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See detailLong-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with strontium ranelate: Results at 8 years.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Sawicki, A. et al

in BONE (2009), 45

OBJECTIVES: Strontium ranelate 2 g/day has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis, though many women require longer-term treatment. This ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Strontium ranelate 2 g/day has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis, though many women require longer-term treatment. This article describes the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this agent over 8 years. METHODS: Postmenopausal osteoporotic women having participated in the 5-year efficacy trials SOTI and TROPOS were invited to enter a 3-year open-label extension study. The results presented here focus on patients who received strontium ranelate for 8 years. RESULTS: At the extension baseline, the population treated for 8 years (n=879; 79.1+/-5.6 years) had femoral neck T-score of -2.61+/-0.71. The cumulative incidences of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures (13.7% and 12.0%, respectively) over years 6 to 8 were non-statistically different from the cumulative incidences in the first 3 years of the original studies (11.5% and 9.6%). Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) increased throughout the 8-year period. Annual relative change in BMD was significant at every visit, except the 8-year visit for femoral neck and total hip BMD. Strontium ranelate was safe and well tolerated over 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate 2 g/day in postmenopausal osteoporotic women leads to continued increases in BMD at all sites. The data also provide some evidence for a sustained antifracture efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women with strontium ranelate : results at 10 years
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kaufman, J. M.; Devogelaer, J. D. et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2011), 70(S3), 167

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See detailLong-term treatment with valproic acid does not alleviate the condition of HAM/TSP
Olindo, S.; Belrose, G.; Lezin, A. et al

in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2009, July 01), 25(11), 21

Long-Term Treatment with Valproic Acid Does Not Alleviate the Condition of HAM/TSP Olindo, S.,1 Belrose, G.,2 Lezin, A.,2 Gillet, N.,3 Defoiche, J.,4 Rodriguez, S.,4 Signaté, A.,1 Verlaeten, O.,4 Smadja ... [more ▼]

Long-Term Treatment with Valproic Acid Does Not Alleviate the Condition of HAM/TSP Olindo, S.,1 Belrose, G.,2 Lezin, A.,2 Gillet, N.,3 Defoiche, J.,4 Rodriguez, S.,4 Signaté, A.,1 Verlaeten, O.,4 Smadja, D.,1 Césaire, R.,2 Willems, L.4 1Service de Neurologie and JE 2503, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fort-de-France, 97200 Fort-de-France, Martinique, France; 2Laboratoire de Virologie-Immunologie and JE 2503, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fort-de-France, 97200 Fort-de-France, Martinique, France; 3Department of Immunology, Imperial College, London, UK; 4Molecular and Cellular Biology, University Academia ‘‘Wallonie-Europe’’, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium. LW is Research Director of the FNRS. We previously proposed to interfere with proviral loads in HAM/TSP patients by modulating lysine deacetylase activity using valproic acid (VPA). The strategy aims at activating viral gene expression in order to expose virus-positive cells to the host immune response. We conducted a single-center, two-year open-label trial, with 19 HAM/TSP volunteers treated with oral doses of VPA (20mg/Kg/day). Objectives were to assess biological response and clinical safety to VPA treatment in HAM/TSP patients. By microarray analysis, we show that VPA treatment moderately stimulated expression of cyclinD2 and Rho GTPase activating protein 18 in CD4-T cells. CD8-mediated lysis efficiency of Tax-expressing cells was unaltered by VPA treatment. The CD4-T cell turnover rate was calculated by GC/MS analysis from quantitative incorporation of deuterium into DNA. Transient increase in proviral loads correlated with accelerated proliferation. After 2 years, the proviral loads reached levels similar to those before treatment. The main clinical side effects were drowsiness (52%), tremor (47%), digestive symptoms (37%), vertigo (26%), and alopecia (10%). The frequency of side symptoms tended to decrease over the trial course. The neurological status over the study constituted the primary clinical safety measures. Disability Status Scale, muscle testing score, Ashworth score, and urinary dysfunction score showed no significant changes. Walking Time Test (WTT) slightly varied over the study except in 3 patients in whom the WTT variation rates were>20%. These 3 patients experienced drowsiness and tremor and improved rapidly after treatment discontinuation. Together, these observations indicated that long term treatment with VPA is safe but does not alleviate the condition of HAM/TSP. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trend of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) from ground-based high resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2010), 12(EGU2010-1819-3),

