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See detailLong-term trends of inorganic chlorine from ground-based infrared solar spectra: Past increases and evidence for stabilization
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2003), 108(D8), 4252

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with ... [more ▼]

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with infrared Fourier transform spectrometers at nine NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) sites in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The data sets span up to 24 years and most extend until the end of 2001. The time series of Cly (defined here as the sum of the HCl and ClONO2 columns) from the three locations with the longest time-span records show rapid increases until the early 1990s superimposed on marked day-to-day, seasonal and inter-annual variability. Subsequently, the buildup in Cly slows and reaches a broad plateau after 1996, also characterized by variability. A similar time evolution is also found in the total chlorine concentration at 55 km altitude derived from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) global observations since 1991. The stabilization of inorganic chlorine observed in both the total columns and at 55 km altitude indicates that the near-global 1993 organic chlorine (CCly) peak at the Earth’s surface has now propagated over a broad altitude range in the upper atmosphere, though the time lag is difficult to quantify precisely from the current data sets, due to variability. We compare the three longest measured time series with two-dimensional model calculations extending from 1977 to 2010, based on a halocarbon scenario that assumes past measured trends and a realistic extrapolation into the future. The model predicts broad Cly maxima consistent with the long-term observations, followed by a slow Cly decline reaching 12–14% relative to the peak by 2010. The data reported here confirm the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments in progressively phasing out the major man-related perturbations of the stratospheric ozone layer, in particular, the anthropogenic chlorine-bearing source gases. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of NO above northern mid-latitudes as inferred from Jungfraujoch, HALOE and ACE-FTS solar observations
Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Servais, Christian ULg et al

Poster (2012, August 27)

Routine FTIR solar observations are performed by the University of Liège at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 3580 m altitude, NDACC station) since 1985. The analysis of the recorded spectra allows to ... [more ▼]

Routine FTIR solar observations are performed by the University of Liège at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 3580 m altitude, NDACC station) since 1985. The analysis of the recorded spectra allows to derive total and partial columns of more than 20 different atmospheric gases. Among them, gases belonging to the total reactive nitrogen NOy (NO, NO2, HNO3 and ClONO2), to the total inorganic chlorine Cly (HCl and ClONO2) and to the total inorganic fluorine Fy (HF and COF2) families. In this communication, budgets of these gas families are investigated, and their short term, seasonal and inter-annual variations as well as their long-term trends are determined for the time period ranging from the mid-1980s up to the end of 2011. We also investigate the evolution of the same gases, when available, derived from ground-based UV-vis (1990-present) and from HALOE (1991-2004) and ACE-FTS (2004-present) satellite observations. We evaluate the consistency between the trends characterizing these various species, as deduced from the ground- and space-based time series. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide from analysis of high resolution infrared solar spectra
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2007), 104(1), 40-51

Long-term trend and seasonal variation of the mean free tropospheric volume mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been derived from analysis of a time series of solar ... [more ▼]

Long-term trend and seasonal variation of the mean free tropospheric volume mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been derived from analysis of a time series of solar absorption spectra recorded from the US National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W, 2.09 km altitude) spanning almost three decades. The results of a fit to the CO 258 daily averages from May 1977 to April 2005 as a function of time with a model that assumes a sinusoidal seasonal cycle and a linear long-term trend with time yield a mean volume mixing ratio of 102 +/- 3) parts per billion (10(-9) per unit volume) below 10km altitude, I sigma. The CO measurements show a seasonal cycle with a maximum in March and a minimum in September with an amplitude of (22.3 +/- 1.5)% relative to the mean. The best-fit corresponds to a long-term CO trend of (0.15 +/- 0.14)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, relative to the mean. To quantify the possible impact of periods of intense fires, the CO measurements have been compared with the measurements of HCN, a well-documented emission product of biomass burning with a lifetime of similar to 5 months. The best fit to the full HCN time series of 208 daily averages from May 1978 to April 2005 results in a mean volume mixing ratio of (0.219 +/- 0.007) ppbv below 10 km altitude with a similar seasonal cycle, though with a lower relative amplitude than for CO. Although same-day enhancements up to a factor of 1.87 for HCN and 1.24 for CO were measured relative to values predicted by a fit to the time series that accounts for the seasonal cycles and trends of both molecules, excluding time periods of elevated fire emissions has no significant impact on the best-fit long-term free tropospheric CO and HCN trends. Our result of no long-term CO trend since the late 1970s suggests that the global average long-term decline reported from 1990 through 1995 measurements has not continued in the free troposphere. Similarly, a fit to the full time series of 208 HCN free tropospheric daily averages with the same model yields an average 2.09-10km mixing ratio of 0.219ppbv and a long-term trend of (-0.12 +/- 0.14) % yr(-1), 1 sigma, relative to the mean since 1978, also indicating no significant long-term trend above the lower mid-latitude continental US Kitt Peak station. The results for both molecules suggest the site was not significantly impacted by summer boreal fires during the time span of the measurements that in some years cause widespread pollution above northern higher latitude sites. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term variation of the standing crop and other biometric aspects of Posidonia oceanica in Calvi Bay
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Belkhiria, Samy; Soullard, Mady et al

