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See detailJungermannia paroica (Schiffn.) Grolle in the Vosges, new to France
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Journal of Bryology (1997), 19

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See detailThe Jungfraujoch Suntracker Camera.
Servais, Christian ULg

Conference (2002)

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Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (1980), (75-76), 44


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See detailJuno and the first UVS results from PJ1
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg

Scientific conference (2017, February 14)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Juno Mission
Bolton, S. J.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Barbieri, Cesare; Coradini, Marcello; Chakrabarti, Supriya (Eds.) et al Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 269. "Galileo's Medicean Moons: their impact on 400 years of discovery" (2010, November 03)

Juno is the next NASA New Frontiers mission which will launch in August 2011. The mission is a solar powered spacecraft scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and be placed into polar orbit around Jupiter ... [more ▼]

Juno is the next NASA New Frontiers mission which will launch in August 2011. The mission is a solar powered spacecraft scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and be placed into polar orbit around Jupiter. The goal of the Juno mission is to explore the origin and evolution of the planet Jupiter. Juno's science themes include (1) origin, (2) interior structure, (3) atmospheric composition and dynamics, and (4) polar magnetosphere and aurora. A total of nine instruments on-board provide specific measurements designed to investigate Juno's science themes. The primary objective of investigating the origin of Jupiter includes 1) determine Jupiter's internal mass distribution by measuring gravity with Doppler tracking, 2) determine the nature of its internal dynamo by measuring its magnetic fields with a magnetometer, and 3) determine the deep composition (in particular the global water abundance) and dynamics of the sub-cloud atmosphere around Jupiter, by measuring its thermal microwave emission. [less ▲]

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See detailJuno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) Observations of Jupiter during Approach
Gladstone, G. Randall; Versteeg, Maarten; Greathouse, Thomas K. et al

Conference (2016, October)

We present the initial results from Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) observations of Jupiter obtained during approach in June 2016. Juno-UVS is an imaging spectrograph with a bandpass of 70<λ<205 ... [more ▼]

We present the initial results from Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) observations of Jupiter obtained during approach in June 2016. Juno-UVS is an imaging spectrograph with a bandpass of 70<λ<205 nm. This wavelength range includes all important ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the H<SUB>2</SUB> bands and the H Lyman series which are produced in Jupiter's auroras, and also the absorption signatures of aurorally-produced hydrocarbons. The Juno-UVS instrument telescope has a 4 x 4 cm<SUP>2</SUP> input aperture and uses an off-axis parabolic primary mirror. A flat scan mirror situated near the entrance of the telescope is used to observe at up to ±30° perpendicular to the Juno spin plane. The light is focused onto the spectrograph entrance slit, which has a "dog-bone" shape 7.2° long, in three sections of 0.2°, 0.025°, and 0.2° width (as projected onto the sky). Light entering the slit is dispersed by a toroidal grating which focuses UV light onto a curved microchannel plate (MCP) cross delay line (XDL) detector with a solar blind UV-sensitive CsI photocathode. Tantalum surrounds the spectrograph assembly to shield the detector and its electronics from high-energy electrons. All other electronics are located in Juno's spacecraft vault, including redundant low-voltage and high-voltage power supplies, command and data handling electronics, heater/actuator electronics, scan mirror electronics, and event processing electronics. The purpose of Juno-UVS is to remotely sense Jupiter's auroral morphology and brightness to provide context for in situ measurements by Juno's particle instruments. Prior to Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) on July 5, Juno approach observations provide a rare opportunity to correlate local solar wind conditions with Jovian auroral emissions. Some of Jupiter's auroral emissions (e.g., polar emissions) may be controlled or at least affected by the solar wind. Here we compare synoptic Juno-UVS observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions (~40 minutes per hour, acquired during 2016 June 3-30) with in situ solar wind observations, as well as related Jupiter observations obtained from Earth. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter system Ultraviolet Dynamics Explorer (JUDE), an instrument proposed for the ESA-JUICE mission
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bunce, Emma J.; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

Report (2012)

In the proposal that follows we present a detailed concept for the science case, instrument requirements, technical design, calibration and operations, management structure, and financial plan for the ... [more ▼]

