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See detailLes paiements directs dans les politiques agricole et régionale : le cas des régions défavorisées en Belgique
Foguenne, Marielle; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (1992)

La réforme de la politique agricole commune s'oriente vers une diminution du soutien des revenus agricoles par les politiques des prix et des marchés. Des mesures d'aides directes modulées et plus ciblées ... [more ▼]

La réforme de la politique agricole commune s'oriente vers une diminution du soutien des revenus agricoles par les politiques des prix et des marchés. Des mesures d'aides directes modulées et plus ciblées seront mises en place afin de compenser la baisse du revenu des agriculteurs. En outre, la politique agricole ne peut être dissociée de la politique régionale qui vise la cohésion économique et sociale entre les diverses régions de la Communauté. Le développement des zones rurales représente un de ses objectifs prioritaires. Les dispositions de soutien direct des revenus peuvent donc jouer un rôle en accordant une aide - sous la forme d'un soutien du revenu minimum - à certaines catégories d'agriculteurs opérant dans des régions défavorisées ou confrontés à une situation difficile. L'une des principales difficultés dans l'élaboration d'une politique régionale de soutien direct au revenu des agriculteurs réside dans la détermination des zones pouvant être prises en considération. L'objectif de la recherche menée est précisément de proposer des critères susceptibles d'orienter l'éligibilité des zones rurales dans le cadre d'actions portant sur la politique des structures et d'analyser les effets des choix opérés pour la Belgique. Dans un premier temps, les auteurs examinent les aides directes octroyées aux régions agricoles défavorisées en Belgique ainsi que les critères pris en compte pour déterminer ces zones. Ensuite, ils présentent les principes et les résultats globaux d'une méthode basée sur la classification numérique et visant à déterminer les zones concernées par le soutien direct des revenus. [less ▲]

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See detailPain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: characteristics and effect of intraperitoneal bupivacaine.
Joris, Jean ULg; Thiry, E.; Paris, P. et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1995), 81(2), 379-84

Although pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is less intense than after open cholecystectomy, some patients still experience considerable discomfort. Furthermore, the characteristics of ... [more ▼]

Although pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is less intense than after open cholecystectomy, some patients still experience considerable discomfort. Furthermore, the characteristics of postlaparoscopy pain differ considerably from those seen after laparotomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different pain components after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the effects of intraperitoneal bupivacaine on these different components. Forty ASA physical status grade I-II patients were randomly assigned to receive either 80 mL of bupivacaine 0.125% with epinephrine 1/200,000 (n = 20) or the same volume of saline (n = 20) instilled under the right hemidiaphragm at the end of surgery. Intensity of total pain, visceral pain, parietal pain, and shoulder pain was assessed 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Analgesic consumption was also recorded. Patient data were similar in the two groups. In the saline group, visceral pain was significantly more intense than parietal pain at each time point; visceral and parietal pain were greater than shoulder pain during the first 8 h postoperatively. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine did not significantly affect any of the different components of postoperative pain. Analgesic consumption was similar in the two groups. This study demonstrates that visceral pain accounts for most of the pain experienced after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine is not effective for treating any type of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. [less ▲]

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See detailPain and non-pain processing during hypnosis: a thulium-YAG event-related fMRI study.
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Balteau, Evelyne ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2009), 47(3), 1047-54

The neural mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effects of hypnosis still remain unclear. Using a parametric single-trial thulium-YAG laser fMRI paradigm, we assessed changes in brain activation and ... [more ▼]

The neural mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effects of hypnosis still remain unclear. Using a parametric single-trial thulium-YAG laser fMRI paradigm, we assessed changes in brain activation and connectivity related to the hypnotic state as compared to normal wakefulness in 13 healthy volunteers. Behaviorally, a difference in subjective ratings was found between normal wakefulness and hypnotic state for both non-painful and painful intensity-matched stimuli applied to the left hand. In normal wakefulness, non-painful range stimuli activated brainstem, contralateral primary somatosensory (S1) and bilateral insular cortices. Painful stimuli activated additional areas encompassing thalamus, bilateral striatum, anterior cingulate (ACC), premotor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In hypnosis, intensity-matched stimuli in both the non-painful and painful range failed to elicit any cerebral activation. The interaction analysis identified that contralateral thalamus, bilateral striatum and ACC activated more in normal wakefulness compared to hypnosis during painful versus non-painful stimulation. Finally, we demonstrated hypnosis-related increases in functional connectivity between S1 and distant anterior insular and prefrontal cortices, possibly reflecting top-down modulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPain control by vagus nerve stimulation: from animal to man ... and back
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(2), 62-67