Conference (1993, January)

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See detailLong-term XMM-Newton investigation of two particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in NGC6604: HD168112 and HD167971
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451(1), 5589-5599

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking ... [more ▼]

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking into account recent information about their multiplicity and orbital parameters. The two targets, HD168112 and HD167971 appear to be overluminous in X-rays, lending additional support to the idea that a significant contribution of the X-ray emission comes from colliding-wind regions. The variability of the X-ray flux from HD168112 is interpreted in terms of varying separation expected to follow the 1/D rule for adiabatic shocked winds. For HD167971, marginal decrease of the X-ray flux in September 2002 could tentatively be explained by a partial wind eclipse in the close pair. No long-term variability could be demonstrated despite the significant difference of separation between 2002 and 2014. This suggests the colliding-wind region in the wide orbit does not contribute a lot to the total X-ray emission, with a main contribution coming from the radiative shocked winds in the eclipsing pair. The later result provides evidence that shocks in a colliding-wind region may be efficient particle accelerators even in the absence of bright X-ray emission, suggesting particle acceleration may operate in a wide range of conditions. Finally, in hierarchical triple O-type systems, thermal X-rays do not necessarily constitute an efficient tracer to detect the wind-wind interaction in the long period orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailA long-term, open-label trial of the safety and efficacy of etanercept (Enbrel) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis not treated with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
Klareskog, L.; Gaubitz, M.; Rodriguez-Valverde, V. et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2006), 65(12), 1578-1584

Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 549 patients entered this 5-year, open-label extension study and received etanercept ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 549 patients entered this 5-year, open-label extension study and received etanercept 25 mg twice weekly. All patients showed inadequate responses to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs before entry into the double-blind studies. Safety assessments were carried out at regular intervals. Primary efficacy end points were the numbers of painful and swollen joints; secondary variables included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response rate, Disease Activity Score and acute-phase reactants. Efficacy was analysed using the last-observation-carried-forward approach. Results: Of the 549 patients enrolled in the open-label trial, 467 (85%), 414 (75%) and 371 (68%) completed 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively; 363 (66%) remained in the study at the time of this analysis. A total exposure of 1498 patient-years, including the double-blind study, was accrued. In the open-label trial, withdrawals for efficacy-related and safety-related reasons were 11% and 13%, respectively. Frequent adverse events included upper respiratory infections, flu syndrome, rash and injection-site reactions. Rates of serious infections and malignancies remained unchanged over the course of the study; there were no reports of patients with central demyelinating disease or serious blood dyscrasias. After 3 years, ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates were 78%, 51% and 27%, respectively. The Disease Activity Score score was reduced to 3.0 at 3 months and 2.6 at 3 years from 5.1. A sustained improvement was found in Health Assessment Questionnaire scores throughout the 3-year time period. Conclusion: After 3 years of treatment, etanercept showed sustained efficacy and a favourable safety profile. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry for deformation measurement of the segmented detector array of the space EUCLID mission
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Beaumont, Florent et al

in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (2015, May)

Digital holographic interferometry in LWIR is used for following the deformation and relative movement of an assembly of detectors to be used in space. The setup is incorporated in a vacuum chamber for ... [more ▼]

Digital holographic interferometry in LWIR is used for following the deformation and relative movement of an assembly of detectors to be used in space. The setup is incorporated in a vacuum chamber for cryogenic testing. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Queeckers, Patrick et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holography
Georges, Marc ULg

in Picart, Pascal (Ed.) New Techniques in Digital Holography (2015)

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holography for the qualification of large space reflectors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Georges, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2012, October 09)

Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required ... [more ▼]

Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of these reflectors deformation and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperature). A long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometer for the verification and validation of this type of reflector in a space environment is presented. It has been developed to fill the gap between holography/interferometry techniques in the visible wavelengths and methods based on structured light illumination like videogrammetry, stereocorrelation, and fringe/pattern projection. The former provide a good measurement uncertainty but the displacements are often too large to be measured and they require a very stable environment, while the latter provide large measurement range but with higher measurement uncertainty. The new instrument is based on digital holography and uses a CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6 µm combined with a commercial thermographic camera. A diffuser is illuminated by the laser beam, producing a speckle wavefront which is observed after reflection on the reflector surface. This reflected speckle wavefront behaves exactly as if the reflector was a diffusive surface, producing its own speckle, allowing the measurement of its deformation. The advantage of this configuration compared to a classical interferometer working at 10.6 µm, is that it requires no specific optics such as a null lens (in the case of parabola) or expensive illumination/collection optics (in the case of ellipse). The metrological certification of the system was performed in the laboratory by measuring the tilts of a 1.1 meter diameter parabolic reflector. The displacements are measured in parallel with a Doppler effect interferometer and the measurement uncertainty is estimated. The application of the new interferometer to the measurement of an elliptic reflector is also presented. The technique has been certified during a thermal-vacuum test. The deformation of the parabolic reflector is measured for a temperature variation from 288 K down to 113 K. The results are compared to previous results obtained on the same reflector with a high spatial resolution infrared interferometer, also developed at CSL. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wavelength behavior of the exchange-correlation kernel in the Kohn-Sham theory of periodic systems
Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Gonze, X.; Godby, R. W.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1997), 56(20), 12811-12817

The polarization dependence of the exchange-correlation (re) energy functional of periodic insulators within Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory requires a O(1/q(2)) divergence in the re kernel for ... [more ▼]

The polarization dependence of the exchange-correlation (re) energy functional of periodic insulators within Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory requires a O(1/q(2)) divergence in the re kernel for small vectors q. This behavior, exemplified for a one-dimensional model semiconductor, is also observed when an insulator happens to be described asa KS metal, or vice versa. Although it can occur in the exchange-only kernel, it is not found in the usual local, semilocal, or even nonlocal approximations to KS theory. We also show that the test-charge and. electronic definitions of the macroscopic dielectric constant differ from one another in exact KS theory, but are equivalent in the above-mentioned approximations. [less ▲]

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See detailLongevity and annuities: an introduction
Cremer, Helmuth; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Public Economic Theory (2010), (12), 1-5

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See detailA longirostrine Temnodontosaurus (Ichthyosauria) with comments on Early Jurassic ichthyosaur niche partitioning and disparity
Martin, Jeremy; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Vincent, Peggy et al

in Palaeontology (2012), 55(1), 9951005

We describe an almost complete ichthyosaur skeleton from the middle Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of the Beaujolais foothills near Lyon, France, and assign it to Temnodontosaurus azerguensis sp. nov. This new ... [more ▼]

We describe an almost complete ichthyosaur skeleton from the middle Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of the Beaujolais foothills near Lyon, France, and assign it to Temnodontosaurus azerguensis sp. nov. This new species exhibits cranial peculiarities such as a thin, elongated and possibly edentulous rostrum, as well as a reduced quadrate. These characters indicate dietary preferences that markedly differ from other species referred to Temnodontosaurus, a genus previously considered as the top predator of the Early Jurassic seas. Despite a conservative postcranial skeleton, we propose that Temnodontosaurus is one of the most ecologically disparate genera of ichthyosaurs, including apex predators and now a soft prey longirostrine hunter. Ammonites collected from the same stratigraphic level as the described specimen indicate that the new species is somewhat younger (bifrons ammonite zone) than the most known Toarcian ichthyosaurs and therefore slightly postdates the interval of severe environmental changes and marine invertebrate extinctions known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. The present study therefore raises the question of whether postcrisis recovery of vertebrate faunas, including the radiation of Temnodontosaurus into a new ecological niche, may have been a consequence of marine ecosystem reorganization across this event. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal analysis of ordinal data
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Mauer, M

Conference (2009, June 30)

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See detailLongitudinal assessment of progress in reasoning capacity and relation with self-estimation of knowledge base
Collard, Anne ULg; Mélot, France ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (2014)

