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See detailThe iturin and fengycin families of lipopeptides are key factors in antagonism of Bacillus subtilis toward Podosphaera fusca
Romero, D.; de Vicente, A.; Rakotoaly, R. H. et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2007), 20(4), 430-440

Podosphaera fusca is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew in Spain. Four Bacillus subtilis strains, UMAF6614, UMAF6619, UMAF6639, and UMAF8561, with proven ability to suppress the disease on ... [more ▼]

Podosphaera fusca is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew in Spain. Four Bacillus subtilis strains, UMAF6614, UMAF6619, UMAF6639, and UMAF8561, with proven ability to suppress the disease on melon in detached leaf and seedling assays, were subjected to further analyses to elucidate the mode of action involved in their biocontrol performance. Cell-free supernatants showed antifungal activities very close to those previously reported for vegetative cells. Identification of three lipopeptide antibiotics, surfactin, fengycin, and iturin A or bacillomycin, in butanolic extracts from cell-free culture filtrates of these B. subtilis strains pointed out that antibiosis could be a major factor involved in their biocontrol ability. The strong inhibitory effect of purified lipopeptide fractions corresponding to bacillomycin, fengycin, and iturin A on P fusca conidia germination, as well as the in situ detection of these lipopeptides in bacterial-treated melon leaves, provided interesting evidence of their putative involvement in the antagonistic activity. Those results were definitively supported by site-directed mutagenesis analysis, targeted to suppress the biosynthesis of the different lipopeptides. Taken together, our data have allowed us to conclude that the iturin and fengycin families of lipopeptides have a major role in the antagonism of B. subtilis toward P fusca. [less ▲]

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See detailIUE and other new observations of the slow nova RR Tel
Penston, M. V.; Benvenuti, P.; Cassatella, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1983), 202

IUE satellite UV spectra of RR Tel covering 1150-3200 A at high and low dispersion through both large and small apertures are reported, and a list of 431 lines is presented which gives measured wavelength ... [more ▼]

IUE satellite UV spectra of RR Tel covering 1150-3200 A at high and low dispersion through both large and small apertures are reported, and a list of 431 lines is presented which gives measured wavelength, intensity, and full width at half maximum. Over three-quarters of the lines are identified, and a correlation is noted between line width and ionization energy. The lines identified, which include common species ionized from one to four times, are generally resonance, forbidden or semiforbidden lines but also include the recombination lines for C, O and Ne. Many Fe II lines are present. Forbidden line wavelengths are used to define intersystem separations of energy levels in some species. The continuum energy distribution yielded by low dispersion data is not due to a simple recombination of gaseous emission processes and a hot star or accretion disk, but the very high ratio of the energy in the lines to that in the continuum of 2.4 indicates that a high temperature source must be present. [less ▲]

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See detailIUE and other new observations of the slow nova RR Tel.
Penston, M. V.; Benvenuti, P.; Cassatella, A. et al

in NASA Conference Publication (1981)

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See detailIUFRO guidelines for designing multipurpose resource inventories: a project of IUFRO Research group 4.02.02 Vienna
Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in LUND, H. Gyde (Ed.) IUFRO Guidelines for designing multipurpose resource inventories: a project of IUFRO Research group 4.02.02 Vienna: IUFRO World Series (1998)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg)
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See detailIUG-/ZOUG- dans une inscription latine écrite en lettres grecques (CIJ I 215)
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (1997), 115

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See detailThe IUGS Devonian-Carboniferous Working Group: a report on activities, 1978-1984
Paproth, e; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg (1984), 67

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See detailIUPAC World Polymer Congress – 40th International Symposium on Macromolecules
Cuenot, S.; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Daussin, R. et al

Conference (2004, July 04)

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See detailIUVS dayglow analysis
Jain; Evans; Stevens et al

Conference (2015, March)

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See detailIUVS observations of Nitric Oxide nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; The IUVS team

Conference (2015, September)

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See detailIUVS periapse MUV observations overview
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Scientific conference (2015, October)

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See detailIUVS periapse observations of Mars’ Nitric Oxide
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; IUVS team

Scientific conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailIVA e autorità pubbliche : l’esperienza belga nel quadro del diritto europeo
Bourgeois, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, May 05)

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See detailIVA. I soggetti passivi dell’imposta : La nozione di attività economica, i diversi tipi di attività economica e professionale
Bourgeois, Marc ULg; Greggi, Marco

in Di Pietro, A. (Ed.) Lo stato della fiscalità nell’Unione europea. L’esperienza e l’efficacia dell’armonizzazione (2003)

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See detailIvoire des trois résurrections
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg

in Jaffré, Géraldine; Marchant, Caroline (Eds.) Trésors classés en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (2015)

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See detailLes ivoires liégeois
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg

in Van den Bossche, Benoît (Ed.) L’Art mosan: Liège et son pays à l’époque romane (du XIe au XIIIe siècle) (2007)

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See detailIvory Tower. Che cos'è l'università?
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Doppiozero (2014)

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See detailIX L'anaphrodisie
Mormont, Christian ULg

in X.. (Ed.) Traité de médecine générale. 11, Sexologie (1987)

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See detailIxodes ricinus Tick Lipocalins: Identification, Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and Biochemical Characterization
Beaufays, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Benoit; Decrem, Yves et al

in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(12), 3941

Background: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of ... [more ▼]

Background: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. Methodology/Principal Findings: Screening a cDNA library in association with RT-PCR and RACE methodologies allowed us to identify 14 new lipocalin genes in the salivary glands of the Ixodes ricinus hard tick. A computational in-depth structural analysis confirmed that LIRs belong to the lipocalin family. These proteins were called LIR for ``Lipocalin from I. ricinus'' and numbered from 1 to 14 (LIR1 to LIR14). According to their percentage identity/similarity, LIR proteins may be assigned to 6 distinct phylogenetic groups. The mature proteins have calculated pM and pI varying from 21.8 kDa to 37.2 kDa and from 4.45 to 9.57 respectively. In a western blot analysis, all recombinant LIRs appeared as a series of thin bands at 50-70 kDa, suggesting extensive glycosylation, which was experimentally confirmed by treatment with N-glycosidase F. In addition, the in vivo expression analysis of LIRs in I. ricinus, examined by RT-PCR, showed homogeneous expression profiles for certain phylogenetic groups and relatively heterogeneous profiles for other groups. Finally, we demonstrated that LIR6 codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4. Conclusions/Significance: This work confirms that, regarding their biochemical properties, expression profile, and sequence signature, lipocalins in Ixodes hard tick genus, and more specifically in the Ixodes ricinus species, are segregated into distinct phylogenetic groups suggesting potential distinct function. This was particularly demonstrated by the ability of LIR6 to scavenge leukotriene B4. The other LIRs did not bind any of the ligands tested, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, ADP, norepinephrine, platelet activating factor, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and finally leukotrienes B4 and C4. [less ▲]

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See detailIxodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.
Daix, Virginie ULg; Schroeder, Hélène ULg; Praet, N. et al

in Insect Molecular Biology (2007), 16(2), 155-66

The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures ... [more ▼]

The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection. [less ▲]

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