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents ... [more ▼]

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents inhibits spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission. However results are partly contradictory, showing that the VNS effects depend on the stimulation parameters. Clinical data have been collected from VNS-implanted epileptic patients in whom pain thresolds were measured and the VNS effect on co-existing headaches was assessed. In addition, in 2 pilot studies of a few patients, VNS was used to treat resistant chronic headaches and migraines. Taken together these clinical studies tend to confirm the analgesic effect of VNS and to suggest its potential utility in chronic headache patients. In order to better define the nature of neuronal and behavioural changes induced by VNS with devices used in humans and to determine the most adequate stimulation stimulation protocols, we have used a commercially available stimulator (NCP-Cyberonics(R)) for prolonged VNS in rats. Our results show a clear antinociceptive effect of VNS in models of acute or inflammatory pain with different stimulation protocols including the one used in epileptic patients. Using immunocytochemical methods, we find that activity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus neurons could underlie at least part of the VNS-induced analgesia. [less ▲]

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See detailPain perception in disorders of consciousness: neuroscience, clinical care, and ethics in dialogue
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Racine, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Neuroethics (2013), 6(1), 37-50

Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we ... [more ▼]

Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we evaluate behavioural responses after painful stimulation and also emotionally-contingent behaviours (e.g., smiling). Using stimuli with emotional valence, neuroimaging and electrophysiology technologies can detect subclinical remnants of preserved capacities for pain which might influence decisions about treatment limitation. To date, no data exist as to how healthcare providers think about end-of-life options (e.g., withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration) in the presence or absence of pain in non-communicative patients. Here, we aimed to better clarify this issue by re-analyzing previously published data on pain perception (Prog Brain Res 2009 177, 329–38) and end-of-life decisions (J Neurol 2010 258, 1058–65) in patients with disorders of consciousness. In a sample of 2259 European healthcare professionals we found that, for VS/UWS more respondents agreed with treatment withdrawal when they considered that VS/UWS patients did not feel pain (77%) as compared to those who thought VS/UWS did feel pain (59%). This interaction was influenced by religiosity and professional background. For MCS, end-of-life attitudes were not influenced by opinions on pain perception. Within a contemporary ethical context we discuss (1) the evolving scientific understandings of pain perception and their relationship to existing clinical and ethical guidelines; (2) the discrepancies of attitudes within (and between) healthcare providers and their consequences for treatment approaches, and (3) the implicit but complex relationship between pain perception and attitudes toward life-sustaining treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailPain perception in disorders of consciousness: Neuroscience, clinical care, and ethics in dialogue
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Racine, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Neuroethics (2012)

Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we ... [more ▼]

Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we evaluate behavioural responses after painful stimulation and also emotionally-contingent behaviours (e.g., smiling). Using stimuli with emotional valence, neuroimaging and electrophysiology technologies can detect subclinical remnants of preserved capacities for pain which might influence decisions about treatment limitation. To date, no data exist as to how healthcare providers think about end-of-life options (e.g., withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration) in the presence or absence of pain in non-communicative patients. Here, we aimed to better clarify this issue by re-analyzing previously published data on pain perception (Prog Brain Res 2009 177, 329–38) and end-of-life decisions (J Neurol 2010 258, 1058–65) in patients with disorders of consciousness. In a sample of 2259 European healthcare professionals we found that, for VS/UWS more respondents agreed with treatment withdrawal when they considered that VS/UWS patients did not feel pain (77%) as compared to those who thought VS/UWS did feel pain (59%). This interaction was influenced by religiosity and professional background. For MCS, end-of-life attitudes were not influenced by opinions on pain perception. Within a contemporary ethical context we discuss (1) the evolving scientific understandings of pain perception and their relationship to existing clinical and ethical guidelines; (2) the discrepancies of attitudes within (and between) healthcare providers and their consequences for treatment approaches, and (3) the implicit but complex relationship between pain perception and attitudes toward life-sustaining treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailPain relief is not a confounder in joint space narrowing assessment of full extension knee radiographs
Pavelka, K.; Rovati, L. C.; Gatterova, J. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2002), 10(SA), 16-17