The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally for 213 students from years 2 to 5. The capacity of core knowledge delimitation was calculated as the difference between the levels of average ascertainment degrees given for correct and incorrect answers at MCQ. For both multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case evaluation and self-estimation of core knowledge, the capacity increases throughout the curriculum. The reasoning capacity assessed through multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case is positively correlated with MCQ scores and the capacity to discriminate the mastered core knowledge. In conclusion, this study indicates that self-estimation of core knowledge is associated with an increase in reasoning performance through a well-organised knowledge base. Since that ability is related to success or failure, it is suggested that student awareness about delimitation of mastered core knowledge is considered as part of learning. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal effects of muscular hypertrophy allele on milk production traits during the lactation using a novel equivalent model when molecular information is limited
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2010, August)

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue ... [more ▼]

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue animals could not be genotyped. So, a new alternative strategy for the prediction of gene effects and especially their smooth integration into genetic evaluations based on an equivalent method was developed from existing theory. Developed equations were modified to allow that not all animals were genotyped. As expected, the mh allele had negative effects on milk production traits. For the first three lactations, the average estimated allelic substitution effects were -0.074 % fat content and -158.7 kg milk per lactation (305 days). Moreover, effects of mh allele were not constant during the lactation. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal effects of muscular hypertrophy allele on milk production traits during the lactation using a novel equivalent model when molecular information is limited
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2010, August)

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue ... [more ▼]

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue animals could not be genotyped. So, a new alternative strategy for the prediction of gene effects and especially their smooth integration into genetic evaluations based on an equivalent method was developed from existing theory. Developed equations were modified to allow that not all animals were genotyped. As expected, the mh allele had negative effects on milk production traits. For the first three lactations, the average estimated allelic substitution effects were -0.074 % fat content and -158.7 kg milk per lactation (305 days). Moreover, effects of mh allele were not constant during the lactation. [less ▲]

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See detailA longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the White Volta river basin of Northern Ghana
Mahama, C. I.; Desquesnes, M.; Dia, M. L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2005), 128(3-4), 201-208

A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the ... [more ▼]

A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Two groups of sentinel cattle under different systems of management, classified as "fully-sedentary" and "partially-sedentary" (depending on the type of management) were followed over a 1-year period starting from March 2003 onwards. Cattle were screened at intervals of 3 months using the huffy coat technique (BCT). Buffy coat specimen from animals that were positive for the BCT and those that were negative, but with a packed cell volume (PCV) of less than 21% were further tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma from all animals were tested for antibody using the indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trypanosomosis challenge was determined in tandem with the epidemiological survey with watering sites of sentinel cattle being the foci of interest. The parasitological prevalence at the start of the survey was higher in the fully-sedentary group (9%) than in the partially-sedentary group (3%). In subsequent visits, however, the parasitological incidence was consistently higher in the partially-sedentary group than in the fully-sedentary group. The mean seroprevalence (ELISA) of both groups increased from 3% in March to 54% in December. Statistical analysis of the serological results using a random effect logistic regression, showed a significant difference in incidence of bovine trypanosomosis between the two groups. There was also a significant effect of time. The influence of cattle herding on host-vector-parasite interface and its consequence on the incidence of trypanosomosis are discussed. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal evaluation of the bed load size and of its mobilisation in a gravel bed river
Deroanne, C.; Petit, François ULg

in Floods and Landslides, Integrated Risk Assesment (1999)

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See detailLongitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium
Lempereur, Laetitia ULg; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale et al

in Parasitology Research (2012), 110(4), 1525-1530

Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows ... [more ▼]

Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 30.8%, 77%, and 56.9%, respectively. A total of 805 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at the same time from both cattle (feeding ticks) and grazed pastures (questing ticks). The infection level of ticks, assessed by PCR assay, for Babesia spp. DNA was 14.6% and 7.9% in feeding and questing ticks, respectively, whereas 21.7% and 3% of feeding and questing ticks were found be positive for A. phagocytophilum cDNA. Fifty-five PCR-positive samples were identified by sequencing as Babesia sp. EU1, of which five from feeding ticks were positive for both A. phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. EU1. The high density of wild cervids in the study area could explain these observations, as deer are considered to be the main hosts for adults of I. ricinus. However, the absence of Babesia divergens both in feeding and questing ticks is surprising, as the study area is known to be endemic for cattle babesiosis. Increasing cervid populations and comorbidity could play an import role in the epidemiology of these tick-borne diseases. [less ▲]

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