing feasible, accurate and high-quality MR-guided HDR prostate brachytherapy. To determine the long term side effects and outcome higher number of patients, additional follow-up is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen pilot trial of ritanserin in parkinsonism.
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; Delwaide, Paul ULg

in Clinical Neuropharmacology (1986), 9(5), 480-4

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See detailAn Open Problem of MCDA: Aid to the Conception of the Building Envelope
Colson, Gérard ULg; Hauglustaine, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (1999, March)

In the conception of the envelope of a building, the sketch design is a crucial moment of the design. The first drawing gives a concrete expression to the first choices of the project author, in respect ... [more ▼]

In the conception of the envelope of a building, the sketch design is a crucial moment of the design. The first drawing gives a concrete expression to the first choices of the project author, in respect of a set of requirements and of general preferences, expressed by the multiple stakeholders of the project, namely: the building owner, the users, the administrative authorities and the design team surrounding the architect. In order to help the stakeholders in improving this stage of the sketch design, the present study explores a multicriteria decision aiding procedure. This MultiCriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) methodology should be close to the usual design process. This paper presents the design aid procedures, in parallel. At this time of the study, the decision aid process is a first attempt to cope with this architectural design challenge. The floor is expected to react to the suggested presentation of this MCDA open problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAn open software environment for testing electromagnetic analysis methods
Dular, Patrick ULg; Henrotte, F.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Sixth International TEAM Workshop (1997)

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See detailAn open source traffic engineering toolbox
Leduc, Guy ULg; Abrahamsson, Henrik; Balon, Simon ULg et al

in Computer Communications (2006), 29(5), 593-610

We present the TOTEM open source Traffic Engineering (TE) toolbox and a set of TE methods that we have designed and/or integrated. These methods cover intra-domain and inter-domain TE, IP-based and MPLS ... [more ▼]

We present the TOTEM open source Traffic Engineering (TE) toolbox and a set of TE methods that we have designed and/or integrated. These methods cover intra-domain and inter-domain TE, IP-based and MPLS-based TE. They are suitable for network optimisation, better routing of traffic for providing QoS, load balancing, protection and restoration in case of failure, etc. The toolbox is designed to be deployed as an on-line tool in an operational network, or used off-line as an optimisation tool or as a traffic engineering simulator. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn open study to investigate the absorption and tolerability of oral 311C90 and to obtain a preliminary indication of efficacy in migraine patients
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Caekebeke, J.; Louis, P. et al

in Clifford Rose, F. (Ed.) New Advances in Headache Research (1994)

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See detailOpen surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm or aorto-iliac occlusive disease--clinical and ultrasonographic long-term results.
Fontaine, Robert ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Creemers, Etienne ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2008), 108(4), 393-9

OBJECTIVE: To determine postoperative and long-term outcome and assess the relevance of abdominal ultrasound (US) after surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine postoperative and long-term outcome and assess the relevance of abdominal ultrasound (US) after surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD). METHODS: Records of 1704 consecutive patients having graft implantation from 1988 to 2000, either for AAA (n = 1144) or for AIOD (n = 560), were reviewed. In 2006, follow-up was 9180 patients-years for the AAA group and 5450 patients-years for the AIOD group. Among 1006 alive patients, 377 were invited randomly for US and clinical examination. RESULTS: Hospital death occurred in 99 patients (8.6%) of the AAA group (53% in ruptured and 2% in elective AAA), and in 18 patients of the AIOD group (3.2%). There were 581 late deaths, including eight due to prosthesis infection, one to pseudo-aneurysm rupture, and one to graft thrombosis (0.6% graft-related mortality). Prosthesis thrombosis occurred in 32 patients (26 in AIOD group, p < 0.001), and graft infection in 26 (17 in AAA group, p < 0.01). Pseudoaneurysms developed in 90 patients (68 in AIOD group, p < 0.001), including eight at the proximal aortic, one at the distal aortic, two at the iliac and 79 at the femoral anastomosis. In the AAA group only, surgery was required for a new thoraco-abdominal and pararenal aneurysm in eight and four patients, respectively, while US evidenced a 26-35 and a 36-50 mm supraanastomotic aortic dilatation in 65 (32%) and in 14 (7%) patients, at a mean follow-up of 10.5 and 9.3 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: Long-term results are good after open surgery for AAA or AIOD. Prosthesis infection and anastomotic pseudo-aneurysm are the main causes of graft-related mortality and morbidity, respectively. Because of high incidence of asymptomatic supraanastomotic aortic dilatation, all patients with a history of AAA repair should have regular abdominal US. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen surgical correction combined with an external splint for correction of a non compliant pectus excavatum in a cat
Mestrinho, Lisa; Ferreira, C.; Lopes A.M. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2012), 14(2), 151-154

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See detailAn open-air site from the recent Middle Palaeolithic in the Paris Basin (France): Les Bossats at Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne).
Bodu, Pierre; Salomon, Hélène ULg; Leroyer, Mathieu et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 331