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See detailPain relief is not a confounder in joint space narrowing assessment of full extension knee radiographs
Pavelka, K.; Rovati, Lucio C; Gatterova, J. et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2002, June), 61(Suppl.1), 118

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See detailPain relief is not a confounder in joint space narrowing assessment of full extension knee radiographs in osteoarthritis structure-modifying drug trials
Pavelka, K.; Rovati, Lucio C; Gatterova, J. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002, November), 13(Suppl.3), 19-20

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See detailPain-related fear predicts disability, but not pain severity : a path analytic approach of the fear-avoidance model
Gheldof, E. L.; Crombez, G.; Van den Bussche, E. et al

in European Journal of Pain (London, England) (2010)

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See detailPainful legs and moving toes: a syndrome with different physiopathologic mechanisms.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gonce, Michel ULg; Delwaide, P.

in Neurology (1984), 34(8), 1108-12

Six patients with the syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" were studied. Although clinical differences were nonspecific, the EMG disclosed two subgroups: one with a simple, erratic pattern of ... [more ▼]

Six patients with the syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" were studied. Although clinical differences were nonspecific, the EMG disclosed two subgroups: one with a simple, erratic pattern of spontaneous activities in foot and leg muscles, and the other with a complex alternating pattern in antagonistic muscles. In the first group, the physiopathologic mechanism is thought to act in the periphery: in the lumbar roots when local anesthesia of the posterior tibial nerve suppresses spontaneous discharges, or in the nerve trunk when it is ineffective. In the second group, the symptomatology may be generated centrally, implying a more general disturbance of sensorimotor control. [less ▲]

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See detailPainful legs and moving toes: démembrement clinique et physiopathologique du syndrome
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gonce, Michel ULg; Delwaide, P. J.

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1983), 83

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See detailPaints based on renewable materials
Olive, Gilles ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in BOOK OF SHORT ABSTRACTS - POSTER PRESENTATIONS 19TH NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (2014, February 07)

Paints, at the coating meaning, are known since a long time. Typically, paint is a dispersion of one or more powders (pigments and fillers) in a macromolecular substance ("resin"), called film-forming ... [more ▼]

Paints, at the coating meaning, are known since a long time. Typically, paint is a dispersion of one or more powders (pigments and fillers) in a macromolecular substance ("resin"), called film-forming material, diluted in solvents. Pigments are solid particles, used to give opacity and/or color. Today almost all pigments have a synthetic origin. The fillers are often natural compounds. Unlike pigments, fillers have low opacity and are colorless. These very cheap products achieve the required solid content under satisfactory economic conditions. Resins used in paints have the property of forming a continuous solid (hard or flexible) film under specific conditions. They are often called “resins”. They can be solid or liquid at room temperature. The solvents are used to control the viscosity of the paint in order to facilitate its production and application. The solvents used are volatile compounds. Additives are minor compounds (a few percent), whose function is to either promote or prevent some developments of the product. For example, surfactants improve the homogeneity of the dispersion. Some additives protect the film against mold or ultraviolet radiation, or against the formation of free radicals under the action of sunlight. Since the end of the 18th century most of those paints are petroleum-based. But the near disappearance of the petroleum causes a renewed interest in bio-based preparations. In this communication, we present an overview of bio-based alternatives. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pair Beam Production Spectrum from Photon-Photon Annihilation in Cosmic Voids
Schlickeiser, Reinhard; Elyiv, Andrii ULg; Ibscher, D et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2012), 758(2), 18

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See detailPair trading : a time-varying cointegration approach
Babaei, Hamid; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailPair trading: a dynamic cointegration approach
Muller, Aline ULg; Babaei, Hamid ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailPairing Properties of Bromouracil and Repair of Bromouracil-Containing DNA. Possible Utilization of Bromodeoxyuridine Triphosphate for Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Muller, Marc ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg; Verly, W. G.

in Biochemical Journal (1988), 253(3), 637-643

5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (Br-dUTP) and dTTP are used interchangeably for DNA synthesis in vitro by the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. When DNA containing Br-dUMP instead ... [more ▼]

