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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Troisième communication : Les solutions de savon et l'hydrosol aluminique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1909), (11), 1059-1065

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Troisième communication : Les solutions de savon et l'hydrosol aluminique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

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See detailObservations sur l'adage: Periculum est emptoris
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Cahiers du Centre de Recherches en Histoire du Droit et des Institutions (2002), (17), 117-133

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See detailObservations sur l'efficacité de la nouvelle passe à poissons sur l'Aisne à Bomal
Philippart, Jean-Claude ULg; Birtles, Cymon; Giroux, Florian et al

Article for general public (1996)

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See detailObservations sur l'enseignement supérieur
De Cuyper, Charles ULg

Speech (1870)

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See detailObservations sur l'évolution du coût du Bonus Logement pour la Wallonie
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Revue de Fiscalité Régionale et Locale (in press)

En 2011, les dépenses fiscales relatives à l'acquisition de l'habitation propre atteignaient 1.941,83 milllions d'euros dans le budget fédéral belge, soit 0,53% du PIB national. Dès l'entrée en vigueur de ... [more ▼]

En 2011, les dépenses fiscales relatives à l'acquisition de l'habitation propre atteignaient 1.941,83 milllions d'euros dans le budget fédéral belge, soit 0,53% du PIB national. Dès l'entrée en vigueur de la sixième réforme de l'Etat, ces dépenses seront à charge des budgets régionaux. Au vu des montants importants qui sont en jeu, il est nécessaire d'amorcer une réflexion sur ces aides à l'acquisition. Cette réflexion doit avant tout porter sur l'adéquation de ces aides avec les enjeux actuels et futurs en matière de logement, ainsi que sur les effets réels de ces mécanismes. Si, malgré ces interrogations, les décideurs politiques choisissent de maintenir le système en l'état, il est utile d'estimer quels seront les coûts pour les années à venir. Cette contribution se concentre sur ce dernier aspect du problème, dans le cas de la Wallonie. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'hydrolyse du chlorure ferrique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2eme serie (1897), XVI