In northern France, most of the sites attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic are open-air sites in which mainly lithic artefacts are found, due to taphonomic conditions often unfavourable to the ... [more ▼]

In northern France, most of the sites attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic are open-air sites in which mainly lithic artefacts are found, due to taphonomic conditions often unfavourable to the preservation of fauna. The lithic assemblages found in most of those open-air sites suggest that the activities on the camp sites were diversified, although flint knapping was often intense due to the proximity of sources of raw siliceous materials. With the exception of very rare open-air sites, fauna is poorly preserved and spatial and economic analyses may often be based on the spatial distribution of lithic artefacts, in particular based on refits and their analysis. Therefore the palaeoethnological approach is difficult to implement in most open-air areas. In contrast, in the Paris Basin, the study of more recent sites from the Tardiglacial, such as the Magdalenian sites of Pincevent or Etiolles, falls within this approach. The recent discovery (2009) and excavation of the open-air site of Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne - France) was initially intended to document a Gravettian occupation floor dated around 26,000 years uncal BP and related to a preferential bison hunt. Whilst checking the thickness of the loess in which the Gravettian level was found, several other prehistoric settlements were discovered (Chatelperronian, Middle Solutrean) including two units attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic. One of them, level 4, seems to be particularly well-preserved. It occurs between one and three meters below the main Upper Palaeolithic occupation. The lithic industry from level 4 belongs to a technical tradition generally attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic: discoid technology. The freshness of the material and the presence of bone fragments attributed in part to horse support a general good state of preservation of this occupation. The Mousterian remains seem to cover at least 500 m2, as currently estimated. Even more exceptional is the close spatial relationship between the discoid industry, the bone pieces, remains of fireplaces and especially the numerous fragments and nodules of red colouring materials. These were brought to the site where they were utilised by the Mousterians. The used surfaces show indisputable scraping traces and facets. These recent discoveries will certainly contribute to the debate on the cognitive capacities of nearly the last representatives of the Middle Palaeolithic and this within a complex stratigraphy which will allow us to make comparisons between the different periods. [less ▲]

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See detailAn open-air site from the recent Middle Palaeolithic in the Paris Basin (France): Les Bossats at Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne).
Bodu, Pierre; Lacarrière, Jessica; Leroyer, Mathieu et al

Conference (2012, November)

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See detailThe open-air site of Tolbor 16 (Northern Mongolia): preliminary results and perspectives
Zwyns, N.; Gladyshev; Gunchinsuren, B. et al

in Quaternary International (in press)

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See detailOpen-Air substations layout design. A fully adaptable expert system approach.
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Pallage, Manuel

in Proceedings of the 25th UPEC (1990, September 12)

An expert system is presented to design the layout of open-air power system substations.

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See detailAn open-label expanded access study of lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with HER2-overexpressing locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
Capri, G.; Chang, J.; Chen, S. C. et al

in Annals of Oncology (2010), 21(3), 474-80

BACKGROUND: The Lapatinib Expanded Access Program (LEAP) was designed to provide access to lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients who previously received an ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Lapatinib Expanded Access Program (LEAP) was designed to provide access to lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients who previously received an anthracycline, a taxane, and a trastuzumab and had no other treatment options. PATIENTS AND METHODS: LEAP opened globally and enrollment continued until lapatinib received regulatory approval in each participating country. Patients were assessed for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and monitored for serious adverse events (SAEs). RESULTS: As of 30 September 2008, 4283 patients from 45 countries enrolled in LEAP. The median treatment duration was 24.7 weeks. The most common drug-related SAEs were diarrhea (9.7%), vomiting (4.3%), and nausea (2.4%) and were mainly grade 3 or higher. The incidences of special interest SAEs were decreased left ventricle ejection fraction (0.5%), interstitial lung disease/pneumonitis (0.2%), and serious hepatobiliary events (0.4%). This safety profile is consistent with the overall lapatinib program. The median PFS and OS were 21.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 20.1-22.3] and 39.6 (95% CI = 37.7-40.7) weeks, respectively (n = 4006). Subgroup analysis showed longer PFS and OS in patients who had not received prior capecitabine. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of lapatinib in a broader patient population compared with a clinical trial. [less ▲]

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See detailOPEN-LOOP STABILIZATION OF 2D IMPACT JUGGLING
Ronsse, Renaud; Lefèvre, Philippe; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in Proceedings of 6th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems (2004, September)

The paper studies the properties of a sinusoidally vibrating wedge billiard as a model for 2D impact juggling. It is shown that some periodic orbits that are unstable in the elastic xed wedge become ... [more ▼]

The paper studies the properties of a sinusoidally vibrating wedge billiard as a model for 2D impact juggling. It is shown that some periodic orbits that are unstable in the elastic xed wedge become exponentially stable in the (non-)elastic vibrating wedge. These orbits are linked with some classical juggling patterns, providing an interesting benchmark for the study of the frequency-locking properties in human rhythmic tasks. [less ▲]

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