5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (Br-dUTP) and dTTP are used interchangeably for DNA synthesis in vitro by the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. When DNA containing Br-dUMP instead of dTMP at a few preselected sites is transfected into competent bacteria, no mutation occurs, indicating that in vivo E. coli DNA polymerase always places a dAMP residue in front of any unrepaired Br-dUMP residue. On the other hand, in vitro Br-dUTP can also replace dCTP, but only with difficulty: when dCTP is absent, Br-dUMP can be forced in front of a dGMP residue, but the Klenow polymerase pauses before and after addition of Br-dUMP. Transfection into E. coli of the substituted DNA leads to the expected G----A transitions. These mutations can easily be targeted by using a suitable primer and the correctly chosen mix of deoxynucleoside triphosphates containing Br-dUTP. When Br-dUMP has been placed in front of a dGMP residue, the mutation yield is not 100%, showing a partial repair of the transfected DNA before it is replicated. Advantage can be taken of this partial repair to prepare a set of different mutations within a target region in a single experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Paix de Fexhe de 1316 à 1477. Histoire et aperçu historiographique
Masson, Christophe ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2005)

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See detailLa Paix de Fexhe, de sa rédaction à la fin de la principauté de Liège
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Bulletin de la Commission Royale des Anciennes Lois et Ordonnances de Belgique (2006), XLVII

The Peace of Fexhe has always been seen by the Liegeois as a constitutional treaty of paramount importance as it provided the principality of Liège with a representative assembly. Yet, this text, enacted ... [more ▼]

The Peace of Fexhe has always been seen by the Liegeois as a constitutional treaty of paramount importance as it provided the principality of Liège with a representative assembly. Yet, this text, enacted in 1316, remained in use until the end of the State of Liège. The present article focuses therefore on its history in order to determine the role it actually played in the political life of Liège at the end of the Middle Ages and during the Modern Times. What emerges is that, signed in a context of tension, the Peace of Fexhe really was a compromise signed between two parties exhausted by famine, not the victory of one over the other. Even though the treaty seems to record several claims of the opponents to the prince-bishop Adolphe de La Marck, it really is the latter who, in spite of what numerous historians believed, continued to direct the political game of Liège. Indeed, his arbitrators managed to counter the claims of their opponents through the insertion of clauses preventing any real upheaval within the principality. For Adolphe, this treaty is therefore a break in his quest for a total sovereignty. Following him, the prince-bishops of Liège strove in defence of their power, contravening if need be the text of 1316. The Liégeois appeared to us to have been perfectly aware of the limits of the Peace of Fexhe but they endeavoured to gloss over these in order to make the text an absolute reference in the domain of political claims and a revered rallying symbol. Then, it will be through the constant reminder of this treaty that various political claims arose, making it de facto the source of the “Liegian constitution”. Afterwards, the Liegeois had recourse to the Peace of Fexhe in order to legitimate their political options. However, it was absolutely not a general rule since several politicians close to the people, such as Thierry de Perwez or Raes de Heers did not make use of the text. On the contrary, it was within more “cultivated” circles, such as the municipal magistrates and the burgomasters, that the text was the less rarely used, whether it be at the time of the promulgation of the decisions of the Council of Trente or at the eve of the Liegian Revolution. Moreover, it is by its almost uninterrupted presence in the Liegian politics that the Peace of Fexhe asks the question of the administration of law in the principality. In spite of a common objective, punishing the abuse of power of the episcopal officers, it was in opposition over the question of the procedure with the Peaces of the XXII . Yet the Court of the XXII considered itself to be in charge of the defence of the Peace of Fexhe. Similarly, the capitulations of the prince-bishops swore to the respect of the text and court without fear of a contradiction that no one seemed to have wanted to highlight. This shows how deep it was rooted in the Liegian legal culture, even though the real action of the Peace of Fexhe through the centuries left few traces. In conclusion, the Peace of Fexhe owes its prestige to its recuperation by different political forces that used it as a battle flag, adapting it, contradicting it sometimes, to their claims. Thus, event though its exact stipulations were forgotten as soon as the end of the 16th century and it was then progressively completed, it survived in the imagination and built up its prestige on the additional meaning its utilisations provided it with, for, in Liège, who defends Fexhe defends the good right. [less ▲]

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