The long-term trend of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been retrieved from infrared high resolution solar absorption spectra encompassing the 1999 to 2010 time period. The measurements were recorded with ... [more ▼]

The long-term trend of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been retrieved from infrared high resolution solar absorption spectra encompassing the 1999 to 2010 time period. The measurements were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer at the northern mid-latitude, high altitude Jungfraujoch station in Switzerland (46.5°N latitude, 8.0°E longitude, 3580 m altitude). Total columns were derived from the region of the strong CCl4 _3 band at 794 cm􀀀1 accounting for all interfering molecules (e.g. H2O, O3) with significant improvement in the residuals obtained by also taking into account the line mixing in a nearby CO2 Q branch, a procedure not implemented in previous remote sensing CCl4 retrievals though its importance has been noted in several papers. The time series shows a statistically-significant long-term decrease in the CCl4 total atmospheric burden of -1.18_0.10 %/yr, at the 95% confidence level, using 2005 as reference. Furthermore, fit to the total column data set also reveals a seasonal cycle with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 10.2%, with minimum and maximum values found in mid-February and early August, respectively. This seasonal modulation can however be attributed to tropopause height changes throughout the season. The results quantify the continued impact of the regulations implemented by the Montreal Protocol and its strengthening amendments and adjustments for a molecule with high global warming potential. Although a statistically significant decrease in the total column is inferred, the CCl4 molecule remains an important contributor to the stratospheric chlorine budget and burden. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trend of CH4 at northern mid-latitudes: Comparison between ground-based infrared solar and surface sampling measurements
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Elkins, James W. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2006), 97(3), 457-466

We report average tropospheric CH4 volume mixing ratios retrieved from a 27 year time series of high spectral resolution infrared solar absorption measurements recorded between May 1977 and July 2004 at ... [more ▼]

We report average tropospheric CH4 volume mixing ratios retrieved from a 27 year time series of high spectral resolution infrared solar absorption measurements recorded between May 1977 and July 2004 at the US National Solar Observatory station on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W, 2.09 km altitude) and their comparison with surface in situ sampling measurements recorded between 1983 and 2004 at the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) station at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40.0 degrees N, 105.5 degrees W, 3013 m altitude). The two measurement sets therefore overlap for the 1983-2004 time period. An average tropospheric volume mixing ratios of 1814 +/- 48 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(-9) per unit volume) has been derived from the solar absorption time series with a best-fit increase rate trend equal to 8.26 +/- 2.20 ppbv yr(-1) in 1983 decreasing to 1.94 +/- 3.69 ppbv yr(-1) in 2003. The CMDL measurements also show a continuous long-term CH4 volume mixing ratio rise, with subsequent slowing down. A mean ratio of the retrieved average tropospheric volume mixing ratio to the CMDL volume mixing ratio for the overlapping time period of 1.038 +/- 0.034 indicates agreement between both data sets within the quantified experimental errors. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of a dozen direct greenhouse gases derived from infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Duchatelet, Pierre; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

Poster (2011, November 10)

References Bader, W. et al., Extension of the long-term total column time series of atmospheric methane above the Jungfraujoch station: analysis of grating infrared spectra between 1976 and 1989 ... [more ▼]

