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See detailNutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns (Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell.) in sows
Leterme, Pascal; Londoño, Angela M.; Ordoñez, Diana C. et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2010), 155(1), 55-64

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used in diets for pigs. The present work is aimed at evaluating their potential as feed ... [more ▼]

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used in diets for pigs. The present work is aimed at evaluating their potential as feed ingredients for sows. When presented with ad libitum AFs, gilts weighing 110 ± 14 kg (mean ± SD), were able to ingest 9.1–9.7 kg fresh AF per day (from 597 to 630 g dry matter (DM) per day) and from 1240 to 1428 g DM per day when presented in a dry, ground form. A digestibility study was conducted, using sows weighing 213 ± 9 kg (mean ± SD), which were fed diets containing maize, soybean meal and 0, 150 or 300 g AF kg−1 diet. The presence of AFs had a negative impact on the faecal digestibility of the crude protein, NDF and energy content of the whole diet (P<0.001) and on the ileal protein digestibility, especially with 300 g AFs kg−1 diet. The level of AFs in the diet had no effect on stomach weight (P>0.05) but increased the weight of the rest of the gastrointestinal tract (P<0.001). The rate of AF fibre fermentation in the pig large intestine was measured using an in vitro gas test. The rates were much lower than tropical tree foliage, which can also be used in pig diets in the tropics. This could partly explain the low apparent digestibility of AFs in pigs. In conclusion, the inclusion level of AFs in rations for sows should be limited to 150 g AFs kg−1 diet due to the low digestibility and energy density, as well as the negative impact on the digestibility of the whole diet. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional vitamin D in CKD patients
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2012, April 28)

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See detailNUTRITIONAL-STATUS OF DECLINING SPRUCE (PICEA-ABIES (L) KARST) - EFFECT OF SOIL ORGANIC-MATTER TURNOVER RATE
Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Remacle, Jean ULg

in Water, Air & Soil Pollution (1991), 59(1-2), 95-106

Foliar analysis was undertaken in two plots of Picea abies (L.) Karst., located in a watershed of Haute Ardenne, Belgium, in order to estimate the decline of the trees. Apart from a general Mg deficiency ... [more ▼]

Foliar analysis was undertaken in two plots of Picea abies (L.) Karst., located in a watershed of Haute Ardenne, Belgium, in order to estimate the decline of the trees. Apart from a general Mg deficiency, the concentrations of the needles were in the same range as those determined in other European stands. Comparisons between healthy and declining trees within each plot revealed a general pattern of decline similar to that observed elsewhere in Western Europe. This was shown as lower Ca, Mg, Zn concentrations and water content and higher N and P concentrations of the needles collected from declining trees. It is concluded that this decline could be due to N over fertilization by the atmospheric deposition. The difference of decline between the two plots was attributed to the turnover rate of the soil organic layer which was less intensive in the most damaged plot. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritionally induced obesity is attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
Lijnen, Roger; Maquoi, Erik ULg; Morange, Pierre et al

in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (2003), 23(1), 78-84

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in adipose tissue development in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic (Tg) mice ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in adipose tissue development in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing murine PAI-1 under control of the adipocyte promoter aP2 and wild-type (WT) controls were kept on standard food (SFD) or on high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The body weight and the weight of the isolated subcutaneous and gonadal fat deposits of the Tg mice kept on the HFD were significantly lower than those of the WT mice. The number of adipocytes in the adipose tissue was similar for Tg and WT mice on the HFD, but adipocyte hypotrophy and a significantly lower ratio of stroma cells/adipocytes were observed in the Tg mice. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01) was observed between expression of preadipocyte factor-1, which blocks adipocyte differentiation, and adipose tissue weight. Fasting insulin and total cholesterol levels on the HFD were lower in Tg than in WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: High circulating PAI-1 levels attenuate nutritionally induced obesity. This may be related to modifications in adipose tissue cellularity affecting weight and plasma metabolic parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of Adenodolichos rhomboideus leaves compared with Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis forages in indigenous goats in Lubumbashi (DR Congo).
Tshibangu, Muamba Innocent; Nsahlai, Ignatus Verla; Kiatoko, Mangeye Honoré et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo ... [more ▼]