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16(2), 237-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas (1897), 16(2), 237-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric chloride by water already shown of H. Debray (Bulletin of the Chemical Society, Paris 12. 346), after which researcher a very much diluted neutral, nearly colorless iron perchloride solution dissociates with heating up under strong coloring into hydrochloric acid and colloidal ferric oxide. Beside the latter F. W. Krecke (Journal pr. Chemistry 3. 286) found an iron oxychloride compound. After F. Wiedemann (Journal pr. Chemistry, 9. 145) the magnetism of the ferric chloride solutions consists of the sum of the magnetism of the iron in the colloidal oxide and the magnetism of the iron is not changed chloride and therefore no basic salts will give, in which the iron possesses its own atomic magnetism. The studied solutions were middle concentration (30% to 0.06%), however not border lines. Antony and Giglio (Chem.-Newspaper 1895. 325; C. 95. II. 858) the decomposition of the ferric chloride found completed in hydrogen chloride and colloidal hydrate after 24 hours according to colorimetric method with dilutions up to 0.00083%. The latter happens under temporary formation of chlorohydrates, [FeCl2.OH and FeCl(OH)2], which depending upon applied water conditions with hydrogen chloride equilibrium systems form and also cause during the dilution of the irregularities arising in the color of the solution. These changes in the color the line conduction of the iron perchloride solutions follows after Goodwin (Journal of Physik. Chemistry, 21. 1; C. 96. II. 998) a sufficient dilution of the first ionization of the ferric chloride causes, on which the ions (Fe) unite with the ions (OH) first to the colorless, bivalent ions Fe(OH), which gives the colloidal brown ferric hydroxide then with further ions of OH. xFe(OH)... + 2x(OH) = xFe(OH)3. The decomposition of the ferric chloride will exist therefore not in a simple hydrolysis in hydrate and hydrogen chloride, but will be accompanied by ionization features. Solutions concentrated by the author implemented experiments with ferric chloride resulted in the following. Sublimated ferric chloride Fe2Cl6 separates in water without decomposition then only if the relationship of the solvent is extraordinarily small. With the increase of the latter place shift takes place in the ferric chloride, whereby the delivery is prepared of two of the six chlorine atoms. The salt regards now as a composition of Ferrochloride and chlorine Fe2Cl4.Cl2, which dissociates with increase of water completely into the groups of the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, if these groups can accept the neutral electrical condition. Chlorine in the status nascent reacts then with the water under formation of hydrogen chloride and oxygen, which transfer the group of Fe2Cl4 immediately into the Oxychloride Fe2Cl4O, which accepts the certain following structure: 3Fe2Cl4O = Fe2O3.2Fe2Cl6 and forms with hydrochloric acid and the water an equilibrium system modifying with the temperature. With still further dilution of the solution arrives by the designated phases at the complete decay. In van't Hoff's opinion about the nature of the solutions proven that the expansion of a salt draws the same consequences by its solvent, like those by increase of the temperature. Reaction of the potassium ferricyanide. Potassium ferricyanide does not give a low-brown color with ferric salt solutions of middle concentration, a clear reaction with a very much concentrated solution of ferric chloride (230%), with a 126% solution against it immediately a precipitation of citizen of Berlin blue and development of chlorine, from which it must be closed that the ferric chloride splits in the solution into Ferrochloride and chlorine: Fe2Cl6 = Fe2Cl4 + Cl2. Similarly behave after author ferric bromide, ferric iodide and ferric nitrate, only takes place slower at the latter the formation precipitation of citizen of Berlin-blue, therefore the dissociation: Fe2(NO3)4 + N2O5 + O seems to take place with difficulty; more rapidly the latter is caused with addition by some barium carbonate. Despite this behavior one may not really regard a solution of ferric chloride consisting of Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, as soon as chlorine leaves the compound, with the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2 an electrical charge is caused, whereby the Ferrochloride as cation and chlorine function as anion. Between these ions results an electrostatic attraction, which opposes its complete separation. Chlorine reacted with the water under formation from HCl, what latter by an air flow can be removed, while the oxygen remains connected with the group of Fe2Cl4 : Fe2Cl6 + H2O = Fe2Cl4O + 2HCl. About the reaction of the iron with ferric chloride. A metal plate from iron does not react nearly with a saturated ferric chloride solution. The iron separates into less concentrated solutions, all faster, the more easily these solutions with potassium ferricyanide give citizen of Berlin-blue. It is not the formation of the Ferrochloride, a consequence of the dissolution of the iron, but is from the latter cause, as due to the dissociation (see above) formed hydrochloric acid dissolves the iron under development of hydrogen. If with these location of the ferric chloride, the FeCl2 cation and Cl2 anion and between these ions make an electrostatic attraction valid (see above), then must have a difference of potential be stated and an electric current to be able to collected, whose intensity will depend on the dissociation of the ferric chloride. On the other hand, one will cause the delivery of the ions with the current conclusion, brings and/or the dispersion of FeCl2 and Cl2 without difficulty to conditions - an opinion, which was confirmed by the experiment. A small platinum cap flat at the reason is fastened on by means of metal catch of the ends of a galvanometer, given into the same a confirmed FeCl3-solution (laminate 5-6 mm) and brought a small iron disk (2 cm diameters)on the surface of the liquid which is connected with the other end of the galvanometer. In instants of the contact, the needle turn out into violent oscillations and places with the division 54°. After 4 hours, 4 cg had more separated iron than in a simultaneous experiment which the flow was not closed. The latter went from the iron to platinum, so that this cathode and the iron were anode. With the use of more diluted solutions of FeCl3 increases the intensity of the flow up to a solution of 40%, on which it decreases with the further dilution regularly, thus it goes through a maximum. Also the ease give with solutions of ferric chloride citizen of Berlin-blue under delivery of chlorine, walks by a maximum. In the end it is noticed that the investigations of the author, also contribute to the answer of the question of the molecular formula of the ferric chloride, which after the density of the formula Fe2Cl6, according to the b.p.-method in alcohol or ether solution however comes the formula FeCl3. It is still determined whether the place mixture of chlorine in the ferric chloride has solution not also in alcoholic or ethers. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'hydrolyse du chlorure ferrique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1897), XXXIV(8), 255-268

