Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-Clinics. Essais cliniques medicamenteux: importance et role du medecin generaliste .
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 17-20

Clinical trials are an essential step in the development of a drug. They must be conducted according to strict rules called "Good Clinical Practice" or GCP. GCP requirements aim to guarantee a perfect ... [more ▼]

Clinical trials are an essential step in the development of a drug. They must be conducted according to strict rules called "Good Clinical Practice" or GCP. GCP requirements aim to guarantee a perfect methodology in the planning, realization and interpretation of clinical trials. The latter can be divided in four phases: phase 1 aiming to demonstrate the safety and to investigate the pharmacokinetics/metabolism of the drug in healthy volunteers; phase 2 aiming to study the intrinsic activity (generally versus a placebo) and safety of the compound in a rather small number of (hospitalized) patients; phase 3 aiming to confirm the comparative efficacy (versus a placebo or a reference drug) and safety of the pharmacological agent in a quite large number of (ambulatory) patients; and phase 4 carried out after commercialization, to verify the clinical utility of the drug in conditions of daily practice. Because he/she occupies a crucial position in the recruitment and follow-up of outpatients, the general practitioner should play a more active role in clinical trials, provided that he/she could work in collaboration with academic centers specialized in clinical pharmacology which can help to perform studies in accordance with GCP requirements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le dopage a l'erythropoietine ou l'utilisation detournee des progres therapeutiques.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(8), 499-502

Sport performance depends on the capacity of oxygen transport to the exercising skeletal muscles. Performance may be increased thanks to an haematocrit augmentation, either by training in high altitude ... [more ▼]

Sport performance depends on the capacity of oxygen transport to the exercising skeletal muscles. Performance may be increased thanks to an haematocrit augmentation, either by training in high altitude, using blood transfusions, or injecting erythropoietin (Epo). Since the synthesis of Epo by bioengineering, doping with recombinant human Epo has become popular in sports in general, and in cycling in particular. This new kind of doping might have been responsible for several sudden deaths in young athletes, essentially in racing cyclists. Until now, such a doping is hardly to be detected. However, it should deserve careful consideration from both public health authorities and sports communities in order to stop what could become a real plague. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 154 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. L'aceclofenac (Biofenac).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(1), 62-4

Aceclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative, is a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is indicated in the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammatory or degenerative arthropathies ... [more ▼]

Aceclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative, is a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is indicated in the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammatory or degenerative arthropathies: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, abarticular inflammations, posttrauma or postoperative inflammations. The usual oral dosage of aceclofenac is 100 mg twice daily in adults. Its clinical efficacy seems to be similar to that of other NSAIDs, but its safety profile, especially gastro-intestinal tolerance, appears to be better. Finally, in vitro studies suggested that aceclofenac may exert positive effect on cartilage matrix metabolism. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 331 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. L'alendronate (Fosamax).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 220-2

Alendronate (Fosamax, Merck Sharp & Dohme) is an aminobisphosphonate which inhibits bone turnover by suppressing the activity of osteoclasts without increasing the risk of osteomalacia. Alendronate is ... [more ▼]

Alendronate (Fosamax, Merck Sharp & Dohme) is an aminobisphosphonate which inhibits bone turnover by suppressing the activity of osteoclasts without increasing the risk of osteomalacia. Alendronate is highly effective at preventing bone loss associated to absence of endogenous estrogen and induces a sustained increase in bone mass. Fosamax is indicated and reimbursed in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, with either an history of bone fracture confirmed by X-ray exam or obvious osteoporosis assessed by bone mineral density measurement. The recommended dosage is 10 mg once daily, continuously. The drug should be absorbed after an overnight fast to improve its bioavailability and with a big glass of plain water to reduce the risk of oesophageal ulcerations. Large randomized controlled trials for up to 3 years have demonstrated that alendronate is able to reduce the risk and rate of occurrence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. L'atorvastatine (Lipitor).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(6), 374-7

Atorvastatin, commercialized by the pharmaceutical companies Parke-Davis and Pfizer under the trade name Lipitor, is a new statin acting as a potent hypolipidaemic drug. By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase ... [more ▼]