Forage from three species (Adenodolichos rhomboideus, Leucaena leucocephala, Stylosanthes guianensis) were evaluated by determining chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent in vivo digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Six goats (17.1±0.7 kg) were used in 3 x 3 double latin square design to determine the digestibility and intake of the three forages. Forage from S. guianensis had lower (p<0.001) CP content than L. leucocephala forage and A. rhomboideus leaves. Fibres content (ADF and NDF) were lower (p<0.001) in L. leucocephala (35%) forage than A. rhomboideus (59.5%) leaves and S. guianensis forages (56.5%). L. leucocephala forage was superior in CP, Ash, EE concentrations, digestibility and voluntary intake of CP. A. rhomboideus leaves had lower (p<0.05) apparent digestibility and intake of DM. Digestible CP intake were similar between A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forages. Low digestibility and voluntary intake of A. rhomboideus leaves may be due to negative effect of anti-nutritional factor such as tannin. Digestible CP was similar for A. rhomboideus leaves and S. guianensis forage. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of fibrous ingredients fed to pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo measured using an in vitro technique
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in Advances in Animal Biosciences (2010, November), 1(2), 423-424

Incorporation of forages in the diets can improve the economics of smallholder pig production in tropical countries. However, the information on the nutritive value of fibrous crop by-products and forages ... [more ▼]

Incorporation of forages in the diets can improve the economics of smallholder pig production in tropical countries. However, the information on the nutritive value of fibrous crop by-products and forages species used as ingredients in pig diets is scarce. The present work aimed at measuring the chemical composition and the nutritive value using an in vitro model of the pig gastro-intestinal tract of 21 ingredients used by farmers in the province of Bas-Congo (D.R. Congo). [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of four tropical forage legume hays fed to pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2013, August)

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See detailNutritive value of four tropical forage legume hays fed to pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

Conference (2012, November 15)

The incorporation of fibrous feed ingredients such as legume forages in the diets of pigs can be economically interesting due to their low cost and the fact that they do not compete with human food ... [more ▼]

The incorporation of fibrous feed ingredients such as legume forages in the diets of pigs can be economically interesting due to their low cost and the fact that they do not compete with human food. Psophocarpus scandens and Vigna unguiculata are potential protein pig resources. Due to their negative effect on the overall digestibility of the diets, the contribution of tropical forage legumes to the diet should not exceed 25 %. TFL can be potential sources of protein for small scale tropical pig farms, preferably in adult pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of tritical in pigs as a function of its chemical composition.
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg; Tahon, F.

in Proceedings of the Second International Tritical Symposium, Passo Fundo (Brazil) (1990)

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See detailNutritive value of tropical forage plants fed to pigs in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2014), 191

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content ... [more ▼]

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content, and in vitro digestibility using a two-step method combining an enzymatic pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysis followed by a 72 h gas-test fermentation. The highest protein contents (270–320 g/kg DM) were obtained for Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, and Moringa oleifera. Grasses, Acacia mangium, and Eichhornia crassipes, showed the lowest crude protein (CP) and highest NDF contents. Cajanus cajan and Trypsacum andersonii had the most balanced amino acid profile, being deficient in lysine and slightly deficient in histidine, while Megathyrsus maximus displayed the highest number of essential amino acids deficiencies. High mineral contents were obtained from, in ascending order, with M. oleifera, V. unguiculata, E. crassipes, Ipomea batatas and Amaranthus hybridus. In vitro dry matter digestibility ranged from 0.25 to 0.52, in vitro CP digestibility from 0.23 to 0.80, in vitro energy digestibility from 0.23 to 0.52. M. esculenta, M. oleifera, I. batatas, Mucuna pruriens, V. unguiculata, P. scandens and A. hybridus showed high digestibilities for all nutrients. Gas production during fermentation of the pepsin and pancreatin-indigestible fraction of the plants varied from 42 ml/g DM for A. mangium to 202 ml/g DM for I. batatas (P<0.001). Short-chain fatty acid production during fermentation varied from 157 to 405 mg/g of the pepsin and pancreatin indigestible fraction. It is concluded that some of these species are interesting sources of proteins and minerals with a good digestibility that might be used more economically than concentrate, especially in smallholder production systems, to improve pig feeding, mineral intake and intestinal health in pigs reared in the tropics. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of tropical tree leaf meals in adult sows.
Leterme, Pascal; Botero, M.; Londono, A. M. et al

in Animal Science (2006), 82

Tree leaf meals (TLM) are increasingly used in the tropics to feed pigs. The nutritive value of the TLM of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), mulberry (Morus alba) and Trichanthera gigantea, their effect ... [more ▼]