In the proposal that follows we present a detailed concept for the science case, instrument requirements, technical design, calibration and operations, management structure, and financial plan for the Jupiter system Ultraviolet Dynamics Experiment (JUDE), which will provide an outstanding solution to the UV instrumentation requirements for the JUICE mission. The JUDE instrument will represent a novel technical capability in UV instrumentation for planetary science, and will deliver the first true UV imaging capability beyond Earth orbit. The JUDE instrument design consists of two separate channels – the imaging channel (ImaC) and the spectrograph channel (SpeC), neither of which has any moving parts. This simple combination of two autonomous channels allows a true image and a spectrum at FUV wavelengths to be obtained simultaneously, allowing science goals to be realised which are not possible with a traditional scanning-slit imaging-spectrograph design The international consortium assembled to build the JUDE instrument is formed of two institutes from two European countries, and one from the United States. Prof. Denis Grodent (Université de Liège, Belgium) will act as the PI for the entire instrument team and the ULg/CSL team will provide a substantial hardware contribution to the instrument in the form of the optics, coatings, and Data Processing Unit (DPU). Dr Emma Bunce (University of Leicester, UK) will act as Co-PI for the instrument and the UoL team will supply the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors and read-out electronics. Prof. John Clarke (Co-I) of Boston University, USA will provide the grating element for the spectral channel of the instrument, in addition to instrument calibration activities. The science Co-Is are gathered from multiple institutes/nations including Belgium, UK, Germany, Italy, and the United States (see Part 1 for the full team list). Collectively, the team have decades of expertise in the areas of outer planet magnetospheres, planetary auroral and atmospheric emissions and surface UV observations from multiple platforms including Cassini UVIS, Juno UVS, Hubble Space Telescope, and numerous terrestrial missions. The team also have roles on non-UV instruments which will maximise the interpretation of the JUDE data. The two instrument channels are built on proven and robust technology with much flight heritage (e.g. Juno, Cassini, BepiColombo, IMAGE, ROSAT, Chandra, Voyager, Freja, DE-1, Swift). More specifically, the optics and focal plane detector proposed for the JUDE instrument are widely based on previous designs by CSL, at the ULg and UoL, for the FUV Spectro-Imager on the NASA IMAGE spacecraft, the UV Spectrograph on the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter, and the ROSAT Wide Field Camera. The data return from the instrument will greatly benefit the European and international science communities in planetary and terrestrial sciences, and the knowledge obtained will be generally applicable to broader astrophysics disciplines (e.g. extrasolar planetary physics). In answering the UV science objectives for the JUICE mission the JUDE instrument will clearly address the ESA Cosmic Vision Themes 1: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and 2: How does the Solar System work? The JUDE images (in particular) provide a clear path towards a high-level related programme of education and public outreach which the JUDE team are well equipped and keen to exploit. The JUDE instrument will contribute to all of the UV-related science objectives of JUICE, plus additional science objectives not listed in the Science Requirements Matrix. - At Ganymede and other moons (Europa and Callisto) JUDE will contribute directly to breakthroughs in the following scientific areas: 1) the characterisation of local environment, specifically through the first investigation of the morphology and variation of Ganymede’s aurora. A clear understanding of the auroral and atmospheric emissions at Ganymede will provide vital information on their formation mechanisms and will contribute to studies of the interaction of the Ganymede magnetosphere with Jupiter’s magnetosphere; 2) the first detailed observations of the satellites’ atmospheric (exosphere/ionosphere) composition and structure through measurements of their atmospheric emission and absorption spectra during multiple stellar occultation opportunities; and 3) the study of the satellites surface composition using surface reflectance measurements. The measurements at UV wavelengths are essential because they allow the study of the relationship between the satellites’ surface weathering, their atmospheres and the external environment which is mainly affected by the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere. By carefully studying processes at the surface and in the satellites’ atmospheres together, JUDE will provide the information required to distinguish between two classes of compositional heterogeneities at the satellites’ surfaces: 1) heterogeneities that arise from interaction with the external environment; 2) heterogeneities that arise from dynamical interaction with the subsurface. - With respect to Jupiter, JUDE will: 1) provide “state of the art” measurements of the Jovian atmospheric dynamics and transport through high temporal and spatial resolution auroral imaging; 2) allow a new understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere as a fast rotator through interpretation of the Jovian aurora as direct evidence for the 3D magnetosphere dynamics – a view which is continuously available in the planet’s upper atmosphere (independent of the spacecraft location within the magnetosphere); 3) investigate the magnetosphere as a giant accelerator through observations of the field-aligned current systems responsible for acceleration of electrons (and production of aurora); 4) discover the plasma sources and sinks of the moons through auroral imaging of the moon footprints in Jupiter’s atmosphere as a witness of the electromagnetic interactions taking place; 5) obtain new information on Jupiter’s atmospheric structure and composition through multiple stellar occultation opportunities. In addition, JUDE will make remote observations of the Io torus emissions and will provide the first in situ observation of the variability of the torus, over the lifetime of the mission, providing important information about the internal activity of the moon. JUDE offers a unique opportunity to obtain the first concurrent datasets of the different coupled elements of the Jupiter system: Io's atmosphere, aurora, the plasma torus, the Jovian plasma sheet and the Jovian aurora. The JUDE imaging and spectral channels are both designed to capture FUV lines from sulphur ions in the Io plasma torus. Finally, JUDE’s remote sensing capability offers an exciting opportunity to discover the Europa “plume” activity that may be present, through limb observations during flybys and from more distant observing locations. The Ganymede-focused and moon related science objectives will be addressed in the Ganymede orbit phase and during the multiple moon flybys, whilst the Jupiter science will be predominantly achieved during the Jupiter Equatorial Phases and during the high-inclination phase. The JUDE UV imager and spectrograph will produce discovery level science at Ganymede and the first true 2D UV images from Jupiter orbit. The exceptional JUICE trajectory affords many opportunities for breakthrough science discoveries in accordance with the SciRD; in addition to those, it provides unprecedented opportunities to directly witness the electromagnetic connection between Ganymede and Jupiter by making the first simultaneous UV observations of the respective atmospheres within the JUDE field-of-view. This is possible as a direct consequence of the JUDE true imaging capability. To successfully meet the science requirements outlined above, the JUDE ImaC has a spatial resolution of 20 arcsec over a circular field-of-view with 6˚ diameter, which allows a 100 km spatial resolution on Jupiter from Ganymede orbital distances (and 20 m resolution on Ganymede from 200 km, for example). JUDE’s ImaC mirrors and detector window will be covered with multilayer coatings which efficiently select a narrow bandpass from 130 to 143 nm, to allow measurements of the faint Oxygen lines at 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm in Ganymede’s (and other moon’s) atmosphere. This bandpass also allows observations of the SIV lines (between 140.5 and 142.4 nm) emitted within the Io plasma torus and in Io’s atmosphere. The bright Jovian emissions will also be suppressed within this bandpass which will necessarily limit the count rate to an acceptable level. The Ly-α line at 122 nm will be largely excluded as will the reflected sunlight longward of 150 nm. The sensitivity of the ImaC is 50 Rayleigh (at 3-sigma). The SpeC has a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm in order to meet the requirements of the SciRD, and has a field-of-view which is a 6˚ x 0.1˚ slit co-aligned with, and centred on, the ImaC circular field-of-view. The lower wavelength of the SpeC bandpass is set to ~110 nm in order to include the bright Ly-α line (useful to study the H corona) in a region of reduced transmission. The upper wavelength limit, ~195 nm, is such that transmission is slowly decreasing in the 180-195 nm spectral region, allowing measurements of the moon’s albedos beyond 165 nm, as well as the detection of compounds such as CO2, SO2, O2, O3, H2CO3 and H2O2 by comparing JUDE reflectance spectra to those obtained in laboratory studies. FUV emission lines from S and O are also observable within the bandpass and B-type stars emitting within this waveband will allow occultation experiments to be performed, to determine the composition and structure of the moon’s atmospheres and the detection of a possible Europa plume. The same is true for the Jovian atmosphere for which attenuation by H2 and hydrocarbons allows determination of the atmospheric structure. The sensitivity of the SpeC is 10 R/nm (at 3-sigma). The JUDE instrument channels: ImaC and the co-aligned SpeC, are both operating within the 110–195 nm range. Each channel has independent optics and detector elements, providing a level of redundancy such that loss of either imager or spectrograph does not constitute an entire loss of science. In contrast to more conventional (e.g. scanning or pushbroom) imaging spectrographs, JUDE can provide high time resolution (<1 second) high throughput images over a wide field of view (6° diameter) with no time variation across the field – a capability which is critical in gaining a better understanding of the complex dynamical processes taking place in the Jovian magnetosphere. The primary optic in each channel is a multilayer-coated mirror operating