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 34(3), 255-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique (1897), 34(3), 255-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The decomposition of the ferric chloride by water already shown of H. Debray (Bulletin of the Chemical Society, Paris 12. 346), after which researcher a very much diluted neutral, nearly colorless iron perchloride solution dissociates with heating up under strong coloring into hydrochloric acid and colloidal ferric oxide. Beside the latter F. W. Krecke (Journal pr. Chemistry 3. 286) found an iron oxychloride compound. After F. Wiedemann (Journal pr. Chemistry, 9. 145) the magnetism of the ferric chloride solutions consists of the sum of the magnetism of the iron in the colloidal oxide and the magnetism of the iron is not changed chloride and therefore no basic salts will give, in which the iron possesses its own atomic magnetism. The studied solutions were middle concentration (30% to 0.06%), however not border lines. Antony and Giglio (Chem.-Newspaper 1895. 325; C. 95. II. 858) the decomposition of the ferric chloride found completed in hydrogen chloride and colloidal hydrate after 24 hours according to colorimetric method with dilutions up to 0.00083%. The latter happens under temporary formation of chlorohydrates, [FeCl2.OH and FeCl(OH)2], which depending upon applied water conditions with hydrogen chloride equilibrium systems form and also cause during the dilution of the irregularities arising in the color of the solution. These changes in the color the line conduction of the iron perchloride solutions follows after Goodwin (Journal of Physik. Chemistry, 21. 1; C. 96. II. 998) a sufficient dilution of the first ionization of the ferric chloride causes, on which the ions (Fe) unite with the ions (OH) first to the colorless, bivalent ions Fe(OH), which gives the colloidal brown ferric hydroxide then with further ions of OH. xFe(OH)... + 2x(OH) = xFe(OH)3. The decomposition of the ferric chloride will exist therefore not in a simple hydrolysis in hydrate and hydrogen chloride, but will be accompanied by ionization features. Solutions concentrated by the author implemented experiments with ferric chloride resulted in the following. Sublimated ferric chloride Fe2Cl6 separates in water without decomposition then only if the relationship of the solvent is extraordinarily small. With the increase of the latter place shift takes place in the ferric chloride, whereby the delivery is prepared of two of the six chlorine atoms. The salt regards now as a composition of Ferrochloride and chlorine Fe2Cl4.Cl2, which dissociates with increase of water completely into the groups of the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, if these groups can accept the neutral electrical condition. Chlorine in the status nascent reacts then with the water under formation of hydrogen chloride and oxygen, which transfer the group of Fe2Cl4 immediately into the Oxychloride Fe2Cl4O, which accepts the certain following structure: 3Fe2Cl4O = Fe2O3.2Fe2Cl6 and forms with hydrochloric acid and the water an equilibrium system modifying with the temperature. With still further dilution of the solution arrives by the designated phases at the complete decay. In van't Hoff's opinion about the nature of the solutions proven that the expansion of a salt draws the same consequences by its solvent, like those by increase of the temperature. Reaction of the potassium ferricyanide. Potassium ferricyanide does not give a low-brown color with ferric salt solutions of middle concentration, a clear reaction with a very much concentrated solution of ferric chloride (230%), with a 126% solution against it