Tree leaf meals (TLM) are increasingly used in the tropics to feed pigs. The nutritive value of the TLM of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), mulberry (Morus alba) and Trichanthera gigantea, their effect on the digestive tract and their fermentation rate in the large intestine, were determined in adult sows given diets containing 150 or 300 g TLM per kg. The TLM contained from 8·5 to 12·0 MJ digestible energy per kg dry matter (DM) and from 60 to 125 g digestible protein per kg DM. The digestibility was not affected ( P>0·05) by their rate of incorporation in the diet. The apparent ileal protein digestibility of the diets containing 300 g TLM per kg was also determined by the slaughtering method. It reached 80% for the basal diet and 54, 70 and 74% for the Trichanthera-, mulberry- and cocoyam-based diets, respectively. No diet effect ( P>0·05) was observed on the weight and length of the gastro-intestinal tract, with the exception of a heavier caecum in sows given the Trichanthera-based diet ( P<0·01). The pH of the gastric fluid of these sows was also higher ( P<0·001). The fermentation of the dietary fibre in the large intestine was evaluated by the gas technique using syringes. The cocoyam leaves presented the highest amount of total gas produced after fibre fermentation ( P<0·001). The ranking order of gas production was identical to that observed for the digestibility coefficients: Trichanthera <mulberry <cocoyam. In conclusion, TLM can represent up to 0·3 of a diet for sows. Their use in sow nutrition may be considered in tropical regions where protein sources are scarce. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of unconventional fibrous ingredients fed to Guinea pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Kinsama, Armen; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2009), 41

The energy and protein value for Guinea pigs (GP) of 9 forages (7 dicots and 2 grasses) and 5 hay-based diets was determined. The apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein ... [more ▼]

The energy and protein value for Guinea pigs (GP) of 9 forages (7 dicots and 2 grasses) and 5 hay-based diets was determined. The apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and energy was measured on GP housed in metabolic cages. The forages and the diets were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysis and gas fermentation test to simulate stomach, small intestine and large intestine, respectively. Most of the dicots had high digestible crude protein content (152–201 g/kg DM) and the 2 grasses showed lower values (80–85 g/kg DM). Digestible energy content of the forages ranged between 5.79 to 13.08 MJ/kg DM. None of the forage species or hay-based diets provided sufficient energy to supply the 11.7 MJ/kg metabolic energy requirements. The influence of intestinal fermentation on energy and protein values was highlighted by correlations (P<0.05) between in vivo and in vitro data, including gas fermentation. It is the first time that such relationships are reported in single-stomach animals. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive-Value Of Triticale Cultivars In Pigs As A Function Of Their Chemical-Composition
Leterme, Pascal; Tahon, François; Thewis, André ULg

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (1991), 35(1-2), 49-53

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See detailThe Nutshells of Fiction: Formal Remanence in the Works of Janet Frame
Delrez, Marc ULg

Conference (2011, April 28)

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See detailNZEB Definitions: current market status and certification in Belgium
Mlecnik; Attia, Shady ULg

Report (2011)

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ... [more ▼]

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ‘net zero energy house’ (NZEB) in 2009. Every year the definition is revised for consistency with shortcomings and emerging issues. The Belgian definition raised many questions regarding (1) the net balance, (2) the application and calculation method (3) the indoor air quality and comfort, (4) energy use included in the balance, (5) the type of buildings, (6) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (7) the quality assurance and monitoring and (8) energy storage and the connection to the energy infrastructure. Therefore, the paper presents a review on the current Belgian definition and its market status in comparison with the international context. The aim of the paper is to review current definition discussions and pave the way to a more consistent definition. [less ▲]

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See detailN° spécial consacré à l'éducation préscolaire
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in International Review of Education (1970), 16(1),

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See detailO corpo da anorexica :entre real e imaginario
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Danan, Albert; Fourreau, Anne et al

in Sami, Ali (Ed.) Manual de Terapias Psicossomaticas (2004)

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See detailO fortunatos nimium agricolas ! (Virgile, Géorgiques, II, 458-540)
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Serta Leodensia secunda. Mélanges publiés par les Classiques de Liège à l'occasion du 175e anniversaire de l'Université (1992)

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See detailO insecabilis unitas ? Augustinisme et théologie politiques
Close, Florence ULg

in Depreux, Philippe; Esders, Stefan (Eds.) La productivité d'une crise: le règne de Louis le Pieux (814-840) et la transformation de l'Empire carolingien / Produktivität einer Krise: Die Regierungszeit Ludwigs des Frommen (814-840) und die Transformation des karolingischen Imperium » (Limoges, mars 2011) (in press)

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