References Bader, W. et al., Extension of the long-term total column time series of atmospheric methane above the Jungfraujoch station: analysis of grating infrared spectra between 1976 and 1989, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, EGU2011-3391-1, 2011. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/88180] Duchatelet, P. et al., First retrievals of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) from ground-based FTIR measurements: production and analysis of the two-decadal time series above the Jungfraujoch, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, EGU2011-6413, 2011. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/90745] Gardiner, T. et al., Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6719-6727, 2008. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/2545] Rodgers, C.D., Characterisation and error analysis of profiles derived from remote sensing measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 5587-5595, 1990. Zander, R. et al., Our changing atmosphere: Evidence based on long-term infrared solar observations at the Jungfraujoch since 1950, Sci. Total Environ., 391, 184-195, 2008. [http://hdl.handle.net/2268/2421] [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of inorganic chlorine from ground-based infrared solar spectra: Past increases and evidence for stabilization
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2003), 108(D8), 4252

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with ... [more ▼]

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with infrared Fourier transform spectrometers at nine NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) sites in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The data sets span up to 24 years and most extend until the end of 2001. The time series of Cly (defined here as the sum of the HCl and ClONO2 columns) from the three locations with the longest time-span records show rapid increases until the early 1990s superimposed on marked day-to-day, seasonal and inter-annual variability. Subsequently, the buildup in Cly slows and reaches a broad plateau after 1996, also characterized by variability. A similar time evolution is also found in the total chlorine concentration at 55 km altitude derived from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) global observations since 1991. The stabilization of inorganic chlorine observed in both the total columns and at 55 km altitude indicates that the near-global 1993 organic chlorine (CCly) peak at the Earth’s surface has now propagated over a broad altitude range in the upper atmosphere, though the time lag is difficult to quantify precisely from the current data sets, due to variability. We compare the three longest measured time series with two-dimensional model calculations extending from 1977 to 2010, based on a halocarbon scenario that assumes past measured trends and a realistic extrapolation into the future. The model predicts broad Cly maxima consistent with the long-term observations, followed by a slow Cly decline reaching 12–14% relative to the peak by 2010. The data reported here confirm the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments in progressively phasing out the major man-related perturbations of the stratospheric ozone layer, in particular, the anthropogenic chlorine-bearing source gases. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of NO above northern mid-latitudes as inferred from Jungfraujoch, HALOE and ACE-FTS solar observations
Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Servais, Christian ULg et al

Poster (2012, August 27)

Routine FTIR solar observations are performed by the University of Liège at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 3580 m altitude, NDACC station) since 1985. The analysis of the recorded spectra allows to ... [more ▼]

Routine FTIR solar observations are performed by the University of Liège at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 3580 m altitude, NDACC station) since 1985. The analysis of the recorded spectra allows to derive total and partial columns of more than 20 different atmospheric gases. Among them, gases belonging to the total reactive nitrogen NOy (NO, NO2, HNO3 and ClONO2), to the total inorganic chlorine Cly (HCl and ClONO2) and to the total inorganic fluorine Fy (HF and COF2) families. In this communication, budgets of these gas families are investigated, and their short term, seasonal and inter-annual variations as well as their long-term trends are determined for the time period ranging from the mid-1980s up to the end of 2011. We also investigate the evolution of the same gases, when available, derived from ground-based UV-vis (1990-present) and from HALOE (1991-2004) and ACE-FTS (2004-present) satellite observations. We evaluate the consistency between the trends characterizing these various species, as deduced from the ground- and space-based time series. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide from analysis of high resolution infrared solar spectra
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2007), 104(1), 40-51

Long-term trend and seasonal variation of the mean free tropospheric volume mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been derived from analysis of a time series of solar ... [more ▼]

