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See detailNutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding
Ayssiwede, Simplice Bosco; Zanmenou, J. C.; Issa, Y. et al

in Pakistan Journal of Nutrition (2011), 10(8), 707-717

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of ... [more ▼]

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata), cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds) and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis) were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM) percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea) to 94.9% (C. vulgaris). The Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea) to 61.9% (cockroaches meal), with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%). Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9%) Ether Extract (EE) values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%), Moringa (9.8%), Leuceana (6.4%) and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%), while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF) content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera) to 16.8% (C. tora) while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea) to 19% (Citrullus seeds). A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%), followed by Cassia (15.2%), Moringa (13.6%), Leuceana (11.4%) and Sesbania leaves (7.1%), while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME) value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches) to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris) and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata) to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera). Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%), followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%), Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%), whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient depletions in the Ross Sea and their relation with pigment stocks
Goeyens, Leo; Elskens, Marc; Catalano, Giulio et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2000), 27

The present article depicts a first attempt to relate the governing nutrient uptake regime and phytopigment signature of the Ross Sea. Based on nutrient and phytopigment data obtained during two cruises ... [more ▼]

The present article depicts a first attempt to relate the governing nutrient uptake regime and phytopigment signature of the Ross Sea. Based on nutrient and phytopigment data obtained during two cruises in the Ross Sea, two distinct groups were recognised. The first one was characterised by moderate nutrient nitrate and silicic acid depletions in combination with relatively high diatom and Phaeocystis abundance. The second group showed very low nutrient depletions and very poor diatom abundance. Average depth specific nitrate depletions were 8.1 and 1.1 μM and average silicic acid depletions were 21.5 and 1.3 μM, respectively. The nutrient consumption patterns did not match the conditions of silicic acid excess (SEA) or nitrate excess areas (NEA), a clear trend being probably obscured by very poor seasonal maturity of several sampling stations. The contrast between both groups is largely explained by small differences in nitrogen uptake regime of the major phytoplankters. During early season, the diatoms meet the majority of their nitrogen requirements by nitrate uptake, with few exceptions where ammonium is the most important nitrogenous substrate. On average, their nitrate uptake capacity is lower than that of Phaeocystis (average specific nitrate uptake rates were 0.021 and 0.036 day y-1 for diatoms and Phaeocystis, respectively). The latter phytoplankton always shows predominance of nitrate uptake. Both groups are subject to inhibition of nitrate uptake when ammonium availability increases, and it is likely that the diatoms are more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of ammonium. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient digestibility of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) bean in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, L): Effects of heat treatment and levels of incorporation in diets.
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Youssao, A. K. I. et al

in British Poultry Science (2009), 50(5), 564-72

1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on ... [more ▼]

1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on guinea fowl to assess the effects of two types of heat processing (cooking and toasting) on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of Mucuna seeds offered alone or incorporated at three concentrations (40, 120 or 200 g/kg) in complete diets. 3. Diets containing 200 g/kg seeds had more crude fibre and less ether extract. L-Dopa content increased with the amount of Mucuna inclusion. Cooking reduced markedly L-Dopa content while toasting had no effect. When fed alone, Mucuna seeds dramatically decreased feed intake. 4. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were not influenced by the complete diets. Cooking significantly increased crude fibre digestibility. 5. It is suggested that cracked and cooked Mucuna bean can be incorporated at a safe level of 120 g/kg in complete diets for guinea fowl production. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient fluxes and soil microbial processes
Bazgir, Masoud ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Because of previous intense forest use and over exploitation in the past centuries, the plantation of coniferous stands, especially Norway spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) with high production potentials ... [more ▼]