immediately a precipitation of citizen of Berlin blue and development of chlorine, from which it must be closed that the ferric chloride splits in the solution into Ferrochloride and chlorine: Fe2Cl6 = Fe2Cl4 + Cl2. Similarly behave after author ferric bromide, ferric iodide and ferric nitrate, only takes place slower at the latter the formation precipitation of citizen of Berlin-blue, therefore the dissociation: Fe2(NO3)4 + N2O5 + O seems to take place with difficulty; more rapidly the latter is caused with addition by some barium carbonate. Despite this behavior one may not really regard a solution of ferric chloride consisting of Fe2Cl4 and Cl2, as soon as chlorine leaves the compound, with the Fe2Cl4 and Cl2 an electrical charge is caused, whereby the Ferrochloride as cation and chlorine function as anion. Between these ions results an electrostatic attraction, which opposes its complete separation. Chlorine reacted with the water under formation from HCl, what latter by an air flow can be removed, while the oxygen remains connected with the group of Fe2Cl4 : Fe2Cl6 + H2O = Fe2Cl4O + 2HCl. About the reaction of the iron with ferric chloride. A metal plate from iron does not react nearly with a saturated ferric chloride solution. The iron separates into less concentrated solutions, all faster, the more easily these solutions with potassium ferricyanide give citizen of Berlin-blue. It is not the formation of the Ferrochloride, a consequence of the dissolution of the iron, but is from the latter cause, as due to the dissociation (see above) formed hydrochloric acid dissolves the iron under development of hydrogen. If with these location of the ferric chloride, the FeCl2 cation and Cl2 anion and between these ions make an electrostatic attraction valid (see above), then must have a difference of potential be stated and an electric current to be able to collected, whose intensity will depend on the dissociation of the ferric chloride. On the other hand, one will cause the delivery of the ions with the current conclusion, brings and/or the dispersion of FeCl2 and Cl2 without difficulty to conditions - an opinion, which was confirmed by the experiment. A small platinum cap flat at the reason is fastened on by means of metal catch of the ends of a galvanometer, given into the same a confirmed FeCl3-solution (laminate 5-6 mm) and brought a small iron disk (2 cm diameters)on the surface of the liquid which is connected with the other end of the galvanometer. In instants of the contact, the needle turn out into violent oscillations and places with the division 54°. After 4 hours, 4 cg had more separated iron than in a simultaneous experiment which the flow was not closed. The latter went from the iron to platinum, so that this cathode and the iron were anode. With the use of more diluted solutions of FeCl3 increases the intensity of the flow up to a solution of 40%, on which it decreases with the further dilution regularly, thus it goes through a maximum. Also the ease give with solutions of ferric chloride citizen of Berlin-blue under delivery of chlorine, walks by a maximum. In the end it is noticed that the investigations of the author, also contribute to the answer of the question of the molecular formula of the ferric chloride, which after the density of the formula Fe2Cl6, according to the b.p.-method in alcohol or ether solution however comes the formula FeCl3. It is still determined whether the place mixture of chlorine in the ferric chloride has solution not also in alcoholic or ethers. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'utilisation de traitements gonadotropes répétés chez la chèvre laitière
Baril, Gérard; Remy, Benoît ULg; Vallet, J. C. et al