at normal incidence, with flight heritage in the form of the scan mirror in the Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) now en-route to Jupiter onboard JUNO. The imaging channel uses a secondary mirror to of a similar type to focus the image onto the focal plane detector, while in the spectrograph channel, the secondary is a spherical, holographic grating. The spectrograph design is simple, with heritage in airglow spectrographs flown on terrestrial UV missions, and the Imaging UV Spectrograph for MAVEN. The grating element is produced by Jobin-Yvon, who have produced diffraction gratings for major missions including SOHO and HST. Each channel includes an identical microchannel plate (MCP) detector with the robust, radiation-tolerant performance required for a mission in the formidable environment of Jupiter. Such detectors are well proven, having flown on many missions including ROSAT (UoL heritage). They have also operated in the vicinity of Jupiter, in the focal plane of the UV spectrograph onboard the Voyager probes. The detector readout is a new type of capacitive division image charge readout (C-DIR; invented by Dr Jon Lapington) which offers, simultaneously, high spatial resolution and high count rate performance. Adaptive signal processing capabilities allow JUDE to accommodate the very wide dynamic range expected, from observations of Jupiter’s auroral ovals which emit with intensities of mega Rayleighs, to the weak (few tens of Rayleigh) emissions found at Ganymede. The readout structure is simple and robust, and has already been demonstrated in laboratory trials, while the electronics chain has its heritage in particle physics detectors, and has therefore been designed with radiation tolerance as a primary consideration. Pre-launch and in-flight calibrations will be implemented to assure that the JUDE data are suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The proposed JUDE configuration successfully meets the scientific objectives of the JUICE mission. Our decision to implement an imaging channel instead of covering the MUV waveband increases the whole mission’s scientific output while remaining compliant with the MPDD. Due to its high-temporal resolution read-out system, JUDE is capable of producing volumes of data that are incompatible with the limited telemetry allocated to the UV instrument, even after a modest compression factor is applied. We therefore have proposed a mode of operation (the JUDE reference mode) which takes 1 minute snapshots over an observation opportunity (for example during a flyby sequence). Using this reference mode, and taking the maximum count rate estimates for the various targets, we find that the JUDE data volume is compliant with the tight allocation for the UV instrumentation of 40 GBytes/year The JUDE design presented in this proposal is above the mass allocation. We believe that all components of our design are necessary to reach the scientific goals of JUICE mission and that any major changes (such as the descope of a channel) will be at the considerable expense of the expected science return. However, further optimisation will be performed during the Phase A to bring JUDE into the allocated mass envelope while compromising its scientific return only slightly. We propose an efficient management structure with clearly delineated responsibilities. The Principal Investigator, Prof. Denis Grodent (Be) will take on the responsibilities as specified in the JUICE payload Announcement of Opportunity, supported closely by the Co-PI Dr Emma Bunce (UK) and by the team of Co-Investigators. The contribution of each country is represented by lead Co-Investigators: Prof. John Clarke (Boston University), Dr. Candy Hansen (PSI), and Dr Xianzhe Jia (University of Michigan), and Dr Nigel Bannister (UK) as CoI and Instrument Scientist (see Figure 1 below). The philosophy has been to assign well-defined tasks to each institute with an overall project manager to coordinate the efforts. The Consortium Project Manager (Etienne Renotte, CSL) will execute the managerial tasks relevant to the instrument development. The Product and Quality Assurance management will be implemented by all hardware contributors. Each consortium institute has a local project manager for their respective work packages, reporting to the Consortium Project Manager. The outreach potential of JUDE’s instantaneous wide field images is enormous. The potential PhD students of 2030 who we hope to educate and inspire with JUDE images and spectra are currently 3 years old; their supervisors are in secondary school. The team regards the educational aspects of the instrument and data as particularly important, and we plan a comprehensive JUDE/JUICE programme of outreach to schools and to the public, as part of the project and one which will be initiated upon selection. The national funding agency of Belgium serves as the Lead Funding Agency (LFA) for the JUDE instrument. The letters of endorsement from Belgium and United Kingdom are included in this proposal. Although the agencies endorse their respective national contributions, funding will be secured after the selection of the instrument proposal, according to the usual procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter Thermosphere General Circulation Model (JTGCM) : Formulation and Case Studies Incorporating Ion Drag and Joule Heating
Bougher, S. W.; Waite, J. H.; Majeed, T. et al