Atorvastatin, commercialized by the pharmaceutical companies Parke-Davis and Pfizer under the trade name Lipitor, is a new statin acting as a potent hypolipidaemic drug. By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the key-enzyme of cellular synthesis of cholesterol, it increases the expression of LDL receptors and promotes the hepatic extraction of circulating LDL. It has a more potent action than other available statins, both on LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Atorvastatin is indicated, after diet failure, in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia or combined hyperlipidaemia. Lipitor is available as tablets of 10 and 20 mg. The usual doses is 10 mg once a day, to be increased up to 20 mg/day if necessary. In rare severe cases, the doses may be increased up to 80 mg/day. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. La combinaison fixe dipyridamole--acide acetylsalicylique (Aggrenox).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(10), 957-9

Aggrenox, launched in Belgium by Boehringer Ingelheim, is a fixed-dose combination of extended-release dipyridamole (200 mg) and aspirin (25 mg), two antiplatelet agents with different and complementary ... [more ▼]

Aggrenox, launched in Belgium by Boehringer Ingelheim, is a fixed-dose combination of extended-release dipyridamole (200 mg) and aspirin (25 mg), two antiplatelet agents with different and complementary mechanisms of action. It is recommended, twice daily, in the protection against secondary stroke and transient ischaemic attacks. The placebo-controlled European study ESPS 2 (European Stroke Prevention Study 2) demonstrated that the administration of this combination was twice as effective as either agent alone in the secondary prevention of stroke in patients with prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. La levofloxacine (Tavanic).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 1015-7

Levofloxacin, the (-)-(S)-enantiomer isolated from the racemate ofloxacin, is launched by Aventis under the trade name of Tavanic. This new oral and parenteral antibiotic belongs to the fluoroquinolone ... [more ▼]

Levofloxacin, the (-)-(S)-enantiomer isolated from the racemate ofloxacin, is launched by Aventis under the trade name of Tavanic. This new oral and parenteral antibiotic belongs to the fluoroquinolone family and exerts a bactericidal activity upon a large spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram negative and Gram positive bacilli (among which Streptococcus pneunomiae), and atypical respiratory pathogens. It also has interesting pharmacokinetic properties. Besides the classical indications of other fluoroquinolones (especially complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and severe skin and soft tissue infections), levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. La moxonidine (Moxon).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(1), 61-3

Moxonidine (Moxon, Solvay Pharma) is the first member of a new class of centrally-acting antihypertensive agents. The selective activation of central I1 imidazoline receptors results in an inhibition of ... [more ▼]

Moxonidine (Moxon, Solvay Pharma) is the first member of a new class of centrally-acting antihypertensive agents. The selective activation of central I1 imidazoline receptors results in an inhibition of peripheral sympathetic activity and produces arterial vasodilatation. Moxonidine is indicated in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension, at a usual daily dose of 0.4 mg (initial dose of 0.2 mg/day), in one administration per day. Its tolerance profile is better than that of other centrally-acting antihypertensive agents which stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, and similar to that of medications of other classes. As monotherapy, the antihypertensive efficacy of moxonidine is similar to that of most other antihypertensive agents. In case of insufficient response, moxonidine may be associated with other antihypertensive compounds, which leads to a better efficacy with no deterioration of its good tolerance profile. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-Clinics. Le medicament du mois. La ranitidine bismuth citrate (Pylorid).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 41-4

Ranitidine bismuth citrate (Pylorid, Glaxo-Wellcome) is a novel salt of ranitidine which provides a unique combination of properties: inhibition of secretion of gastric acid by competitive antagonism of ... [more ▼]