in Annales de Zootechnie (1992), 41(3-4), 291-296

Observations on the repeated use of gonadotropin treatments in the dairy goat. Our studies have attempted to determine if the absence of oestrus observed in some goats after fluorogestone acetate-pregnant ... [more ▼]

Observations on the repeated use of gonadotropin treatments in the dairy goat. Our studies have attempted to determine if the absence of oestrus observed in some goats after fluorogestone acetate-pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (FGA-PMSG) treatments could be due to its repeated use. An experiment was carried out in a Saanen flock, in which she-goats were submitted to FGA-PMSG treatment each year. The first treatment of the year was performed on 169 shegoats between March and August 1989. Of the females diagnosed as non-pregnant following the first treatment, 38 were treated a second time during the same period. The proportion of females which went into oestrus after the first treatment was lower in 59 multiparous goats than in 64 nulliparous and in 46 primiparous goats (64.4 vs 100 and 97.8%; P < O.Oi). For the she-goats treated twice, the percentage of females which went into oestrus after the second treatment was lower than that observed after the first treatment (44.7 vs 71.0%; P < 0.05). The presence of anti-PMSG antibodies in plasma was investigated in blood samples taken before and after each treatment. Results are expressed as % of radioactive PMSG bound by 10 pl of blood plasma. Before the first treatment, the percentage of bound PMSG was higher in multiparous than in nulliparous and primiparous goats (17.5 t 23.1 vs -0.06 t 0.7 ; 1.2 ± 1.9 ; P < 0.01), and increased after treatment for all parities. In goats treated twice, the percentage of bound PMSG before the second treatment was higher than that observed before first treatment (22.8 t 23. vs 11.2 f 19.7; P < 0.05). For both treatments, females which did not come into oestrus showed a percentage of bound PMSG which was significantly higher than that of goats in which oestrus was observed (multiparous first treatment: 30.5 f 23.6 vs 1I 2. 9 20. 1 %; she-goats in second treatment: 33.9 ± 23.1 vs 9.2 ± 14.5T.). When the percentage of bound PMSG before treatment was low (< 5°l) in multiparous goats, the oestrus and kidding rates after the first treatment did not differ from those observed in nulliparous and primiparous goats. The decrease in the efficiency of the treatments was therefore not due to the age of animals. The repeated use of FGA-PMSG during the lifetime of goats or within the same year is followed by an increase in the levels of antibodies against PMSG. The presence of those antibodies may explain the decrease in the efficiency of these treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur la cimentation des biohermes "de marbre rouge" du Frasnien de la Belgique
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1989), 112

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See detailObservations sur la forme, l'état du support et la mise en page du P.Vat.gr. 11
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2013, November 14)

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See detailObservations sur la tradition manuscrite du théâtre religieux médiéval en langue d'oc
Henrard, Nadine ULg

in Castano, Rossana; Guida, Saverio; Latella, Fortunata (Eds.) Scène, évolution, sort de la langue et de la littérature d’oc : Actes du VIIe Congrès de l’Association internationale d’études occitanes (A.I.É.O.), Reggio Calabria et Messine 7-13 juillet 2002, 2 vol. (2003)

Typologie des mss qui conservent le répertoire dramatique occitan, établie en se fondant sur la spécificité d’un genre par nature lié à une performance. Dans le cas du théâtre, les données codicologiques ... [more ▼]

Typologie des mss qui conservent le répertoire dramatique occitan, établie en se fondant sur la spécificité d’un genre par nature lié à une performance. Dans le cas du théâtre, les données codicologiques (qualité des supports, ajouts marginaux, ratures, présence de notation musicale, de didascalies rubriquées…) sont à considérer en tenant compte de la fonction pratique des mss et du rapport des textes à la scène. L’enquête codicologique éclaire donc l’activité dramatique dans son ensemble (de l’écriture des textes à la conception du spectacle), et ses résultats s’insèrent dans une réflexion plus générale sur le statut littéraire du texte de théâtre occitan au Moyen Âge. Cet article s’inscrit dans l’esprit des recherches menées par G.A. Runnalls sur les mss du théâtre du Nord.] [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur le compte rendu du Congrès archéologique de Charleroi
Kurth, Godefroid ULg

in Bulletin de la Société d'Art et d'Histoire du Diocèse de Liège (1889), V

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See detailObservations sur le projet final de Constitution de la République Tunisienne
Banic, Slavica; Bartole, Sergio; Colliard, Jean-Cl. et al

Report (2013)

Avis juridique du Conseil de l'Europe (Commission de Venise, en collaboration avec le Congrès des pouvoirs locaux et régionaux) du 17 juillet 2013 sur le projet final de la Constitution tunisienne du 1er ... [more ▼]

Avis juridique du Conseil de l'Europe (Commission de Venise, en collaboration avec le Congrès des pouvoirs locaux et régionaux) du 17 juillet 2013 sur le projet final de la Constitution tunisienne du 1er juillet 2013 [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur les études universitaires à la FAPSE.
Debry, Marianne; Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg; Deltour, C. et al

Report (1999)

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See detail"Observations sur les observations ou de la sanction du délai prévu pour adresser des observations au juge de la mise en état"
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederechters (1999), (8, 9, 10), 357-361

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