Long-term trend and seasonal variation of the mean free tropospheric volume mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been derived from analysis of a time series of solar absorption spectra recorded from the US National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W, 2.09 km altitude) spanning almost three decades. The results of a fit to the CO 258 daily averages from May 1977 to April 2005 as a function of time with a model that assumes a sinusoidal seasonal cycle and a linear long-term trend with time yield a mean volume mixing ratio of 102 +/- 3) parts per billion (10(-9) per unit volume) below 10km altitude, I sigma. The CO measurements show a seasonal cycle with a maximum in March and a minimum in September with an amplitude of (22.3 +/- 1.5)% relative to the mean. The best-fit corresponds to a long-term CO trend of (0.15 +/- 0.14)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, relative to the mean. To quantify the possible impact of periods of intense fires, the CO measurements have been compared with the measurements of HCN, a well-documented emission product of biomass burning with a lifetime of similar to 5 months. The best fit to the full HCN time series of 208 daily averages from May 1978 to April 2005 results in a mean volume mixing ratio of (0.219 +/- 0.007) ppbv below 10 km altitude with a similar seasonal cycle, though with a lower relative amplitude than for CO. Although same-day enhancements up to a factor of 1.87 for HCN and 1.24 for CO were measured relative to values predicted by a fit to the time series that accounts for the seasonal cycles and trends of both molecules, excluding time periods of elevated fire emissions has no significant impact on the best-fit long-term free tropospheric CO and HCN trends. Our result of no long-term CO trend since the late 1970s suggests that the global average long-term decline reported from 1990 through 1995 measurements has not continued in the free troposphere. Similarly, a fit to the full time series of 208 HCN free tropospheric daily averages with the same model yields an average 2.09-10km mixing ratio of 0.219ppbv and a long-term trend of (-0.12 +/- 0.14) % yr(-1), 1 sigma, relative to the mean since 1978, also indicating no significant long-term trend above the lower mid-latitude continental US Kitt Peak station. The results for both molecules suggest the site was not significantly impacted by summer boreal fires during the time span of the measurements that in some years cause widespread pollution above northern higher latitude sites. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term variation of the standing crop and other biometric aspects of Posidonia oceanica in Calvi Bay
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Belkhiria, Samy; Soullard, Mady et al

Conference (1993, January)

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See detailLong-term XMM-Newton investigation of two particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in NGC6604: HD168112 and HD167971
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451(1), 5589-5599

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking ... [more ▼]

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking into account recent information about their multiplicity and orbital parameters. The two targets, HD168112 and HD167971 appear to be overluminous in X-rays, lending additional support to the idea that a significant contribution of the X-ray emission comes from colliding-wind regions. The variability of the X-ray flux from HD168112 is interpreted in terms of varying separation expected to follow the 1/D rule for adiabatic shocked winds. For HD167971, marginal decrease of the X-ray flux in September 2002 could tentatively be explained by a partial wind eclipse in the close pair. No long-term variability could be demonstrated despite the significant difference of separation between 2002 and 2014. This suggests the colliding-wind region in the wide orbit does not contribute a lot to the total X-ray emission, with a main contribution coming from the radiative shocked winds in the eclipsing pair. The later result provides evidence that shocks in a colliding-wind region may be efficient particle accelerators even in the absence of bright X-ray emission, suggesting particle acceleration may operate in a wide range of conditions. Finally, in hierarchical triple O-type systems, thermal X-rays do not necessarily constitute an efficient tracer to detect the wind-wind interaction in the long period orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailA long-term, open-label trial of the safety and efficacy of etanercept (Enbrel) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis not treated with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
Klareskog, L.; Gaubitz, M.; Rodriguez-Valverde, V. et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2006), 65(12), 1578-1584

Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 549 patients entered this 5-year, open-label extension study and received etanercept ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 549 patients entered this 5-year, open-label extension study and received etanercept 25 mg twice weekly. All patients showed inadequate responses to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs before entry into the double-blind studies. Safety assessments were carried out at regular intervals. Primary efficacy end points were the numbers of painful and swollen joints; secondary variables included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response rate, Disease Activity Score and acute-phase reactants. Efficacy was analysed using the last-observation-carried-forward approach. Results: Of the 549 patients enrolled in the open-label trial, 467 (85%), 414 (75%) and 371 (68%) completed 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively; 363 (66%) remained in the study at the time of this analysis. A total exposure of 1498 patient-years, including the double-blind study, was accrued. In the open-label trial, withdrawals for efficacy-related and safety-related reasons were 11% and 13%, respectively. Frequent adverse events included upper respiratory infections, flu syndrome, rash and injection-site reactions. Rates of serious infections and malignancies remained unchanged over the course of the study; there were no reports of patients with central demyelinating disease or serious blood dyscrasias. After 3 years, ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates were 78%, 51% and 27%, respectively. The Disease Activity Score score was reduced to 3.0 at 3 months and 2.6 at 3 years from 5.1. A sustained improvement was found in Health Assessment Questionnaire scores throughout the 3-year time period. Conclusion: After 3 years of treatment, etanercept showed sustained efficacy and a favourable safety profile. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry for deformation measurement of the segmented detector array of the space EUCLID mission
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Beaumont, Florent et al

in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (2015, May)

Digital holographic interferometry in LWIR is used for following the deformation and relative movement of an assembly of detectors to be used in space. The setup is incorporated in a vacuum chamber for ... [more ▼]

Digital holographic interferometry in LWIR is used for following the deformation and relative movement of an assembly of detectors to be used in space. The setup is incorporated in a vacuum chamber for cryogenic testing. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Queeckers, Patrick et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holography
Georges, Marc ULg

in Picart, Pascal (Ed.) New Techniques in Digital Holography (2015)

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holography for the qualification of large space reflectors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Georges, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2012, October 09)

Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required ... [more ▼]

Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of these reflectors deformation and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperature). A long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometer for the verification and validation of this type of reflector in a space environment is presented. It has been developed to fill the gap between holography/interferometry techniques in the visible wavelengths and methods based on structured light illumination like videogrammetry, stereocorrelation, and fringe/pattern projection. The former provide a good measurement uncertainty but the displacements are often too large to be measured and they require a very stable environment, while the latter provide large measurement range but with higher measurement uncertainty. The new instrument is based on digital holography and uses a CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6 µm combined with a commercial thermographic camera. A diffuser is illuminated by the laser beam, producing a speckle wavefront which is observed after reflection on the reflector surface. This reflected speckle wavefront behaves exactly as if the reflector was a diffusive surface, producing its own speckle, allowing the measurement of its deformation. The advantage of this configuration compared to a classical interferometer working at 10.6 µm, is that it requires no specific optics such as a null lens (in the case of parabola) or expensive illumination/collection optics (in the case of ellipse). The metrological certification of the system was performed in the laboratory by measuring the tilts of a 1.1 meter diameter parabolic reflector. The displacements are measured in parallel with a Doppler effect interferometer and the measurement uncertainty is estimated. The application of the new interferometer to the measurement of an elliptic reflector is also presented. The technique has been certified during a thermal-vacuum test. The deformation of the parabolic reflector is measured for a temperature variation from 288 K down to 113 K. The results are compared to previous results obtained on the same reflector with a high spatial resolution infrared interferometer, also developed at CSL. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wavelength behavior of the exchange-correlation kernel in the Kohn-Sham theory of periodic systems
Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Gonze, X.; Godby, R. W.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1997), 56(20), 12811-12817

The polarization dependence of the exchange-correlation (re) energy functional of periodic insulators within Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory requires a O(1/q(2)) divergence in the re kernel for ... [more ▼]

The polarization dependence of the exchange-correlation (re) energy functional of periodic insulators within Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory requires a O(1/q(2)) divergence in the re kernel for small vectors q. This behavior, exemplified for a one-dimensional model semiconductor, is also observed when an insulator happens to be described asa KS metal, or vice versa. Although it can occur in the exchange-only kernel, it is not found in the usual local, semilocal, or even nonlocal approximations to KS theory. We also show that the test-charge and. electronic definitions of the macroscopic dielectric constant differ from one another in exact KS theory, but are equivalent in the above-mentioned approximations. [less ▲]

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