Because of previous intense forest use and over exploitation in the past centuries, the plantation of coniferous stands, especially Norway spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) with high production potentials has been a common European afforestation strategy. However, the characteristics of Norway spruce such as susceptibility to windfall, forest dieback, drought, as well as soil acidification have caused negative ecological impacts in many sites. Conversion of conifers into deciduous or mixed stands has been suggested by some foresters, in order to improve the stability, ecology and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. Such changes in forest management require specific information on the impact of tree species on nutrient cycling, soil properties and microbial activities. In this study, six broadleaved species were growing at the same site with similar condition in terms of soil type, land use history and climate. Thus, the potential effects on biogeochemical cycling could be attributed to tree species. In this thesis, I focused on the effect of broadleaved species (conversion scenario) contrasting in terms of ecological characteristics (pioneer species versus main forestry species) and physiological characteristics (N2-fixing tree species (alder) versus non N2-fixing species) and Norway spruce (no conversion scenario) on (a) soil chemical properties (b) soil microbial activities and microbial biomass (c) nutrient input fluxes from throughfall and litterfall (d) foliar nutrient status. This investigation was carried out in south-eastern Belgium at a site converted in 1998 to a mixed deciduous stand, after two spruce generations. Plantations of common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) GAERTN.), european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), silver birch (Betula pendula ROTH.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were located in 4 fenced plots within a 81 ha catchment. Soil chemical properties (soil organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, exchangeable cations), soil microbial activities (net N mineralization, potential nitrification, basal respiration) and microbial biomass (microbial biomass C and N) were measured under broadleaves and spruce. Soil chemistry of this highly acid soil was improved, 11 years after conversion, through an increase in base saturation and the exchangeable Mg2+ pool under rowan, as well as an increase in the exchangeable Ca2+ pool under alder, oak and rowan. Exchangeable acidity due to H+ in the forest floor also decreased under broadleaves. Nitrification was increased under the N2 fixing alder and decreased under young spruce. The C:N ratio of cold water-extractable soil organic matter fractions revealed to be a good indicator of potential nitrification rates within this site and across species, with a threshold of a C:N ratio of 10 above which soils did not nitrify. Throughfall and litterfall under the tree species were investigated by installing 63 throughfall collectors and 63 litter traps within 3 fenced plots (broadleaves) and across the catchment (young spruce). We measured the quantity of litterfall (foliar, twigs, reproductive parts and total), the quality of foliar litterfall (macro and micro-elements and C/N ratio) and calculated the potential nutrient return to the forest floor though foliar litterfall. For throughfall, we analyzed macro and micro-element concentrations and throughfall fluxes. Foliar nutrient status was determined by chemical analyses of fresh leaves and spruce needles of 3 age classes. The throughfall deposition of Ca2+, Mg2 and K+ was significantly higher under rowan and birch. NO3--N throughfall fluxes were significantly higher under young spruce compared to broadleaves. We observed the lowest total litterfall quantity produced by oak, while the highest litterfall quantity observed under rowan. Foliar litterfall of rowan showed significantly higher potential nutrient fluxes of Ca, Mg and K compared to other species, which corresponds to fresh foliage concentrations. The foliar litterfall was a main source of Ca, while for K throughfall was the main source of nutrient return to the forest floor in the study area. In spruce needles, Ca and Mg concentrations were at deficiency level and K concentrations at critical level, according to threshold values. Our results demonstrated that the plantation of pioneer species, especially rowan, may enhance the base cations in the forest floor on nutrient poor, acid soils through higher input in litterfall and throughfall. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient fluxes and soil microbial processes under tree species after conversion from Norway spruce
Carnol, Monique ULg; Bazgir, Masoud

Conference (2012, July)

The biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems is highly dependent on the interactions between plants and soil. Tree species affect element cycling through deposition in throughfall, litter composition ... [more ▼]

The biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems is highly dependent on the interactions between plants and soil. Tree species affect element cycling through deposition in throughfall, litter composition, microbial activities in soil and rhizosphere processes. Species diversification has been suggested for maintaining forest ecosystem services and uniting provisioning and supporting services within multifunctional and sustainable forestry. However, most information on species impacts has been derived from studies performed at different sites, where the influence of cofactors cannot be accounted for. Here we synthesize results from a study performed 11 years after conversion of a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies (L.) KARST.) to a mixed stand composed of Norway spruce, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) GAERTN.), european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), silver birch (Betula pendula ROTH.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). As stand closure was not achieved yet, the impact of individual species could be evaluated. We measured fresh leaf element composition, element return to the soil via throughfall and litterfall (leaves, twigs, reproductive parts), forest floor chemical characteristics, microbial biomass and microbial activities (N mineralization, potential nitrification, respiration) in the forest floor under the different tree species. Our results suggested that (1) foliar element concentrations differed between species and were highest for rowan, (2) high base cation litterfall and throughfall fluxes under rowan lead to better soil quality, (3) input of acidifying cations was reduced under broadleaves, (4) potential nitrification increased under the N2 fixing alder. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient fluxes in three pure forest stands (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies) on acid soils in the Haute Ardenne
Degrave, Frédéric; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Biodiversity: state, stakes and future; 7,8 & 9 April 2004, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Symposium, Programme, Abstracts, Participants (2004)

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See detailNutrient limitation of algae and bacteria in Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Darchambeau, François ULg; Leporcq, Bruno; Homblette, Nathalie et al

Poster (2009, January 25)

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See detailNutrient return to the forest floor through litter and throughfall under 7 forest species after conversion from Norway spruce
Carnol, Monique ULg; Bazgir, Masoud

in Forest Ecology & Management (2013), 309(0), 66-75

Tree species can influence nutrient return to the forest floor and nutrient cycling through the amount and chemical composition of throughfall and litter. We compared foliar nutrient concentrations ... [more ▼]