Ranitidine bismuth citrate (Pylorid, Glaxo-Wellcome) is a novel salt of ranitidine which provides a unique combination of properties: inhibition of secretion of gastric acid by competitive antagonism of the action of histamine at the histamine H2-receptor on the gastric parietal cell, mucosal protective effects and anti-Helicobacter pylori action. Ranitidine bismuth citrate provides effective healing and symptom relief, both in duodenal ulcer disease and in gastric ulcer disease. When coprescribed with certain antibiotics (clarithromycin alone or combined with amoxicillin or nitro-imidazole), it heals ulcers, eradicates Helicobacter pylori and prevents recurrence of the disease. Several clinical studies demonstrated that ranitidine bismuth citrate is well-tolerated and has quite similar efficacy as proton pump inhibitors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. La sibutramine (Reductil).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 656-9

Sibutramine (Reductil, Abbott-Knoll, 10 mg and 15 mg) is a new appetite regulator recommended in the treatment of obesity. It is a noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor which exerts its ... [more ▼]

Sibutramine (Reductil, Abbott-Knoll, 10 mg and 15 mg) is a new appetite regulator recommended in the treatment of obesity. It is a noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor which exerts its effects in vivo predominantly via its secondary and primary amine metabolites. Sibutramine is indicated as an adjunctive therapy within a weight management programme in patients with obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) or in overweight subjects (BMI > or = 27 kg/m2) if other eight-related risk factors are present (dyslipidaemias, diabetes mellitus). In those patients with an inadequate response on initial dose of 10 mg per day (suggested as less than 2 kg weight loss in four weeks), the dose may be increased to 15 mg once daily, providing that sibutramine is well tolerated. Several large-scale randomized clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of long-term (at least one year) treatment with sibutramine in obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. Sibutramine was also shown to help in maintaining long-term weight reduction. Most frequent side-effects are dry mouth and constipation, as well as mild increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. The impact of sibutramine on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of obese nondiabetic and diabetic patients will be studied soon in a large international prospective clinical trial. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le celecoxib (Celebrex).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 53-5

Celecoxib (Celebrex, Pharmacia) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Its current indications are ... [more ▼]

Celecoxib (Celebrex, Pharmacia) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Its current indications are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The usual recommended daily dosage of celecoxib is 200 mg (in one or two intakes per day), to be increased up to 400 mg (two intakes per day) if necessary. Its clinical efficacy seems to be similar to that of other NSAIDs. However, its safety profile, especially gastro-intestinal tolerance and perhaps renal safety, is much better because of the COX-2 selectivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le formoterol (Oxis Turbohaler).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 715-8

Formoterol, commercialized by Astra under the trade name Oxis, is a new potent and selective agonist of beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which is used with a specific device (Turbohaler) allowing effective ... [more ▼]

Formoterol, commercialized by Astra under the trade name Oxis, is a new potent and selective agonist of beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which is used with a specific device (Turbohaler) allowing effective inhalation. Bronchodilatation occurs rapidly, within 1-3 minutes after inhalation, and lasts about 12 hours after the administration of a unique dose. Oxis Turbohaler is indicated to reduce symptoms associated with bronchial obstruction in asthmatic patients when the control of asthma is not achieved with inhaled corticoid therapy. It is not indicated for the treatment of acute crisis. It is presented as powder vials for inhalation (4.5 or 9 micrograms per dose). The usual dose in adults is 1-2 inhalations 1-2 times per day, in the morning and/or in the evening (bedtime administration should be recommended in case of nocturnal asthma). There is not enough data for treating children. The lowest dose allowing adequate control of asthma should be selected for chronic treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le glimepiride (Amarylle).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 184-6

Glimepiride, commercialized in Belgium under the trade name of Amarylle by Aventis, is a new sulphonylurea compound which is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, after diet and exercise failure ... [more ▼]

Glimepiride, commercialized in Belgium under the trade name of Amarylle by Aventis, is a new sulphonylurea compound which is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, after diet and exercise failure. It is available as 2 mg tablets. The initial doses is 1 mg, to be progressively increased up to 4 mg per day, if necessary, with a maximal daily dose of 6 mg. It is recommended to take glimepiride once a day, with the first main meal. Because of a particular binding of this sulphonylurea to the B cells of Langerhans pancreatic islets and, perhaps, of the presence of some extrapancreatic effects, both hypoglycaemic risk and circulating plasma insulin levels are lower with glimepiride than with glibenclamide, the reference sulphonylurea agent used in comparative clinical trials. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le Legalon (silymarine).
Luyckx, Françoise ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(12), 792-6