Poster (2001, June 25)

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See detailJupiter's and Saturn's auroras as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope
Nichols, J. D.; Grodent, Denis ULg

Conference (2010, May 17)

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See detailJupiter's Aurora
Clarke, John T.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Cowley, Stan S. W. et al

in Bagenal, Fran; Dowling, Timothy; McKinnon, William (Eds.) Jupiter : The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (2004)

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See detailJupiter's Aurora as Imaged by the NASA IRTF and Comparison with Hubble Space Telescope Observations in the UV
Lystrup, M.; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg et al

Conference (2011, March)

We investigate Jupiter's infrared aurora using observations from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility from 1995-2000 as compared with observations in the UV from the Hubble Space Telescope.

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See detailJupiter’s aurora, ultraviolet, visible and infrared views: what can we learn?
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 15)

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See detailJupiter’s auroras during the Juno approach phase as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope
Nichols, Jonathan D; Clarke, John T; Orton, Glennn S et al

Conference (2016, December 13)

We present movies of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter’s FUV auroras observed during the Juno approach phase and first capture orbit, and compare with Juno observations of the ... [more ▼]

We present movies of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter’s FUV auroras observed during the Juno approach phase and first capture orbit, and compare with Juno observations of the interplanetary medium near Jupiter and inside the magnetosphere. Jupiter’s FUV auroras indicate the nature of the dynamic processes occurring in Jupiter’s magnetosphere, and the approach phase provided a unique opportunity to obtain a full set of interplanetary data near to Jupiter at the time of a program of HST observations, along with the first simultaneous with Juno observations inside the magnetosphere. The overall goal was to determine the nature of the solar wind effect on Jupiter’s magnetosphere. HST observations were obtained with typically 1 orbit per day over three intervals: 16 May – 7 June, 22-30 June and 11-18 July, i.e. while Juno was in the solar wind, around the bow shock and magnetosphere crossings, and in the mid-latitude middle-outer magnetospheres. We show that these intervals are characterised by particularly dynamic polar auroras, and significant variations in the auroral power output caused by e.g. dawn storms, intense main emission and poleward forms. We compare the variation of these features with Juno observations of interplanetary compression regions and the magnetospheric environment during the intervals of these observations. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's changing auroral location
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2007, June 25)

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See detailJupiter's changing auroral location
Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113(A1),

[1] We examine the case of significant latitudinal shifts of the Jovian northern auroral emissions appearing in a data set spanning nine years of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope in the far ... [more ▼]

[1] We examine the case of significant latitudinal shifts of the Jovian northern auroral emissions appearing in a data set spanning nine years of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope in the far ultraviolet. The extended data set makes it possible to compare the location of the main auroral emission with similar viewing geometries and satellite positions. The main auroral emission is assumed to originate from beyond the orbit of Ganymede (15 Jovian radii). At these distances, near corotation enforcement and transfer of momentum from Jupiter to the magnetospheric plasma is ensured by means of field aligned currents. The field aligned currents away from Jupiter are carried by downward energetic electrons loosing their energy to the polar atmosphere and giving rise to the main auroral emission. Analysis of the polar projected images shows that the latitudinal location of the main emission has changed by up to 3 degrees over long periods of time. It also shows that the footprint of Ganymede follows a similar trend. We have used the VIP4 magnetic field model to map the emission down to the equatorial plane. This mapping suggests that internal variations of the current sheet parameters might be used as an alternative or complementary explanation to the changing solar wind conditions at Jupiter to explain the observed shift of auroral latitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's conjugate ultraviolet aurora
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailJupiter’s diffuse auroral emissions - Comparison of HST and Galileo data
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Tomás, A. T. M.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Conference (2008, April 18)

Based on an extensive HST FUV image database obtained between 1997 and 2007, we have studied the morphology and brightness of the equatorward diffuse auroral emissions in both Jovian hemispheres. The ... [more ▼]

Based on an extensive HST FUV image database obtained between 1997 and 2007, we have studied the morphology and brightness of the equatorward diffuse auroral emissions in both Jovian hemispheres. The emissions are wider and brighter on the dusk side than on the dawn and they often form multiple discrete arcs parallel to the main oval. What could be the origin of these equatorward diffuse emissions and their local time variations is still unclear. Galileo observations have shown changes in the electron pitch angle distributions between the inner and middle magnetosphere of Jupiter (10 to 17 RJ ) which could be associated with auroral emissions, without the need of field aligned currents. We derive the electron precipitation flux for the first time in a global scale, based on Galileo electron measurements between 10 and 17 RJ . We magnetically map this region in the ionosphere and compare the derived energy flux with the brightness of the diffuse emissions. We discuss the possibility that the energetic particle distribution in the middle magnetosphere could account for the multiple structured equatorward diffuse emissions and their local time variations. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter’s diffuse auroral emissions - Comparison of HST and Galileo data,
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Tomàs, A. T. M.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Conference (2008, April)

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