Tree species can influence nutrient return to the forest floor and nutrient cycling through the amount and chemical composition of throughfall and litter. We compared foliar nutrient concentrations, litter production, nutrient return and soil chemistry under 7 tree species planted on the same site after two generations of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) monoculture. Common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were planted within an experimental catchment on poor acid soil in south-eastern Belgium. Measurements were performed during one year, 11 years after planting. This study demonstrated that Ca, Mg, K and N concentrations in foliage and leaf litter are tree-species specific. Fresh foliage and foliar litter N concentrations were highest in alder and willow, while Ca, Mg and K concentrations were highest in rowan. Litter Ca concentrations were approximately twice in rowan than those of all other species. Differences in nutrient concentrations between foliage and leaf litter depended both on the element concerned and on tree species. The total average litterfall biomass ranged from 615 kg ha−1 year−1 under oak to 3122 kg ha−1 year−1 under rowan. Foliar litterfall represented above 85% for beech, spruce and oak, 70% for alder and willow and ca. 55% for birch and rowan. Reproductive parts formed 44% of total litterfall biomass under rowan. Ca, Mg, K and N return via throughfall, foliar litter and reproductive parts were higher under accompanying tree species (alder, birch, willow, rowan) than under the main commercial tree species (oak, beech, spruce). Total N return was in the order of 50 kg ha−1 year−1 under accompanying species, 33 kg ha−1 year−1 under spruce and near 20 kg ha−1 year−1 under beech and oak. Under rowan, total Ca, Mg, and K return to the forest floor through throughfall deposition, litterfall of leaves and reproductive parts amounted to 47, 9 and 66 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. Compared to spruce, forest floor pHH20 has increased by 0.4 unit under birch and rowan, and exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ have increased about threefold under rowan. Planting rowan as accompanying species may therefore represent an interesting management option for improving forest floor chemistry on nutrient poor sites through Ca, Mg, and K nutrient return. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient utilisation and particulate organic matter changes during summer in the upper mixed layer (Ross Sea, Antarctica).
Catalano, Giulio; Povero, Paolo; Fabiano, Mauro et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers (1997), 44(1), 97-112

The relationships among vertical stability, estimated nutrient utilisation and particulate organic matter in the Ross Sea are analysed from data collected during two cruises in the summers of 1987 - 88 ... [more ▼]

The relationships among vertical stability, estimated nutrient utilisation and particulate organic matter in the Ross Sea are analysed from data collected during two cruises in the summers of 1987 - 88 and 1989 - 90. In the upper mixed layer (UML), identified through the vertical stability E(Z(UML)), nutrient consumption is calculated as the difference between the « diluted » nutrient value and the mean calculated from the integrated value in the UML. The nutrient utilisation ratio and E(Z(UML)) are linearly related for E(Z(UML)) < 25, whereas for values > 25, the distribution pattern is more scattered and independent of E(Z(UML)). For E(Z(UML)) > 25, utilisation values were > 4, 0.4 and 10 mmol m-3 for nitrate, phosphate and silicate, respectively. Significant relationships between nutrient depletion and both particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate protein / particulate carbohydrate ratios (PPRT/PCHO) are found. The analysis of particulate matter distribution vs nutrient utilisation shows that the stations could be divided into two groups having different characteristics. The first group includes coastal stations, where high nutrient utilisation, POC and PPRT / PCHO are typical of areas with high production. In the second group (pelagic stations), nutrient utilisation, POC and PPRT / PCHO are lower. The vertical stability can be used to discriminate among the factors that influence primary production. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrients Cycling and the Trophic Status of Coastal Ecosystems – (EUROTROPH)
Frankignoulle, M.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Gazeau, F. et al

Poster (2004, May)

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See detailNutrition and bone health : turning beliefs into knowledge for healthy behaviour
Brandi, ML; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoporosis International (2013), 24(1), 388-389

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See detailNutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Results from a population study. "TheBelgian Luxembourg Child Study".
Guillaume, Michèle ULg; Lapidus, L.; Beckers, F. et al

in Prog. XV International Congress of Nutrition (1993)

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See detailLa Nutrition dans les IAA
Delacharlerie, Sophie ULg

Scientific conference (2010, October)

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See detailNutrition du prématuré après la sortie: lait, vitamines, fer, diversification
Rigo, Jacques ULg; Habibi, Fakher; Senterre, Thibault ULg et al

in Archives Françaises de Pédiatrie (2010), 17

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See detailNutrition during the first year of life : Impact of protein intakes
Senterre, Thibault ULg

Conference (2008, March 08)

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See detailNutrition et adolescence : du pain...sec sur la planche.
Paulus, D.; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; Rorive, Georges ULg et al

Conference (1997, April)

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See detailNutrition index and soil nitrate residues in grazed pastures fertilised with mineral fertiliser, pig slurry or cattle compost
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Meura, S.; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science (2007)

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