Detailed reference viewed: 173 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le repaglinide (NovoNorm).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 456-9

Repaglinide (NovoNorm) is an antidiabetic oral agent of the new glinide class with insulinotropic activity. Its action on insulin secretion is more rapid and shorter than that of sulphonylurea compounds ... [more ▼]

Repaglinide (NovoNorm) is an antidiabetic oral agent of the new glinide class with insulinotropic activity. Its action on insulin secretion is more rapid and shorter than that of sulphonylurea compounds. Thanks to these properties, repaglinide is able to better control postprandial hyperglycaemia and is associated with a lower risk of delayed hypoglycaemic episodes. It is indicated for the treatment of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus as monotherapy, after diet failure, or in combination with metformin, when the biguanide is insufficient. NovoNorm is commercialized as tablets of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg, to be taken just before each meal. Initial dosis should be 0.5 mg before meal in diabetic patients on diet alone or 1 mg before meal in patients already receiving an hypoglycaemic agent. If necessary, the dosis should be progressively increased, depending on the individual response, up to 4 mg before meal (maximal daily dosage of 16 mg), in order to optimize blood glucose control. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le rofecoxib (Vioxx).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 751-3

Rofecoxib (Vioxx, Merck Sharp & Dohme) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is indicated in the ... [more ▼]

Rofecoxib (Vioxx, Merck Sharp & Dohme) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is indicated in the symptomatic relief of pain due to osteoarthritis. The initial oral dosage of rofecoxib is 12.5 mg once daily in adults, and this dose may be increased up to a maximal dosage of 25 mg once daily if necessary. Its clinical efficacy seems to be similar to that of other NSAIDs at maximal recommended dosages, but its safety profile, especially gastrointestinal tolerance, is much better because of the COX-2 selectivity. Ongoing clinical trials are performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Premelle (oestrogenes conjugues + medroxyprogesterone).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 638-40

Premelle, commercialised by Wyeth-Lederle, is a combination of conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg which is indicated in the treatment of menopause-associated problems ... [more ▼]

Premelle, commercialised by Wyeth-Lederle, is a combination of conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg which is indicated in the treatment of menopause-associated problems, among which vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis and/or urethritis, and in the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is presented in two formulations, Premelle cyclic 5 and Premelle 5. The former, in which the progestagen is only given during the last 14 out of 28 days of the treatment cycle, is accompanied by regular bleeding and thus preferably indicated during perimenopause whereas the latter, in which the progestagen is given continuously and results in amenorrhea, is mostly indicated after menopause in order to improve long-term compliance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharmaceutical and nutraceutical management of canine osteoarthritis: Present and future perspectives
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Balligand, Marc ULg

in Veterinary Journal (2005), 170(1), 113-123

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal diseases and causes of lameness in the dogs. The osteoarthritic disease process involves the entire synovial joint, encompassing the ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal diseases and causes of lameness in the dogs. The osteoarthritic disease process involves the entire synovial joint, encompassing the synovium, cartilage and underlying bone. Joint failure results from an abnormal mechanical strain causing damage to normal tissue or failure of pathologically impaired articular cartilage and bone under the influence of normal physiological strain or a combination of both. In both cases, the end point is cartilage loss and joint impairment. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes show an altered phenotype characterised by an excess production of catabolic factors, including metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen species. These factors constitute potential therapeutic targets and some new drugs and nutraceuticals have been proposed to promote the return to homeostasis. Until now, the therapeutic management of OA in dogs has been dominated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but some new compounds, including diacerhein, with potential structure-modifying effects, are already used to treat OA in humans and could be helpful to manage OA in the dog. In addition, novel nutraceuticals, such as avocado/soybean unsaponifiable substances, have shown symptomatic effects in knee OA in humans, and could offer an alternative to prevent OA progression. This paper provides an overview of recent discoveries in the pathophysiology and in the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis in dogs. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (13 ULg)